WorldWideScience

Sample records for affecting injury jidosha

  1. Jidosha's Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Shirakawa Okuma, Rosely; Calderón Orejuela, Javier

    2016-01-01

    La tesis narra la situación de una empresa concesionaria de vehículos nuevos, Jidosha's Motors, perteneciente a una corporación japonesa que cuenta con una cultura muy arraigada de ética y de cumplimiento. Se plantean respuestas, se identifican problemas y sus alternativas de solución para una toma adecuada de decisiones por parte de los directivos, siguiendo una estructura de análisis de situaciones de negocios (ASN). Tesis

  2. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  3. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  4. Pediatric traumatic brain injury affects multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Weeda, Wouter D; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Vermeulen, R Jeroen; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Beelen, Anita; van der Wees, Marleen; Kemps, Rachèl J J K; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the impact of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on multisensory integration in relation to general neurocognitive functioning. Children with a hospital admission for TBI aged between 6 and 13 years (n = 94) were compared with children with trauma control (TC) injuries (n = 39), while differentiating between mild TBI without risk factors for complicated TBI (mild RF- ; n = 19), mild TBI with ≥1 risk factor (mild RF+ ; n = 45), and moderate/severe TBI (n = 30). We measured set-shifting performance based on visual information (visual shift condition) and set-shifting performance based on audiovisual information, requiring multisensory integration (audiovisual shift condition). Effects of TBI on set-shifting performance were traced back to task strategy (i.e., boundary separation), processing efficiency (i.e., drift rate), or extradecisional processes (i.e., nondecision time) using diffusion model analysis. General neurocognitive functioning was measured using estimated full-scale IQ (FSIQ). The TBI group showed selectively reduced performance in the audiovisual shift condition (p = .009, Cohen's d = -0.51). Follow-up analyses in the audiovisual shift condition revealed reduced performance in the mildRF+ TBI group and moderate/severe TBI group (ps ≤ .025, ds ≤ -0.61). These effects were traced back to lower drift rate (ps ≤ .048, ds ≤ -0.44), reflecting reduced multisensory integration efficiency. Notably, accuracy and drift rate in the audiovisual shift condition partially mediated the relation between TBI and FSIQ. Children with mildRF+ or moderate/severe TBI are at risk for reduced multisensory integration efficiency, possibly contributing to decreased general neurocognitive functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury Severity Affects Neurogenesis in Adult Mouse Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Gao, Xiang; Michalski, Stephanie; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-04-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been proven to enhance neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, various groups have reported contradictory results on whether TBI increases neurogenesis, partially due to a wide range in the severities of injuries seen with different TBI models. To address whether the severity of TBI affects neurogenesis in the injured brain, we assessed neurogenesis in mouse brains receiving different severities of controlled cortical impact (CCI) with the same injury device. The mice were subjected to mild, moderate, or severe TBI by a CCI device. The effects of TBI severity on neurogenesis were evaluated at three stages: NSC proliferation, immature neurons, and newly-generated mature neurons. The results showed that mild TBI did not affect neurogenesis at any of the three stages. Moderate TBI promoted NSC proliferation without increasing neurogenesis. Severe TBI increased neurogenesis at all three stages. Our data suggest that the severity of injury affects adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and thus it may partially explain the inconsistent results of different groups regarding neurogenesis following TBI. Further understanding the mechanism of TBI-induced neurogenesis may provide a potential approach for using endogenous NSCs to protect against neuronal loss after trauma.

  6. Discussion of Developmental Plasticity: Factors Affecting Cognitive Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; McKinnon, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses psychobiological factors that affect recovery after traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents, including biological pathophysiology of the injury, the cognitive stage of the child at injury, the amount of time after injury, the challenge level of tasks, and the child's reserve of psychosocial resources. (Contains…

  7. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeccah J. Katzenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1–8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes.

  8. Age and Diet Affect Genetically Separable Secondary Injuries that Cause Acute Mortality Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J; Ganetzky, Barry; Wassarman, David A

    2016-12-07

    Outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary because of differences in primary and secondary injuries. Primary injuries occur at the time of a traumatic event, whereas secondary injuries occur later as a result of cellular and molecular events activated in the brain and other tissues by primary injuries. We used a Drosophila melanogaster TBI model to investigate secondary injuries that cause acute mortality. By analyzing mortality percentage within 24 hr of primary injuries, we previously found that age at the time of primary injuries and diet afterward affect the severity of secondary injuries. Here, we show that secondary injuries peaked in activity 1-8 hr after primary injuries. Additionally, we demonstrate that age and diet activated distinct secondary injuries in a genotype-specific manner, and that concurrent activation of age- and diet-regulated secondary injuries synergistically increased mortality. To identify genes involved in secondary injuries that cause mortality, we compared genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of uninjured and injured flies under age and diet conditions that had different mortalities. During the peak period of secondary injuries, innate immune response genes were the predominant class of genes that changed expression. Furthermore, age and diet affected the magnitude of the change in expression of some innate immune response genes, suggesting roles for these genes in inhibiting secondary injuries that cause mortality. Our results indicate that the complexity of TBI outcomes is due in part to distinct, genetically controlled, age- and diet-regulated mechanisms that promote secondary injuries and that involve a subset of innate immune response genes. Copyright © 2016 Katzenberger et al.

  9. A Survey of Injuries Affecting Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Bergeron, Glen; Goodwin, Brett J; Thomas, Jessica; Caine, Caroline G; Steinfeld, Sam; Dyck, Kevin; André, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional design was employed retrospectively to evaluate injuries self-reported by 71 pre-professional ballet dancers over one season. Some of the descriptive findings of this survey were consistent with those of previous research and suggest particular demographic and injury trends in pre-professional ballet. These results include gender distribution, mean age and age range of participants, training hours, injury location, acute versus overuse injuries, as well as average number of physiotherapy treatments per dancer. Other results provide information that was heretofore unreported or inconsistent with previous investigations. These findings involved proportion of dancers injured, average number of injuries per dancer, overall injury incidence during an 8.5 month period, incidence rate by technique level, mean time loss per injury, proportion of recurrent injury, and activity practiced at time of injury. The results of univariate analyses revealed several significant findings, including a decrease in incidence rate of injury with increased months of experience in the pre-professional program, dancers having lower injury risk in rehearsal and performance than in class, and a reduced risk of injury for dancers at certain technique levels. However, only this latter finding remained significant in multivariate analysis. The results of this study underscore the importance of determining injury rates by gender, technique level, and activity setting in addition to overall injury rates. They also point to the necessity of looking at both overall and individual dancer-based injury risks.

  10. Factors affecting injuries to amateur volleyball players volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Cunha dos Reis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the number of impacts per training session undergone by two amateur volleyball teams while performing spikes and blocks, and to relate the number of impacts to the number of injuries they suffered over the previous two years. The study recruited 24 athletes from the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina first teams, 12 from the men’s and 12 from the women’s volleyball teams, sampled intentionally. Data were collected using a questionnaire, a video camera and assessment sheets fi lled out by a talent scout. Data were collected at the practice ground and presented in the form of descriptive statistics in means, standard deviations and simple frequencies and inferential statistics were applied in the form of Pearson’s correlation and Student’s t test, both to p≤0.05. The results allowed for the conclusions that both teams exhibited similar duration of practice and that their training characteristics were similar in terms of duration and frequency. The ankles were most often affected by injuries and blocks were the most common causative mechanisms of injuries in both teams. The majority of athletes use protective equipment and the great majority underwent physiotherapy once injured. The number of impacts per training session, including spike and block jumps, was low when compared with high level teams. It appears that the number of impacts did not affect the number of injuries in either team. The two teams did not differ either in terms of the number of injuries or the number of impacts per training session. RESUMO Este estudo diagnóstico teve como objetivo avaliar o número de repetições de impacto por treino, em atletas de duas equipes amadoras de voleibol, realizando cortadas e bloqueios, bem como relacionar o número de impactos com o número de lesões sofridas pelos mesmos nos últimos dois anos. Participaram do estudo 24 atletas titulares, sendo 12 da equipe feminina e 12 da

  11. Does Ramadan affect the risk of injury in professional football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Smiley, Faten; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether fasting during Ramadan influences injury incidence in professional Muslim and non-Muslim footballers. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division League of Qatar. About 527 male football players (462 Muslim and 65 non-Muslim) from 7 league clubs (first year of data collection) and 8 clubs (second and third years). Daily collection of training and match exposure from August 2008 until April 2011 by club medical staff. Injuries during training and match play were recorded on standardized injury cards. Injury incidence was calculated as number of injuries per hour exposed to risk, and expressed as rate per 1000 hours. The probability of injury for different Arabic months between Muslims and non-Muslims was calculated using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs). There was no significant difference in total, match, and training injury incidence between the Ramadan and non-Ramadan periods. Non-Muslim footballers had a significantly higher injury incidence rate than Muslim footballers both during Ramadan (8.5 vs 4.0 injuries/1000 hours, P = 0.009) and non Ramadan (6.6 vs 4.9 injuries/1000 hours, P = 0.004) periods. The GEE analysis revealed that after adjusting for age and random factors (month and club), the probability of match injury among non-Muslims was the highest in Ramadan and the 2 consecutive following months (adjusted odds ratio of injury among non-Muslims compared with Muslims was 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-7.9], P = 0.001 during Ramadan (ninth) month; 2.4 (95% CI, 1.1-4.9), P = 0.021 during 10th month; and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.2-5.8), P = 0.013 during 11th month). Finally, there was no change in injury patterns over the months of the Islamic calendar. Ramadan does not impact injury incidence for Muslim footballers in Qatar, suggesting the current adjustments and scheduling of football activities during Ramadan are sufficient. The increased match injury among non-Muslims during and 2 months post-Ramadan may suggest less

  12. Does Ramadan affect the risk of injury in professional football?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L.; Smiley, Faten; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Chalabi, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether fasting during Ramadan influences injury incidence in professional Muslim and non-Muslim footballers. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division League of Qatar. About 527 male football players (462 Muslim and 65 non-Muslim) from 7 league clubs (first year of data

  13. Factors Affecting Appropriateness of Interfacility Transfer for Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Djuro; Wongworawat, Montri D; Anderson, Scott Richard

    2018-01-01

    Transfers of patients with higher acuity injuries to trauma centers have helped improve care since the enactment of Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act. However, an unintended consequence is the inappropriate transfer of patients who do not truly require handover of care. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients transferred to our level I trauma center for injuries distal to the ulnohumeral joint between April 1, 2013, and March 31, 2014; 213 patients were included. We examined the records for appropriateness of transfer based on whether the patient required the care of the receiving hospital's attending surgeon (appropriate transfer) or whether junior-level residents treated the patient alone (inappropriate transfer) and calculated odds ratios. We performed logistic regression to identify factors associated with appropriateness of transfer; these factors included specialist evaluation prior to transfer, age, insurance status, race, injury type, sex, shift time, distance traveled, and median income. The risk of inappropriate transfers was 68.5% (146/213). Specialist evaluation at the referring hospital was not associated with a lower risk of inappropriate transfers (odds ratio 1.62 [95% CI: 0.48-5.34], P = .383). Only evening shift (15:01 to 23:00) was associated with inappropriate transfers. Amputations and open fractures were associated with appropriate transfers. Second shift and type of injury (namely, amputations and open fractures) were significant factors to appropriateness of transfer. No significant association was found between specialist evaluation and appropriate transfers. Future studies may focus on finding reasons and aligning incentives to minimize inappropriate transfers and associated systems costs.

  14. Risk factors for injuries in landslide- and flood-affected populations in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shreya; Gopalakrishnan, Tisha; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2013-08-01

    The frequency of occurrence of natural disasters has increased over the past several decades, which necessitates a better understanding of human vulnerability, particularly in low-resource settings. This paper assesses risk factors for injury in the March 2010 floods and landslides in Eastern Uganda, and compares the effects of location, injury type, and severity. A stratified cluster survey of the disaster-affected populations was conducted five months after onset of the disasters. Probability proportional to size sampling was used to sample 800 households, including 400 affected by floods in Butaleja District and 400 affected by landslides in Bududa District. Flood- and landslide-affected populations were surveyed in July 2010 using a stratified cluster design. The odds of injury were 65% higher in the flood-affected groups than the landslide-affected groups in a logistic regression (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.52; P landslide-affected population, and injuries were more severe. This study illustrates differences between populations injured by flood and landslide disasters that occurred simultaneously in Eastern Uganda in 2010. In areas where landslides are prone to occur due to massive rainfalls or floods, preventative measures, such as early warning systems and evacuation, are more likely to increase the likelihood of people surviving, while for areas with massive floods, immediate and effective medical attention can save lives and improve injury outcomes.

  15. Factors affecting return to work after injury or illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancelliere, Carol; Donovan, James; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify common prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) across different health and injury conditions and to describe their association with RTW outcomes. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the grey literature were searched...... synthesized within domains of the International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) model of disability. Results: Of the 36,193 titles screened and the 94 eligible studies reviewed, 56 systematic reviews were accepted as low risk of bias. Over half of these focused on musculoskeletal disorders...... and stakeholders. Common factors associated with negative RTW outcomes were older age, being female, higher pain or disability, depression, higher physical work demands, previous sick leave and unemployment, and activity limitations. Conclusions: Expectations of recovery and RTW, pain and disability levels...

  16. Factors affecting outcome of triceps motor branch transfer for isolated axillary nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yup; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2012-11-01

    Triceps motor branch transfer has been used in upper brachial plexus injury and is potentially effective for isolated axillary nerve injury in lieu of sural nerve grafting. We evaluated the functional outcome of this procedure and determined factors that influenced the outcome. A retrospective chart review was performed of 21 patients (mean age, 38 y; range, 16-79 y) who underwent triceps motor branch transfer for the treatment of isolated axillary nerve injury. Deltoid muscle strength was evaluated using the modified British Medical Research Council grading at the last follow-up (mean, 21 mo; range, 12-41 mo). The following variables were analyzed to determine whether they affected the outcome of the nerve transfer: the age and sex of the patient, delay from injury to surgery, body mass index (BMI), severity of trauma, and presence of rotator cuff lesions. The Spearman correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression were performed for statistical analysis. The average Medical Research Council grade of deltoid muscle strength was 3.5 ± 1.1. Deltoid muscle strength correlated with the age of the patient, delay from injury to surgery, and BMI of the patient. Five patients failed to achieve more than M3 grade. Among them, 4 patients were older than 50 years and 1 was treated 14 months after injury. In the multiple linear regression model, the delay from injury to surgery, age of the patient, and BMI of the patient were the important factors, in that order, that affected the outcome of this procedure. Isolated axillary nerve injury can be treated successfully with triceps motor branch transfer. However, outstanding outcomes are not universal, with one fourth failing to achieve M3 strength. The outcome of this procedure is affected by the delay from injury to surgery and the age and BMI of the patient. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How does multiple trauma, traumatic brain injury (TBI) or spinal cord injury (SCI) affect male sexual functioning?

    OpenAIRE

    Treacy, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is an important part of life for many people, therefore dealing with erectile problems, living with the effects of physical injury, changes in your appearance or side-effects of treatment can have an enormous impact on your sex life and relationships. Normal sexual behaviour and erectile function depends on a complex interaction between various body-systems, including the brain, nerves, blood-supply and hormones. All of these systems (alone or in combination) may be affected following mul...

  18. Rotational stiffness of American football shoes affects ankle biomechanics and injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Keith D; Braman, Jerrod E; Davison, Mark A; Wei, Feng; Schaeffer, Maureen C; Haut, Roger C

    2015-06-01

    While previous studies have investigated the effect of shoe-surface interaction on injury risk, few studies have examined the effect of rotational stiffness of the shoe. The hypothesis of the current study was that ankles externally rotated to failure in shoes with low rotational stiffness would allow more talus eversion than those in shoes with a higher rotational stiffness, resulting in less severe injury. Twelve (six pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated to gross failure while positioned in 20 deg of pre-eversion and 20 deg of predorsiflexion by fixing the distal end of the foot, axially loading the proximal tibia, and internally rotating the tibia. One ankle in each pair was constrained by an American football shoe with a stiff upper, while the other was constrained by an American football shoe with a flexible upper. Experimental bone motions were input into specimen-specific computational models to examine levels of ligament elongation to help understand mechanisms of ankle joint failure. Ankles in flexible shoes allowed 6.7±2.4 deg of talus eversion during rotation, significantly greater than the 1.7±1.0 deg for ankles in stiff shoes (p = 0.01). The significantly greater eversion in flexible shoes was potentially due to a more natural response of the ankle during rotation, possibly affecting the injuries that were produced. All ankles failed by either medial ankle injury or syndesmotic injury, or a combination of both. Complex (more than one ligament or bone) injuries were noted in 4 of 6 ankles in stiff shoes and 1 of 6 ankles in flexible shoes. Ligament elongations from the computational model validated the experimental injury data. The current study suggested flexibility (or rotational stiffness) of the shoe may play an important role in both the severity of ankle injuries for athletes.

  19. Factors affecting neurological outcome in traumatic conus medullaris and cauda equina injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingwell, Stephen P; Curt, Armin; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to describe the relevant factors that influence neurological outcomes in patients who sustain traumatic conus medullaris injuries (CMIs) and cauda equina injuries (CEIs). Despite the propensity for spinal trauma to affect the thoracolumbar spine, few studies have adequately characterized the outcomes of CMIs and CEIs. Typically the level of neural axis injury is inferred from the spinal level of injury or the presenting neurological picture because no study from the spinal literature has specifically evaluated the location of the conus medullaris with respect to the level of greatest canal compromise. Furthermore, the conus medullaris is known to have a small but important variable location based on the spinal level. Patients with a CMI will typically present with variable lowerextremity weakness, absent lower-limb reflexes, and saddle anesthesia. The development of a mixed upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron syndrome may occur in patients with CMIs, whereas a CEI is a pure lower motor neuron injury. Many treatment options exist and should be individualized. Posterior decompression and stabilization offers at least equivalent neurological outcomes as nonoperative or anterior approaches and has the additional benefits of surgeon familiarity, shorter hospital stays, earlier rehabilitation, and ease of nursing care. Overall, CEIs and CMIs have similar outcomes, which include ambulatory motor function and a variable persistence of bowel, bladder, and potentially sexual dysfunctions.

  20. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (and concussion) occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the "dark neuron" (DN) as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours) total sleep deprivation (TSD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day) affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons), and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%). Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%), and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%). Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage.

  1. Cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind (ToM) in children with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Simic, Nevena; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2013-07-01

    We studied three forms of dyadic communication involving theory of mind (ToM) in 82 children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 61 children with orthopedic injury (OI): Cognitive (concerned with false belief), Affective (concerned with expressing socially deceptive facial expressions), and Conative (concerned with influencing another's thoughts or feelings). We analyzed the pattern of brain lesions in the TBI group and conducted voxel-based morphometry for all participants in five large-scale functional brain networks, and related lesion and volumetric data to ToM outcomes. Children with TBI exhibited difficulty with Cognitive, Affective, and Conative ToM. The perturbation threshold for Cognitive ToM is higher than that for Affective and Conative ToM, in that Severe TBI disturbs Cognitive ToM but even Mild-Moderate TBI disrupt Affective and Conative ToM. Childhood TBI was associated with damage to all five large-scale brain networks. Lesions in the Mirror Neuron Empathy network predicted lower Conative ToM involving ironic criticism and empathic praise. Conative ToM was significantly and positively related to the package of Default Mode, Central Executive, and Mirror Neuron Empathy networks and, more specifically, to two hubs of the Default Mode Network, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex and the hippocampal formation, including entorhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep deprivation does not affect neuronal susceptibility to mild traumatic brain injury in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron AM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aimee M Caron, Richard Stephenson Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Mild and moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs (and concussion occur frequently as a result of falls, automobile accidents, and sporting activities, and are a major cause of acute and chronic disability. Fatigue and excessive sleepiness are associated with increased risk of accidents, but it is unknown whether prior sleep debt also affects the pathophysiological outcome of concussive injury. Using the “dark neuron” (DN as a marker of reversible neuronal damage, we tested the hypothesis that acute (48 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD and chronic sleep restriction (CSR; 10 days, 6-hour sleep/day affect DN formation following mild TBI in the rat. TSD and CSR were administered using a walking wheel apparatus. Mild TBI was administered under anesthesia using a weight-drop impact model, and the acute neuronal response was observed without recovery. DNs were detected using standard bright-field microscopy with toluidine blue stain following appropriate tissue fixation. DN density was low under home cage and sleep deprivation control conditions (respective median DN densities, 0.14% and 0.22% of neurons, and this was unaffected by TSD alone (0.1%. Mild TBI caused significantly higher DN densities (0.76%, and this was unchanged by preexisting acute or chronic sleep debt (TSD, 0.23%; CSR, 0.7%. Thus, although sleep debt may be predicted to increase the incidence of concussive injury, the present data suggest that sleep debt does not exacerbate the resulting neuronal damage. Keywords: sleep deprivation, concussion, traumatic brain injury, dark neuron, neurodegeneration, rat cortex

  3. Spinal cord injuries related to cervical spine fractures in elderly patients: factors affecting mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Parham; Roffey, Darren M; Brikeet, Yasser A; Tsai, Eve C; Bailey, Chris S; Wai, Eugene K

    2013-08-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) related to cervical spine (C-spine) fractures can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Aggressive treatment often required to manage instability associated with C-spine fractures is complicated and hazardous in the elderly population. To determine the mortality rate of elderly patients with SCIs related to C-spine fractures and identify factors that contribute toward a higher risk for negative outcomes. Retrospective cohort study at two Level 1 trauma centers. Thirty-seven consecutive patients aged 60 years and older who had SCIs related to C-spine fractures. Level of injury, injury severity, preinjury medical comorbidities, treatment (operative vs. nonoperative), and cause of death. Hospital medical records were reviewed independently. Baseline radiographs and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined to permit categorization according to the mechanistic classification by Allen and Ferguson of subaxial C-spine injuries. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to in-hospital mortality and ambulation at discharge. There were no funding sources or potential conflicts of interest to disclose. The in-hospital mortality rate was 38%. Respiratory failure was the leading cause of death. Preinjury medical comorbidities, age, and operative versus nonoperative treatment did not affect mortality. Injury level at or above C4 was associated with a 7.1 times higher risk of mortality compared with injuries below C4 (p=.01). Complete SCI was associated with a 5.1 times higher risk of mortality compared with incomplete SCI (p=.03). Neurological recovery was uncommon. Apart from severity of initial SCI, no other factor was related to ambulatory disposition at discharge. In this elderly population, neurological recovery was poor and the in-hospital mortality rate was high. The strongest risk factors for mortality were injury level and severity of SCI. Although each case of SCI

  4. Let it snow: how snowfall and injury mechanism affect ski and snowboard injuries in Vail, Colorado, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S Jason; Knerl, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Current research examining the impact of mechanism of injury and daily snowfall amounts on injury severity among skiers and snowboarders is limited. The purpose of this study was to define correlations between injury mechanism and daily snowfall on injury patterns and severity among skiers and snowboarders. This observational study analyzed daily snowfall measurements coupled with trauma admissions during the 2011 and 2012 ski seasons from a Level III trauma center servicing a large North American ski resort. Post hoc adjusted analyses and multivariate modeling was used to determine independent predictors of increased injury severity. Six hundred forty-four trauma admissions were analyzed, with primary research considerations detailing the variances in injury severity resulting from collisions with other skiers or snowboarders and daily total snowfall. Findings demonstrated that collisions were independently associated with increased (1) injury severity (Injury Severity Score [ISS ≥ 16]) (odds ratio [OR], 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-7.6; p educational opportunities for alpine enthusiasts, and enhance resort safety initiatives tailored to ambient conditions.

  5. Immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following spinal cord injury affecting the kidney function in two young native Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linstow, Michael V; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following SCI affecting the kidney function, is a rare but potentially serious condition. We report immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia affecting the kidney function in two young native Greenlanders with spinal cord injury (SCI). CASE...... PRESENTATIONS: Two 15- and 24-year-old male native Greenlanders, both with traumatic C5 SCI were admitted to our spinal cord unit. They were non-smokers without history of daily alcohol intake pre- or immediately post-injury. No physical demanding activities pre-injury. Due to complaints of nausea/vomiting 10...... the last 20 years our spinal cord unit has only experienced immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following SCI affecting the kidney function in two young male native Greenlanders. This finding of immobilisation-induced hypercalcemia following SCI affecting the kidney function in two young native...

  6. Facial Affect Recognition Training Through Telepractice: Two Case Studies of Individuals with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Williamson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of a modified Facial Affect Recognition (FAR training to identify emotions was investigated with two case studies of adults with moderate to severe chronic (> five years traumatic brain injury (TBI.  The modified FAR training was administered via telepractice to target social communication skills.  Therapy consisted of identifying emotions through static facial expressions, personally reflecting on those emotions, and identifying sarcasm and emotions within social stories and role-play.  Pre- and post-therapy measures included static facial photos to identify emotion and the Prutting and Kirchner Pragmatic Protocol for social communication.  Both participants with chronic TBI showed gains on identifying facial emotions on the static photos.               

  7. Episiotomy in vacuum-assisted delivery affects the risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ninna S; Persson, Lisa K G; Jangö, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) is increased in vacuum-assisted delivery. However, it remains unclear whether episiotomy may protect against OASIS in this type of delivery. The objective of this study was to assess whether mediolateral or lateral episiotomy affects the risk...... of OASIS in vacuum-assisted delivery among primiparous women. Data were found searching The PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase databases electronically. Studies investigating the risk of OASIS in vacuum-assisted delivery with and without the use of mediolateral or lateral episiotomy were considered...... for inclusion. Of the 452 studies found, 15 observational studies were included in this meta-analysis. All authors assessed risk of bias of the included studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) quality score. According to this meta-analysis, mediolateral or lateral episiotomy...

  8. Does physical fitness affect injury occurrence and time loss due to injury in elite vocational ballet students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchett, Emily; Brodrick, Anna; Nevill, Alan M; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Angioi, Manuela; Wyon, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Most ballet dancers will suffer at least one injury a year. There are numerous causes of injury in dance, and while many investigators have documented risk factors such as anatomical characteristics, past medical history, menstrual history, dance experience, length of dance training, fatigue, and stress, risk factors related to body characteristics and nutrient intake, levels of conditioning, or physical fitness parameters have only recently received the same amount of attention. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate correlations between ballet injury and body fat percentage, active and passive flexibility, lower limb power, upper body and core endurance, and aerobic capacity. Low levels of aerobic fitness were significantly associated with many of the injuries sustained over a 15-week period (r=.590, p=0.034), and body fat percentage was significantly associated with the length of time a dancer was forced to modify activity due to injury (r=-.614, p=0.026). This information may be of benefit to dancers, teachers, physical therapists and physicians in dance schools and companies when formulating strategies to prevent injury.

  9. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  10. Penetrating abdominal injuries during the Syrian war: Patterns and factors affecting mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, Shawqi; Alsabek, Mhd Belal; Ahmad, Mousa; Hamo, Iman; Munder, Eskander

    2017-05-01

    A large number of innocent Syrians were injured or killed during the years of war. This retrospective study investigates the differences in patterns of injury and factors affecting the mortality rate in 324 patients coming to Damascus Hospital with penetrating abdominal trauma, and illustrates the difficulties of diagnosis and decision making in crisis situations. A retrospective study was registered from patient's records between October 2012 and June 2013 in Damascus Hospital. All victims were injured either by explosions or gunshots. A total of 325 patients: 183 by explosion; 56.3%, 141 by gunshot; 43.3%, and one patient by other means; 0.3% were reviewed. The study focused on the two large groups with a total of 324 patients. Males were predominant (82.1%; n=266) and the majority of patients were between 19 and 35 years old. Patients suffering from multi abdominal organ injury were more common in gunshot group (n=72, 51.1%) compared to the explosion group (n=83, 45.3%). 264 patients (81.5%) underwent surgical operations and only 22 (8.3%) had normal laparotomy. The inpatient mortality rate was (17.0%; n=55), and there was no difference in mortality rate between the two groups. More than the half of deaths (n=42; 76.4%) had a P.A.T.I score≥25 where the death rate was 35.6% which is higher compared to 6.3% in those with a P.A.T.I<25. In the ICU 33 patients died, of these (87.9%; n=29) died after immediate admission to the ICU which is higher compared with a later admission (12.1%; n=4). The need for massive blood transfusion affected the mortality rate. Efforts must be directed toward training of medical staff to deal with crisis incidents. The need for massive blood transfusion and ICU admissions can affects mortality. P.A.T.I was found to be an effective predictor of mortality. Clinical experience in this field can produce better health care and faster judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Murphy, Lauren; Garraway, Sandra M; Grau, James W

    2016-11-01

    Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect. In spinally transected rats, noxious electrical stimulation and inflammation induce enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR), a behavioral index of nociceptive sensitization. Pretreatment with the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline blocked these effects. Peripheral application of an irritant (capsaicin) also induced EMR. Both the induction and maintenance of this effect were blocked by bicuculline. Cellular indices of central sensitization [c-fos expression and ERK phosphorylation (pERK)] were also attenuated. In intact (sham operated) rats, bicuculline had the opposite effect. Pretreatment with a GABA agonist (muscimol) attenuated nociceptive sensitization in intact, but not spinally injured, rats. The effect of SCI on GABA function was linked to a reduction in the Cl - transporter, KCC2, leading to a reduction in intracellular Cl - that would attenuate GABA-mediated inhibition. Pharmacologically blocking the KCC2 channel (with i.t. DIOA) in intact rats mimicked the effect of SCI. Conversely, a pharmacological treatment (bumetanide) that should increase intracellular Cl - levels blocked the effect of SCI. The results suggest that GABAergic neurons drive, rather than inhibit, the development of nociceptive sensitization after spinal injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selected factors affecting the efficiency of wheelchair mobility in individuals with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przysada Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Locomotion efficiency levels in individuals with spinal cord injury deal cord injury depend upon the level of spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation of people with spinal cord injury aims to prepare them to function in society in the best possible manner. One of the significant tasks of rehabilitation is to develop the skill of moving in a wheelchair, which becomes the only means of locomotion for most people. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of selected factors such as age, sex, time from the occurrence of the injury, the level of spinal cord injury, participation in Active Rehabilitation camps and the level of physical activity on the efficiency of locomotion in a wheelchair in individuals with spinal cord injury.

  13. Accidental injuries are more common in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with their non-affected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilon, Y; Pollak, Y; Aran, A; Shaked, S; Gross-Tsur, V

    2012-05-01

    Accidental injuries are a leading cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common childhood disorder characterized by behaviours such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, is a risk factor for accidental injuries. Previous retrospective studies suggested that children with ADHD have an increased injury rate, but controlled prospective studies are lacking. We conducted a prospective case-control study of 29 school-aged children with ADHD and their same-sex, similarly aged, non-ADHD-affected siblings. All diagnoses were made by a paediatric neurologist according to DSM-IV criteria and the children and their parents underwent a structured psychiatric interview and a battery of complementary assessments including: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), ADHD Rating scale and Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ). The parents were contacted by telephone every 3 months during a 9-month follow-up period and all injuries requiring medical attention were recorded. Incidence of injuries was compared between the pairs of siblings. During the follow-up period, a total of 13 injuries in 13 children with ADHD were reported, compared with six injuries in six children from the control group (Z=-2.11, P children with ADHD are at higher risk of accidental injuries than their non-ADHD siblings, regardless of ADHD subtype, co-morbid psychiatric conditions, developmental co-ordination problems and environmental/familial conditions. Awareness and adequate education of parents and caregivers of children with ADHD concerning the increased injury risks are thus warranted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  15. Face and Word Recognition Can Be Selectively Affected by Brain Injury or Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Ro J; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    Face and word recognition have traditionally been thought to rely on highly specialised and relatively independent cognitive processes. Some of the strongest evidence for this has come from patients with seemingly category-specific visual perceptual deficits such as pure prosopagnosia, a selective face recognition deficit, and pure alexia, a selective word recognition deficit. Together, the patterns of impaired reading with preserved face recognition and impaired face recognition with preserved reading constitute a double dissociation. The existence of these selective deficits has been questioned over the past decade. It has been suggested that studies describing patients with these pure deficits have failed to measure the supposedly preserved functions using sensitive enough measures, and that if tested using sensitive measurements, all patients with deficits in one visual category would also have deficits in the other. The implications of this would be immense, with most textbooks in cognitive neuropsychology requiring drastic revisions. In order to evaluate the evidence for dissociations, we review studies that specifically investigate whether face or word recognition can be selectively affected by acquired brain injury or developmental disorders. We only include studies published since 2004, as comprehensive reviews of earlier studies are available. Most of the studies assess the supposedly preserved functions using sensitive measurements. We found convincing evidence that reading can be preserved in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia and also evidence (though weaker) that face recognition can be preserved in acquired or developmental dyslexia, suggesting that face and word recognition are at least in part supported by independent processes.

  16. Spinal cord injury affects the interplay between visual and sensorimotor representations of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionta, Silvio; Villiger, Michael; Jutzeler, Catherine R; Freund, Patrick; Curt, Armin; Gassert, Roger

    2016-02-04

    The brain integrates multiple sensory inputs, including somatosensory and visual inputs, to produce a representation of the body. Spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts the communication between brain and body and the effects of this deafferentation on body representation are poorly understood. We investigated whether the relative weight of somatosensory and visual frames of reference for body representation is altered in individuals with incomplete or complete SCI (affecting lower limbs' somatosensation), with respect to controls. To study the influence of afferent somatosensory information on body representation, participants verbally judged the laterality of rotated images of feet, hands, and whole-bodies (mental rotation task) in two different postures (participants' body parts were hidden from view). We found that (i) complete SCI disrupts the influence of postural changes on the representation of the deafferented body parts (feet, but not hands) and (ii) regardless of posture, whole-body representation progressively deteriorates proportionally to SCI completeness. These results demonstrate that the cortical representation of the body is dynamic, responsive, and adaptable to contingent conditions, in that the role of somatosensation is altered and partially compensated with a change in the relative weight of somatosensory versus visual bodily representations.

  17. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  18. Factors affecting occupational exposure to needlestick and sharps injuries among dentists in Taiwan: a nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the risks of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs for dentists are well recognized, most papers published only described the frequency of occupational exposure to NSIs. Less has been reported assessing factors contributing to exposure to NSIs. The purpose of this study was to update the epidemiology of NSIs among dentists in Taiwan and identify factors affecting NSIs in order to find preventive strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted in dentists at 60 hospitals and 340 clinics in Taiwan. The survey included questions about factors supposedly affecting exposure to NSIs, such as dentist and facility characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about infectious diseases, and practices related to infection control. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between risk factors and exposure to NSIs. In total, 434 (74.8% of 580 dentists returned the survey questionnaires, and 100 (23.0% reported that they had experienced more than one NSI per week. Our data showed that the risk of occupational NSIs is similarly heightened by an older age (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-6.25, more years in practice (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.41-4.69, working in clinics (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.08-2.77, exhibiting less compliance with infection-control procedures (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.18, having insufficient knowledge of blood-borne pathogens (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.04-2.67, and being more worried about being infected by blood-borne pathogens (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High rates of NSIs and low compliance with infection-control procedures highly contribute to the chance of acquiring a blood-borne pathogen infection and threaten occupational safety. This study reveals the possible affecting factors and helps in designing prevention strategies for occupational exposure to NSIs.

  19. Injuries among Portuguese kitesurfers: The most affected body regions A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic sports keep rising in popularity. Kitesurfing is a high-risk sport that combines aspects of several water sports. The dangers of high-risk sports have been widely studied. Kitesurfing is a relatively new water sport, and the understanding of the injuries due to its practice has not yet been largely investigated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the most common types and causes of injuries among Portuguese kitesurfers. The data was collected using a retrospective 12 months web-based questionnaire. A total of n= 87 kitesurfers, mostly from the North, showed that 75.9% have a kitesurfing initiation course and 57.5% use protective equipment. A total of 60.9% has been injured in the 12 month’s period, being the knee and the lumbar spine the most common body injury. A reasonable number of injuries occurred while performing a landing or a maneuver, being 53.9% of the injuries reported as a new injury. This 12 month’s retrospective study supports earlier studies and provides basis knowledge about the incidence of Portuguese kitesurfers injuries. The data support the benefits of physical fitness (p< 0.05 in injuries prevention.

  20. Do recurrent seizure-related head injuries affect seizures in people with epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David E.; Chiang, Sharon; Tobias, Ronnie S.

    2015-01-01

    Seizure-related head injuries (SRHIs) are among the most commonly encountered injuries in people with epilepsy (PWE). Whether head injury has an effect on preexisting epilepsy is not known. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess for any possible effects of SRHIs on seizure frequency and seizure semiology over a 2-year period. We identified 204 patients who have been followed at the Baylor Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2008 to 2010. SRHI occurred in 18.1% of the cohort. Most injuries (91%) were classified as mild. Though seizure frequency varied following head injury, overall seizure frequency was not significantly impacted by presence or absence of SRHI over the 2-year study period. Changes in seizure semiology were not observed in those with SRHIs. Although mild SRHI is common among PWE, it does not appear to have an effect on seizure characteristics over a relatively short period. PMID:22227592

  1. Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects nociceptive sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Grau, James W

    2017-02-01

    Noxious stimulation can induce a lasting increase in neural excitability within the spinal cord (central sensitization) that can promote pain and disrupt adaptive function (maladaptive plasticity). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate the development of plasticity and has been shown to impact the development of spinally-mediated central sensitization. The latter effect has been linked to an alteration in GABA-dependent inhibition. Prior studies have shown that, in spinally transected rats, exposure to regular (fixed spaced) stimulation can counter the development of maladaptive plasticity and have linked this effect to an up-regulation of BDNF. Here it is shown that application of the irritant capsaicin to one hind paw induces enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR) after spinal cord injury (SCI) and that the induction of this effect is blocked by pretreatment with fixed spaced shock. This protective effect was eliminated if rats were pretreated with the BDNF sequestering antibody TrkB-IgG. Intrathecal (i.t.) application of BDNF prevented, but did not reverse, capsaicin-induced EMR. BDNF also attenuated cellular indices (ERK and pERK expression) of central sensitization after SCI. In uninjured rats, i.t. BDNF enhanced, rather than attenuated, capsaicin-induced EMR and ERK/pERK expression. These opposing effects were related to a transformation in GABA function. In uninjured rats, BDNF reduced membrane-bound KCC2 and the inhibitory effect of the GABA A agonist muscimol. After SCI, BDNF increased KCC2 expression, which would help restore GABAergic inhibition. The results suggest that SCI transforms how BDNF affects GABA function and imply that the clinical usefulness of BDNF will depend upon the extent of fiber sparing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting length of hospital stay for people with spinal cord injuries at Kanombe military hospital, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Bwanjugu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In patients with spinal cord injuries increased length ofhospital stay is often as a result of secondary complications such as pressuresores, urinary tract infection and respiratory infection. An increased lengthof hospital stay was observed at Kanombe Military Hospital in Rwanda.The aim of this study was to determine specific factors affecting length ofhospital stay for individuals with spinal cord injuries at Kanombe MilitaryHospital in Rwanda. The records of 124 individuals with spinal cordinjuries who were discharged from the hospital between 1st January1996and 31st December 2007 were reviewed to collect data. Information collected and captured on a data gathering sheetincluded demographic data, information relating to the injury, occurrence of medical complications and length ofhospital stay. Linear regression analysis was computed in SPSS to determine factors affecting the length of stay.The necessary ethical considerations were adhered to during the implementation of the study. Current employmentstatus and the occurrence of pressure sores were significantly associated with the length of hospital stay (p=0.021 andp=0.000 respectively. A strong relationship was noted between pressure sores and length of stay (R= 0.703. There is aneed for all members of the rehabilitation team to devise and implement effective measures to prevent the developmentof pressure sores, in patients with spinal cord injuries in the study setting.

  3. Functional and quality of life outcomes following obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI): does the grade of injury affect outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Lisa; Yen, Clarence; Qiu, Shengyang; Simillis, Constantinos; Kontovounisios, Christos; Tekkis, Paris; Tan, Emile

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional and quality of life data in patients with increasing grades of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) presenting to a tertiary colorectal pelvic floor clinic within 24 months of delivery. Prospective data were collected from the patients for the period 2009-2016 and included data on functional outcomes and motor anorectal manometry parameters. The instruments used for the evaluation of functional outcomes were the Birmingham Bowel and Urinary Symptoms Questionnaire, the Wexner Incontinence Score, Short Form 36, and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. OASI grade of injury was based on the postdelivery endoanal ultrasound scan. Data from patients with a grade 3a, 3b, 3c or 4 OASI were compared using one-way ANOVA for parametric data and the Kruskal-Wallis test for nonparametric data overall and for separate time periods (3-6 months, 6-12 months, 12-24 months). Functional patient data were available in 177 patients: 29 with grade 3a, 55 with grade 3b, 77 with grade 3c and 16 with grade 4 OASI. There was no discernible trend in worsening function with increasing severity of OASI overall, nor for the specified time periods of 3-6 months 58 patients), 6-12 months (85 patients) or 12-24 months (18 patients). Our series demonstrated no significant differences in functional outcomes or quality of life in patients with different OASI grades. Longer-term follow-up is required to ascertain any later functional differences which may become apparent with time.

  4. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J.

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show ...

  5. Pre-injury beta blocker use does not affect the hyperdynamic response in older trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Trauma dogma dictates that the physiologic response to injury is blunted by beta-blockers and other cardiac medications. We sought to determine how the pre-injury cardiac medication profile influences admission physiology and post-injury outcomes. Materials and Methods: Trauma patients older than 45 evaluated at our center were retrospectively studied. Pre-injury medication profiles were evaluated for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors / angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, amiodarone, or a combination of the above mentioned agents. Multivariable logistic regression or linear regression analyses were used to identify relationships between pre-injury medications, vital signs on presentation, post-injury complications, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Results: Records of 645 patients were reviewed (mean age 62.9 years, Injury Severity Score >10, 23%. Our analysis demonstrated no effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressures from beta-blocker, ACE-I/ARB, calcium channel blocker, and amiodarone use. The triple therapy (combined beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and ACE-I/ARB patient group had significantly lower heart rate than the no cardiac medication group. No other groups were statistically different for heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Pre-injury use of cardiac medication lowered heart rate in the triple-agent group (beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and ACEi/ARB when compared the no cardiac medication group. While most combinations of cardiac medications do not blunt the hyperdynamic response in trauma cases, patients on combined beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, and ACE-I/ARB therapy had higher mortality and more in-hospital complications despite only mild attenuation of the hyperdynamic response.

  6. Identifying Risk for Self-Harm: Rumination and Negative Affectivity in the Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Katey Anne; Wielgus, Madeline D; Mezulis, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Research suggests nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) may function as a maladaptive strategy to regulate negative emotions, and individuals high in trait negative affectivity (NA) may be particularly at risk. Rumination, a cognitive emotion regulation strategy, may amplify negative affect, increasing the likelihood of NSSI. The current study found that high NA and high rumination interacted to predict both likelihood of engagement in NSSI and frequency of NSSI. This study provides support for the joint contribution of cognitive and temperamental factors impacting the relationship between NA and NSSI and suggests that interventions targeted at maladaptive emotion regulation strategies may help inform individualized treatment. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  7. Factors affecting morbidity and mortality in traumatic colorectal injuries and reliability and validity of trauma scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Nurettin; Alp, Vahhaç; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Sevük, Utkan; Kaya, Şafak; Dinç, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the factors that affect morbidity and mortality in colon and rectum injuries related with trauma, the use of trauma scoring systems in predicting mortality and morbidity. Besides patient demographic characteristics, the mechanism of injury, the time between injury and surgery, accompanying body injuries, admittance Glasgow coma scale (GCS), findings at surgery and treatment methods were also recorded. With the obtained data, the abbreviated injury scale (AIS), injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS) and trauma-ISS (TRISS) scores of each patient were calculated by using the 2008 revised AIS. Of the patients, 172 (88.7 %) were male, 22 (11.3 %) were female and the mean age was 29.15 ± 12.392 (15-89) years. The morbidity of our patients were 32 % and mortality were 12.4 %. ISS (p < 0.001), RTS (p < 0.001), and the TRISS (p < 0.001) on mortality were found to be significant. TRISS (p = 0.008), the ISS (p < 0.001), the RTS (p = 0.03), the trauma surgery interval (TSI, p < 0.001) were observed to have significant effects on morbidity. Regression analysis showed that the ISS (OR 1.1; CI 95 % 1.01-1.2; p = 0.02), the RTS (OR 0.37; CI 95 % 0.21-0.67; p = 0.001) had significant effects on mortality. While the effects of TSI (OR 5.3; CI 95 % 1.5-18.8; p = 0.01) on morbidity were found to be significant. Predicting mortality by using scoring systems and close postoperative follow up of patients in the risk group may ensure decreases in the rates of morbidity and mortality.

  8. Factors affecting mortality after penetrating cardiac injuries: 10-year experience at urban level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Jhunjhunwala, Rashi; Gelbard, Rondi B; Dougherty, Stacy D; Carr, Jacquelyn S; Dente, Christopher J; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Vercruysse, Gary A; Feliciano, David V; Morse, Bryan C

    2017-06-01

    Despite the lethality of injuries to the heart, optimizing factors that impact mortality for victims that do survive to reach the hospital is critical. From 2003 to 2012, prehospital data, injury characteristics, and clinical patient factors were analyzed for victims with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCIs) at an urban, level I trauma center. Over the 10-year study, 80 PCI patients survived to reach the hospital. Of the 21 factors analyzed, prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] = 30), scene time greater than 10 minutes (OR = 58), resuscitative thoracotomy (OR = 19), and massive left hemothorax (OR = 15) had the greatest impact on mortality. Cardiac tamponade physiology demonstrated a "protective" effect for survivors to the hospital (OR = .08). Trauma surgeons can improve mortality after PCI by minimizing time to the operating room for early control of hemorrhage. In PCI patients, tamponade may provide a physiologic advantage (lower mortality) compared to exsanguination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Affective instability prior to and after thoughts about self-injury in individuals with and at-risk of psychosis: a mobile phone based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, J E; Ainsworth, J; Machin, M; Dunn, G; Barkus, E; Barrowclough, C; Rogers, A; Lewis, S W

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that affective instability may be associated with thoughts about self-injury. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that instability in feelings of depression, but not anxiety, guilt, or hostility, would predict greater concurrent and subsequent thoughts about self-injury. Thirty-six individuals with psychosis completed questions on touch-screen mobile phones at semi-random times each day for one week. The instability of depression predicted greater concurrent and subsequent levels of thoughts about self-injury, even when controlling for depression level. Conversely, self-injurious thoughts predicted more stable depression. The instability of guilt, anxiety, and hostility did not significantly predict levels of thoughts about self-injury. Results indicate that a variable depressive state may trigger the onset of thoughts about self-injury, which increases the risk of its subsequent recurrence. The onset of self-injurious thoughts may, however, have a stabilizing effect on subsequent depression.

  10. Factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders following traumatic brain injury: What we can learn from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Steven F; Cannella, Lee Anne; Razmpour, Roshanak; Lutton, Evan; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Rawls, Scott M; Ramirez, Servio H

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have helped identify multiple factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These factors include age at the time of injury, repetitive injury and TBI severity, neurocircuits, neurotransmitter systems, neuroinflammation, and sex differences. This review will address each of these factors by discussing 1) the clinical and preclinical data identifying patient populations at greatest risk for SUDs post-TBI, 2) TBI-related neuropathology in discrete brain regions heavily implicated in SUDs, and 3) the effects of TBI on molecular mechanisms that may drive substance abuse behavior, like dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission or neuroimmune signaling in mesolimbic regions of the brain. Although these studies have laid the groundwork for identifying factors that affect risk of SUDs post-TBI, additional studies are required. Notably, preclinical models have been shown to recapitulate many of the behavioral, cellular, and neurochemical features of SUDs and TBI. Therefore, these models are well suited for answering important questions that remain in future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting mortality in severe traumatic brain injury in adults at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess factors contributing to mortality of adult patients admitted to intensive care units for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study. Included in the study were all adults patients admitted for severe TBI. From the hospital records, ...

  12. Early Computed Tomography Frontal Abnormalities Predict Long-Term Neurobehavioral Problems But Not Affective Problems after Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Coers, Annemieke; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral problems are serious consequences of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have a negative impact on outcome. There may be two types: neurobehavioral problems, manifesting as inadequate social behavior resulting from prefrontal system damage, and affective behavioral

  13. Burn-injury affects gut-associated lymphoid tissues derived CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Nadeem; Shelip, Alla; Alzahrani, Alhusain J

    2013-01-01

    After scald burn-injury, the intestinal immune system responds to maintain immune balance. In this regard CD4+T cells in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues (GALT), like mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP) respond to avoid immune suppression following major injury such as burn. Therefore, we hypothesized that the gut CD4+T cells become dysfunctional and turn the immune homeostasis towards depression of CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive immune responses. In the current study we show down regulation of mucosal CD4+ T cell proliferation, IL-2 production and cell surface marker expression of mucosal CD4+ T cells moving towards suppressive-type. Acute burn-injury lead to up-regulation of regulatory marker (CD25+), down regulation of adhesion (CD62L, CD11a) and homing receptor (CD49d) expression, and up-regulation of negative co-stimulatory (CTLA-4) molecule. Moreover, CD4+CD25+ T cells of intestinal origin showed resistance to spontaneous as well as induced apoptosis that may contribute to suppression of effector CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, gut CD4+CD25+ T cells obtained from burn-injured animals were able to down-regulate naïve CD4+ T cell proliferation following adoptive transfer of burn-injured CD4+CD25+ T cells into sham control animals, without any significant effect on cell surface activation markers. Together, these data demonstrate that the intestinal CD4+ T cells evolve a strategy to promote suppressive CD4+ T cell effector responses, as evidenced by enhanced CD4+CD25+ T cells, up-regulated CTLA-4 expression, reduced IL-2 production, tendency towards diminished apoptosis of suppressive CD4+ T cells, and thus lose their natural ability to regulate immune homeostasis following acute burn-injury and prevent immune paralysis.

  14. Psychosocial factors affecting resilience in Nepalese individuals with earthquake-related spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Muna; Maneewat, Khomapak; Sae-Sia, Wipa

    2018-03-02

    One of many types of injuries following an earthquake is spinal cord injury (SCI) which is a life-long medically complex injury and high-cost health problem. Despite several negative consequences, some persons with SCI are resilient enough to achieve positive adjustment, greater acceptance, and better quality of life. Since resilience is influenced by several factors and can vary by context, it is beneficial to explore factors that affect the resilience of people who sustained spinal cord injury from the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. A descriptive cross-sectional study included 82 participants from the Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Center and communities in Nepal. Participants completed the Demographic and Injury-related Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Moorong Self-efficacy Scale, Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Pearson's correlation and point biserial correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between resilience and independent variables. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to identify the influence of certain factors. Findings indicated significant associations between resilience and social support (r = 0.42, p resilience and spirituality (r = - 0.12, p > 0.05). In hierarchical regression analysis, an overall regression model explained 46% of the variance in resilience. Self-efficacy (β = 0.28, p = 0.007) and depressive mood (β = - 0.24, p = 0.016) significantly determined resilience after controlling the effect of demographic variables. Among the demographic factors, being male significantly explained the variance in resilience (β = 0.31, p = 0.001). Multiple psychosocial and demographic factors were associated with resilience in people who sustained an earthquake-related SCI. Mental health professionals should demonstrate concern and consider such factors in allocating care in this group. Development

  15. How Do Intensity and Duration of Rehabilitation Services Affect Outcomes from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of inpatient and outpatient treatment intensity on functional and emotional well-being outcomes at 1 year post severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective, quasi-experimental study comparing outcomes in a US TBI treatment center with those in a Denmark (D...... dose with extent of early disability suggests that dose was driven by unmeasured factors reflecting need for services. Improved measures of injury-related factors driving treatment allocation are needed to model the independent effects of treatment on outcomes....... treatments were estimated per discipline using a structured interview administered to patients and/ or caregivers at 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FIM, Glasgow Outcome Scale- Extended, Disability Rating Scale, Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools-Objective, Perceived Quality of Life, SF-12....... CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectation, DK patients who received significantly more rehabilitation services during the year following severe TBI did not differ in outcome from their less intensively treated US counterparts, after adjusting for initial severity. The negative association of functional treatment...

  16. Combined treatment with progesterone and magnesium sulfate positively affects traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Baykara, Basak; Kiray, Muge; Cetin, Ferihan; Aksu, Ilkay; Dayi, Ayfer; Gurpinar, Tugba; Ozdemir, Durgul; Arda, M Nuri

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that head trauma results in damage in hippocampal and cortical areas of the brain and impairs cognitive functions. The aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of combination therapy with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and progesterone in the 7-days-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. Progesterone (8 mg/kg) and MgSO4 (150 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally immediately after induction of traumatic brain injury. Half of groups were evaluated 24 hours later, the remaining animals 3 weeks after trauma or sham surgery. Anxiety levels were assessed with open field activity and elevated plus maze; learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris Water maze in postnatal 27 days. Combined therapy with progesterone and magnesium sulfate significantly attenuated trauma-induced neuronal death, increased brain VEGF levels and improved spatial memory deficits that appear later in life. Brain VEGF levels were higher in rats that received combined therapy compared to rats that received either medication alone. Moreover, rats that received combined therapy had reduced hipocampus and prefrontal cortex apoptosis in the acute period. These results demonstrate that combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action may be preferred in the treatment of head trauma.

  17. Visible foliar injury and infrared imaging show that daylength affects short-term recovery after ozone stress in Trifolium subterraneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollsnes, Ane V; Eriksen, Aud Berglen; Otterholt, Eli; Kvaal, Knut; Oxaal, Unni; Futsaether, Cecilia M

    2009-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a major air pollutant affecting plants worldwide. Plants in northern regions can display more ozone injury than plants at lower latitudes despite lower ozone levels. Larger ozone influx and shorter nights have been suggested as possible causes. However, the effects of the dim light present during northern summer nights have not been investigated. Young Trifolium subterraneum plants kept in environmentally controlled growth rooms under long day (10 h bright light, 14 h dim light) or short day (10 h bright light, 14 h darkness) conditions were exposed to 6 h of 70 ppb ozone during daytime for three consecutive days. Leaves were visually inspected and imaged in vivo using thermal imaging before and after the daily exposure. In long-day-treated plants, visible foliar injury within 1 week after exposure was more severe. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that the leaves of ozone-exposed long-day-treated plants were also warmer with more homogeneous temperature distributions than exposed short day and control plants, suggesting reduced transpiration. Temperature disruptions were not restricted to areas displaying visible damage and occurred even in leaves with only slight visible injury. Ozone did not affect the leaf temperature of short-day-treated plants. As all factors influencing ozone influx were the same for long- and short-day-treated plants, only the dim nocturnal light could account for the different ozone sensitivities. Thus, the twilight summer nights at high latitudes may have a negative effect on repair and defence processes activated after ozone exposure, thereby enhancing sensitivity.

  18. How Joint Torques Affect Hamstring Injury Risk in Sprinting Swing–Stance Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, YULIANG; WEI, SHUTAO; ZHONG, YUNJIAN; FU, WEIJIE; LI, LI; LIU, YU

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. Results During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. Conclusions During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases. PMID:24911288

  19. Blood-Injection-Injury (B-I-I) Specific Phobia Affects the Outcome of Hypoxic Challenge Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Kristofer J; McGoldrick, Veronica P

    2017-05-01

    Blood-injection-injury (B-I-I) phobia is capable of producing inaccurate hypoxic challenge testing results due to anxiety-induced hyperventilation. A 69-yr-old woman with a history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation requiring supplementary oxygen on mobilizing, reduced DLco, and B-I-I phobia was referred for hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) to assess in-flight oxygen requirements. HCT was performed by breathing a 15% FIo2 gas mixture, simulating the available oxygen in ambient air onboard aircraft pressurized to an equivalent altitude of 8000 ft. Spo2 fell to a nadir value of 81% during HCT, although it rapidly increased to 89% during the first of two attempts at blood gas sampling. A resultant blood gas sample showed an acceptable Po2 outside the criteria for recommending in-flight oxygen and a reduced Pco2. Entering the nadir Spo2 value into the Severinghaus equation gives an estimated arterial Po2 of 6 kPa (45 mmHg), which was felt to be more representative of resting values during HCT, and in-flight oxygen was recommended. While hyperventilation is an expected response to hypoxia, transient rises in Spo2 coinciding with threat of injury are likely to be attributable to emotional stress-induced hyperventilation, characteristic of B-I-I specific phobia and expected during the anticipation of exteroceptive threat, even in normal subjects. In summary, should excessive hyperventilation be detected during HCT and coincide with transient increases in Spo2, HCT should be repeated using Spo2 only as a guide to the level of hypoxemia, and Spo2 maintained using supplementary oxygen in accordance with alternative methods described in guidelines.Spurling KJ, McGoldrick VP. Blood-injection-injury (B-I-I) specific phobia affects the outcome of hypoxic challenge testing. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):503-506.

  20. Effects of "diagnosis threat" on cognitive and affective functioning long after mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-03-01

    Persistent cognitive complaints are common following a mild head injury (MHI), but deficits are rarely detected on neuropsychological tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of symptom expectation on self-report and cognitive performance measures in MHI individuals. Prior research suggests that when MHI participants are informed they may experience cognitive difficulties, they perform worse on neuropsychological tests compared to MHI participants who are uninformed. In this study, undergraduate students with and without a prior MHI were either informed that the study's purpose was to investigate the effects of MHI on cognitive functioning ("diagnosis threat" condition) or merely informed that their cognitive functioning was being examined, with no mention of status ("neutral" condition). "Diagnosis threat" MHIs self-reported more attention failures compared to "diagnosis threat" controls and "neutral" MHIs, and more memory failures compared to "diagnosis threat" controls. In the "neutral" condition, MHIs reported higher anxiety levels compared to controls and compared to "diagnosis threat" MHIs. Regardless of condition, MHIs performed worse on only one neuropsychological test of attention span. "Diagnosis threat" may contribute to the prevalence and persistence of cognitive complaints made by MHI individuals found in the literature, but may not have as strong of an effect on neuropsychological measures.

  1. Deep white matter hyperintensities affect verbal memory independent of PTSD symptoms in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexandra L; Sorg, Scott F; Schiehser, Dawn M; Luc, Norman; Bondi, Mark W; Sanderson, Mark; Werhane, Madeleine L; Delano-Wood, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Although white matter hyperintensity (WMH) pathology has been observed in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the contribution of this type of macrostructural damage to cognitive and/or post-concussive symptomatology (PCS) remains unclear. Sixty-eight Veterans (mTBI = 46, Military Controls [MCs] = 22) with and without history of mild TBI (mTBI) underwent structural MRI and comprehensive cognitive and psychiatric assessment. WMH volume was identified as deep (DWMH) or periventricular (PVWMH) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. Group analyses revealed that mTBI history was not associated with increased WMH pathology (p's > 0.05). However, after controlling for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and intracranial volume, DWMH was associated with reduced short-and long-delayed memory performance within the mTBI group (p's injury, regression analyses revealed that WMH was not associated with self-reported ratings of PCS (p's > 0.05) in the mTBI group. The results demonstrate that, in relatively young Veterans with mTBI, DWMH differentially and negatively affects memory performance above and beyond the effects of PTSD symptoms. The findings may help to clarify prior mixed results as well as offer focused treatment implications for Veterans with history of neurotrauma and evidence of macrostructural white matter damage.

  2. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates of Cognitive, Behavioral, and Affective Apathy Sub-Domains in Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomboro, Progress; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it is also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is despite the evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive, and behavioral sub-domains and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome. PMID:24904518

  3. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioural and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress eNjomboro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder’s neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it’s also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is in spite of evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive and behavioural sub-domains, and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome.

  4. Distinct neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, behavioral, and affective apathy sub-domains in acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njomboro, Progress; Deb, Shoumitro

    2014-01-01

    Apathy has a high prevalence and a significant contribution to treatment and rehabilitation outcomes in acquired brain damage. Research on the disorder's neuropsychological correlates has produced mixed results. While the mixed picture may be due to the use of varied assessment tools on different patient populations, it is also the case that most studies treat apathy as a unitary syndrome. This is despite the evidence that apathy is a multifaceted and multidimensional syndrome. This study investigates the neuropsychological correlates of apathy in 49 patients with acquired brain damage. It further fractionates apathy symptoms into affective, cognitive, and behavioral sub-domains and investigates their individual relations with standard measures of affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning. Global apathy scores were not related to any of these measures. Affective apathy was associated with emotion perception deficits, and cognitive apathy was associated with executive deficits on the Brixton test. These results demonstrate that treating apathy as a single entity may hide important correlates to apathy symptoms that become visible when the disorder is fractionated into its sub-domains. The study highlights the research and clinical importance of treating apathy as a multidimensional syndrome.

  5. A History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury affects Peripheral Pulse Oximetry during Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Temme

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physiological and emotional stressors increase symptoms of concussion in recently injured individuals and both forms of stress induce symptoms in people recovering from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI but who are asymptomatic when not stressed or are at rest. Methods: Healthy asymptomatic adults (25.0 ± 5.1 years with a history of mTBI (n = 36 and matched healthy controls (n = 36 with no mTBI history were exposed to three levels of normobaric hypoxic stress generated with the Reduced Oxygen Breathing Device (ROBD (Environics, Inc., Tollande, CT, which reduced the percent oxygen by mixing sea level air with nitrogen. The ROBD reduced the percent oxygen in the breathable air from the normal 21% to 15.5% O2, 14% O2, and 13% O2. Under these conditions: (a a standard pulse oximeter recorded peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (beats per minute, and (b the FIT (PMI, Inc., Rockville, MD recorded saccadic velocity and pupillary response dynamics to a brief light flash. Results: For all three hypoxic stress conditions the mTBI group had significantly higher SpO2 during the final minute of exposure than did the controls F(2.17,151.8 = 5.29, p < .001, η2 = .852 and the rate of SpO2 change over time was significantly shallower for the mTBI than for the controls F(2.3,161.3 = 2.863, p < .001, η2 = .569, Greenhouse-Geisser corrected. Overall, mTBI had lower pulse rate but the difference was only significant for the 14% O2 condition. FIT oculomotor measures were not sensitive to group differences. When exposed to mild or moderate normobaric hypoxic stress (15% O2: (1 SpO2 differences emerged between the mTBI and matched healthy controls, (2 heart rate trended lower in the mTBI group, and (3 FIT measures were not sensitive to group differences. Conclusion: A relatively minor hypoxic challenge can reveal measurable differences in SpO2 and heart rate in otherwise asymptomatic individuals with a history of mTBI.

  6. Pre-operative variables affecting final vision outcome with a critical review of ocular trauma classification for posterior open globe (zone III injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify pre-operative variables affecting the outcome of posterior open globe (zone III injuries. Secondary objective was to re-look at the definition or landmarks for zone III injury and its clinical significance for predicting visual prognosis following open globe injury. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of all hospitalized patients with surgical repair of open globe injury over last 10 years at a tertiary referral eye care center in Singapore. Out of 172 eyes with open globe injury, 28 eyes (16.3% with zone III injury was identified and reviewed further. Pre-operative visual acuity (VA and other variables, extent of scleral wound in reference to rectus insertion, relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD and final vision outcome were recorded. Results: Median age was 37 years with male predilection (92.9%. Mean follow-up was 12.9 months. Pre-operative VA was no light perception (NLP in 16 (57.1% eyes. Final VA remained NLP in 14 eyes (50.0%. The factors contributing to poor post-operative vision based on univariate regression analysis were the presence of RAPD, poor pre-operative VA, blunt trauma, extent of trauma, associated traumatic cataract, hyphema, vitreous loss and associated vitreo-retinal trauma. Further on, zone III injuries with scleral wound limited anterior to rectus insertion (6 eyes had better vision outcome than those with injuries extending beyond rectus insertion (22 eyes. Conclusion: Initial VA, blunt ocular trauma, visual axis involvement, loss of light perception, presence of RAPD, traumatic cataract, hyphema, vitreous loss were the important determinants for final visual outcome in patients with zone III injury. Wound extending posterior to rectus insertion has poorer outcome as those limited anterior to rectus insertion. We suggest that there may be a need to relook at zone III injuries with reference to rectus insertion for prognostic significance, and further studies are

  7. Exogenous Modulation of Retinoic Acid Signaling Affects Adult RGC Survival in the Frog Visual System after Optic Nerve Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred V Duprey-Díaz

    Full Text Available After lesions to the mammalian optic nerve, the great majority of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs die before their axons have even had a chance to regenerate. Frog RGCs, on the other hand, suffer only an approximately 50% cell loss, and we have previously investigated the mechanisms by which the application of growth factors can increase their survival rate. Retinoic acid (RA is a vitamin A-derived lipophilic molecule that plays major roles during development of the nervous system. The RA signaling pathway is also present in parts of the adult nervous system, and components of it are upregulated after injury in peripheral nerves but not in the CNS. Here we investigate whether RA signaling affects long-term RGC survival at 6 weeks after axotomy. Intraocular injection of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA, the retinoic acid receptor (RAR type-α agonist AM80, the RARβ agonist CD2314, or the RARγ agonist CD1530, returned axotomized RGC numbers to almost normal levels. On the other hand, inhibition of RA synthesis with disulfiram, or of RAR receptors with the pan-RAR antagonist Ro-41-5253, or the RARβ antagonist LE135E, greatly reduced the survival of the axotomized neurons. Axotomy elicited a strong activation of the MAPK, STAT3 and AKT pathways; this activation was prevented by disulfiram or by RAR antagonists. Finally, addition of exogenous ATRA stimulated the activation of the first two of these pathways. Future experiments will investigate whether these strong survival-promoting effects of RA are mediated via the upregulation of neurotrophins.

  8. White matter injury and autistic-like behavior predominantly affecting male rat offspring exposed to group B streptococcal maternal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, J D L; Deslauriers, J; Grignon, S; Fortier, L C; Lepage, M; Stroh, T; Poyart, C; Sébire, G

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the group B streptococcus (GBS)-induced maternal inflammation on offspring's brain has not yet been investigated despite GBS being one of the most frequent bacteria colonizing or infecting pregnant women. According to our hypothesis GBS-induced maternal immune activation plays a role in offspring perinatal brain damage and subsequent neurodisabilities such as autism. Using a new preclinical rat model of maternal inflammation triggered by inactivated GBS, we demonstrated placental, neuropathological and behavioral impacts on offspring. GBS-exposed placentas presented cystic lesions and polymorphonuclear infiltration located within the decidual/maternal side of the placenta, contrasting with macrophagic infiltration and necrotic areas located in the labyrinth/fetal compartment of the placenta after lipopolysaccharide-induced maternal inflammation. Brain damage featured lateral ventricles widening, predominately in the male, reduction of periventricular external capsules thickness, oligodendrocyte loss, and disorganization of frontoparietal subcortical tissue with no glial proliferation. Autistic hallmarks were found in offspring exposed to GBS, namely deficits in motor behavior, social and communicative impairments, i.e. profound defects in the integration and response to both acoustic and chemical signals that are predominant modes of communication in rats. Surprisingly, only male offspring were affected by these combined autistic-like traits. Our results show for the first time that materno-fetal inflammatory response to GBS plays a role in the induction of placental and cerebral insults, remarkably recapitulating cardinal features of human autism such as gender dichotomy and neurobehavioral traits. Unlike other models of prenatal inflammatory brain damage (induced by viral/toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or Gram-negative/TLR4), maternal inflammation resulting from GBS/TLR2 interactions induced a distinctive pattern of chorioamnionitis and cerebral

  9. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianwei; Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A.; Skelly, John M.; Steiner, Kim C.; Savage, James E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g wv ), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N L ) to tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g wv , foliar injury, and N L (P 3 treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g wv due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g wv , N L , and higher foliar injury (P wv , and foliar injury to O 3 . Both VPD and N L had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O 3 -induced injury appeared when cumulative O 3 uptake reached 8-12 mmol m -2 , depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O 3 -induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O 3 risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  10. Attenuation of reactive gliosis does not affect infarct volume in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Järlestedt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Astroglial cells are activated following injury and up-regulate the expression of the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. Adult mice lacking the intermediate filament proteins GFAP and vimentin (GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- show attenuated reactive gliosis, reduced glial scar formation and improved regeneration of neuronal synapses after neurotrauma. GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- mice exhibit larger brain infarcts after middle cerebral artery occlusion suggesting protective role of reactive gliosis after adult focal brain ischemia. However, the role of astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis in the injured developing brain is unknown.We subjected GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- and wild-type mice to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI at postnatal day 9 (P9. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU; 25 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally twice daily from P9 to P12. On P12 and P31, the animals were perfused intracardially. Immunohistochemistry with MAP-2, BrdU, NeuN, and S100 antibodies was performed on coronal sections. We found no difference in the hemisphere or infarct volume between GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- and wild-type mice at P12 and P31, i.e. 3 and 22 days after HI. At P31, the number of NeuN(+ neurons in the ischemic and contralateral hemisphere was comparable between GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- and wild-type mice. In wild-type mice, the number of S100(+ astrocytes was lower in the ipsilateral compared to contralateral hemisphere (65.0+/-50.1 vs. 85.6+/-34.0, p<0.05. In the GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- mice, the number of S100(+ astrocytes did not differ between the ischemic and contralateral hemisphere at P31. At P31, GFAP(-/-Vim(-/- mice showed an increase in NeuN(+BrdU(+ (surviving newly born neurons in the ischemic cortex compared to wild-type mice (6.7+/-7.7; n = 29 versus 2.9+/-3.6; n = 28, respectively, p<0.05, but a comparable number of S100(+BrdU(+ (surviving newly born astrocytes.Our results suggest that attenuation of reactive gliosis in the developing brain does not affect

  11. Rosiglitazone Affects Nitric Oxide Synthases and Improves Renal Outcome in a Rat Model of Severe Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Betz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nitric oxide (NO-signal transduction plays an important role in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. NO produced by endothelial NO-synthase (eNOS has protective functions whereas NO from inducible NO-synthase (iNOS induces impairment. Rosiglitazone (RGZ, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ agonist exerted beneficial effects after renal I/R injury, so we investigated whether this might be causally linked with NOS imbalance. Methods. RGZ (5 mg/kg was administered i.p. to SD-rats (f subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (60 min. Following 24 h of reperfusion, inulin- and PAH-clearance as well as PAH-net secretion were determined. Morphological alterations were graded by histopathological scoring. Plasma NOx-production was measured. eNOS and iNOS expression was analyzed by qPCR. Cleaved caspase 3 (CC3 was determined as an apoptosis indicator and ED1 as a marker of macrophage infiltration in renal tissue. Results. RGZ improves renal function after renal I/R injury (PAH-/inulin-clearance, PAH-net secretion and reduces histomorphological injury. Additionally, RGZ reduces NOx plasma levels, ED-1 positive cell infiltration and CC3 expression. iNOS-mRNA is reduced whereas eNOS-mRNA is increased by RGZ. Conclusion. RGZ has protective properties after severe renal I/R injury. Alterations of the NO pathway regarding eNOS and iNOS could be an explanation of the underlying mechanism of RGZ protection in renal I/R injury.

  12. On the positive correlation between the percentage of acute fracture of medial orbital wall and the degree of injury of affected medial rectus muscle by CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Wang Jue

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To study the correlation between the percentage of acute fracture of unilateral medial orbital wall and the degree of injury of medial rectus muscle on the same side and to explore the possibility of evaluating the degree of injury of medial rectus muscle according to the percentage of fracture of medial orbital wall on the same side undergoing examination and diagnosis of ocular trauma by use of CT scan. Method: To measure the span length of fracture of medial orbital wall, to calculate the fracture percentage, to measure the maximum widths of muscle belly of medial rectus muscle on affected and contralateral sides on CT images and to analyse statistically. Results: There is a significant positive correlation between the fracture percentage of medial orbital wall and the increase in amplitude of width of medial rectus muscle on the same side. Conclusion: The injury of medial rectus muscle was aggravated by the greater percentage of fracture of medial orbital wall, which could be used to assess the degree of injury of medial rectus muscle suffering fracture of lamina orbitalis.

  13. Ergonomics and Beyond: Understanding How Chemical and Heat Exposures and Physical Exertions at Work Affect Functional Ability, Injury, and Long-Term Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Shipp, Eva M; Trueblood, Amber B; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    To honor Tom Waters's work on emerging occupational health issues, we review the literature on physical along with chemical exposures and their impact on functional outcomes. Many occupations present the opportunity for exposure to multiple hazardous exposures, including both physical and chemical factors. However, little is known about how these different factors affect functional ability and injury. The goal of this review is to examine the relationships between these exposures, impairment of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems, functional outcomes, and health problems with a focus on acute injury. Literature was identified using online databases, including PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Google Scholar. References from included articles were searched for additional relevant articles. This review documented the limited existing literature that discussed cognitive impairment and functional disorders via neurotoxicity for physical exposures (heat and repetitive loading) and chemical exposures (pesticides, volatile organic compounds [VOCs], and heavy metals). This review supports that workers are exposed to physical and chemical exposures that are associated with negative health effects, including functional impairment and injury. Innovation in exposure assessment with respect to quantifying the joint exposure to these different exposures is especially needed for developing risk assessment models and, ultimately, preventive measures. Along with physical exposures, chemical exposures need to be considered, alone and in combination, in assessing functional ability and occupationally related injuries. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Uncovering the neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive, affective and conative theory of mind in paediatric traumatic brain injury: a neural systems perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Beare, Richard; Silk, Timothy J; Hearps, Stephen J; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Yeates, Keith O; Anderson, Vicki A

    2017-09-01

    Deficits in theory of mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of paediatric traumatic brain injury on grey-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN). We also evaluated prospective structure-function relationships between these large-scale neural networks and cognitive, affective and conative ToM. 3D T1- weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were acquired sub-acutely in 137 children [TBI: n = 103; typically developing (TD) children: n = 34]. All children were assessed on measures of ToM at 24-months post-injury. Children with severe TBI showed sub-acute volumetric reductions in the CCMN, SN, MNEN, CEN and DMN, as well as reduced grey-matter volumes of several hub regions of these neural networks. Volumetric reductions in the CCMN and several of its hub regions, including the cerebellum, predicted poorer cognitive ToM. In contrast, poorer affective and conative ToM were predicted by volumetric reductions in the SN and MNEN, respectively. Overall, results suggest that cognitive, affective and conative ToM may be prospectively predicted by individual differences in structure of different neural systems-the CCMN, SN and MNEN, respectively. The prospective relationship between cerebellar volume and cognitive ToM outcomes is a novel finding in our paediatric brain injury sample and suggests that the cerebellum may play a role in the neural networks important for ToM. These findings are

  15. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Marcus Schaub; Jonathan A. Ferdinand; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; James E. Savage

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gwv), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (NL) to tropospheric ozone (O3) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top...

  16. Factors affecting hospital length of stay and hospital charges associated with road traffic-related injuries in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a substantial cause of mortality and disability globally. There is little published information regarding healthcare resource utilization following RTIs, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to assess total hospital charges and length of stay (LOS) associated with RTIs in Iran and to explore the association with patients’ socio-demographic characteristics, insurance status and injury-related factors (e.g. type of road users and safety equipment). Method The study was based on the Iranian National Trauma Registry Database (INTRD), which includes data from 14 general hospitals in eight major cities in Iran, for the years 2000 to 2004. 8,356 patients with RTI admitted to the hospitals were included in the current study. The variables extracted for the analysis included total hospital charges and length of stay, age, gender, socio-economic and insurance status, injury characteristics, medical outcome and use of safety equipment among the patients. Univariable analysis using non-parametric methods and multivariable regression analysis were performed to identify the factors associated with total hospital charges and LOS. Results The mean hospital charges for the patients were 1,115,819 IRR (SD=1,831,647 IRR, US$128 ± US$210). The mean LOS for the patients was 6.8 (SD =8 days). Older age, being a bicycle rider, higher injury severity and longer LOS were associated with higher hospital charges. Longer LOS was associated with being male, having lower education level, having a medical insurance, being pedestrian or motorcyclist, being a blue-collar worker and having more severe injuries. The reported use of safety equipment was very low and did not have significant effect on the hospital charges and LOS. Conclusion The study demonstrated that the hospital charges and LOS associated with RTI varied by age, gender, socio-economic status, insurance status, injury characteristics and

  17. Does timing of transplantation of neural stem cells following spinal cord injury affect outcomes in an animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivan; Park, Don Y; Mayle, Robert E; Githens, Michael; Smith, Robert L; Park, Howard Y; Hu, Serena S; Alamin, Todd F; Wood, Kirkham B; Kharazi, Alexander I

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported that functional recovery of rats with spinal cord contusions can occur after acute transplantation of neural stem cells distal to the site of injury. To investigate the effects of timing of administration of human neural stem cell (hNSC) distal to the site of spinal cord injury on functional outcomes in an animal model. Thirty-six adult female Long-Evans hooded rats were randomized into three experimental and three control groups with six animals in each group. The T10 level was exposed via posterior laminectomy, and a moderate spinal cord contusion was induced by the Multicenter Animal Spinal Cord Injury Study Impactor (MASCIS, W.M. Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Piscataway, NJ, USA). The animals received either an intrathecal injection of hNSCs or control media through a separate distal laminotomy immediately, one week or four weeks after the induced spinal cord injury. Observers were blinded to the interventions. Functional assessment was measured immediately after injury and weekly using the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating score. A statistically significant functional improvement was seen in all three time groups when compared to their controls (acute, mean 9.2 vs. 4.5, P=0.016; subacute, mean 11.1 vs. 6.8, P=0.042; chronic, mean 11.3 vs. 5.8, P=0.035). Although there was no significant difference in the final BBB scores comparing the groups that received hNSCs, the group which achieved the greatest improvement from the time of cell injection was the subacute group (+10.3) and was significantly greater than the chronic group (+5.1, P=0.02). The distal intrathecal transplantation of hNSCs into the contused spinal cord of a rat led to significant functional recovery of the spinal cord when injected in the acute, subacute and chronic phases of spinal cord injury (SCI), although the greatest gains appeared to be in the subacute timing group.

  18. Genetic ablation of soluble TNF does not affect lesion size and functional recovery after moderate spinal cord injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellman, Ditte Gry; Degn, Matilda; Lund, Minna C.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is followed by an instant increase in expression of the microglial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) within the lesioned cord. TNF exists both as membrane-anchored TNF (mTNF) and as cleaved soluble TNF (solTNF). We previously demonstra......, and MHCII), lesion size, and functional outcome after moderate SCI were comparable between genotypes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that genetic ablation of solTNF does not significantly modulate postlesion outcome after SCI....

  19. Verbal Instructions Acutely Affect Drop Vertical Jump Biomechanics--Implications for Athletic Performance and Injury Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Steven; Musalem, Lindsay L; Beach, Tyson A C

    2015-10-01

    Biomechanical quantities acquired during the drop vertical jump (DVJ) are used in the assessment of athletic performance and injury risk. The objective was to examine the impact of different verbal instructions on spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic variables commonly included in such assessments. Ten men and 10 women from local varsity and club volleyball, basketball, figure skating, and track and field teams volunteered to participate. The athletes performed DVJs after given instructions to minimize ground contact time (CT), maximize jump height (HT), and synchronously extend the lower extremity joints (EX). Between the CT, HT, and EX conditions, body segment and joint angles were compared together with characteristics of vertical ground reaction force (GRF), whole-body power output, stiffness, and center-of-mass displacement time histories. Verbal instructions were found to influence nearly all of the spatiotemporal, body segment and joint kinematic, and kinetic variables that were statistically analyzed. Particularly noteworthy was the finding that athletic performance indices (e.g., jump height, power output, vertical stiffness, and reactive strength index) and lower extremity injury risk markers (e.g., peak vertical GRF and frontal plane knee angle) were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between the CT, HT, and EX conditions. The findings of this study suggest that verbal instructions should be controlled and/or clearly documented when using the DVJ to assess athletic performance potential and injury risk. Moreover, practitioners who devise performance enhancement and injury prevention strategies based on DVJ assessments are advised to consider that "coaching" or "cueing" during the task execution could impact conclusions drawn.

  20. Botulinum Toxin B Affects Neuropathic Pain but Not Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Finocchiaro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical use of neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum is well established and is continuously expanding, including in treatment of pain conditions. Background: The serotype A (BoNT/A has been widely investigated, and current data demonstrate that it induces analgesia and modulates nociceptive processing initiated by inflammation or nerve injury. Given that data concerning the serotype B (BoNT/B are limited, the aim of the present study was to verify if also BoNT/B is able not only to counteract neuropathic pain, but also to interfere with inflammatory and regenerative processes associated with the nerve injury. Methods: As model of neuropathic pain, chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve was performed in CD1 male mice. Mice were intraplantarly injected with saline (control or BoNT/B (5 or 7.5 pg/mouse into the injured hindpaw. For comparison, another mouse group was injected with BoNT/A (15 pg/mouse. Mechanical allodynia and functional recovery of the injured paw was followed for 101 days. Spinal cords and sciatic nerves were collected at day 7 for immunohistochemistry. Results and Conclusions: The results of this study show that BoNT/B is a powerful biological molecule that, similarly to BoNT/A, can reduce neuropathic pain over a long period of time. However, the analgesic effects are not associated with an improvement in functional recovery, clearly highlighting an important difference between the two serotypes for the treatment of this chronic pain state.

  1. Botulinum Toxin B Affects Neuropathic Pain but Not Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Alba; Marinelli, Sara; De Angelis, Federica; Vacca, Valentina; Pavone, Flaminia

    2018-01-01

    Clinical use of neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum is well established and is continuously expanding, including in treatment of pain conditions. Background: The serotype A (BoNT/A) has been widely investigated, and current data demonstrate that it induces analgesia and modulates nociceptive processing initiated by inflammation or nerve injury. Given that data concerning the serotype B (BoNT/B) are limited, the aim of the present study was to verify if also BoNT/B is able not only to counteract neuropathic pain, but also to interfere with inflammatory and regenerative processes associated with the nerve injury. Methods: As model of neuropathic pain, chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was performed in CD1 male mice. Mice were intraplantarly injected with saline (control) or BoNT/B (5 or 7.5 pg/mouse) into the injured hindpaw. For comparison, another mouse group was injected with BoNT/A (15 pg/mouse). Mechanical allodynia and functional recovery of the injured paw was followed for 101 days. Spinal cords and sciatic nerves were collected at day 7 for immunohistochemistry. Results and Conclusions: The results of this study show that BoNT/B is a powerful biological molecule that, similarly to BoNT/A, can reduce neuropathic pain over a long period of time. However, the analgesic effects are not associated with an improvement in functional recovery, clearly highlighting an important difference between the two serotypes for the treatment of this chronic pain state. PMID:29562640

  2. High Fat Diets Sex-Specifically Affect the Renal Transcriptome and Program Obesity, Kidney Injury, and Hypertension in the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ju; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-04-03

    Obesity and related disorders have increased concurrently with an increased consumption of saturated fatty acids. We examined whether post-weaning high fat (HF) diet would exacerbate offspring vulnerability to maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension and kidney disease sex-specifically, with a focus on the kidney. Next, we aimed to elucidate the gene-diet interactions that contribute to maternal HF-induced renal programming using the next generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND) or HF diet (D12331, Research Diets) for five weeks before the delivery. The offspring of both sexes were put on either the ND or HF diet from weaning to six months of age, resulting in four groups of each sex (maternal diet/post-weaning diet; n = 5-7/group): ND/ND, ND/HF, HF/ND, and HF/HF. Post-weaning HF diet increased bodyweights of both ND/HF and HF/HF animals from three to six months only in males. Post-weaning HF diet increased systolic blood pressure in male and female offspring, irrespective of whether they were exposed to maternal HF or not. Male HF/HF offspring showed greater degrees of glomerular and tubular injury compared to the ND/ND group. Our NGS data showed that maternal HF diet significantly altered renal transcriptome with female offspring being more HF-sensitive. HF diet induced hypertension and renal injury are associated with oxidative stress, activation of renin-angiotensin system, and dysregulated sodium transporters and circadian clock. Post-weaning HF diet sex-specifically exacerbates the development of obesity, kidney injury, but not hypertension programmed by maternal HF intake. Better understanding of the sex-dependent mechanisms that underlie HF-induced renal programming will help develop a novel personalized dietary intervention to prevent obesity and related disorders.

  3. Cutaneous microvascular perfusion responses to insulin iontophoresis are differentially affected by insulin resistance after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Azarelo, Frank; Hobson, Joshua C; Tascione, Oriana; Swonger, Kirsten N; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor; Bauman, William A

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What impact does insulin resistance have on cutaneous perfusion responses to insulin iontophoresis in vascular beds with markedly reduced or functionally ablated sympathetic nervous system vasomotor function resulting from spinal cord injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Persons with spinal cord injury have sublesional microvascular endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by a blunted cutaneous perfusion response to acetylcholine iontophoresis, and the presence of insulin resistance has a further confounding effect on endothelium-mediated changes to cutaneous perfusion in the lower extremities. Endothelium-mediated mechanisms that regulate skin blood flow might play an integral role in optimizing skin perfusion in vascular beds with sympathetic nervous system vasomotor impairment, such as in spinal cord injury (SCI). Insulin is a vasoactive hormone and second messenger of nitric oxide that facilitates endothelium-mediated dilatation. The effects of insulin resistance (IR) on sublesional cutaneous perfusion responses to insulin provocation have yet to be described in persons with SCI. Persons with SCI and an able-bodied (AB) cohort were divided into subgroups based upon fasting plasma insulin concentration cut-offs for IR (≥13.13 mIU ml -1 ) or insulin sensitivity (IS; insulin, acetylcholine or placebo iontophoresis in the lower extremities; BPU responses were log 10 transformed to facilitate comparisons, and the net insulin response (NetIns) BPU response was calculated (insulin minus placebo BPU response). The NetIns was significantly greater in both IS groups compared with their corresponding IR group. The acetylcholine-mediated BPU responses in the SCI subgroups were significantly lower than those in the ABIS group. The proportional BPU responses of NetIns to acetylcholine in the IS cohorts (i.e. ABIS and SCIS) were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that of each IR subgroup. The presence of IR

  4. Metaplasticity and behavior: how training and inflammation affect plastic potential within the spinal cord and recovery after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, James W.; Huie, J. Russell; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Huang, Yung-Jen; Turtle, Joel D.; Strain, Misty M.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Miranda, Rajesh M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Ferguson, Adam R.; Garraway, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that spinal circuits have the capacity to adapt in response to training, nociceptive stimulation and peripheral inflammation. These changes in neural function are mediated by physiological and neurochemical systems analogous to those that support plasticity within the hippocampus (e.g., long-term potentiation and the NMDA receptor). As observed in the hippocampus, engaging spinal circuits can have a lasting impact on plastic potential, enabling or inhibiting the capacity to learn. These effects are related to the concept of metaplasticity. Behavioral paradigms are described that induce metaplastic effects within the spinal cord. Uncontrollable/unpredictable stimulation, and peripheral inflammation, induce a form of maladaptive plasticity that inhibits spinal learning. Conversely, exposure to controllable or predictable stimulation engages a form of adaptive plasticity that counters these maladaptive effects and enables learning. Adaptive plasticity is tied to an up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Maladaptive plasticity is linked to processes that involve kappa opioids, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor, glia, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Uncontrollable nociceptive stimulation also impairs recovery after a spinal contusion injury and fosters the development of pain (allodynia). These adverse effects are related to an up-regulation of TNF and a down-regulation of BDNF and its receptor (TrkB). In the absence of injury, brain systems quell the sensitization of spinal circuits through descending serotonergic fibers and the serotonin 1A (5HT 1A) receptor. This protective effect is blocked by surgical anesthesia. Disconnected from the brain, intracellular Cl- concentrations increase (due to a down-regulation of the cotransporter KCC2), which causes GABA to have an excitatory effect. It is suggested that BDNF has a restorative effect because it up-regulates KCC2 and re-establishes GABA-mediated inhibition

  5. A Double Blind Trial of Divalproex Sodium for Affective Liability and Alcohol Use Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    and tolerance issues and do not appear to address specific causes of affective lability. To complicate matters clinically, the PI saw many cases in...that interrupted or prevented normal functioning at work or in family life, often leading to broken marriages, job losses, occasionally to homelessness

  6. Measuring positive affect and well-being after spinal cord injury: Development and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Positive Affect and Well-being bank and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Hilary; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an item response theory (IRT)-calibrated spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific Positive Affect and Well-being (PAWB) item bank with flexible options for administration. Qualitative feedback from patient and provider focus groups was used to expand on the Neurological Disorders and Quality of Life (Neuro-QOL) positive affect & well-being item bank for use in SCI. New items were created and revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis, graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 32-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the PAWB questions. A unidimensional model was observed (Confirmatory Fit Index=0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.094) and measurement precision was good (reliability in theta of -2.9 to 1.2 is roughly equivalent to classical reliability of 0.95 or above). Twelve items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes, the DIF was determined to be negligible and would have little practical impact on score estimates. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 28 retained items This study indicates that the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life PAWB bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and a computer adaptive test is available.

  7. Genetic Ablation of Soluble TNF Does Not Affect Lesion Size and Functional Recovery after Moderate Spinal Cord Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte Gry Ellman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is followed by an instant increase in expression of the microglial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF within the lesioned cord. TNF exists both as membrane-anchored TNF (mTNF and as cleaved soluble TNF (solTNF. We previously demonstrated that epidural administration of a dominant-negative inhibitor of solTNF, XPro1595, to the contused spinal cord resulted in changes in Iba1 protein expression in microglia/macrophages, decreased lesion volume, and improved locomotor function. Here, we extend our studies using mice expressing mTNF, but no solTNF (mTNFΔ/Δ, to study the effect of genetic ablation of solTNF on SCI. We demonstrate that TNF levels were significantly decreased within the lesioned spinal cord 3 days after SCI in mTNFΔ/Δ mice compared to littermates. This decrease did, however, not translate into significant changes in other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-5, IL-2, CXCL1, CCL2, or CCL5, despite a tendency towards increased IL-10 and decreased IL-1β, TNFR1, and TNFR2 levels in mTNFΔ/Δ mice. In addition, microglial and leukocyte infiltration, activation state (Iba1, CD11b, CD11c, CD45, and MHCII, lesion size, and functional outcome after moderate SCI were comparable between genotypes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that genetic ablation of solTNF does not significantly modulate postlesion outcome after SCI.

  8. Statistical analysis of factors affecting re-operative times in paediatric patients with scar deformity after deep second-degree burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Yue, Xiaotong; Zhang, Ruijuan; Song, Huifeng

    2018-03-30

    Deep second-degree burn injuries pose a challenge for treating scar deformity in developing paediatric patients. Some patients underwent several re-operations during their development. There was no literature reporting which factors affect re-operative times. In this article, we intend to analyse possible influential factors that are responsible for re-operative times in paediatric patients with scar deformity after deep second-degree burn injuries. From 2010 to 2016, 177 paediatric cases with a history of deep second-degree burn injury who underwent re-operation once, twice, and equal to or more than thrice were recruited to this study, with age ranging from 0 to 18 years. The following factors were analysed: age, gender, size of scar, method for reconstruction, location, postoperative anti-scar treatment, preschool group, school group, combined deformity, and combined method for reconstruction. One-way ANOVA and multi-way ANOVA analysis were used as statistical tools to analyse the above factors and re-operative times. There were 83 male cases and 94 female cases, with an average age of 7.47 years. Statistical significance was achieved for the size of scar (P = 0.000), operation method (P = 0.001), and combined deformity (P = 0.026) under 1-way ANOVA in different re-operative times. The operation methods for the head and neck area (P factors for multi-factor variance analysis in different re-operative times. Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that the size of scar was an independent risk factor for the number of operations. Combined operative method was a protective risk factor for the number of operations. There was no statistical significance obtained for other factors. Size of scar, operation method, and combined operation method are the risk factors for re-operative times, while operation methods for the head and neck area and lower extremities are the critical factors for re-operative times. We can use the combined

  9. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries' severity (P factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents' severity in large construction industries.

  10. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hits since January 2003 RADIATION INJURY TO THE BRAIN Radiation treatments affect all cells that are targeted. ... fractions, duration of therapy, and volume of [healthy brain] nervous tissue irradiated influence the likelihood of injury. ...

  11. Effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee on bone mineral density of the spine and affected lower extremity: a prospective one-year follow-Up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Pasanen, M; Sievänen, H; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this 1-year prospective follow-up study was to assess, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the effect of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury of the knee on areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the injured extremity and lumbar spine in two separate patient groups: 21 surgically treated patients (group A) and 12 conservatively treated patients (group B). Clinical and functional status of the patients and BMD of the spine (L2-L4), dominant distal radius, femoral neck, trochanter area of the femur, distal femur, patella, proximal tibia, and calcaneus of both lower extremities were determined at the time of the injury and after 4, 8, and 12 months. A surgically treated, complete ACL rupture (group A) resulted in considerable and statistically significant bone loss to the affected knee (distal femur 21%, patella 17%, proximal tibia 14%; P < 0.001 in each), whereas the other sites were clearly less affected. Patients with a conservatively treated, complete or partial ACL injury (group B) had only a small but statistically significant bone loss at the patella (-3%; P = 0.005) and proximal tibia (-2%; P = 0.022) of the injured knee, and the other sites remained unchanged. The obvious differences between the groups A and B in the severity of the injury itself (complete or partial tear), its treatment (surgical or conservative), and subsequent rehabilitation (longer nonweight-bearing times in group A) explain these different BMD results, and the forthcoming years will show whether the considerable posttraumatic osteoporosis in the affected knee of group A patients will finally recover, and if so, to what extent.

  12. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  13. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Brouwer, Reinoud W.; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often

  14. Factors Affecting Volume Changes of the Somatosensory Cortex in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: To Be Considered for Future Neuroprosthetic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Tadzic, Arijan; Thomschewski, Aljoscha C; Höller, Peter; Leis, Stefan; Tomasi, Santino Ottavio; Hofer, Christoph; Bathke, Arne; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe chronic disability, but also to secondary adaptive changes upstream to the injury in the brain which are most likely induced due to the lack of afferent information. These neuroplastic changes are a potential target for innovative therapies such as neuroprostheses, e.g., by stimulation in order to evoke sensation or in order to suppress phantom limb pain. Diverging results on gray matter atrophy have been reported in patients with SCI. Detectability of atrophy seems to depend on the selection of the regions of interest, while whole-brain approaches are not sensitive enough. In this study, we discussed previous research approaches and analyzed differential atrophic changes in incomplete SCI using manual segmentation of the somatosensory cortex. Patients with incomplete SCI (ASIA C-D), with cervical (N = 5) and thoracic (N = 6) injury were included. Time since injury was ≤12 months in 7 patients, and 144, 152, 216, and 312 months in the other patients. Age at the injury was ≤26 years in 4 patients and ≥50 years in 7 patients. A sample of 12 healthy controls was included in the study. In contrast to all previous studies that used voxel-based morphometry, we performed manual segmentation of the somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus from structural magnetic resonance images and normalized the calculated volumes against the sum of volumes of an automated whole-head segmentation. Volumes were smaller in patients than in controls ( p  = 0.011), and as a tendency, female patients had smaller volumes than male patients ( p  = 0.017, uncorrected). No effects of duration (subacute vs. chronic), level of lesion (cervical vs. thoracic), region (left vs. right S1), and age at onset (≤26 vs. ≥50 years) was found. Our results demonstrate volume loss of S1 in incomplete SCI and encourage further research with larger sample sizes on volumetric changes in the acute and chronic stage of SCI, in order

  15. Embedded-structure template for electronic records affects patient note quality and management for emergency head injury patients: An observational pre and post comparison quality improvement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Tomohiro; Iwai, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Ryota; Gunshin, Masataka; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu

    2016-10-01

    Along with article-based checklists, structured template recording systems have been reported as useful to create more accurate clinical recording, but their contributions to the improvement of the quality of patient care have been controversial. An emergency department (ED) must manage many patients in a short time. Therefore, such a template might be especially useful, but few ED-based studies have examined such systems.A structured template produced according to widely used head injury guidelines was used by ED residents for head injury patients. The study was conducted by comparing each 6-month period before and after launching the system. The quality of the patient notes and factors recorded in the patient notes to support the head computed tomography (CT) performance were evaluated by medical students blinded to patient information.The subject patients were 188 and 177 in respective periods. The numbers of patient notes categorized as "CT indication cannot be determined" were significantly lower in the postintervention term (18% → 9.0%), which represents the patient note quality improvement. No difference was found in the rates of CT performance or CT skip without clearly recorded CT indication in the patient notes.The structured template functioned as a checklist to support residents in writing more appropriately recorded patient notes in the ED head injury patients. Such a template customized to each clinical condition can facilitate standardized patient management and can improve patient safety in the ED.

  16. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J A M; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often without appropriate control groups. We measured a broad array of neuromuscular functions between legs of ACL patients and compared outcomes to age, sex, and physical activity matched controls. Thirty-two ACL-deficient patients (208 ± 145 days post-injury) and active and less-active controls (N = 20 each) participated in the study. We measured single- and multi-joint neuromuscular function in both legs in each group and expressed the overall neuromuscular function in each leg by calculating a mean z-score across all neuromuscular measures. A group by leg MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to examine group and leg differences for the selected outcomes. After an ACL injury, duration (-4.3 h/week) and level (Tegner activity score of -3.9) of sports activity decreased and was comparable to less-active controls. ACL patients showed bilateral impairments in the star excursion balance test compared to both control groups (P ≤ 0.004) and for central activation ratio compared to active controls (P ≤ 0.002). There were between-leg differences within each group for maximal quadriceps and hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, star excursion balance test performance, and single-leg hop distance (all P quadriceps force accuracy and variability, knee joint proprioception, and static balance. Overall neuromuscular function (mean z-score) did not differ between groups, but ACL patients' non-injured leg displayed better neuromuscular function than the injured leg (P quadriceps activation, ACL patients had no bilateral neuromuscular deficits despite reductions in physical activity after injury. Therapists can use the non-injured leg as a reference to assess the

  17. Pre-injury neuro-psychiatric medication use, alone or in combination with cardiac medications, may affect outcomes in trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J R Wisler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent review of older (≥45-years-old patients admitted to our trauma center showed that more than one-third were using neuro-psychiatric medications (NPMs prior to their injury-related admission. Previously published data suggests that use of NPMs may increase patients′ risk and severity of injury. We sought to examine the impact of pre-injury NPM use on older trauma patients′ morbidity and mortality. Materials and Methods: Retrospective record review included medication regimen characteristics and NPM use (antidepressants-AD, antipsychotics-AP, anxiolytics-AA. Hospital morbidity, mortality, and 90-day survival were examined. Comparisons included regimens involving NPMs, further focusing on their interactions with various cardiac medications (beta blocker - BB; angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker - ACE/ARB; calcium channel blocker - CCB. Results: 712 patient records were reviewed (399 males, mean age 63.5 years, median ISS 8. 245 patients were taking at least 1 NPM: AD (158, AP (35, or AA (108 before injury. There was no effect of NPM monotherapy on hospital mortality. Patients taking ≥3 NPMs had significantly lower 90-day survival compared to patients taking ≤2 NPMs (81% for 3 or more NPMs, 95% for no NPMs, and 89% 1-2 NPMs, P < 0.01. Several AD-cardiac medication (CM combinations were associated with increased mortality compared to monotherapy with either agent (BB-AD 14.7% mortality versus 7.0% for AD monotherapy or 4.8% BB monotherapy, P < 0.05. Combinations of ACE/ARB-AA were associated with increased mortality compared to ACE/ARB monotherapy (11.5% vs 4.9, P = 0.04. Finally, ACE/ARB-AD co-administration had higher mortality than ACE/ARB monotherapy (13.5% vs 4.9%, P = 0.01. Conclusions: Large proportion of older trauma patients was using pre-injury NPMs. Several regimens involving NPMs and CMs were associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Additionally, use of ≥3 NPMs was

  18. Injuries in Rugby Union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Gibson, T

    In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.

  19. Crosstalk between macrophages and astrocytes affects proliferation, reactive phenotype and inflammatory response, suggesting a role during reactive gliosis following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, Niels; Zhu, Bangfu; Wang, Jian; Wei, Xiaoqing; Song, Bing

    2015-05-30

    Large-scale macrophage infiltration and reactive astrogliosis are hallmarks of early spinal cord injury (SCI) pathology. The exact nature of the macrophage response and relationship between these phenomena have not been explored in detail. Here, we have investigated these responses using a combination of in vivo SCI models, organotypic and primary cultures. In vivo macrophage response was investigated using a contusive injury mouse model. Interactions between astrocytes and macrophages were studied in primary or organotypic cultures. Proliferation was assessed though MTT assay and nucleotide incorporation and gene expression changes through qPCR. Seven days following contusive SCI, a mixed M1/M2 macrophage response was seen in the injury site. Conditioned medium from primary M1, but not M2, macrophages are able to induce astrocyte proliferation in both organotypic spinal cord cultures and primary astrocytes. Soluble factors from M1 macrophages induce a reactive astrocyte gene expression pattern, whereas M2 factors inhibit expression of these genes. M2-stimulated astrocytes are also able to decrease both M1 and M2 macrophage proliferation and decrease TNFα production in M1 macrophages. These results suggest a strong role of M1 macrophages in inducing reactive astrogliosis and the existence of an astrocyte-mediated negative feedback system in order to dampen the immune response. These results, combined with the poor outcomes of the current immunosuppressive steroid treatments in SCI, indicate the need for more targeted therapies, taking into account the significantly different effects of M1 and M2 macrophages, in order to optimise outcome.

  20. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  1. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  2. Aetiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common cause of injury accounting for 49.2% of patients. Scalp injuries, cerebral concussion and skull fractures were the most common type of head injuries. Fifty-six (21.5%) patients had associated injuries of which musculoskeletal region (36.1%) was commonly affected.

  3. Age, sex, and socio-economic status affect the incidence of pediatric spinal cord injury: an eleven-year national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chien Chien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies focus on pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI and there is little information regarding the cause, anatomic level, and high risk population of SCI in children. This study aims to investigate the incidence and risk factors of pediatric SCI. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 8.7 million children aged<18 years in an 11-year period was analyzed for causes, age at injury, anatomic sites, disability, and familial socio-economic factors. Incidence rates and Cox regression analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 4949 SCI patients were analyzed. The incidence rates of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and other SCI were 4.06, 0.34, 0.75, and 0.85 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. The proportional composition of gender, age, and socio-economic status of SCI patients were significantly different than those of non-SCI patients (all p<0.001. Male children were significantly more likely to have SCI than females in both the cervical and the other SCI groups [Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 2.03 and 1.52; both p<0.001]. Young adults and teenagers were also significantly more likely to have SCI than pre-school age children in the cervical SCI (IRR = 28.55 and 10.50, both p<0.001 and other SCI groups (IRR = 18.8 and 7.47, both p<0.001. Children in families of lower socio-economic status were also significantly more likely to have SCI (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the pediatric population, the overall SCI incidence rate is 5.99 per 100,000 person-years, with traumatic cervical SCI accounting for the majority. The incidence rate increases abruptly in male teenagers. Gender, age, and socio-economic status are independent risk factors that should be considered.

  4. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  5. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  6. Tooth injury in anaesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Miguel Brandão Ribeiro; Mourão, Joana Irene de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Tooth injury in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Brandão Ribeiro de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. CONTENTS: In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. CONCLUSIONS: Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient.

  8. [Tooth injury in anaesthesiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão Ribeiro de Sousa, José Miguel; de Barros Mourão, Joana Irene

    2015-01-01

    Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlle...

  10. Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with plumbagin alleviates spinal cord injury by affecting oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wencheng; Yang, Yan; Yang, Jian-Yi; Liang, Ming; Song, Jiangtao

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect exerted by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in combination with plumbagin on spinal cord injury (SCI) and explore the mechanism behind this protective effect. Firstly, BMSCs were extracted from male Sprague-Dawley rats, cultured in vitro, and identified by hematoxylin. Sprague-Dawley rats were then randomly divided into a control group, SCI model group, BMSC-treated group, a plumbagin-treated group, and a BMSC and plumbagin-treated group. After treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin, a Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test was carried out and the spinal cord water content was examined in order to analyze the effect of BMSCs combined with plumbagin on SCI. The myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were also detected. Moreover, nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p-)Akt, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) protein expression levels were measured using western blot analysis. Treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin significantly improved locomotor recovery and reduced the spinal cord water content after SCI. The increased MPO, MDA, NF-κB p65 and TNF-α levels were significantly suppressed and the decreased SOD was significantly increased in SCI rats. The suppression of Nrf2, p-Akt and p-ERK, as well as the promotion of p-p38 MAPK, were reversed by treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin. These effects suggest that treatment with BMSCs combined with plumbagin alleviates SCI through its effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptotis and activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  11. Pedestrian traffic injuries among school children in Kawempe, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traffic injuries are an important problem in low income countries. In Uganda road traffic is the largest single cause of injury in Kampala; pedestrians, and children are most affected. Pedestrian injury affects school children in Uganda. Objective: To determine the overall risk of pedestrian traffic injury among ...

  12. Does the Length of Disability between Injury and Functional Restoration Program Entry Affect Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Chronic Disabling Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Sali; Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Functional restoration programs (FRPs), for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs), have consistently demonstrated positive socioeconomic treatment outcomes, including decreased psychosocial distress and increased work return. The pre-treatment length of disability (LOD), or time between injury and treatment admission, has been shown to influence FRP work outcomes. Some studies have found that shorter LOD is associated with better work outcomes. However, few studies have actually examined cohorts with LOD duration longer than 18 months. This present study evaluated the effects of extended LOD (beyond 18 months) on important treatment outcomes. Methods A total cohort of 1413 CDOMD patients entered an FRP. Of those, 312 did not complete the program, so they were eliminated from outcome analyses. The 1101 patients who completed the FRP were classified based on LOD: Late Rehabilitation (LR, 3-6 months, n = 190); Chronic Disability (CD, 7-17 months, n = 494); and Late Chronic Disability (LCD). The LCD, in turn, consisted of four separate subgroups: 18-23 months (LCD-18, n = 110); 24-35 months (LCD-24, n = 123); 36-71 months (LCD-36, n = 74); and 72+ months (LCD-72, n = 110). Patients were evaluated upon admission and were reassessed at discharge. Those patients who chose to pursue work goals post-treatment (n = 912) were assessed 1-year later. Results Longer LOD was associated with less likelihood of completing the FRP (p disability group were receiving social security disability benefits. Associations were found between longer LOD and more severe patient-reported pain, disability, and depressive symptoms at treatment admission. At discharge, symptom severity decreased for these patient-reported variables in all LOD groups (p disability. Furthermore, long LOD was a significant predictor for work outcomes at 1 year following FRP discharge. Nevertheless, a large percentage of longer LOD (>24

  13. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  14. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  15. High voltage electrical injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the devastating nature and consequences of high voltage electrical injuries and to stress the need for its prevention. Design: It was a retrospective study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted at Army Burn Centre, Combined Military Hospital Kharian Cantonment, between January 1,1998 to December 31, 2000. Subjects and Methods: All the patients reporting to Army Burn Centre with high voltage electrical injuries were included in the study. The epidemiology of these injuries were studied along with the pattern of their management and outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity. Results: Of all the patients admitted to the Army Burn Center, 5.94% were affected with electrical injuries. They were predominantly males in a ratio of 9.75:1 and mostly in the 3rd and 4th decades of their lives. Seventy percent of these injuries were injuries were work-related and 75% had associated surface burns. There was significant mortality rate of 18.6% and a limb amputation rate of 80% along with professional disability rate of 91% rendering it a highly morbid condition. Conclusion: This study stresses the necessity to educate the general public with regard to the devastating nature of high voltage electrical injury and highlight the importance of prevention. (author)

  16. Arrow injuries to the eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gunshot injuries affecting the eyes are on the increase in Nigeria[3] and appear to be commoner than arrow injuries. Ancient literary, historical sources and paleopathological remains in the supposed tomb of King Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, showed he was seriously wounded in the right eye with an arrow during ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  19. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.

    2005-01-01

    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular

  20. Injury prevention in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, thei...

  1. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....

  2. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  3. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  4. 45 CFR 1308.16 - Eligibility criteria: Traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... child is classified as having traumatic brain injury whose brain injuries are caused by an external... adversely affect educational performance. The term includes children with open or closed head injuries, but does not include children with brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative or caused by birth...

  5. Mechanisms of sports injuries among professional footballers: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The articles revealed that the risk of injury in professional football is substantial; its prevalence astronomical and extremely severe. Injuries also affect performance in a negative way and teams that can avoid injuries have greater success as evaluated by their position in the league system. Prevention of injury in football is of ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  7. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  8. Dirt bikes injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, A A; Maxfield, D; Tran, S; Mclean, S; Kanlic, E M

    2013-12-01

    Dirt bike riding is becoming a more popular recreational activity among children. Injuries associated with this recreational activity did not gain attention in the medical literature. The purpose of this study is to assess orthopedic injuries associated with dirt bike riding. We retrospectively studied injuries occurring in children less than 18 years old, while riding dirt bikes, that required admission to the trauma department in our level one trauma center during the period 2000-2010. There were 24 admissions (23 patients). The mean age was 13. Fourteen patients had brain injuries. Six patients had abdominal injuries. One patient died shortly after arriving to the emergency department. Fourteen patients had face and neck injuries. The average injury severity score was 8.5. Thirteen patients' admissions (54 %) had orthopedic fractures. Five of 13 patients (38 %) suffered more than one fracture. Eight patients needed orthopedic intervention (seven of these were in operating room under general anesthesia and one in the emergency department under conscious sedation). Femur fracture was the most common cause for performing surgery in this group of patients. Riding dirt bikes is not a safe recreational activity. Orthopedic injuries constitute a major component of the injuries affecting children riding dirt bikes. Orthopedic surgeons (being responsible for treating most of these children) have the obligation to warn the community against the possible dangers facing children who ride dirt bikes.

  9. Injuries in extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer

    2017-04-18

    Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.

  10. [Forensic analysis of injuries in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Nóra; Baráth, Zoltán; Kereszty, Éva M

    2016-03-13

    Documentation and evaluation of dental injuries in forensic medicine are rather problematic. It needs a professional work up why dental injuries are out of focus, and how the diagnosis, pattern and treatment are influenced by novel approaches of dentistry. The aims of the authors were to characterize dental injuries, to compare their own findings to literature data concerning the type and characteristics of injuries, and propose a diagnostic workflow. Expert's reports between 2009 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Szeged were reviewed. Review of about 7000 reports revealed only 20 cases with dental injury, which is in contrast with literature data indicating a significantly higher frequency of dental injuries. Although the number of "dental cases" was low, there were several additional cases where the trauma probably affected the teeth but the injury was not documented. In future more attention is needed in forensic evaluation of the mechanism, therapeutic strategy and prognosis of dental injuries.

  11. Sports injuries in Plus League volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J

    2015-06-01

    Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic

  12. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...

  13. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...

  14. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  15. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  16. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  17. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  18. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...

  19. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...

  20. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Blunt intraabdominal arterial injury in pediatric trauma patients: injury distribution and markers of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Chad E; Groner, Jonathon I; Caniano, Donna A; Hayes, John R; Kenney, Brian D

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric blunt intraabdominal arterial injury is ill defined. We analyzed a multiinstitutional trauma database to better define injury patterns and predictors of outcome. The American College of Surgeons National Trauma Database was evaluated for all patients younger than 16 years with blunt intraabdominal arterial injury from 2000 to 2004. Injury distribution, operative treatment, and variables associated with mortality were considered. One hundred twelve intraabdominal arterial injuries were identified in 103 pediatric blunt trauma patients. Single arterial injury (92.2%) occurred most frequently: renal (36.9%), mesenteric (24.3%), and iliac (23.3%). Associated injuries were present in 96.1% of patients (abdominal visceral, 75.7%; major extraabdominal skeletal/visceral, 77.7%). Arterial control was obtained operatively (n = 46, 44.7%) or by endovascular means (n = 6, 5.8%) in 52 patients. Overall mortality was 15.5%. Increased mortality was associated with multiple arterial injuries (P = .049), intraabdominal venous injury (P = .011), head injury (P = .05), Glasgow Coma Score less than 8 (P cardiac arrest (P Trauma Score [P Injury Severity Score [P = .001], and TRISS [P = .002]). Blunt intraabdominal arterial injury in children usually affects a single vessel. Associated injuries appear to be nearly universal. The high mortality rate is influenced by serious associated injuries and is reflected by overall injury severity scores.

  2. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  3. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  4. Muscle injury is the principal injury type and hamstring muscle injury is the first injury diagnosis during top-level international athletics championships between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2016-05-01

    During top-level international athletics championships, muscle injuries are frequent. To analyse the incidence and characteristics of muscle injuries and hamstring muscle injuries (hamstring injuries) occurring during top-level international athletics championships. During 16 international championships held between 2007 and 2015, national medical team and local organising committee physicians reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form. Only muscle injuries (muscle tears and muscle cramps) and hamstring injuries have been analysed. 40.9% of all recorded injuries (n=720) were muscle injuries, with 57.5% of them resulting in time loss. The overall incidence of muscle injuries was higher in male athletes than female athletes (51.9±6.0 vs 30.3±5.0 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.45 to 2.01). Muscle injuries mainly affected the thigh (52.9%) and lower leg (20.1%), and were mostly caused by overuse with sudden onset (38.2%) and non-contact trauma (24.6%). Muscle injury risk varied according to the event groups. Hamstring injuries represented 17.1% of all injuries, with a higher risk in male compared to female athletes (22.4±3.4 vs 11.5±2.6 injuries per 1000 registered athletes, respectively; RR=1.94; 95% CI 1.42 to 2.66). During international athletics championships, muscle injury is the principal type of injury, and among those, the hamstring is the most commonly affected, with a two times higher risk in male than female athletes. Athletes in explosive power events, male athletes and older male athletes, in specific were more at risk of muscle injuries and hamstring injuries. Injury prevention strategies should be sex-specific. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. [Epidemiology of open globe injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framme, C; Roider, J

    1999-11-01

    Severe open globe injuries are frequent emergencies in an ophthalmologic clinic and required immediate operation. The extent of these injuries is various depending on the mechanism of the injury and involvement of ocular tissue. In many cases a full visual rehabilitation can be achieved but in a lot of cases blindness results. To prevent such severe eye injuries it is important to judge the leading injury mechanisms. For this we collected our data about open globe injuries. Retrospectively we collected the data from 103 consecutive patients in the year 1996 and 1997, presenting with an open globe eye injury followed by operation. The data contained personal patients data, information about mechanism of injury, visual acuity, operation and rehabilitation. Statistical analysis was performed using binomimal-test and t-test for paired and unpaired samples (p mechanics, electricians, or the locksmith were preferred). Pensioners were affected in 14.6% of all cases followed by small children (7.8%) and school children (7.8%). In 50% of all cases metal and glass were responsible for the trauma, explosions were noticed in 8.7%. An intraocular foreign body was found in 37.9%. In 62% of all cases no second operation was necessary. An enucleation during the follow-up was performed in 2 cases. At least a third of all severe eye injuries would have been preventable. Concerning the non-preventable injuries accidents at home and in children were predominating. The rate of the open globe injuries was 2.32 in 100.000 people, which is about the same like in US-American studies. Most of the injuries happened at home because of carelessness and would have been avoidable. The rate of injuries at the working place is significantly higher than in the USA but there were significantly more gun-shot-injuries or offensive accidents abroad. The rate of accidents at home and in traffic were the same. We think that public campaigns and prevention strategies can help to reduce the potential risk

  6. Urinary tract injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latacz, P.; Kluczewska, E.; Kuleta-Bosak, E.; Koszutski, T.; Tobiasz, K.

    2006-01-01

    As shown by literature data, abdominal trauma in children is responsible for 14% of deaths, whereas in adults for 10%. Although abdominal traumas in children can be severe and lead to massive blood loss, most children die because of accompanying traumas of the thorax and head. It validates the surgical rule concerning abdominal traumas 'investigate aggressively, manage conservatively'. Posttraumatic injury of the urinary system is not frequent in children and its specificity (compared with adults), depends on greater susceptibility to external aggressive factors. Blunt trauma is the cause of renal parenchyma injury and acceleration/deceleration injury affects the excretory system and vessels. Extension mechanism is the cause of ureter avulsion and/or thrombus formation in stretched renal vessels- it is characteristic in children with non-accidental traumas. Bladder and urethra injuries are rare in children. During car accidents, a rupture of full bladder (seat belt injury) or bladder perforation by fractured bones of the pelvis is possible. We analyzed all hospitalizations of abdominal trauma in our surgical ward in the year 2004 (70 cases). Renal injuries were found in 6 children (8.6%). Thanks to five-year clinical experience of our hospital, on the average only 1-2 cases per annum needed operation. The management of renal injuries involves first of all conservative treatment. This publication has educational character and may serve as a valuable reminder of the useful knowledge in daily cooperation between the emergency room, radiology department and surgical ward. Based on available literature from recent few years, we quote suggested renal injuries classifications and procedures.This publication contains only images from our department of radiology archives. Clinical symptoms are often not appropriate for blunt abdominal traumas diagnosis. Owing to clinical status, which is difficult to interpret, fast and complete radiological diagnosis is necessary for

  7. Basketball injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaca, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  8. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  9. Cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H

    2009-11-01

    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  12. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  16. Injury: necropsy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Almeida Rêgo de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to carry out an epidemiological research of trauma related deaths subjected to autopsy. Methods: a retrospective research was held through the analysis of 412 medical records related to traumatic deaths in 2014, subjected to autopsy at the Forensics Department of Itabuna, evaluating the following variables: gender, age, marital status, race, education, pre- hospital care, consequence of death, type of trauma, mechanism of injury, lesion topography, cause of death, day, time and city the incident took place. Data was divided into two groups: I penetrating trauma and II blunt injury. Results: The vast majority was male (93%, brown (95%, single (83%, with education up to elementary school (42% prevailing age group between 25 and 29 years of age (67 %, and death caused by homicide (62%. The most frequent type was penetrating trauma (61%, being the skull the most affected body region (65%. Intracranial hemorrhages were the main causes of death (30.8%. Injuries by firearms projectiles prevailed in group I, and automobile accidents in group II. Conclusion: the population most affected by deaths due to external causes in the city of Itabuna, Bahia, consists of young, brown, single men.

  17. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  18. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...

  19. Epidemiology of Nonfatal Injuries among Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Al-Awamreh, Khetam; Gharaibeh, Huda; Al-Kloub, Manal; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2016-01-01

    Nonfatal injuries are considered as one of the major public health hazards affecting schoolchildren, and the majority of these injuries occur at school or in the home. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 months, March-May 2015. The participants were 4,355 Jordanian schoolchildren in Grades 7-12. The Pearson ?[superscript 2]…

  20. Meniscus and ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, C.; Trumm, C.; Scheidler, J.; Heuck, A.

    2006-01-01

    The knee is one of the major weight-bearing joints and is relatively exposed to trauma. Capsuloligamentous structures are essential to provide joint stability and - in turn - persistent instability bears a risk for osteoarthritis that needs timely and comprehensive diagnosis. Using MRI it may be beneficial to routinely apply (T)SE sequences in all three major planes as a basic protocol and to add additional sequences according to the clinical information available and imaging findings in the basic protocol. Especially fat-suppressed sequences (STIR, T2w/PDw FS TSE) are very useful because they sensitively depict bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP)-like changes. This finding often alerts the reader to - sometimes only discrete - underlying pathologies and may - if found in typical locations - give information about the mechanism of injury and thus lead the radiologist to look for specific concomitant capsuloligamentous, cartilage, and/or meniscal injury. BMEP is quite prominent in contusion injury, whereas often it is but discrete in avulsion lesions. There is extensive literature about the signs, possible pitfalls, and the accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of specific pathologies such as meniscal tears or cruciate or collateral ligament ruptures. However, combined injuries of more than one structure are frequent and affect the therapeutic approach. Thus, the primary goal of the radiologist is to go beyond the description of any isolated lesion and to give a comprehensive description of (or to reliably exclude) any injury to other structures. A necessary prerequisite to accomplish this is a thorough knowledge of the - in some locations - complex anatomic relationships, pitfalls, and locations where lesions typically occur and where they may be overlooked. (orig.) [de

  1. Maxillofacial trauma - Underestimation of cervical spine injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Waldemar; Surov, Alexey; Eckert, Alexander Walter

    2016-09-01

    Undiagnosed cervical spine injury can have devastating results. The aim of this study was to analyse patients with primary maxillofacial trauma and a concomitant cervical spine injury. It is hypothetised that cervical spine injury is predictable in maxillofacial surgery. A monocentric clinical study was conducted over a 10-year period to analyse patients with primary maxillofacial and associated cervical spine injuries. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, specific trauma and treatments provided were reviewed. Additionally a search of relevant international literature was conducted in PubMed by terms "maxillofacial" AND "cervical spine" AND "injury". Of 3956 patients, n = 3732 (94.3%) suffered from craniomaxillofacial injuries only, n = 174 (4.4%) from cervical spine injuries only, and n = 50 (1.3%) from both craniomaxillofacial and cervical spine injuries. In this study cohort the most prevalent craniofacial injuries were: n = 41 (44%) midfacial and n = 21 (22.6%) skull base fractures. Cervical spine injuries primarily affected the upper cervical spine column: n = 39 (58.2%) vs. n = 28 (41.8%). Only in 3 of 50 cases (6%), the cervical spine injury was diagnosed coincidentally, and the cervical spine column was under immobilised. The operative treatment rate for maxillofacial injuries was 36% (n = 18), and for cervical spine injuries 20% (n = 10). The overall mortality rate was 8% (n = 4). The literature search yielded only 12 papers (11 retrospective and monocentric cohort studies) and is discussed before our own results. In cases of apparently isolated maxillofacial trauma, maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of a low but serious risk of underestimating an unstable cervical spine injury. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola-Saltzman M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mari Viola-Saltzman, Camelia Musleh Department of Neurology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder, fatigue

  3. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  4. Sports injuries surveillance during the 2007 IAAF World Athletics Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid; Renström, Per; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze all sports injuries incurred in competitions and/or training during the 2007 World Athletics Championships and to prove the feasibility of the injury surveillance system developed for the 2008 Olympic Games for individual sports. Prospective recording of injuries. 11 IAAF World Championships in Athletics 2007 in Osaka, Japan. All national team physicians and physiotherapists; Local Organising Committee (LOC) physicians working in the Medical Centres at the stadium and warm-up area. Frequency, characteristics, and incidence of injuries. 192 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 97 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. More than half of the injuries (56%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Eighty percent affected the lower extremity; the most common diagnosis was thigh strain (16%). In most cases, the injury was caused by overuse (44%). A quarter of the injuries were incurred during training and 137 (71%) in competition. On average, 72.4 injuries per 1000 competing athletes were incurred in competitions. The incidence of injury varied substantially among the disciplines. The risk of a time-loss injury was highest in heptathlon, women's 10,000 m, women's 3000 m steeplechase, decathlon, and men's marathon. The injury surveillance system proved feasible for individual sports. Risk of injury varied among the disciplines, with highest risk in combined disciplines, steeplechase, and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should mainly focus on overuse injuries and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries.

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Condition Information What is TBI? TBI ... external force that affects the functioning of the brain. It can be caused by a bump or ...

  6. Primary level management of eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakary Ceesay

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Eye injuries are common and a leading cause of preventable unilateral blindness worldwide. The causes vary, but drawing upon experience from The Gambia and Senegal, trauma is more common during the farming season and among small-scale metal workers working without eye protection. Stick injury is common in children and farmers, sometimes causing a penetrating injury that can result in the affected eye quickly becoming infected. Blunt trauma is common among children, who can be injured with a catapult or stone. The dusty environment is a common cause of corneal, conjunctival and sub-tarsal foreign bodies injuries.

  7. An overview of the management of muscle pain and injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport injuries and muscle pain can occur as a result of engagement in exercise and or organized sporting activities. These injuries affect all age groups and gender. The most common types of sporting activities known to cause these injuries include jogging, cycling, volleyball, swimming and heavy weight lifting. Lack of ...

  8. Geriatric injuries among patients attending a regional hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of injuries (81.9%) occurred at home. Pre-hospital care was recorded in 5.3% of cases. The musculoskeletal (72.3%) and head (66.0%) regions were commonly affected. Soft tissue injuries (wounds) (89.4%) and fractures (52.2%) were the most common type of injuries. The majority of patients (90.4%) ...

  9. Injury surveillance in a soccer tournament in Kenya | Onywera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The injuries recorded were those that either led to a temporary stoppage of the match or first aid attention to the affected player. The data was analysed and descriptively presented. Among other findings, it was established that most injuries, 44(43.14%) occurred in the preliminary phase of the tournament. Most injuries ...

  10. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  11. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  12. Returning to Work After Electrical Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiou-Kita, M.; Mansfield, E.; Bayley, M.

    2014-01-01

    were conducted with individuals who experienced an electrical injury at the workplace. Participants were recruited from specialized burns rehabilitation programs in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis used to analyze the qualitative interviews. Data regarding......, and responsibility for the injury; and 3) having to return to the workplace or worksite where the injury took place. The most beneficial supports identified by the injured workers included: 1) support from family, friends, and coworkers; and 2) the receipt of rehabilitation services specialized in electrical injury...... injuries to advocate on their behalf. Immediate and persistent physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and support factors can affect individuals' abilities to successfully return to work after an electrical injury. Specialized services and advocacy were viewed as beneficial to successful return to work....

  13. Injuries in male versus female soccer players: epidemiology of a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufty, S; Bollars, P; Vanlommel, L; Van Crombrugge, K; Corten, K; Bellemans, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse soccer injuries on a national scale over one decade and to compare injury rates by gender. Detailed injury data obtained from the Royal Belgian Football Association from seasons 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 were recorded and gender differences in incidences of injuries, type of injury, affected body part and timing of injury were compared. A significant decrease in injuries from 7.56 to 5.96 injuries per 100 players was seen (pplayers sustained more cont usions, fractures, joint dislocations and musculotendinous injuries than female players. Proportionally, females sustained more severe injuries than men (pinjuries where sustained during competition in both males and females. The number of injuries in male and female soccer players has decreased over the past decade. A higher injury rate was seen in men but proportionally, females sustained more severe injuries.

  14. Injuries in elite male kitesurfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseo Andreu-Cabrera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new extreme sport, kitesurf hasn’t received the kind of scientific scrutiny found with other more traditional sports. Currently, the pattern and rate of kiteboarding injuries are largely unclear. The objective was to identify common injury patterns as well as potential areas in which prevention measures might be instituted. A descriptive epidemiological study was designed and a retrospective questionnaire was performed on 38 elite kitesurfers taking part in the World Cup Fuerteventura 2008. The ankle is the part of the body most affected by injury p<0.01, whilst the Course Race category accounted for 68.4% of injuries, compared with 31.6% in the Freestyle category. Said injuries occurred more frequently when training (76.3%; p<0.01 than during competitions and acute injuries were the most common. These results show the need to establish new prevention methodologies, above all for the legs and specifically for the ankle area and in the Course Race category, as well as the use of foot protections

  15. Heat injury in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S W

    2010-01-01

    Heat injury is a potentially lethal condition that is considered to be completely preventable. Fatal heat injury is relatively rare (0.20 per 100 000 player-seasons in US high school football) and there are very limited data on non-fatal incidence. Expert recommendations for prevention include gradual acclimatisation of youth athletes to hot conditions, reductions in activity in hot and humid conditions, wearing light and light-coloured clothing, careful monitoring of athletes for signs of heat injury to facilitate immediate detection, having the resources to immediately and rapidly cool affected athletes, and education of athletes, care givers, and coaches about heat injury. Although a base of observational case data, physiological information, and expert opinion exists, the science surrounding this field is devoid of health communication and health behaviour research, and there is a pressing need for analytical studies to evaluate intervention programmes and/or identify new risk factors. There is also a need for ongoing data collection on heat injury incidence and on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards heat injury among youth athletes, their care givers and their coaches.

  16. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  18. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five ... Edited By: Shirley Dang Feb. 22, 2016 The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ...

  19. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  1. Wounds and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  3. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  4. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  6. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  13. MR imaging of rectus femoris origin injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Nelson, Erik; Torriani, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging findings of acute and chronic rectus femoris origin (RFO) injuries. A retrospective review of pelvic and hip MR imaging procedures was performed over a 4-year period for detection of cases with injuries to the RFO. Subjects were classified as having either acute or chronic symptoms. MR imaging studies, radiographs, CT scans, radiology reports, medical records, and operative notes were reviewed. Imaging analysis was directed to assess injuries affecting the direct and indirect heads of the RFO. Concurrent osseous, cartilaginous and musculotendinous injuries were tabulated. The incidence of RFO injuries on MR imaging was 0.5% (17/3160). With the exception of one case of anterior inferior iliac spine apophysis avulsion and partial tear of the direct head of RFO, all subjects had indirect head of RFO injuries (acute injury 8/9, chronic injury 8/8). Partial tear of the direct head of RFO was less frequently seen (acute injury 3/9, chronic injury 2/8). Partial tears of the conjoint tendon were least frequent (acute 1/9, chronic 2/8). No full-thickness tears of the RFO were noted. Associated labral tears were seen in only one case, with no other concomitant abnormality of the articular cartilage or surrounding soft tissues. All RFO injuries were treated non-operatively. Injuries of the RFO are uncommon on MR examinations of pelvis/hips and may occur in a sequence progressing from indirect head injury to involvement of direct head and conjoint tendon in more severe cases. (orig.)

  14. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412

  15. Characteristics of farm injuries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, D M; Petridou, E; Dessypris, N; Skenderis, N; Trichopoulos, D

    2003-08-01

    To assess the characteristics of occupational and leisure farm injuries in Greece. During a five-year period (1996-2000), 4,326 unintentional farm injuries have been recorded by the Emergency Department Injury Surveillance System in Greece. Data concerning demographic variables, accident conditions, and injury characteristics were collected by in person interviews. The data were analyzed by simple cross-tabulation and hierarchical cluster analysis. Injuries from falls on the same level are mainly lower-limb fractures and occur during the winter among older women. Falls from higher level concern migrant workers, who also tend to suffer severe multiple injuries, including concussions, particularly during autumn. Injuries resulting from cutting and piercing instruments, as well as from machinery, are generally open wounds in the upper-limbs, suffered by young migrant workers. Head injuries resulting from striking against an object are more generally spread across socio-demographic variables. Overexertion is the dominant mechanism for dislocations and sprains in the lower limbs. Snake and insect bites are common among younger migrant workers during summer, and they affect the upper limbs during manual work close to the ground. Non-traffic injuries from vehicles are frequently severe, involving head concussion of generally young individuals. In Greece, farm injuries are frequently serious and require hospitalization. These injuries show distinct patterns among older women (lower-limb fractures), young individuals (non-traffic vehicle-related injuries) and migrant workers (injuries from cutting and piercing instruments, falls from high level, and bites). Prevention strategies should give priority to these population groups. These prevention strategies should include guidance for poorly educated workers, including migrants, enforcement of safety regulations concerning farming machinery, and discouragement of risky farming activities among elderly individuals, particularly

  16. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, C.A.; Roy, T.O.; Whittaker, J.L.; Nettel-Aguirre, A.; van Mechelen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The

  17. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  18. Social functioning after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Nancy R; Corrigan, John D; Dikmen, Sureyya S; Machamer, Joan

    2009-01-01

    To determine the relationship between adult-onset traumatic brain injury (TBI) and social functioning including employment, social relationships, independent living, recreation, functional status, and quality of life 6 months or longer after injury. Not applicable. Systematic review of the published, peer-reviewed literature. Not applicable. Fourteen primary and 25 secondary studies were identified that allowed comparison to controls for adults who were at least 6 months post-TBI. TBI decreases the probability of employment after injury in those who were workers before their injury, lengthens the timing of their return if they do return to work, and decreases the likelihood that they will return to the same position. Those with moderate and severe TBI are clearly affected, but there was insufficient evidence of a relationship between unemployment and mild TBI. Penetrating head injury sustained in wartime is clearly associated with increased unemployment. TBI also adversely affects leisure and recreation, social relationships, functional status, quality of life, and independent living. Although there is a dose-response relationship between severity of injury and social outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to determine at what level of severity the adverse effects are demonstrated. TBI clearly has adverse effects on social functioning for adults. While some consequences might arise from injuries to other parts of the body, those with moderate to severe TBI have more impaired functioning than do those with other injuries alone.

  19. Apophyseal injuries in children's and youth sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Locher, Joel; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    The authors reviewed the current English literature regarding apophyseal injuries affecting young athletes, to highlight the frequency and characteristics of these injuries, to clarify risk factors and specific prevention measures, and to identify future research objectives. The authors performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature, using the Medline database, including all English articles. Various combinations of the Keywords 'injury', 'sports', 'athletic injuries', 'avulsion fractures', 'physeal', 'physis', 'apophysis', 'apophysitis', 'growth plate' were used. Growth benefits from a moderate physical activity. Growth deficit may occur in young athletes involved in intensive practice of sport following apophysitis. Apophyseal injuries occurring during sport are less common than overall rate of injuries affecting the adolescent population. Growth disturbance occurs only rarely after an apophyseal injury. Further studies should consider analytical as well as descriptive components of apophyseal injuries, to allow the identification of new possible risk factors and preventive measures and to help early detection and proper treatment as well. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Injuries and overuse syndromes in powerlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Röllinghoff, M; Schlegel, U J; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-09-01

    Powerlifting is a discipline of competitive weightlifting. To date, no investigations have focused on pain encountered during routine training. The aim of the study was to identify such pain, assign it to particular exercises and assess the data regarding injuries as well as the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Data of 245 competitive and elite powerlifters was collected by questionnaire. Information regarding current workout routines and retrospective injury data was collected. Study subjects were selected from 97 incorporated powerlifting clubs. A percentage of 43.3% of powerlifters complained of problems during routine workouts. Injury rate was calculated as 0.3 injuries per lifter per year (1 000 h of training=1 injury). There was no evidence that intrinsic or extrinsic factors affected this rate. Most commonly injured body regions were the shoulder, lower back and the knee. The use of weight belts increased the injury rate of the lumbar spine. Rate of injury to the upper extremities was significantly increased based on age >40 years (shoulder/p=0.003, elbow/p=0.003, hand+wrist/p=0.024) and female gender (hand+wrist/p=0.045). The daily workout of a large proportion of powerlifters is affected by disorders which do not require an interruption of training. The injury rate is low compared to other sports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Incidence and distribution of pediatric sport-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Caine, Caroline; Maffulli, Nicola

    2006-11-01

    To provide a critical review of the available literature on the descriptive epidemiology of pediatric sport-related injuries. MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and SPORTDiscus (1975 to 2006) were searched to identify potentially relevant articles. A combination of medical subject headings and text words was used (epidemiology, children, adolescents, athletic injuries, sports, injury, and injuries). Additional references from the bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Published research reports on the incidence and distribution of injury in children's and youth sports. Specific emphasis was placed on reviewing original studies, which report incidence rates (rate of injuries per unit athlete time). Forty-nine studies were selected for this review. Data summarized include incidence of injury relative to who is affected by injury (sport, participation level, gender, and player position), where injury occurs (anatomical and environmental location), when injury occurs (injury onset and chronometry), and injury outcome (injury type, time loss, clinical outcome, and economic cost). There is little epidemiological data on injuries for some pediatric sports. Many of the studies retrieved were characterized by methodological short-comings and study differences that limit interpretation and comparison of findings across studies. Notwithstanding, the studies reviewed are encouraging and injury patterns that should be studied further with more rigorous study designs to confirm original findings and to probe causes of injury and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Incidence and severity of injury are high in some child and youth sports. This review will assist in targeting the relevant groups and in designing future research on the epidemiology of pediatric sports injuries. Well-designed descriptive and analytical studies are needed to identify the public health impact of pediatric sport injury.

  2. Does the surgical approach for treating mandibular condylar fractures affect the rate of seventh cranial nerve injuries? A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a new classification for surgical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moraissi, Essam Ahmed; Louvrier, Aurélien; Colletti, Giacomo; Wolford, Larry M; Biglioli, Federico; Ragaey, Marwa; Meyer, Christophe; Ellis, Edward

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of facial nerve injury (FNI) when performing (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures by different surgical approaches. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed that included several databases with specific keywords, a reference search, and a manual search for suitable articles. The inclusion criteria were all clinical trials, with the aim of assessing the rate of facial nerve injuries when (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures was performed using different surgical approaches. The main outcome variable was transient facial nerve injury (TFNI) and permanent facial nerve injury (PFNI) according to the fracture levels, namely: condylar head fractures (CHFs), condylar neck fractures (CNFs), and condylar base fractures (CBFs). For studies where there was no delineation between CNFs and CBFs, the fractures were defined as CNFs/CBFs. The dependent variables were the surgical approaches. A total of 3873 patients enrolled in 96 studies were included in this analysis. TFNI rates reported in the literature were as follows: A) For the transoral approach: a) for strictly intraoral 0.72% (1.3 in CNFs and 0% for CBFs); b) for the transbuccal trocar instrumentation 2.7% (4.2% in CNFs and 0% for CBFs); and c) for endoscopically assisted ORIF 4.2% (5% in CNFs, and 4% in CBFs). B) For low submandibular approach 15.3% (26.1% for CNFs, 11.8% for CBFs, and 13.7% for CNFs/CBFs). C) For the high submandibular/angular subparotid approach with masseter transection 0% in CBFs. D) For the high submandibular/angular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 0% (CNFs and CBFs). E) For the transparotid retromandibular approach a) with nerve facial preparation 14.4% (23.9% in CNFs, 11.8% in CBFs and 13.7% for CNFs/CBFs); b) without facial nerve preparation 19% (24.3% for CNFs and 10.5% for CBFs). F) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 3.4% in CNFs/CBFs. G) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid

  3. MORAL INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Mildred

    2017-12-01

    The devastating effect on the self of moral injury, often a core component of trauma, occurring when one's actions have profoundly violated one's code of ethics, when one has been a victim of such violation, or when one has been a passive witness, has been extensively explored as it has occurred in veterans of the wars in Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan. Two examples illustrate its prevalence in civilian life. The literature shows violation of expected empathy from and for others, inherent in our nature, is more devastating than violation of the ethical code of our culture or sub-culture, adherence to which becomes urgent as our need emerges to belong to the culture or subculture of which we are a part, values which often contradict our innate sense of "what is right."

  4. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  5. Firearm injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Annest, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal firearm violence in the United States. Trends over two decades in homicide, assault, self-directed and unintentional firearm injuries are described along with current demographic characteristics of victimization and health impact. Fatal firearm injury data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Nonfatal firearm injury data were obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Trends were tested using Joinpoint regression analyses. CDC Cost of Injury modules were used to estimate costs associated with firearm deaths and injuries. More than 32,000 persons die and over 67,000 persons are injured by firearms each year. Case fatality rates are highest for self-harm related firearm injuries, followed by assault-related injuries. Males, racial/ethnic minority populations, and young Americans (with the exception of firearm suicide) are disproportionately affected. The severity of such injuries is distributed relatively evenly across outcomes from outpatient treatment to hospitalization to death. Firearm injuries result in over $48 billion in medical and work loss costs annually, particularly fatal firearm injuries. From 1993 to 1999, rates of firearm violence declined significantly. Declines were seen in both fatal and nonfatal firearm violence and across all types of intent. While unintentional firearm deaths continued to decline from 2000 to 2012, firearm suicides increased and nonfatal firearm assaults increased to their highest level since 1995. Firearm injuries are an important public health problem in the United States, contributing substantially each year to premature death, illness, and disability. Understanding the nature and impact of the problem is only a first step toward preventing firearm violence. A science-driven approach to understand risk and protective factors and identify effective solutions is key to achieving measurable reductions in firearm

  6. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  7. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  8. Patterns and trends in injuries due to chemicals based on OSHA occupational injury and illness statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, M. Sam; O'Connor, T. Michael; Keren, Nir

    2009-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provide the Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury (SOII) statistics from 1992 to 2006, which is often used to measure the rate of injuries and illness in industry. The present system of gathering and classifying this data was implemented in 1992 with minor changes in 2002. It is hoped that using these statistics to measure safety progress and determine patterns of injury will guide further improvements in chemical safety. Recognizing such factors as what chemicals most frequently cause injury can help to focus safety efforts regarding that chemical. Factors such as what part of the body is most commonly affected by particular chemicals can lead to improved personnel protection practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of injuries due to chemicals using OSHA's SOII data, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce injuries due to chemicals

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  10. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  11. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt Arend

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  13. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803

  14. Characteristics and contributing factors related to sports injuries in young volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo

    2013-10-14

    The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.

  15. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  16. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  17. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  18. Self-esteem and injury in competitive field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolt, G S; Roberts, P D

    1998-08-01

    A volunteer sample of 50 competitive field hockey players completed the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory at pre- and postseason and prospectively collected injury data over a 20-wk. season. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between scores on Self-esteem and the number of injuries, the participation time affected due to injury, and sex of players. Further multiple regression analysis showed that frequency of the more severe injuries significantly predicted scores on Self-esteem. This finding can be interpreted as evidence of the relationship between low self-esteem and injury in sport.

  19. Moral injury: A new challenge for complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S; Connery, April L; Bishop, Todd M; Bryan, Craig J; Drescher, Kent D; Currier, Joseph M; Pigeon, Wilfred R

    2016-02-01

    Moral injury represents an emerging clinical construct recognized as a source of morbidity in current and former military personnel. Finding effective ways to support those affected by moral injury remains a challenge for both biomedical and complementary and alternative medicine. This paper introduces the concept of moral injury and suggests two complementary and alternative medicine, pastoral care and mindfulness, which may prove useful in supporting military personnel thought to be dealing with moral injury. Research strategies for developing an evidence-base for applying these, and other, complementary and alternative medicine modalities to moral injury are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Viola-Saltzman, Mari; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI), affecting 30–70% of individuals, many occurring after mild injuries. Insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness are the most frequent post-TBI sleep complaints with narcolepsy (with or without cataplexy), sleep apnea (obstructive and/or central), periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias occurring less commonly. In addition, depression, anxiety and pain are common TBI co-morbidities with substantial influence on sleep quality. T...

  1. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and what it means in terms of ... thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. There ...

  2. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. There are treatments available to ease the symptoms ... booklet, What You Should Know, A Guide for People with Spinal Cord Injury, on navigating depression following ...

  3. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to arm yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and what it means in terms ... or negative thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. ...

  4. Injury prevention in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Branas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are rapidly escalating by-products of growth and urbanization in developing nations and have become the number one global health threat to children, young adults, and developing nations. Injuries are also highly preventable with scientifically evaluated, cost-effective solutions. Yet these same injuries are highly underappreciated as a global health threat and receive inadequate attention and funding. Because injuries so heavily affect individuals in their most productive years, their continued growth is sure to hamper or wipe away economic gains in many developing nations and further health inequities between developed and developing nations. Injury prevention in developing countries thus represents an enormous opportunity since attention and funding has been limited even in the face of evidence-based, cost-effective solutions. This opportunity should be pursued in developing nations by choosing prevention programs that address key injury threats and, at the same time, affect long-term, sustainable, and measurable injury reductions. Such programs should have strong local buy-in, a history of evaluation (preferably in developing nations, high returns-on-investment, make use of existing infrastructures when possible, and include an implementation plan that is to be carried out by the developing nation itself.

  5. A higher association of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee in pronation injuries of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Tae; Sung, Il-Hoon; Choi, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jin Kyu

    2018-02-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of the knee among ankle-fracture patients and to determine the risk factors associated with MCL injury in this patient group. 303 patients (303 affected ankles) who underwent surgical treatment for an ankle fracture were assessed. Supination versus pronation injury, Danis-Weber classification, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), limb dominance, and mechanism of injury were reviewed to identify factors related to MCL injury. Prevalence of MCL injury of the knee among the total number of patients with an ankle fracture was 3.96% (12 out of 303 injuries). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analysis with adjustment of possible confounding factors confirmed that female sex and pronation injury were associated significantly (p < 0.05) with MCL injury. The prevalence of MCL injury among females and the pronation type of ankle injury was 8.19% (10 out of 122 females) and 10.75% (10 out of 93 pronation injuries), respectively. More careful physical examination of the knee joint is strongly recommended in patients with ankle fractures, especially if the patient is female or the ankle-fracture pattern corresponds to the pronation type of injury.

  6. Analysis of Surfing Injuries Presenting in the Acute Trauma Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubbal, Kevin T; Chen, Charlie; Costantini, Todd; Herrera, Fernando; Dobke, Marek; Suliman, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Surfing is a rapidly growing major worldwide sport; however, little is understood regarding severe injuries and resulting hospital admissions. This study explores surfing-related injuries in the major surfing hub of San Diego presenting in the acute trauma setting. The purpose of this study is to address the void of information regarding severe surfing injuries in the trauma setting, including injury patterns, associated hospitalization course, and risk factors. Understanding the injury patterns in surfing accidents is crucial for proper management of surfing injuries. A retrospective analysis was performed of all surfing-related injuries in a Level 1 trauma center between 2000 and 2016. A total of 93 patients were identified. Body parts most commonly affected include the head (42, 46%), face (21, 22%), and spine (47, 51%). Twenty-eight (30%) patients required surgical intervention, including 19 for spinal injuries, 3 for facial injuries, 4 for upper extremity injuries, and 2 for lower extremity injuries. The distribution for most presentations (55, 59%) occurred in the summer months between July and September. The Injury Severity Score demonstrated strong positive correlation with the length of hospital stay, with a Pearson coefficient of 0.52 (P sport, is not without major risks. In contrast with other studies, we found a high proportion of head, face, and spine injuries in patients presenting with surfing injuries in the trauma setting, consistent with its presentation as a high velocity and high impact injury. With plastic surgeons often treating severe head and facial injuries, understanding the injury patterns in severe surfing accidents is crucial for proper management. High rates of positive alcohol and drug screening signal the importance to bring awareness to the dangers of surfing under the influence.

  7. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  8. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  9. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  10. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  11. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  13. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  14. Sport injuries treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.

  15. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  16. Dental Trauma 2- Acute Management of Fracture Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemal, Serpil; Singh, Parmjit; Polycarpou, Nectaria; Tomson, Rachel; Kelleher, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Fortunately, traumatic dental injuries are a relatively uncommon occurrence in general dental practice. However, when they do present, timely diagnosis and treatment of such injuries is essential to maximize the chance of a successful outcome. This is the second part of a two-part series on traumatic dental injuries that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Part one covered the management of acute luxation/displacement injuries affecting the supporting structures of the tooth, while part two will cover the management of fracture injuries associated with teeth and the alveolar bone. Clinical relevance: Traumatic dental injuries are uncommon occurrences in everyday general dental practice. This article aims to provide a simple, step-by-step approach in the diagnosis and clinical management of acute fracture injuries.

  17. Injuries in team sport tournaments during the 2004 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri

    2006-04-01

    Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.

  18. Assessment of Vascular Injuries and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, Iraj; Herfatkar, Mohammad Rasool; Shokrgozar, Leila; Poor-Rasuli, Zahra; Aghajani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trauma is the third leading cause of death. In this regard, vascular injury plays a leading role in of morbidity and mortality rates. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of vascular injuries and results of vascular reconstruction at a referral hospital in northern Iran. Patients and Methods: A retrospective observational study assessed 88 consecutive patients with vascular injury admitted to Poursina Hospital, Rasht in northern Iran, from October 2007 to October 2009. All study information was collected retrospectively from hospital charts. Results: Most of the affected patients (87/88) were male with a mean age of 29.12 ± 11.20 years. The mechanism of injury in 39.8% was blunt trauma and penetrating trauma in the rest. Of the 53 injured by penetrating trauma (60.2%), the most common cause was stabbing (94.3%). The most common cause of blunt trauma was road traffic accidents (93.1%). The most common mechanism for vascular injuries in upper extremities was penetrating trauma (86.0%) and in lower extremities was blunt trauma (60.0%). Fasciotomy was performed in 16 patients (18.2%) mostly in the lower extremities. Major amputation was required in 10% of the patients. In upper extremities, the most common type of revascularization was end to end anastomosis, followed by inter-position graft. The most common type of reconstruction in the lower extremity was bypass graft. All patients who underwent major amputation were admitted to the center with a delay of more than 6 hours after injury. Conclusions: Major vascular injuries in our center occurred in young men, frequently because of stab wounds. Popliteal injuries mostly caused by motor vehicle accidents was the second most common arterial injury, followed by combined ulnar and radial injuries. Vascular reconstruction in the first hours after trauma may prevent many unnecessary and preventable amputation procedures. PMID:26839869

  19. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Eye Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Eye Injuries What's in ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  20. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cartilage in the knee gradually wears away, causing pain and swelling. Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL ...

  1. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to straighten one or more joints. Common Extensor Tendon Injuries Mallet Finger refers to a drooping end- ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  5. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  6. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kept in the emergency department or hospital for observation. Children who have had a minor head injury ... penetrating trauma (such as a knife or gunshot wound). Injuries may range from relatively small hematomas (collections ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ...

  14. Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horsley, Ian G; Fowler, Elizabeth M; Rolf, Christer G

    2013-01-01

    Background In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. Objective The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. Method This study is a retrospective analysis set a...

  15. [Neodymium magnet injury causing nasal fracture: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykan, Andaç; Güzey, Serbülent; Avşar, Sedat; Öztürk, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    In parallel with technological developments, small size but strong magnets are commonly used in modern devices. In terms of foreign body injuries, magnet injuries are quite rare. However, due to their unique characteristics, there are some difficulties in their management. The magnetic field generated by the magnet affects the surgical instruments and make treatment difficult. In this case report, a nasal injury due to neodymium magnet and our alternative approach for its management was reported.

  16. Injuries in professional male soccer players in the Netherlands: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Janine H; van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie M C; van der Knaap, Sissi; Stege, Jasper; Verhagen, Evert A; van Mechelen, Willem; Backx, Frank J G

    2015-02-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Cohort study. The Dutch premier soccer league. During the 2009-2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed. The medical staff recorded time-loss injuries, including information on injuries (ie, type, body part, duration) and exposure data for training sessions and matches. A total of 286 injuries were recorded, affecting 62.7% of the players. The overall injury incidence was 6.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours, 2.8 in training sessions and 32.8 in matches. Most of the recorded injuries were acute (68.5%). Eight percent of the injuries were classified as recurrent. Injuries were most likely to be located in the lower extremities (82.9%). Injury time loss ranged from 1 to 752 days, with a median of 8 days. Knee injuries had the greatest consequences in terms of days of absence from soccer play (on average, 45 days). The most common diagnosis was muscle/tendon injury of the lower extremities (32.9%). Injury risk in the Dutch premier soccer league is high, especially during matches. Preventive measures should focus on the most common diagnoses, namely, muscle/tendon injuries of the lower extremities.

  17. Rankings of High School Sports Injury Rates Differ Based on Time Loss Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-11-01

    To examine how injury definition inclusiveness affects the rank order of injury rates in 27 high school (HS) sports. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) used certified athletic trainers (ATs) to collect injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data in practices and competitions for 27 HS sports during the 2011/2012 to 2013/2014 academic years. Time loss (TL) injuries resulted in ≥24 hours of participation restriction. Nontime loss (NTL) injuries resulted in sports. High school student-athletes. Sports injury data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network. Time loss and TL + NTL injury rates were calculated. Sport-specific rates were placed in rank order, stratified by gender. Most of the 47 014 injuries reported were NTL (82.8%). Among boys' sports, TL injury rates were greatest in football (3.27/1000AE) and wrestling (2.43/1000AE); TL + NTL injury rates were greatest also in football (15.29/1000AE) and wrestling (11.62/1000AE). Among girls' sports, TL injury rates were greatest in soccer (1.97/1000AE) and basketball (1.76/1000AE); TL + NTL injury rates were greatest in field hockey and lacrosse (both 11.32/1000AE). The rank order of injury rates and the resulting injury prevention priorities may depend on injury definition inclusiveness, particularly in female HS sports.

  18. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  19. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  20. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  2. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  3. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  5. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ...

  7. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  9. Injuries prevalence in elite male artistic gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista Albuquerque GOULART

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the injuries prevalence in men elite artistic gymnasts. Twenty Brazilian senior gymnasts, aged 23.1 ± 6.5 years, 13.9 ± 5.0 years of practice and 36.5 ± 4.7 hours per week training, participated in this study. The athletes answered a morbidity questionnaire, formulated according to studies from the literature, for information on the injuries’ characteristics and circumstances. Information about the injury circumstances (gymnastic apparatus, overload training and physical exercises, the anatomic site injured, the affect biological tissue and the return to training after injury treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, absolute and relative frequencies. The training overload, and floor, pommel horse and vault were the events that presented higher injuries frequency. In relation to anatomic site, ankle, hands/fingers and shoulder were the most cited regions. The ligament, bone and articular capsule were the most affected biological tissues. In relation to gymnasts’ return to their sports activities, 56% of them reported a better condition at return, 33% reported to have returned at the same fitness level and 10% indicated that they were in a worse condition when they returned to the sports activities. The men’s artistic gymnastics injuries are related to the mechanical demands of this sport. The analysis of risk factors helps in understanding the injuries mechanisms in gymnastics, and provides relevant information that can assist in effective prevention strategies.

  10. Tennis injuries: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Bedi, Asheesh; Williams, Phillip N; Dodson, Christopher C; Ellenbecker, Todd S; Altchek, David W; Windler, Gary; Dines, David M

    2015-03-01

    Tennis places high loads on the joints of players, with supraphysiologic forces being generated at the shoulder and elbow hundreds of times per match. Acute injuries tend to affect the lower extremity; chronic injuries usually involve the upper extremity. Commonly encountered upper extremity conditions include rotator cuff injury, internal impingement, superior labral tears, and epicondylitis of the elbow. Serving is the most strenuous stroke in tennis, with the highest peak muscle activity in the shoulder and forearm occurring during this stroke. The kinetic chain links upper extremity, lower extremity, and core muscle segments by transmitting coordinated activation and motion; in this regard, any pathologic process that disturbs the groin, hip, and abdominal musculature can further result in an increased risk of injury to the shoulder and upper extremity. Evolution in equipment and in play surfaces has also affected the type and frequency of injuries. Prevention programs that address the muscular imbalances throughout the kinetic chain may help reduce the incidence of both acute and chronic injuries experienced by tennis athletes. Copyright 2015 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

  11. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Patiño Giraldo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes

  12. Specific protein supplementation using soya, casein or whey differentially affects regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity in rats; implications for the treatment of gut injury and stimulating repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchbank, Tania; Mandir, Nikki; Calnan, Denis; Goodlad, Robert A; Podas, Theo; Playford, Raymond J

    2018-01-24

    Modulation of regional growth within specific segments of the bowel may have clinical value for several gastrointestinal conditions. We therefore examined the effects of different dietary protein sources on regional gut growth and luminal growth factor bioactivity as potential therapies. Rats were fed for 14 days on isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets comprising elemental diet (ED) alone (which is known to cause gut atrophy), ED supplemented with casein or whey or a soya protein-rich feed. Effects on regional gut growth and intraluminal growth factor activity were then determined. Despite calorie intake being similar in all groups, soya rich feed caused 20% extra total body weight gain. Stomach weight was highest on soya and casein diets. Soya enhanced diet caused greatest increase in small intestinal weight and preserved luminal growth factor activity at levels sufficient to increase proliferation in vitro. Regional small intestinal proliferation was highest in proximal segment in ED fed animals whereas distal small intestine proliferation was greater in soya fed animals. Colonic weight and proliferation throughout the colon was higher in animals receiving soya or whey supplemented feeds. We conclude that specific protein supplementation with either soya, casein or whey may be beneficial to rest or increase growth in different regions of the bowel through mechanisms that include differentially affecting luminal growth factor bioactivity. These results have implications for targeting specific regions of the bowel for conditions such as Crohn's disease and chemotherapy.

  13. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8-15 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    .14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR 1.38), and previous knee injury (OR 1.78), while participation in soccer (OR 1.64), handball (OR 1.95), basket (OR 2.07), rhythmic (OR 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport...... and participation in soccer, handball, basket, rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times/week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries......INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate...

  14. Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same framework are chlorine, hydrogen chloride, ethylene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, and mercury), particulates, and pesticides. Other subjects discussed include: interactions between pollutants and between pollutants and pathogens, mimicking symptoms, meteorology and air pollution injury, and basic diagnostic procedures of suspected air pollution injury to vegetation. 76 references, 128 figures, 28 tables.

  15. Factors affecting mortality of critical care trauma patients | Hefny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic collisions (72.3 %). The overall mortality was 13.9%. A direct logistic regression model has shown that factors that affected mortality were decreased GCS (p < 0.0001), mechanism of injury (p = 0.004) with burns having the highest mortality, increased age (p = 0.004), ...

  16. Impact of multiple injuries on functional and neurological outcomes of patients with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    functional status at rehabilitation admission (but not at discharge) than their monotraumatic counterparts. Conclusions Multiple injuries do not affect the neurological or rehabilitative prognosis of spinal cord injuries. At discharge, patients with spinal cord injuries with and without multiple injuries achieved similar results with regard to neurological and functional improvement. Some groups of patients with multiple injuries had a longer length of stay. PMID:23718823

  17. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  18. Corticosteroids in sports-related injuries: Friend or Foe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-03-16

    Mar 16, 2002 ... are thus seen as useful adjuncts in the treatment of some sports- related injuries. On the basis of their ability to down regulate the immune response, corticosteroids have been used extensively in the management of sports injuries to promote rapid return to the field of play. But to what extent do they affect ...

  19. Pattern of civilian gunshot injuries in Irrua, Nigeria | Onuminya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective review of 76 patients with gunshot wounds was undertaken to evaluate the pattern and outcome of civilian gunshot injuries in our region. The extremities were the most commonly affected site (51.5% of all gunshot wounds). Gunshot injuries were most common among young males in the third decade of ...

  20. Innovation and employee injury risk in automotive disassembly operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, W. Patrick; Winkel, Jørgen; Palmerud, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Engineering innovations in car disassembly systems are studied for affects on system operators’ risk of repetitive strain injury (RSI). Objective instrumented measures of injury risk factors with synchronised video-based task analyses were used to examine changes in operators’ RSI risk during...

  1. Patterns of Injuries After Road Traffic Crashes Involving Bodabodas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-12

    Jan 12, 2010 ... Road traffic crashes generally affect young people and this is most evident in bodaboda crashes because .... ing concussions were classified as head injuries. Injuries involving the thorax including rib fractures ... ers and passengers bear the brunt of the impact (4). About one fourth of the injured had cranial ...

  2. Common lower extremity injuries in female high school soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Soccer is one of the sports in South Africa which has seen an increase in the participation of youth and adult female players. The aim of this study was to determine point and 1-year prevalence, profile of injuries that affect female soccer players, associations between injuries and player position, age, use of ...

  3. An urban trauma centre experience with abdominal vena cava injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the study was to present the surgical management of injuries to the abdominal vena cava (AVC) and to identify clinical and physiological factors and management strategies which affect the outcome. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of AVC injuries in patients attending the trauma ...

  4. [Penetrating orbitocranial injury: a review of the literature and a case report of injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzaev, D A; Danilin, V E; Letyagin, G V; Istomina, T K; Chishchina, N V

    We present a rare case of orbitocranial penetrating injury by a watercolor brush in a 3-year-old child. Injuries of this localization can affect important orbital structures (eyeball, blood vessels, nerves, muscles) and cause severe intracranial damages. In some cases, diagnosis of these injuries in children may be difficult due to the lack of marked clinical manifestations. The presented clinical case illustrates the approaches for choosing methods for diagnosis of injury in childhood and subsequent treatment options.

  5. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  6. Ice hockey injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  7. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  8. [Injuries in male and female adolescent soccer players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A S; Mayer, H M; Geißler, U; Rumpf, M C; Schneider, C

    2013-03-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of injuries in adolescent male and female soccer players in Germany. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyse the injuries in male and female youth soccer players in Germany. This study was designed as a cross-sectional web-based survey. From March until December 2011 we investigated 1110 soccer players (male n = 841; female n = 269) aged 12 - 19 years (15.0 ± 2.0 years) from 60 clubs in Southern Germany. A total of 664 (79 %) of the 841 boys and 67 (25 %) of the 269 girls reported being injured due to soccer. The total number of injuries was 2373. Respectively the frequency of injury was 2.85 in boys and 7.10 in girls. The lower extremities were affected in 70 % of all reported cases. Strains were the most common injuries in the lower and upper extremities (35 %). The boys reported in 51.5 % of all injuries that the injury was non-contact in nature. In contrast, 52.1 % of the injuries in girls were reported as contact injuries. Similar amounts of injuries were observed in training versus games for both genders. Prevention procedures, such as a thorough warm-up, should be implemented before every game and training to reduce the risk of injury. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Snowboarding and ski boarding injuries in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakuraba, Keishoku

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the injury patterns and incidence of snowboarding and ski boarding injuries with that of alpine skiing in 2000 to 2005, as there are few previous studies comparing these 3 sports, especially in Asia. The injury patterns are different among the 3 snow sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were alpine skiers (1240 cases), snowboarders (2220 cases), and ski boarders (132 cases) who were injured in 2 ski resorts located in Niigata prefecture in Japan and visited the authors' clinics in these ski resorts between 2000 and 2005. On visiting the clinics, patients completed a questionnaire reviewing the circumstances surrounding the injury event, and physicians documented the diagnosis. The injury rate, which was based on all purchased lift tickets, in snowboarding decreased gradually, although it was still 2 times higher than that of alpine skiing. Snowboarding and ski boarding had a higher fracture and dislocation rate. Both sports also had a 4 times higher rate of injuries because of jumping. The characteristics of ski boarding were a lower head and neck injury rate and collision injury rate than those of the other 2 snow sports, as well as a 2 times higher rate of fractures compared with alpine skiing injuries and a 1.4 times higher incidence than that of snowboarding injuries. Of the fractures caused by ski boarding accidents, 39.6% affected the lower leg bones. Injury prevention strategies should focus on jumps for snowboarders and ski boarders.

  10. Workplace injury data reported by occupational physicians and general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, R; Turner, S; Hussey, L; Page, F; Agius, R

    2015-06-01

    Accurate workplace injury data are useful in the prioritization of prevention strategies. In the UK, physicians report workplace ill-health data within The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network, including injury case reports. To compare workplace injury data reported by occupational physicians (OPs) and general practitioners (GPs) to THOR. Injury cases reported by OPs and GPs, reported to THOR between 2006 and 2012 were analysed. Demographics, industrial groups, nature of injury, kind of accident and site of injury were compared. Data on sickness absence for workplace injuries reported by GPs were investigated. In total, 2017 workplace injury cases were reported by OPs and GPs. Males were more likely to sustain a workplace accident than females. Sprains and strains were reported most often, with the upper limbs being affected most frequently. Slips, trips and falls were identified as important causal factors by both OPs and GPs. Psychological injuries also featured in THOR reporting, with a higher proportion reported by OPs (21%) than by GPs (3%). The proportion of people classified as 'unfit' by GPs reduced following the introduction of the 'fit' note. THOR reports returned by OPs and GPs provide a valuable source of information of workplace injury data, and complement other sources of information, such as the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations and the Labour Force Survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The pattern of injury and poisoning in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rad, Mahdieh; Sargazi, Fatemeh; Sheykhzadeh, Khodadad; Jelodarzadeh, Seddighe; Karimzadeh, Fatemeh

    2012-09-10

    Injury is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and even more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Iran is a LMIC and lacks information regarding injury for program and policy purposes. This study aimed to describe the incidence and patterns of injury in one province in South Eastern Iran. A hospital-based, retrospective case review using a routinely collected registry in all Emergency Departments in Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran for 12 months in 2007-2008. In total 18,155 injuries were recorded during the study period. The majority of injuries in South Eastern Iran were due to road traffic crashes. Individuals living in urban areas sustained more injuries compared to individuals from rural areas. Males typically experienced more injuries than females. Males were most likely to be injured in a street/alley or village whereas females were most likely to be injured in or around the home. In urban areas, road traffic related injuries were observed to affect older age groups more than younger age groups. Poisoning was most common in the youngest age group, 0 to 4 years. This study provides data on incidence and patterns of injury in South Eastern Iran. Knowledge of injury burden, such as this paper, is likely to help policy makers and planners with health service planning and injury prevention.

  12. Ice-skating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M

    1986-05-01

    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  13. Snowboarding injuries. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; McCrory, P

    1995-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, snowboarding has become established as a popular and legitimate alpine sport. However, at present, there are few epidemiological studies examining the spectrum of injuries associated with this new sport. Snowboarders are typically male (male: female ratio of 3:1) and in their early twenties. They have an injury rate of 4 to 6 per 1000 visits, which is comparable to that which occurs with skiing. However, in contrast to skiing, in which only 34% of those injured are beginners, the majority (60%) of snowboarders injured are beginners. This is a reflection of the participant profile of this developing sport. 57% of injuries occur in the lower limbs, and 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries are simple sprains (31 to 53%), particularly of the ankles (23 to 26%) and knees (12 to 23%), followed by fractures (24 to 27%) and contusions (12%). Compared with skiing injuries, snowboarders have 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly of the upper limbs (constituting 21 vs 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23 vs 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23 vs 6% of lower limb injuries). Snowboarding knee injuries are less severe than those associated with skiing. Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is an unusual and uncommon snowboarding injury that can be misdiagnosed as a severe ankle sprain. Ankle injuries are more common with soft shell boots, whereas knee injuries and distal tibia fractures are more common with hard shell boots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. The Economic Burden of Road Traffic Injuries on Households in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Globally, road traffic injuries accounted for about 1.36 million deaths in 2015 and are projected to become the fourth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost by 2030. One-fifth of these deaths occurred in South Asia where road traffic injuries are projected to increase by 144% by 2020. Despite this rapidly increasing disease burden there is limited evidence on the economic burden of road traffic injuries on households in South Asia. We applied a novel coarsened exact matching method to assess the household economic burden of road traffic injuries using nationally representative World Health Survey data from five South Asian countries- Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka collected during 2002-2003. We examined the impact of road traffic injuries on household out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, household non-medical consumption expenditure and the employment status of the traffic injury-affected respondent. We exactly matched a household (after 'coarsening') where a respondent reported being involved in a road traffic injury to households where the respondent did not report a road traffic injury on each of multiple observed household characteristics. Our analysis found that road traffic injury-affected households had significantly higher levels of OOP health spending per member (I$0.75, proad traffic injury-affected households: 6.45% (proad traffic injury-affected individual. Our analysis points to the need for financial risk protection against the road traffic injury-related OOP health expenditure and a focus on prevention.

  15. [External ureteral injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asali, Murad G; Romanowsky, Igor; Kaneti, Jacob

    2007-09-01

    Traumatic ureteral injuries are quite uncommon. Penetrating and non-blunt trauma are the most common cause of ureteral injuries. Most of the blunt ureteral injuries described in the literature are case reports. Simultaneous bilateral ureteral injury is extremely rare. In homodynamic stable patients imaging studies should be conducted when there is suspicion of urinary tract injury. Abdominal computerized tomography with contrast injection and delayed scans are the gold standard for staging such injuries. Excretory urography may be used when computerized tomography is not feasible. When both of these imaging studies are not diagnostic and there is still a high suspicion of injury, a retrograde pyelography would be the next imaging study option. Partial ureteral transection can be managed with ureteral stent placement. Complete ureteral transection and some grade III injuries should be explored and repaired with debridement, placement of ureteral stent and tension-free anastomosis of healthy ureteral ends with absorbable stitches and omental or peritoneal wrap. The type of anastomosis depends on the height of the ureteral injury and whether the contralateral ureter is existent and with no diseases. A high index of suspicion is needed in diagnosing ureteral injury in patients with blunt or penetrating trauma. Delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment would lead to serious immediate and delayed complications, from mild hematoma to abscess, sepsis, strictures, obstructive nephropathy, and renal unit loss.

  16. Proximal humerus fracture associated with delayed axillary nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Patpiya Sirasaporn

    2016-01-01

    Axillary nerve injury is the most common complication in humerus fracture. The symptoms that are caused by affecting axillary nerve vary according to the structures involved such as sensory disturbance and weakness of muscles, e.g., three parts of deltoid and teres muscles in an affected limb. The severity of injury is classified in demyelinating and axonal lesions, which usually occurs at the onset of fracture. The author reports a case of humerus fracture with delayed axonal lesion of axill...

  17. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  18. Epidemiological Review of Injury in Pre-Professional Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Goodwin, Brett J; Caine, Caroline G; Bergeron, Glen

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an epidemiological review of the literature concerning ballet injuries affecting pre-professional ballet dancers. The literature search was limited to published peer-reviewed reports and involved an extensive examination of Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. The following search terms were used in various combinations: ballet, injury, epidemiology, risk factor, pre-professional, and intervention. Additional citations were located using the ancestry approach. Unlike some other athletic activities that have been the focus of recent intervention research, there is a paucity of intervention and translational research in pre-professional ballet, and sample sizes have often been small and have not accounted for the multivariate nature of ballet injury. Exposure-based injury rates in this population appear similar to those reported for professional ballet dancers and female gymnasts. A preponderance of injuries affect the lower extremity of these dancers, with sprains and strains being the most frequent type of injury reported. The majority of injuries appear to be overuse in nature. Injury risk factors have been tested in multiple studies and indicate a variety of potential injury predictors that may provide useful guidance for future research.

  19. Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.

  20. Sports injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman

    2012-09-01

    Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.

  1. Injury data of major international field hockey tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilen, Till-Martin; Mueller-Eising, Wiebke; Wefers Bettink, Peter; Rolle, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Detailed injury data are not available for international tournaments in field hockey. We investigated the epidemiology of field hockey injuries during major International Hockey Federation (Fédération Internationale de Hockey, FIH) tournaments in 2013. FIH injury reports were used for data collection. All major FIH tournaments for women (n=5) and men (n=11) in 2013 were included. The main focus of this study was to assess the pattern, time, site on the pitch, body site and mechanism of each of the injuries. We calculated the average number of injuries per match and the number of injuries per 1000 player match hours. The average number of injuries was 0.7 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) per match in women's tournaments and 1.2 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.7) per match in men's tournaments. The number of injuries per 1000 player match hours ranged from 23.4 to 44.2 (average 29.1; 95% CI 18.6 to 39.7) in women and 20.8 to 90.9 (average 48.3; 95% CI 30.9 to 65.8) in men. Most injuries occurred in the circle (n=25, 50%, in women, n=95, 51%, in men). The rate of injuries increased after the first quarter. Injuries to the head and face (n=20, 40%) were most common in women. The head/face (n=51, 27%) and the thigh/knee (n=52, 28%) were equally affected in men. The ball caused the most injuries, followed by the stick, collisions and tripping/falling. There were no deaths or injuries that required hospital treatment in the entire cohort. Field hockey has a low incidence of acute injuries during competition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A.J

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs. Study variables: Trivial injuries. Outcome Variables: Management- home based or hospitals based. Results: Peripheral parts of the extremities- hands, finger, feet and toes were most commonly affected by trivial injuries. A variety of local applications like tobacco, salt, kerosene, oil, nail polish, turmeric, urine, were used for initial wound care. Conclusion: Rural people of Haryana use a variety of local applications, some not very hygienic, for the immediate management of injuries. Education is required to make them aware of hygienic practices where would care is concerned.

  3. Injuries are not accidents: towards a culture of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Gutiérrez, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Injuries are the result of an acute exposure to exhort of energy or a consequence of a deficiency in a vital element that exceeds physiological thresholds resulting threatens life. They are classified as intentional or unintentional. Injuries are considered a global health issue because they cause more than 5 million deaths per year worldwide and they are an important contributor to the burden of disease, especially affecting people of low socioeconomic status in low- and middle-income countries. A common misconception exists where injuries are thought to be the same as accidents; however, accidents are largely used as chance events, without taken in consideration that all these are preventable. This review discusses injuries and accidents in the context of road traffic and emphasizes injuries as preventable events. An understanding of the essence of injuries enables the standardization of terminology in public use and facilitates the development of a culture of prevention among all of us.

  4. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  5. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  6. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  7. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  8. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  9. Ocular Injuries In Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur İNAM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.

  10. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  11. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  12. BPSD following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Anghinah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Annually, 700,000 people are hospitalized with brain injury acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI in Brazil. Objective: We aim to review the basic concepts related to TBI, and the most common Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors. We also discussed our strategies used to manage such patients in the post-acute period. Methods: Fifteen TBI outpatients followed at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation Post-TBI of the Clinicas Hospital of the University of São Paulo were submitted to a neurological, neuropsychological, speech and occupational therapy evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination. Rehabilitation strategies will then be developed, together with the interdisciplinary team, for each patient individually. Where necessary, the pharmacological approach will be adopted. Results: Our study will discuss options of pharmacologic treatment choices for cognitive, behavioral, or affective disorders following TBI, providing relevant information related to a structured cognitive rehabilitation service and certainly will offer an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI. Conclusion: Traumatic brain injury can cause a variety of potentially disabling psychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Combined behavioral and pharmacological strategies, in the treatment of a set of highly challenging behavioral problems, appears to be essential for good patient recovery.

  13. BPSD following traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinah, Renato; Freire, Fabio Rios; Coelho, Fernanda; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Annually, 700,000 people are hospitalized with brain injury acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We aim to review the basic concepts related to TBI, and the most common Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors. We also discussed our strategies used to manage such patients in the post-acute period. METHODS Fifteen TBI outpatients followed at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation Post-TBI of the Clinicas Hospital of the University of São Paulo were submitted to a neurological, neuropsychological, speech and occupational therapy evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination. Rehabilitation strategies will then be developed, together with the interdisciplinary team, for each patient individually. Where necessary, the pharmacological approach will be adopted. RESULTS Our study will discuss options of pharmacologic treatment choices for cognitive, behavioral, or affective disorders following TBI, providing relevant information related to a structured cognitive rehabilitation service and certainly will offer an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI. CONCLUSION Traumatic brain injury can cause a variety of potentially disabling psychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Combined behavioral and pharmacological strategies, in the treatment of a set of highly challenging behavioral problems, appears to be essential for good patient recovery. PMID:29213850

  14. Sports-related overuse injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, F

    2015-02-01

    Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.

  16. A profile of Injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainiqolo Iris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. Method The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥12 hours stay in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. Results The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29% and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%. The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Conclusions Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  17. A profile of injury in Fiji: findings from a population-based injury surveillance system (TRIP-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainiqolo, Iris; Kafoa, Berlin; Kool, Bridget; Herman, Josephine; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2012-12-12

    Over 90% of injury deaths occur in low-and middle-income countries. However, the epidemiological profile of injuries in Pacific Islands has received little attention. We used a population-based-trauma registry to investigate the characteristics of all injuries in Viti Levu, Fiji. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) database prospectively collected data on all injury-related deaths and primary admissions to hospital (≥ 12 hours stay) in Viti Levu during 12 months commencing October 2005. The 2167 injury-related deaths and hospitalisations corresponded to an annual incidence rate of 333 per 100,000, with males accounting for twice as many cases as females. Almost 80% of injuries involved people aged less than 45 years, and 74% were deemed unintentional. There were 244 fatalities (71% died before admission) and 1994 hospitalisations corresponding to crude annual rates of 37.5 per 100,000 and 306 per 100,000 respectively. The leading cause of fatal injury was road traffic injury (29%) and the equivalent for injury admissions was falls (30%). The commonest type of injury resulting in death and admission to hospital was asphyxia and fractures respectively. Alcohol use was documented as a contributing factor in 13% of deaths and 12% of admissions. In general, indigenous Fijians had higher rates of injury admission, especially for interpersonal violence, while those of Indian ethnicity had higher rates of fatality, especially from suicide. Injury is an important public health problem that disproportionately affects young males in Fiji, with a high proportion of deaths prior to hospital presentation. This study highlights key areas requiring priority attention to reduce the burden of potentially life-threatening injuries in Fiji.

  18. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  19. Opioid administration following spinal cord injury: Implications for pain and locomotor recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Woller, Sarah A.; Hook, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one-third of people with a spinal cord injury (SCI) will experience persistent neuropathic pain following injury. This pain negatively affects quality of life and is difficult to treat. Opioids are among the most effective drug treatments, and are commonly prescribed, but experimental evidence suggests that opioid treatment in the acute phase of injury can attenuate recovery of locomotor function. In fact, spinal cord injury and opioid administration share several common feature...

  20. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Schenk D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Désirée White-Schenk,1,4 Riyi Shi,1–3 James F Leary1–4 1Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Lynn School of Veterinary Medicine, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. Keywords: spinal cord injury, acrolein, drug delivery, methylprednisolone, secondary injury

  1. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  2. Head injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, R C

    1996-12-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common athletic head injury is concussion, which may very widely in severity. Intracranial haemorrhage is the leading cause of head injury death in sports, making rapid initial assessment and appropriate follow up mandatory after a head injury. Diffuse cerebral swelling is another serious condition that may be found in the child or adolescent athlete, and the second impact syndrome is a major concern in adult athletes. Many head injuries in athletes are the result of improper playing techniques and can be reduced by teaching proper skills and enforcing safety promoting rules. Improved conditioning (particularly of the neck), protective headgear, and careful medical supervision of athletes will also minimise this type of injury.

  3. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  4. The injury burden of the 2010 Haiti earthquake: a stratified cluster survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Jacquet, Gabrielle; Cherewick, Megan; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-06-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake devastated metropolitan Port au Prince and surrounding areas and resulted in widespread injury, mortality and displacement. This study aimed to estimate the injury rate among the affected population and the resulting demand of emergency medical care in the aftermath of the earthquake. In January 2011, a cross-sectional stratified cluster (60×20 household) survey of the earthquake-affected population in metropolitan Port au Prince was conducted to assess their well-being, unmet needs and perceptions of humanitarian assistance one year post-earthquake. Mixed effects simple and multiple logistic regressions were used to measure the total unadjusted and adjusted odds of injury. A total of 261 injuries were reported in the pre-earthquake population of 6489 individuals with reported injury status. The overall earthquake injury rate was estimated at 40.2 injuries/1000 (CI: 35.6-45.3). Individual characteristics such as age, gender, and education status were not significantly associated with risk of injury. Elevated injury rates were observed among households residing in camps at 46.7/1000 (CI: 39.7-54.5) as compared to those in neighbourhoods where the injury rate was 33.7/1000 (CI: 27.8-40.5) (p=0.018). Extrapolation of the survey injury rate to the affected population yields an estimated 124,577 earthquake injuries (range 110,048-140,033) which is substantially lower than the 300,000 reported injuries. Estimates of the injury burden in disasters in lower- and middle-income countries is essential for disaster preparedness and response planning in future natural disasters. Given the difficulties in reporting injuries in emergencies, including both challenges of aggregating information and lack of standardized definitions and inclusion/exclusion criteria for injuries that are not severe, ascertaining the injury burden of disasters will be a persistent challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Missed Vascular Injuries: Presentation and Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M. K.; Majeed, S.; Ahmad, N.; Irfan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the different presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management and outcome of complications of missed vascular injuries. Study Design: A case series. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi and Combined Military Hospital, Kharian Cantt, from June 2009 to June 2012. Methodology: All the patients with vascular injuries missed at the time of causative trauma who reported during this study period were included. Patients presented with acute vascular injuries and iatrogenic aneurysm at the vascular anastomosis site were excluded. All cases were evaluated with either CT or conventional angiography and managed with various open vascular surgical techniques and their results were assessed. Results: Twenty eight patients with missed vascular injury underwent various vascular repairs. Age of patients ranged from 16 to 78 years (mean = 33.7 A +- 15.4 years). Male to female ratio was 6:1. Twelve (42.8%) patients presented with pseudoaneurysm alone, 10 (35.7%) with traumatic arteriovenous fistulae, 4 (14.3%) with post-traumatic thrombosis and occlusion and 2 (7.1%) with pseudoaneurysm and hemorrhage. Penetrating injuries were the commonest cause in 19 (67.8%). The time interval between injury and presentation in hospital ranged from 2 to 1300 weeks (mean 228 weeks). Lower limb vessels were affected in 20 (71.4%), the upper limb in 5 (17.8%) and neck vessels in 3 (10.7%). Superficial femoral artery was the most frequently involved artery in 9 (32.1%) cases. Interposition reverse autogenous saphenous vein graft was most common type of repair in all types of missed vascular injuries. One (3.5%) patient had amputation after secondary hemorrhage. Conclusion: Low velocity penetrating trauma was the common cause of missed vascular injury. Pseudoaneurysm was the most common presentation. (author)

  6. Cranial nerve injury after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, Alejandro Fernández; Canals, Andreu Gabarrós; Gonzalez, Juan Martino; Martín, Juan José Acebes

    2010-09-01

    There are no specific studies about cranial nerve (CN) injury following mild head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) in the literature. The aim of this analysis was to document the incidence of CN injury after mild head trauma and to correlate the initial CT findings with the final outcome 1 year after injury. The authors studied 49 consecutive patients affected by minor head trauma and CN lesions between January 2000 and January 2006. Detailed clinical and neurological examinations as well as CT studies using brain and bone windows were performed in all patients. Based on the CT findings the authors distinguished 3 types of traumatic injury: no lesion, skull base fracture, and other CT abnormalities. Patients were followed up for 1 year after head injury. The authors distinguished 3 grades of clinical recovery from CN palsy: no recovery, partial recovery, and complete recovery. Posttraumatic single nerve palsy was observed in 38 patients (77.6%), and multiple nerve injuries were observed in 11 (22.4%). Cranial nerves were affected in 62 cases. The most affected CN was the olfactory nerve (CN I), followed by the facial nerve (CN VII) and the oculomotor nerves (CNs III, IV, and VI). When more than 1 CN was involved, the most frequent association was between CNs VII and VIII. One year after head trauma, a CN deficit was present in 26 (81.2%) of the 32 cases with a skull base fracture, 12 (60%) of 20 cases with other CT abnormalities, and 3 (30%) of 10 cases without CT abnormalities. Trivial head trauma that causes a minor head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale Score 14-15) can result in CN palsies with a similar distribution to moderate or severe head injuries. The CNs associated with the highest incidence of palsy in this study were the olfactory, facial, and oculomotor nerves. The trigeminal and lower CNs were rarely damaged. Oculomotor nerve injury can have a good prognosis, with a greater chance of recovery if no lesion is demonstrated on the initial CT scan.

  7. Penetrating brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Prashad Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of head injuries caused by gunshot wounds.  Penetrating brain injury is a traumatic brain injury caused by high-velocity projectiles or low-velocity sharp objects. A wound in which the projectile breaches the cranium but does not exit is referred as a penetrating wound, and an injury in which the projectile passes entirely through the head, leaving both entrance  and exit wounds, is referred to as a perforating wound. A large number of these patients who survive their initial wounding will nevertheless expire shortly after admission to the hospital. Until the introduction of aseptic surgery in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, penetrating missile injuries of the brain were almost universally fatal. We have learned a great deal about gunshot wounds and their management from military experience gained during times of war, when a large number of firearm-related casualties are treated in a short period of time. Newly designed protective body armor has reduced the incidence of penetrating brain injuries significantly. Many of the victims in the vicinity of a cased explosive or an improvised explosive device will incur injuries by fragments. Blast injury is a common mechanism of traumatic brain injury among soldiers serving in war zone. Each war has had different lessons to teach. World War I for example, proved the efficacy of vigorous surgical intervention. During World War II, the importance of initial dural repair and antibiotic medication was first, debated, then acknowledged, and finally, universally accepted. The incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury has increased substantially in recent military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma is the term given to describe an injury to the brain that occurs after exposure to a blast. Resent conflict has exposed military personnel to sophisticated explosive devices generating blast overpressure that results in

  8. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.

  9. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8 to 15 Years: The CHAMPS Study DK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation, and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 yr). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic and 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR, 2.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR, 1.38) and previous knee injury (OR, 1.78), whereas participation in soccer (OR, 1.64), handball (OR, 1.95), basket (OR, 2.07), rhythmic (OR, 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR, 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport participation above two times per week increased odds (OR, 1.46-2.40). Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl; previous knee injury; and participation in soccer, handball, basket, and rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times per week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries with unknown short- and long-term consequences.

  10. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Bae, Sang Jin

    2004-01-01

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance (ρ > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury

  11. Kidney injury molecule-1 and microalbuminuria levels in Zambian population: biomarkers of kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Mildred; Kaile, Trevor; Kantenga, Timothy; Chileshe, Chisanga; Nkhoma, Panji; Sinkala, Musalula

    2016-01-01

    Kidney injury affects renal excretion of plasma analytes and metabolic waste products with grave pathologic consequences. Early detection, thus of kidney injury is essential for injury specific intervention that may avert permanent renal damage and delay progression of kidney injury. We aimed to evaluate Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Microalbuminuria (MAU), as biomarkers of kidney injury, in comparison with creatinine. We compared the levels of urine MAU, urine KIM-1 and other plasma biochemical tests in specimens from 80 individuals with and without kidney disease. We found no difference in KIM-1 levels between the kidney disease group (2.82± 1.36ng/mL) and controls (3.29 ± 1.14ng/mL), p = 0.122. MAU was higher in participants with kidney disease (130.809± 84.744 µg/mL) than the controls (15.983± 20.442µg/mL), p ?0.001. KIM-1 showed a weak negative correlation with creatinine (r = -0.279, p = 0.09), whereas MAU was positively correlated with creatinine in participants with kidney disease with statistical significance (r = 0.556, p = 0.001). The study demonstrated that in Zambian setting MAU and creatinine are sensitive biomarkers in the diagnosis of kidney damage. We moreover propose further evaluation of KIM-1 as a biomarker of kidney injury.

  12. Peripheral nerve injuries: A retrospective survey of 1124 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, João A; Graça, Carla R; Ferreira, Vanessa F M

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) remain an important health problem often leading to severe motor disabilities predominantly in the younger population. To analyze our experience of clinical and electrodiagnostic evaluation (EDX) of PNIs over a 26-year period. Between 1989 and 2014, 1124 consecutive patients with 1418 PNIs were referred for clinical as well as EDX evaluation. These PNIs involved upper and lower limbs as well as the facial nerves. Patients with iatrogenic lesions and spinal cord/spinal root lesions were excluded from this analysis. Brachial plexus (BP) injuries with associated or not with root avulsions were considered as one particular nerve and was include in the study as BP. The etiological categories of the sustained trauma included vehicular accidents, penetrating injuries, falls, gunshot wounds, car accidents involving pedestrians, sports injuries, and miscellaneous injuries. The mean age of our patients was 34.2 years and most were males (76.7%). Majority (80.9%) of the PNIs were isolated injuries. Combined lesions most commonly involved the ulnar and median nerves. Upper-limb PNIs accounted for 72.6% of our patients. The ulnar nerve was injured most often, either singly or in combination. Vehicular accidents were the most common causes of injury (46.4%), affecting the brachial BP or the radial, fibular, or sciatic nerves. Penetrating trauma (23.9%) commonly affected the ulnar and the median nerves. Falls and gunshot wounds frequently affected the ulnar, radial, and median nerves. Sports injuries, mostly soccer related, affected predominantly the fibular nerves. BP injuries were considerably more common in accidents involving motorcycles than those involving cars (46.1% vs. 17.1%), and root avulsions was more frequently associated in these cases. Most PNIs were caused by vehicular accidents and penetrating trauma, and affected young men. Overall, ulnar nerve, primary BP, and median nerve PNIs were the most prevalent lesions.

  13. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the UEFA injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, J; Hägglund, M; Waldén, M

    2011-06-01

    To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. European professional men's football. The first team squads of 23 teams selected by the Union of European Football Associations as belonging to the 50 best European teams. Injury incidence. 4483 injuries occurred during 566 000 h of exposure, giving an injury incidence of 8.0 injuries/1000 h. The injury incidence during matches was higher than in training (27.5 vs 4.1, pinjuries per season, and a team with typically 25 players can thus expect about 50 injuries each season. The single most common injury subtype was thigh strain, representing 17% of all injuries. Re-injuries constituted 12% of all injuries, and they caused longer absences than non re-injuries (24 vs 18 days, pincidence of match injuries showed an increasing injury tendency over time in both the first and second halves (pinjuries and hamstring strains were more frequent during the competitive season, while overuse injuries were common during the preseason. Training and match injury incidences were stable over the period with no significant differences between seasons. The training and match injury incidences were stable over seven seasons. The risk of injury increased with time in each half of matches.

  14. A Prospective Study of Factors Affecting Recovery from Musculoskeletal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    marital status, or military paygrade. There was a difference for gender: female participants were more likely than male participants to have completed...Barefoot JC, Brummett BH, Williams RB, Siegler IC, Helms MJ, Boyle SH, Clapp-Channing NE, Mark DB. Recovery expecta- tions and long-term prognosis

  15. Injuries in Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Varshney, Ankit V

    Cricket is a popular global sport that requires a combination of physical fitness, skill, and strategy. Although a noncontact sport, overuse and impact injuries are common since players engage in a wide range of physical activities, including running, throwing, batting, bowling, catching, and diving. Significant or match time-loss injuries are defined as those that either prevent a player from being fully available for selection in a major match, or during a major match, cause a player to be unable to bat, bowl, or keep wicket when required by either the rules or the team's captain. This review describes the various region-wise injuries sustained in cricket along with their epidemiology, biomechanics, treatment, and prevention. Data were collected from peer-reviewed articles (obtained via PubMed search) published through November 2016 that involved the medical, biomechanical, and epidemiological aspects of cricket injuries. Clinical review. Level 4. Cricket was one of the first sports to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005 from England, South Africa, Australia, the West Indies, and India. While the incidence of injuries is about the same, the prevalence of injuries has increased due to game format changes, increasing number of matches played, and decreased rest between matches. Bowling (41.3%), fielding, and wicket keeping (28.6%) account for most injuries. Acute injuries are most common (64%-76%), followed by acute-on-chronic (16%-22.8%) and chronic ones (8%-22%). The most common modern-day cricket injury is hamstring strain, and the most severe is lumbar stress fracture in young fast bowlers. With improved understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of cricket, along with advances in surgical and nonsurgical treatment techniques, the time to return to play has shortened considerably. While the prevalence of cricket injuries has increased, their severity has decreased over the past decades.

  16. Furniture injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin H; Adams, Susan; Holland, Andrew J A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence, type and severity of furniture-related injuries in children in the Sydney region. Retrospective analysis of presentations to the emergency departments of two paediatric tertiary hospitals in Sydney over a 4-year period from January 2000 to December 2003 with furniture-related injuries. Deaths of children because of furniture-related injuries reported to the Coroner, from 2000-2002, were also reviewed. The main outcome measures were circumstances of injury, type and number of injuries, morbidity, and mortality. 52 children presented with furniture-related injuries. The median age was 2.5 years (range 9 months-15 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Falling televisions accounted for 22 (42%) of the injuries. Median Injury Severity Score was 1 (range 1-25). One child died. The most common regions injured were the limbs and the head. Thirty-one children (60%) required medical imaging, 28 (54%) required admission to hospital and 6 were allowed home in under 12 h. Of the 22 patients admitted for longer than 12 h, 14% required intensive care. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-15 days). Eighteen patients (35%) suffered scarring or long-term limitations as a result of their injuries. From 2000 to 2002 there were four additional deaths in NSW because of furniture-related injuries, two because of a falling television. Furniture-related injuries represent a cause of serious trauma and death in Australian children. There remains a need for the stability and security of televisions and large furniture items to be improved.

  17. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  18. Avoid Workplace Injury through Ergonomics | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases productivity, and decreases the number and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs affect the muscles, nerves, and tendons, and are a leading cause of lost workdays due to injury or illness.

  19. Injuries in women's professional soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Giza, E; Mithofer, K; Farrell, L; Zarins, B; Gill, T; Drawer, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The injury data from the first two seasons of the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA) were analysed to determine the injury incidence, anatomic location of injuries, and relation of player position.

  20. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  1. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Self-Injury In Adolescents No. 73; July 2013 Self-injury is the ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ...

  2. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... Child Injury Prevention Protect the Ones You Love Color Me Safe Child Injury: What You Need to ...

  4. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herrera J, McGuire LC, Gilchrist J. Trends in sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries treated in US emergency departments: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) ...

  5. Changing trends in US injury profiles: revisiting non-fatal occupational injury statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A; Desai, A; Prakash, L; Mital, A; Mital, Anil

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current trends in non-fatal injury profiles of workers in the United States. It is generally accepted that occupational injury and illness rates are affected by many factors, such as the amount and quality of training, employee turnover rates, work experience, extent of mechanization and automation, job-related parameters, and worker gender. In the last decade, not only have the technologies used in the workplace changed significantly, there has been a greater awareness among employers and employees as to the importance of containing work injuries. Additionally, the extent of outsourcing for labor-intensive jobs has increased dramatically owing to cheaper labor costs in places such as China and Mexico. These changes have affected the manufacturing sector of US industry more than any other sector. How these changes have influenced the injury and illness profiles of the American worker is of considerable interest given the increased attention paid to work-workplace design, injury hazard control, and ergonomics in general. In this paper, we compare the injury and illness profiles of US workers separated by nearly a decade. The trends from early 1990s are compared to those from early 2000s. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics were used to compile the injury statistics. The results of our comparison show that while the absolute numbers of work-related injuries and illnesses have declined over the last 10 years, the basic trends associated with different factors remain almost unchanged. The reasons for this decline are discussed in this paper.

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago play_arrow What is ... What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heather Taylor, PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, ... Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT Mary Jane Mulcahey, PhD, OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ...

  9. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  10. Equestrian injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Alex G; Wiggins, Alexandra; Chen, Mike K; Kays, David W; Islam, Saleem; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Equestrian activities are regarded by some as high-risk sports, and our recent experience suggested this to be true. We undertook this study to review our experience with pediatric equestrian injuries. After institutional review board approval, we reviewed emergency department and hospital admissions for children 0 to 18 years, with equestrian trauma, over an 11-year period. There were 164 encounters with 135 girls and 29 boys. Most injuries (82%) occurred after falling or being thrown from the animal, and only 12% occurred during jumping or rodeo competitions. The remaining injuries were secondary to being trampled, kicked, or trapped under the animal. Eighty-seven children required hospital admission. Lacerations and contusions (58%) or orthopedic injuries (31%) were most common in the emergency department cohort. In the admission cohort, injury sites included orthopedic (34%), head (23%), abdomen (21%), and chest (11%). Multiple injuries occurred in 13%. A significant number of children required surgical interventions, including 19 orthopedic procedures, 4 laparotomies, 3 facial reconstructions, and 2 craniotomies. The average length of stay was nearly 4 days, with 60% of the children requiring intensive care admission. There were no deaths. One child was discharged to rehab, the rest were sent home. In our experience, more than one third of the children admitted after sustaining injuries in horse-related sports required surgical interventions. Children participating in equestrian activities are at risk for substantial injury, and pediatric care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating these children.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord ... by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ... PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS ...

  13. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...

  15. Knee injuries in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collateral ligament. Fortunately the majority of knee injuries are strains involving the ligaments. The medial collateral ligament (MCL), which resists valgus and internal rotation, is susceptible to contact and non-contact loads. The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee.13 In an audit of soccer injuries in ...

  16. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury - kidney and ureter To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Injury to ... lead-coated metals, and alcohol distilled in recycled car radiators. Take all your ... safety equipment during work and play. Use cleaning products, ...

  17. Growth Plate Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause any lasting problems for your child or teen. Growth plates are areas of growing tissues that cause ... are replaced by solid bone. Who gets them? Growth plate injuries happen to children and teens. This injury happens twice as often in boys ...

  18. Telemark skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuggy, M L

    1996-09-01

    Telemark skiing has become increasingly popular over the past 5 years. Telemark skiing poses unique risks when compared to alpine skiing, because of different equipment, technique, and varied skiing environments. A retrospective survey of telemark skiers was conducted in Western Washington in 1994 to obtain skier information on ski habits, demographics, frequency and types of injury, and equipment used at time of injury. During the 5 month survey period, 118 (63%) of 187 surveys distributed at 7 sites were returned. The overall injury rate was comparable to alpine skiing injury rates at 10.7/1000 skier days. Less experienced skiers and women had higher injury rates, 20/1000 and 13.1/1000 skier days, respectively. The predominant injury sites were knee (41%), hip (13%), and thumb (8%). The knee injuries sustained by telemark skiers appear to be less severe than alpine skiers, with less duration of disability and lower surgical rates. An association was found between the use of plastic reinforced boots and significant ligamentous knee injuries when compared to skiers with leather boots (p < 0.01, chi 2 = 5.43).

  19. Pediatric inhalation injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Soman

    2017-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury can cause severe physiologic perturbations. In pediatric patients, these perturbations cause profound changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology. In this review, we examine the pathology, early management options, ventilator strategy, and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients who have suffered a smoke inhalation injury.

  20. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  1. Traumatic injuries: imaging of spinal injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, H.; Fuchsjaeger, M. [Department of Osteology, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-06-01

    Severe (high-energy) spinal injuries are common sequelae of acute traumas. The task of radiology is to establish the radiological diagnosis, classify it, judge stability and instability and lead further radiological evaluation in cases of non-agreement between the radiological diagnosis and the clinical (neurological) findings. While skeletal abnormalities are best diagnosed with spiral CT and to a lesser degree with plain-film radiographs, soft tissue lesions, such as cord injuries or ligament ruptures, are best outlined with emergency MRI. The classification of fractures depends on fracture (trauma)-biomechanics and location. All these efforts are necessary to get the best clinical outcome for the patient. (orig.)

  2. Running Injury Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Johansen, Karen; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. Methods: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: “Which......Background: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. Purpose: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners......%]) to be associated with injury, while half of the runners found “insufficient recovery between running sessions” (53% [95%CI: 47%; 71%]) important. Conclusion: Runners and their coaches emphasize ignoring pain as a factor associated with injury development. The question remains how much running, if any at all...

  3. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  4. Preventing playground injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselli, Pamela; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2012-06-01

    With concerns increasing around childhood obesity and inactivity, playgrounds offer a chance for children to be active. But playgrounds also have risks, with injuries from falls being the most common. Research has shown that playground injuries can be reduced by lowering the heights of play equipment and using soft, deep surfaces to cushion falls. The Canadian Standards Association has published voluntary standards for playgrounds to address these risks for several years. Parents can further reduce injury risks by following simple playground strategies. This statement outlines the burden of playground injuries. It also provides parents and health care providers with opportunities to reduce injury incidence and severity through education and advocacy, and to implement evidence-informed safety standards and safer play strategies in local playgrounds. This document replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2002.

  5. RUNNING INJURY DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karen Krogh; Hulme, Adam; Damsted, Camma

    2017-01-01

    %]) to be associated with injury, while half of the runners found "insufficient recovery between running sessions" (53% [95%CI: 47%; 71%]) important. CONCLUSION: Runners and their coaches emphasize ignoring pain as a factor associated with injury development. The question remains how much running, if any at all......BACKGROUND: Behavioral science methods have rarely been used in running injury research. Therefore, the attitudes amongst runners and their coaches regarding factors leading to running injuries warrants formal investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the attitudes of middle- and long-distance runners...... able to compete in national championships and their coaches about factors associated with running injury development. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to middle- and long-distance runners and their coaches across 25 Danish Athletics Clubs. The main research question was: "Which...

  6. Spinal cord injury, immunodepression, and antigenic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Katherine S; Lane, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    The inability to effectively control microbial infection is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Available evidence from clinical studies as well as animal models of SCI demonstrate that increased susceptibility to infection is derived from disruption of central nervous system (CNS) communication with the host immune system that ultimately leads to immunodepression. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms governing muted cellular and humoral responses that occur post-injury resulting in impaired host defense following infection is critical for improving the overall quality of life of individuals with SCI. This review focuses on studies performed using preclinical animal models of SCI to evaluate how injury impacts T and B lymphocyte responses following either viral infection or antigenic challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cruciate ligament injuries under gender aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, D E; Vitzthum, K; Mache, S; Groneberg, D A; Quarcoo, D

    2011-12-01

    An injury of cruciate ligament is one the most common knee injuries. This accident happens mostly without external impact and towards the end of training and competition sessions. Women, especially athletes playing team sports ball games such as soccer or disciplines such as tennis, are affected 2 to 8 times more often than men. Anatomic, biomechanical and endocrinological differences are currently discussed as potential risk factors. In terms of prevention, biomechanical impact is of greatest importance given its influenceability through various training opportunities. Training programs including endurance aspects, strengthening knee musculature, balance as well as plyometric trainings were most effective. Further studies should focus more on concomitants of course of injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed......: feather light touch, pinprick, sharp/dull discrimination, warm, cold, point location, brush stroke direction, 2-point discrimination and pain perception. Gustation was tested for recognition of sweet, salt, sour and bitter. Mandibular block analgesia causes lingual nerve injury more frequently than...... inferior alveolar nerve injury. All grades of loss of neurosensory and gustatory functions were found, and a range of persisting neurogenic malfunctions was reported. Subjective complaints and neurosensory function tests indicate that lingual nerve lesions are more incapacitating than inferior alveolar...

  9. MAJOR INJURIES MUSCULOSKELETALS IN YOUNG ATHLETES BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.

  10. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  11. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID

  12. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 2Memfy's Hospital for Neurosurgery,. Enugu, Nigeria .... chest injuries. Lung contusion. Haemo-thorax. Peumo-thorax. Haemo/ pneumo-thorax. Major vessel. Total. Mortality. Extradural hematoma. 1. –. 1. –. –. 2. –. Subdural hematoma. 1. 1.

  13. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besenski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  14. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenski, N

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  15. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2002-06-01

    Due to the forces of acceleration, linear translation, as well as rotational and angular acceleration, the brain undergoes deformation and distortion depending on the site of impact of traumatizing force direction, severity of the traumatizing force, and tissue resistance of the brain. Linear translation of accereration in a closed-head injury can run along the shorter diameter of the skull in latero-lateral direction causing mostly extra-axial lesions (subdural hematoma,epidural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage) or quite pronounced coup and countercoup contusions. Contusions are considerably less frequently present in medial or paramedial centroaxial blows (fronto-occipital or occipito-frontal). The centroaxial blows produce a different pattern of lesions mostly in the deep structures, causing in some cases a special category of the brain injury, the diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The brain stem can also be damaged, but it is damaged more often in patients who have suffered centroaxial traumatic force direction. Computed tomography and MRI are the most common techniques in patients who have suffered brain injury. Computed tomography is currently the first imaging technique to be used after head injury, in those settings where CT is available. Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the corresponding pathological development of the brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is more sensitive for all posttraumatic lesions except skull fractures and subarachnoidal hemorrhage, but scanning time is longer, and the problem with the monitoring of patients outside the MRI field is present. If CT does not demonstrate pathology as can adequately be explained to account for

  16. The epidemiology of injury in adventure and extreme sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of injury in selected adventure and extreme sports. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'epidemiology', 'injury,' 'adventure sports' and 'extreme sports'. Publications from the past 10 years were largely selected, but commonly referenced or highly regarded older publications were also included. References lists of articles identified in the search strategy were also searched and articles selected that were judged to be relevant. Important aspects of the epidemiology of injury related to adventure and extreme sports are discussed including occurrence of injury, who is affected by injury, where and when injury occurs, injury outcome, risk factors, inciting events, prevention and further research. Given the life-changing impact injury can have in sports (personal, social, financial, psychological, political, and medical), the current paucity of well-designed descriptive and particularly analytical epidemiological studies in some adventure and extreme sports is disturbing. The importance of denominator-based and longitudinal data collection in obtaining an accurate picture of injury risk and severity and as a basis for testing risk factors and evaluating preventive measures is emphasized. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Football injuries in Oslo: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehlum, S.; Daljord, O. A.

    1984-01-01

    All football injuries treated at the Emergency Department, Oslo City Hospital, 1329 patients, 1167 males and 162 females, were recorded for one year, accounting for 28.4% of all sports injuries. Most injuries seen were in the 15-19 years age group in females and 20-24 years age group in males; 68% of the females and 42% of the males (p less than 0.001) were below 20 years of age, and 87% of the injuries occurred in competitive football. During matches, 695 players were injured giving an incidence of 34.5 injuries/10,000 player matches. The injuries occurred all year with a peak in June. Sprains accounted for 41% of the injuries, 23% were contusions and 19% fractures. Most injuries (59%) affected the legs. Hospital admission was required for three females and 57 males. The football injuries required 1966 consultations and necessitated that 349 patients had to stay away from work for a total of 6137 days. PMID:6487944

  18. Patterns in childhood sports injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damore, Dorothy T; Metzl, Jordan D; Ramundo, Maria; Pan, Sharon; Van Amerongen, Robert

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this epidemiologic study is twofold: first, to determine the relative frequency of sports-related injuries compared with all musculoskeletal injuries in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to the emergency department (ED), and second, to evaluate the sports-specific and anatomic site-specific nature of these injuries. Patterns of injury in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to four pediatric EDs with musculoskeletal injuries in October 1999 and April 2000 were prospectively studied. Information collected included age, sex, injury type, anatomical injury site, and cause of injury (sports-related or otherwise). Information about patient outcome and disposition was also obtained. There were a total of 1421 injuries in 1275 patients. Musculoskeletal injuries were more common in male patients (790/62%) than in female patients. The mean age of the patients was 12.2 years (95% CI, 12.0-12.4). Sprains, contusions, and fractures were the most common injury types (34, 30, and 25%, respectively). Female patients experienced a greater percentage of sprains (44% vs 36%) and contusions (37% vs 33%) and fewer fractures (22% vs 31%) than male patients. Sports injuries accounted for 41% (521) of all musculoskeletal injuries and were responsible for 8% (495/6173) of all ED visits. Head, forearm, and wrist injuries were most commonly seen in biking, hand injuries in football and basketball, knee injuries in soccer, and ankle and foot injuries in basketball. Sports injuries in children and adolescents were by far the most common cause of musculoskeletal injuries treated in the ED, accounting for 41% of all musculoskeletal injuries. This represents the highest percentage of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries per ED visit reported in children to date. As children and adolescents participate in sports in record numbers nationwide, sports injury research and prevention will become increasingly more important.

  19. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury | Mezue | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Associated chest injuries result in higher mortality from head injuries. This association is more likely in the young and more productive. All patients presenting with head and spinal cord injury should be specifically and carefully evaluated for associated chest injuries. Computerized tomographic has not replaced ...

  20. Tram system related cycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maempel, J F; Mackenzie, S P; Stirling, P H C; McCann, C; Oliver, C W; White, T O

    2018-01-24

    Understanding of tram-system related cycling injuries (TSRCI) is poor. The aim of this study was to report the spectrum of injuries, demographics and social deprivation status of patients. Secondary aims included assessment of accident circumstances, effects of TSRCI on patients' confidence cycling, together with time off work and cycling. A retrospective review of patients presenting to emergency services across all hospitals in Edinburgh and West Lothian with tram related injuries between May 2009 and April 2016 was undertaken. Medical records and imagining were analysed and patients were contacted by telephone. 191 cyclists (119 males, 72 females) were identified. 63 patients sustained one or more fractures or dislocations. Upper limb fractures/dislocations occurred in 55, lower limb fractures in 8 and facial fractures in 2. Most patients demonstrated low levels of socioeconomic deprivation. In 142 cases, the wheel was caught in tram-tracks, while in 32 it slid on tracks. The latter occurred more commonly in wet conditions (p = 0.028). 151 patients answered detailed questionnaires. Ninety-eight were commuting. 112 patients intended to cross tramlines and 65 accidents occurred at a junction. Eighty patients reported traffic pressures contributed to their accident. 120 stated that their confidence was affected and 24 did not resume cycling. Female gender (p < 0.001) and presence of a fracture/dislocation (p = 0.012) were independent predictors of negative effects on confidence. Patients sustaining a fracture/dislocation spent more time off work (median 5 days vs 1, p < 0.001) and cycling (median 57 days vs 21, p < 0.001). TSRCI occur predominantly in young to middle-aged adults with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation, most commonly when bicycle wheels get caught in tram-tracks. They result in various injuries, frequently affecting the upper limb. Traffic pressures are commonly implicated. Most patients report negative effects on confidence

  1. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  2. Heelys injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D; Arjandas, M; Lim, K B L; Lee, E H

    2006-05-01

    Heelys, a type of shoes with stealth wheels, are extremely popular among children in Singapore. The widespread availability of cheap imitations has led to a proliferation of young users. Coupled with a total lack of safety equipment and instructions, these shoes can lead to significant injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and type of injuries sustained by children using Heelys. During a seven-month period from February to August 2004, all children treated at the Paediatric Orthopaedic Department of the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, were asked if the injury was sustained while "heeling". All the patients were reviewed by the authors. A total of 37 patients with significant injuries sustained while "heeling" were identified. Their radiographs and clinical charts were reviewed. The patients and/or their parents were also interviewed to obtain additional information. Upper limb injuries were by far the most common. Distal radius fractures and elbow injuries predominated. None of the children used safety gear. "Heeling" can lead to serious injuries despite the relatively low velocity involved. Children and their parents need to be educated on the use of safety gear.

  3. BIRD ATTACK OCULAR INJURIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand

    2017-03-29

    To report 30 patients with bird attack-related eye injuries. This study was performed among patients coming to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2010 to 2015 with a history of bird attack causing eye injury. The inclusion criteria were a history of bird attack by pecking causing eye injury and having treatment and follow-up record for at least 6 months after treatment. The primary eye examinations included a full ophthalmic examination including evaluation of uncorrected visual acuity and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), anterior segment slit lamp biomicroscopy, and photography. For all patients with penetrating injury, primary repair was undertaken. Thirty patients (10 females and 20 males) with a mean age of 23.3 ± 18.5 years entered the study. The most common zone of injury was zone 1 (P < 0.001), and lensectomy was not needed in majority of patients (P < 0.001). The most common bird causing the injury was mynah (P < 0.001). Those patients with baseline BCVA of less than 20/200 or those with endophthalmitis had statistically worse final BCVA after treatment. Patients attacked by mynah bird had significantly better pretreatment uncorrected visual acuity and BCVA. The most common bird causing the eye injury among the sample of patients from Iran was mynah, which differs with previous studies indicating the rooster attack as the most common cause of eye injury. The authors also found that the most common zone of injury was zone 1, and the presence of endophthalmitis and lower baseline BCVA were significant risk factors for worse visual outcomes.

  4. Injuries in 13 international Athletics championships between 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Junge, Astrid; Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The International Association of Athletics Federation has systematically surveyed all Athletics injuries in their competitions since 2007 in order to develop strategies for health protection of their athletes. Analysis of frequency and characteristics of injuries during 13 international Athletics championships from 2007 to 2012 regarding different types of championships and discipline categories. The team physicians and the Local Organizing Committee reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form during each championship. A total of 1470 injuries were reported, equivalent to 81.1±4.2 injuries per 1000 registrations of which 36.7±2.9 were expected to result in absence from sports. The incidence of time-loss injuries was significantly higher in competition (29.0±2.6) than in training (5.8±1.9), and in outdoor (46.4±4.0) than in indoor (23.7±6.2) or youth/junior championships (13.2±4.0). While most in-competition time-loss injuries were reported during short distance events (32.5%), combined events had the highest incidence of in-competition time-loss injuries (106±26.5). The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (28.2%), followed by lower leg strain and ankle sprain. Injury location varied between different discipline categories: in long distances the lower leg, in Marathon the foot and in throws the upper extremity were mainly affected. The incidence of injuries varied substantially between different types of Athletics championships and between discipline categories. Special attention should be paid to combined events, running disciplines and (thigh) strain to better understand the injury mechanisms and risk factors and develop related preventive measures.

  5. Common injuries in volleyball. Mechanisms of injury, prevention and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, W W; Kacmar, L

    1997-07-01

    Volleyball has become an extremely popular participation sport worldwide. Fortunately, the incidence of serious injury is relatively low. The sport-specific activity most commonly associated with injury is blocking. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Recurrent sprains may be less likely to occur if an ankle orthosis is worn. Patellar tendinitis represents the most common overuse injury, although shoulder tendinitis secondary to the overhead activities of spiking and serving is also commonly seen. An unusual shoulder injury involving the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve which innervates the infraspinatus muscle has been increasingly described in volleyball players in recent years. Hand injuries, usually occurring while blocking, are the next most common group of injuries. Fortunately, severe knee ligament injuries are rare in volleyball. However, anterior crutiate ligament injury is more likely to occur in female players. Many of these injuries may be preventable with close attention to technique in sport-specific skills and some fairly simple preventive interventions.

  6. A new zebrafish bone crush injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sousa

    2012-07-01

    While mammals have a limited capacity to repair bone fractures, zebrafish can completely regenerate amputated bony fin rays. Fin regeneration in teleosts has been studied after partial amputation of the caudal fin, which is not ideal to model human bone fractures because it involves substantial tissue removal, rather than local tissue injury. In this work, we have established a bone crush injury model in zebrafish adult caudal fin, which consists of the precise crush of bony rays with no tissue amputation. Comparing these two injury models, we show that the initial stages of injury response are the same regarding the activation of wound healing molecular markers. However, in the crush assay the expression of the blastema marker msxb appears later than during regeneration after amputation. Following the same trend, bone cells deposition and expression of genes involved in skeletogenesis are also delayed. We further show that bone and blood vessel patterning is also affected. Moreover, analysis of osteopontin and Tenascin-C reveals that they are expressed at later stages in crushed tissue, suggesting that in this case bone repair is prolonged for longer than in the case of regeneration after amputation. Due to the nature of the trauma inflicted, the crush injury model seems more similar to fracture bone repair in mammals than bony ray amputation. Therefore, the new model that we present here may help to identify the key processes that regulate bone fracture and contribute to improve bone repair in humans.

  7. Safe Care to Knee Injuries in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the guarantee of sporting success lies in the appropriate functioning of the musculoskeletal system, given that its vulnerability hinders the performance of each athlete. Being timely is critical to provide safe care to the affections of knee; late diagnosis in this system may lead to the development of complications and hinder sport practice. Objective: to characterize knee injuries in athletes of the sport system in the province of Cienfuegos.Methods: an observational, quantitative and qualitative, longitudinal and retrospective study was conducted. It included 104 athletes who attended the Traumatology Consultation from 2009 to 2011, presenting different types of knee injuries in various stages of training. Variables such as age, sex, sport, site of injury, stage of training, kilocalories consumed, type of training, quality of equipment and diagnosis were analyzed. The procedure used consists of a comprehensive review of case notes and medical records of all patients that attended consultation during the period analyzed, from which the necessary data was collected. Interviews with coaches and technical staff were carried out as well. Results: knee injuries occur in all ages of athletes, with a slight predominance of males. Highest frequencies are those of the ligament and meniscus, with the highest incidence in athletics, volleyball and judo. Conservative treatment predominated.Conclusions: knee injuries require a timely treatment in order to achieve athlete's success and safety.

  8. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  9. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  10. Neurosensory sequelae assessed by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds after local cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Burström, Lage; Lilliesköld, Victoria Heldestad; Nilsson, Tohr; Nordh, Erik; Wahlström, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Local freezing cold injuries are common in the north and sequelae to cold injury can persist many years. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) can be used to assess neurosensory symptoms but has previously not been used on cold injury patients. To evaluate neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury by thermal and vibrotactile perception thresholds and by symptom descriptions. Fifteen patients with a local freezing cold injury in the hands or feet, acquired during military training, were studied with QST by assessment of vibrotactile (VPT), warmth (WPT) and cold (CPT) perception thresholds 4 months post-injury. In addition, a follow-up questionnaire, focusing on neurovascular symptoms, was completed 4 months and 4 years post-injury. QST demonstrated abnormal findings in one or both affected hands for VPT in 6 patients, for WPT in 4 patients and for CPT in 1 patient. In the feet, QST was abnormal for VPT in one or both affected feet in 8 patients, for WPT in 6 patients and for CPT in 4 patients. Freezing cold injury related symptoms, e.g. pain/discomfort when exposed to cold, cold sensation and white fingers were common at 4 months and persisted 4 years after the initial injury. Neurosensory sequelae after local freezing cold injury, in terms of abnormal thermal and/or vibration perception thresholds, may last at least 4 months after the initial injury. Symptoms such as pain/discomfort at cold exposure, cold sensations and white fingers may persist at least 4 years after the initial injury.

  11. Underreporting of Musculoskeletal Injuries in the US Army: Findings From an Infantry Brigade Combat Team Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurel; Westrick, Richard; Sauers, Sarah; Cooper, Adam; Scofield, Dennis; Claro, Pedro; Warr, Bradley

    2016-11-01

    Musculoskeletal injury is a significant threat to readiness in the US Army. Current injury surveillance methods are constrained by accurate injury reporting. Input into electronic medical records or databases therefore may not accurately reflect injury incidence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate injury reporting among active-duty US Army soldiers to explore potential limitations of surveillance approaches. A significant number of injuries go unreported to medical personnel. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. Surveys were completed by soldiers assigned to an Army Infantry Brigade Combat Team. Survey questions inquired about injuries sustained in the previous 12 months, injury onset, and whether injuries were reported to a medical provider. Participants were asked to rank reasons for accurately reporting, underreporting, and/or exaggerating injuries. Chi-square analyses were used to compare differences among underreported injuries in terms of injury onset (gradual vs acute) and sex. A total of 1388 soldiers reported 3202 injuries that had occurred in the previous 12-month period, including 1636 (51%) that were reported and 1566 (49%) that were identified as not reported to medical personnel. More than 49% of reported injuries were described as acute and 51% were described as chronic. Injury exaggeration was reported by 6% of soldiers. The most common reasons for not reporting injuries were fear that an injury might affect future career opportunities and avoidance of military "profiles" (mandated physical restrictions). Approximately half of musculoskeletal injuries in a Brigade Combat Team were not reported. Unreported and untreated injuries can lead to reinjury, chronic pain, performance decrements, and increased costs associated with disability benefits. Additionally, unreported injuries can undermine injury surveillance efforts aimed at reducing the musculoskeletal injury problem in the military. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Diagnosing Achilles tendon injuries in the emergency department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gibbons, Lynda

    2013-09-01

    Achilles tendon (AT) injury is an overuse injury often seen in professional and recreational athletes. It tends to affect men, particularly those in their thirties and forties, more than women, and is typically seen in people who are intermittently active. To ensure AT ruptures are identified and treated effectively, early intervention in emergency departments (EDs) is crucial. This article discusses how advanced nurse practitioners can use their comprehensive problem-solving, clinical decision-making and clinical judgement skills to manage patients who present with suspected AT injury. It also describes the anatomy of tendon rupture, the aetiology and mechanism of injuries, and the importance of assessment and diagnostic tools, therapeutic techniques and management strategies. Finally, it considers the psychological effect this injury can have on patients, while in the ED and after discharge. A case study is included as an example of ED management.

  13. Apoptosis-induced lymphopenia in sepsis and other severe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardot, Thibaut; Rimmelé, Thomas; Venet, Fabienne; Monneret, Guillaume

    2017-02-01

    Sepsis and other acute injuries such as severe trauma, extensive burns, or major surgeries, are usually followed by a period of marked immunosuppression. In particular, while lymphocytes play a pivotal role in immune response, their functions and numbers are profoundly altered after severe injuries. Apoptosis plays a central role in this process by affecting immune response at various levels. Indeed, apoptosis-induced lymphopenia duration and depth have been associated with higher risk of infection and mortality in various clinical settings. Therapies modulating apoptosis represent an interesting approach to restore immune competence after acute injury, although their use in clinical practice still presents several limitations. After briefly describing the apoptosis process in physiology and during severe injuries, we will explore the immunological consequences of injury-induced lymphocyte apoptosis, and describe associations with clinically relevant outcomes in patients. Therapeutic perspectives targeting apoptosis will also be discussed.

  14. Knee injuries in skiing. A prospective study from northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, G; Gedda, S; Hemborg, A

    1980-01-01

    This paper evaluates 420 ski injuries occurring in Northern Sweden in 1977. Our main aim was to correlate knee injuries with types of skiing and to note a change in incidence with evolution of equipment. Fifty-eight lesions (13.8%) affected the knee joint which is about the same frequency as 10 years earlier nor has introduction of high stiff boots in downhill skiing increased incidence of knee injuries. Cross-country and long-distance skiing produced more knee injuries (24.7%) than downhill skiing (11.4%). Cross-country skiers were older and more women in this group sustained knee injuries. The use of non-release type bindings is probably the main reason for this higher incidence but age and different skiing techniques seem to contribute.

  15. What kinds of injuries do OSHA inspections prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Amelia; Burns, Rachel; Gray, Wayne; Ruder, Teague; Mendeloff, John

    2010-08-01

    OSHA's enforcement program is one of the major public efforts to protect American workers. We examine both the scope of injury prevention that inspections can contribute and the types of standards that contribute the most. We linked Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry files for lost-time injuries and employment to calculate injury rates for 1998-2005 for all single-establishment manufacturing firms. We linked these to OSHA inspection records. Inspections with penalties did affect injury types unrelated to standards as well as those related. We also found again that citations for violations of the standard requiring personal protective equipment had the largest impact on preventing injuries. Programs requiring protective equipment use deserve added attention from consultants and inspectors. In addition, some inspections spur managers to undertake safety measures that go beyond compliance with standards. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct catastrophic injury in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P

    2005-11-01

    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  17. Temporomandibular disorders after whiplash injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Hjorth, Tine; Svensson, Peter

    2002-01-01

    to a motor vehicle accident involving a rear collision participated in a study of TMD. The control group consisted of 20 age- and gender-matched ankle-injury patients. Participants were seen within 4 weeks and again at 6 months post-injury. The masticatory system was examined in accordance with the research...... obtained at each visit. Results: One whiplash patient and I ankle-injury patient bad jaw pain at the first visit. Palpation scores of the TMJ and the summated palpation scores only tended to be higher in patients sustaining a whiplash injury than in ankle-injury controls at the first visit. However, MPQ......, TMD symptoms and signs, MVOF and PDT, I were not significantly different in whiplash-injury and ankle-injury patients after 4 weeks and 6 months. Conclusion: TMD pain after whiplash injury and ankle injury is rare, suggesting that whiplash injury is not a major risk factor for the development of TMD...

  18. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries (Chilblains [Pernio]; Frostnip; Immersion Foot [Trench Foot]) By ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  1. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  2. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments form an "X" in the center of the knee. Although a posterior cruciate ligament injury generally causes less pain, disability and knee instability than does an ACL ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ... Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of Use Site Map Privacy Statement 312-284-2525 info@ ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord ... SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert ...

  7. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  9. Flexor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Flexor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... move the fingers through cord-like extensions called tendons, which connect the muscles to bone. The flexor ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  11. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Muscle and Bone Diseases Joint Replacement Surgery Bursitis Fibromyalgia Fibrous Dysplasia Growth Plate Injuries Marfan Syndrome ... Health Sprains and Strains, Questions and Answers about Bursitis and Tendinitis, Questions and Answers about Last Reviewed: ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate ... Transition from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  14. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ...

  16. Peripheral vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine etiology and management in patients with peripheral vascular trauma.Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2006 with a diagnosis of peripheral artery injury, 69 cases admitted to Diyarbakır State Hospital Department of Cardiovascular surgery.Results: These cases have been respectively reviewed. The causes of injuries were; penetrating injuries in 60 cases (87%, blunt trauma in seven cases (10% and gunshot injuries in two cases (3%. In 53 cases (74% upper extremity, in 15 cases (21% lower extremity was involved. As a surgical procedure, in 34 cases (47% end-to-end anastomosis, in 28 cases (39% lateral suture, in five cases (7% venous graft interposition, in five cases (7% ligation was performed.Conclusion: Early intervention, transfusion of fluid and blood, systemic anticoagulation, preoperative and postoperative detailed debridement decreased the morbidity and mortality rates.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  20. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brachial Plexus Injuries Show More Show Less Search Disorders SEARCH SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  3. Overuse Injury Assessment Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stuhmiller, James H; Shen, Weixin; Sih, Bryant

    2005-01-01

    ... bone stresses and strains from kinematic and ground reaction force measures. We broaden the work to address not only the overuse injuries, but the performance enhancement and metabolic demands associated with training...

  4. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  8. Chemical and radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is a discussion of radiation injuries and the treatment thereof. Radiation injuries are mainly caused as a result of nuclear leaks or nuclear bomb explosions. Such an explosion is usually accompanied by a light flash, noise, heat radiation and nuclear radiation which can all caurse various types of injuries. The general effect of radioactive radiation is discussed. The seriousness of the situation where the whole body was exposed to nuclear radiation, depends on the total radiation dose received and varies from person to person. The progress of radiation sickness is described. Mention is also made of long term radiation effects. The emergency treatment of the injured before specialised aid is available, is discussed. The primary aim of treatment is to save life and to prevent further injuries and complications. Injured people must be removed as far as possible from the point of maximum radiation. Attention must also be given to decontamination

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  10. Common Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults can experience a similar condition, called ulnar collateral ligament injury. Symptoms are pain of the inside ... winter. This kind of variety can eliminate the risk of putting stress on the same joints week ...

  11. Traumatic bronchial injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cheaito, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: A high level of suspicion and the liberal use of bronchoscopy are important in the diagnosis of tracheobronchial injury. A tailored surgical approach is often necessary for definitive repair.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ... health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How ... advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. ...

  14. Peroneal Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of peroneal tendon injuries are tendonitis, tears and subluxation. Tendonitis is an inflammation of one or both ... An increase in the height of the arch Subluxation means one or both tendons have slipped out ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  16. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  17. Traumatic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 48-year-old male with unknown past medical history presents as a trauma after being hit by a car traveling approximately 25 miles per hour. On initial presentation, the patient is confused, combative, and not answering questions appropriately. The patient is hypotensive with a blood pressure of 68/40 and a heart rate of 50 beats per minute, with oxygen saturation at 96% on room air. FAST scan is positive for fluid in Morrison’s pouch, splenorenal space, and pericardial space. Significant findings: The initial chest x-ray showed an abnormal superior mediastinal contour (blue line, suggestive of a possible aortic injury. The CT angiogram showed extensive circumferential irregularity and outpouching of the distal aortic arch (red arrows compatible with aortic transection. In addition, there was a circumferential intramural hematoma, which extended through the descending aorta to the proximal infrarenal abdominal aorta (green arrow. There was also an extensive surrounding mediastinal hematoma extending around the descending aorta and supraaortic branches (purple arrows. Discussion: Traumatic aortic injury is a life-threatening event. The incidence of blunt thoracic aortic injury is low, between 1 to 2 percent of those patients with blunt thoracic trauma.1 However, approximately 80% of patients with traumatic aortic injury die at the scene.2 Therefore it is imperative to diagnose traumatic aortic injury in a timely fashion. The diagnosis can be difficult due to the non-specific signs and symptoms and other distracting injuries. Clinical suspicion should be based on the mechanism of the injury and the hemodynamic status of the patient. In any patient with blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest that is hemodynamically unstable, traumatic aortic injury should be on the differential. Chest x-ray can be used as a screening tool. A normal chest x-ray has a negative predictive value of approximately 97%. CTA chest is the

  18. “Studying Injured Minds” – The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 Years of Brain Injury Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymont, Vanessa; Salazar, Andres M.; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI) during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology, and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established. PMID:21625624

  19. ‘Studying Injured Minds’ - The Vietnam Head Injury Study and 40 years of brain injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eRaymont

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of those who have sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBI during military conflicts has greatly facilitated research in the fields of neuropsychology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neurology and neuroimaging. The Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of a cohort of 1,221 Vietnam veterans with mostly penetrating brain injuries, which has stretched over more than 40 years. The scope of this study, both in terms of the types of injury and fields of examination, has been extremely broad. It has been instrumental in extending the field of TBI research and in exposing pressing medical and social issues that affect those who suffer such injuries. This review summarizes the history of conflict-related TBI research and the VHIS to date, as well as the vast range of important findings the VHIS has established.

  20. Laser eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, Y; Belkin, M

    2000-01-01

    Laser instruments are used in many spheres of human activity, including medicine, industry, laboratory research, entertainment, and, notably, the military. This widespread use of lasers has resulted in many accidental injuries. Injuries are almost always retinal, because of the concentration of visible and near-infrared radiation on the retina. The retina is therefore the body tissue most vulnerable to laser radiation. The nature and severity of this type of retinal injury is determined by multiple laser-related and eye-related factors, the most important being the duration and amount of energy delivered and the retinal location of the lesion. The clinical course of significant retinal laser injuries is characterized by sudden loss of vision, often followed by marked improvement over a few weeks, and occasionally severe late complications. Medical and surgical treatment is limited. Laser devices hazardous to the human eye are currently in widespread use by armed forces. Furthermore, lasers may be employed specifically for visual incapacitation on future battlefields. Adherence to safety practices effectively prevents accidental laser-induced ocular injuries. However, there is no practical way to prevent injuries that are maliciously inflicted, as expected from laser weapons.

  1. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  2. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hamstring injuries: update article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Ernlund

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hamstring (HS muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports. They are correlated to long rehabilitations and have a great tendency to recur. The HS consist of the long head of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. The patient's clinical presentation depends on the characteristics of the lesion, which may vary from strain to avulsions of the proximal insertion. The most recognized risk factor is a previous injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the injury diagnosis and classification. Many classification systems have been proposed; the current classifications aim to describe the injury and correlate it to the prognosis. The treatment is conservative, with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the acute phase followed by a muscle rehabilitation program. Proximal avulsions have shown better results with surgical repair. When the patient is pain free, shows recovery of strength and muscle flexibility, and can perform the sport's movements, he/she is able to return to play. Prevention programs based on eccentric strengthening of the muscles have been indicated both to prevent the initial injury as well as preventing recurrence.

  4. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain. Discussion: A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle. PMID:17987171

  5. Examining the effect of the injury definition on risk factor analysis in circus artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G M; Meeuwisse, W H; Emery, C A; Shrier, I

    2012-06-01

    A secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study was conducted to explore how different definitions of injury affect the results of risk factor analyses. Modern circus artists (n=1281) were followed for 828,547 performances over a period of 49 months (2004-2008). A univariate risk factor analysis (age, sex, nationality, artist role) estimating incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was conducted using three injury definitions: (1) medical attention injuries, (2) time-loss injuries resulting in ≥1 missed performances (TL-1) and (3) time-loss injuries resulting in >15 missed performances (TL-15). Results of the risk factor analysis were dependent on the injury definition. Sex (females to male; IRR=1.13, 95% CI; 1.02-1.25) and age over 30 (30 years; IRR=1.37, 95% CI; 1.07-1.79) were risk factors for medical attention injuries only. Risk of injury for Europeans compared with North Americans was higher for TL-1 and TL-15 injuries compared with medical attention injuries. Finally, non-sudden load artists (low-impact acts) were less likely than sudden load artists (high-impact acts) to have TL-1 injuries, but the risk of medical attention injuries was similar. The choice of injury definition can have effects on the magnitude and direction of risk factor analyses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Characteristics and prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in professional and non-professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michelle S S; Ferreira, Arthur S; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Elirez B; Felicio, Lilian R

    2016-01-19

    Ballet is a high-performance activity that requires an advanced level of technical skills. Ballet places great stress on tendons, muscles, bones, and joints and may act directly as a trigger of injury by overuse. 1) to describe the main types of injuries and affected areas related to classical ballet and 2) to compare the frequency of musculoskeletal injuries among professional and non-professional ballet dancers, considering possible gender differences among the professional dancers. A total of 110 questionnaires were answered by professional and non-professional dancers. The questionnaire contained items related to the presence of injury, the regions involved, and the mechanism of the injury. We observed a high frequency of musculoskeletal injuries, with ankle sprains accounting for 69.8% of injuries in professional dancers and 42.1% in non-professional dancers. Pirouettes were the most frequent mechanism of injury in professional dancers, accounting for 67.9% of injuries, whereas in the non-professional dancers, repetitive movement was the most common mechanism (28.1%). Ankle sprains occurred in 90% of the women's injuries, and muscle sprains occurred in 54.5% of the men's injuries. The most frequent injury location was the ankle joint in both sexes among the professional dancers, with 67.6% in women and 40.9% in men. The identification of the mechanism of injury and time of practice may contribute to better therapeutic action aimed at the proper function of the dancers' bodies and improved performance by these athletes.

  7. Patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in Iraq: retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gataa, I S; Muassa, Q H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, Iraq has witnessed daily terrorist attacks mainly using improvised explosive devices. The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of maxillofacial injuries caused by terrorist attacks in a sample of Iraqi casualties. Records from two hospitals, including 551 patients who sustained maxillofacial injuries due to terrorists attacks, were analyzed according to the patients' age, sex, site of injury, type of injury and cause of injury. Concomitant injuries and mortality were also considered. The most common age group affected was those aged 15-29 years. Most of these injuries were caused by improvised explosive devices (71%). More than one facial zone was injured in 212 patients (38%). Isolated soft tissues injuries were detected in (54%) of victims. Pure maxillofacial injuries comprised 33%. The most common injuries associated with this type of trauma were eye injuries (29%). The mortality rate was 2% from pure maxillofacial injuries. Terrorist attacks cause unique maxillofacial injuries, which should be considered a new entity in the trauma field. Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  9. Nutritional Support in Acute Kidney Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe BİLGİÇ; Ali AKÇAY; Siren SEZER

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication affecting many hospitalized patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. AKI seldom occurs as isolated organ failure; much more often it emerges as a component of the multiple organ failure syndrome, within the framework of the severe-prolonged catabolic phase determined by critical illness. Patients with AKI often have protein-energy wasting, which represents a major negative prognostic factor. Malnutrition in AKI pat...

  10. Spinal cord injury and male infertility: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Finger, Guilherme; Souza, Olívia Egger de; Pasqualotto, Fabio Firmbach

    2012-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries remain an important factor of morbimortality in current society, involving mainly males from adolescence to adulthood. Among the sequelae caused by spinal cord injuries, the impairment of the sexual system is highly relevant since it affects the quality of sexual life and paternity. Infertility is secondary to multiple events such as erectile dysfunction, anejaculation, seminal biochemical modification and morphology of spermatozoa. Current therapies for the infertile spi...

  11. Bilateral brachial plexus injury following acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mounia; Belaidi, Halima; Benabdeljlil, Maria; Bouchhab, Wafa; El Jazouli, Nadia; El Brini, Asmae; Aidi, Saadia; Ouazzani, Reda M; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. It consists usually in a demyelinating polyneuropathy or mononeuropathy affecting mainly the lower limbs. Isolated involvement of both upper extremities has been described in only 4 patients related to root damage. We report the first case of bilateral brachial plexus injury following CO poisoning and review all previous CO-induced neuropa...

  12. The profile of spinal injuries in the elderly population

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira,Glaciéle de Oliveira; Oliveira,Thais Fonseca de; Frison,Verônica Baptista; Resende,Thais de Lima

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study sought to: describe the profile of the elderly population who suffered spinal injury (SI) between 2005 and 2010 in Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil; compare the trauma mechanism and type of SI prevalence in both sexes; and compare the trauma mechanism in the sample's age groups. To this end, medical records were reviewed for the following data: age, sex, main mechanisms of injury and spinal levels affected. Out of 1.320 records analyzed, 370 belonged to elder...

  13. Resuscitation speed affects brain injury in a large animal model of traumatic brain injury and shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Martin; Jin, Guang; Johansson, Pär I

    2014-01-01

    infusion speed increment NS (n¿=¿7). Hemodynamic variables over a 6-hour observation phase were recorded. Following euthanasia, brains were harvested and lesion size as well as brain swelling was measured.ResultsBolus FFP resuscitation resulted in greater brain swelling (22.36¿±¿1.03% vs. 15.58¿±¿2.52%, p...

  14. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  15. Injuries to children riding BMX bikes.

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, C M

    1984-01-01

    One hundred children presented over 40 days with BMX bike injuries, 40 of which had been sustained while trying to perform stunts. Injuries in this series were compared with previously reported injuries from accidents on ordinary bicycles. BMX bike injuries differed little from ordinary bike injuries except in the greater proportion of injuries due to stunts and the smaller incidence of head injuries.

  16. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women's basketball injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Julie; Olson, David E; Dick, Randall; Arendt, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Stephen W; Sikka, Robby S

    2007-01-01

    high-risk contact sport also will continue. The rates of concussions and other high-energy trauma injuries likely will increase. The NCAA ISS is an excellent tool for identifying new risk factors that may affect injury rates and for developing consistent injury definitions in order to improve the research and provide a source of clinically relevant data.

  17. Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, M K; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Guthua, S W

    2007-06-01

    Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. A cross-sectional study. Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by

  18. Epidemiology and management of paediatric head injury in eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In children, majority of the head injuries are minor and management of critically ill children depend on a team approach using well-rehearsed, systematic management protocols that can be implemented within hours after injury. This study was carried out to ascertain the epidemiology and management of know the demographic profile and etiology of paediatric head injury in our setting, to know the clinical and radiological characteristics of head injury patients and to know the treatment options and outcome in paediatric head injuries. Patients and Methods: Details of all children (age < 16 years with head injury seen in 1 year from 01.04.2005 to 31.03.2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic profile, clinical details, investigations, treatment offered, and outcome were noted in a proforma. All data were analyzed by appropriate SPSS 11.0 statistical software tools. Results: There were total 43 patients. Young male children were more commonly affected in present series with a mean age of 7.67 years (median - 5.010 years, range 6 months-16 year. Fall (65.11% was the most common mode of injury followed by road traffic accidents (RTAs (25.6%. Mild head injuries (65.11% were most common. Most common complaint was loss of consciousness and all the patients with severe head injury presented loss of consciousness. All patients with mild head showed good recovery; with moderate head injury, nine patients showed good recovery and three patients recovered with moderate disability. Patients with severe head injury (three patients had 100% mortality. Conclusions: In urban areas of Nepal, RTAs like vehicular crashes, motor cycle accidents, and pedestrian hit by moving vehicle are more common and in rural areas fall from height are commoner. We need to develop child safety legislations and risk-specific intervention programs in Nepal.

  19. Management of penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekim, H.; Basel, H.; Odabasi, D.; Tuncer, M.; Gumrukcuoglu, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Penetrating heart injury is potentially a life threatening condition due to cardiac tamponade or exsanguinating hemorrhage. The aim of this study was to evaluate victims who were referred to our hospital with penetrating heart and accompanying lung injuries and to review our overall outcome with this type of combined injuries. Methodology: Twenty patients with combined penetrating heart and lung injuries were operated at Yuzuncu Yil University Research Hospital, between May 1999 and January 2010. The diagnosis of combined heart and lung injuries was proved by surgical exploration in all cases. The surgical procedures mainly included the relief of cardiac tamponade, control of bleeding, repair of cardiac and pulmonary lacerations, and coronary artery bypass grafting if required. Results: In this series of 20 patients; there were 18 males and two females between the age of 14 to 60 years, with a mean age of 34.8+-13.5 years. Seventeen victims sustained stab wounds, and the remaining three were injured by a gunshot wounds. In 20 patients there were 22 cardiac chamber injuries. The most commonly injured cardiac chamber was the right ventricle followed by the left ventricle. In addition to the injuries to heart muscle, injuries to the coronary arteries were found in two patients. The most commonly injured lung lobe was the left upper lobe. Conclusion: Our experience shows that early diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention are the main factors affecting patient survival after penetrating heart and lung injuries. Therefore, heart injury should always be kept in mind in victims with penetrating thoracic injuries. (author)

  20. Gunshot injuries in the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Filho, T E P; Cristante, A F; Marcon, R M; Ono, A; Bilhar, R

    2014-07-01

    Review article. To review the literature regarding treatment approaches in cases of gunshot wounds (GSWs) affecting the spine. Brazil. Narrative review of medical literature. GSWs are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Most patients with spinal GSW have complete neurological deficit. The injury is more common in young men and is frequently immobilizing. The initial approach should follow advanced trauma life support, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy should be initiated immediately, especially in patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract. The indications for surgery in spinal GSW are deterioration of the neurologic condition in a patient with incomplete neurological deficit, the presence of liquor fistula, spinal instability, intoxication by the metal from the bullet or risk of bullet migration. Surgical treatment is associated with a higher complication rate than conservative treatment. Therefore, the surgeon must know the treatment limitations and recognize patients who would truly benefit from surgery.

  1. The role of free radicals in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Karen M; Littleton-Kearney, Marguerite T

    2013-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of death and disability in both the civilian and the military populations. The primary impact causes initial tissue damage, which initiates biochemical cascades, known as secondary injury, that expand the damage. Free radicals are implicated as major contributors to the secondary injury. Our review of recent rodent and human research reveals the prominent role of the free radicals superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite in secondary brain injury. Much of our current knowledge is based on rodent studies, and the authors identified a gap in the translation of findings from rodent to human TBI. Rodent models are an effective method for elucidating specific mechanisms of free radical-induced injury at the cellular level in a well-controlled environment. However, human TBI does not occur in a vacuum, and variables controlled in the laboratory may affect the injury progression. Additionally, multiple experimental TBI models are accepted in rodent research, and no one model fully reproduces the heterogeneous injury seen in humans. Free radical levels are measured indirectly in human studies based on assumptions from the findings from rodent studies that use direct free radical measurements. Further study in humans should be directed toward large samples to validate the findings in rodent studies. Data obtained from these studies may lead to more targeted treatment to interrupt the secondary injury cascades.

  2. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries. PMID:26258134

  3. Analysis of horse-related injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Katalin; Swatek, Paul; Lénárt, Imre; Mayr, Johannes; Schmidt, Barbara; Pintér, András; Höllwarth, Michael E

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate factors affecting the nature, characteristics, severity and outcome of horseback and horse care injuries in paediatric patients and to create guidelines for injury prevention. Detailed clinical records of 265 children sustained horse-riding related injuries have been analysed. Questionnaires were mailed to provide follow-up information for patients who have been treated in either Department of Paediatric Surgery in Pécs, Hungary, or Department of Paediatric Surgery in Graz, Austria between 1999 and 2003. Those 112 children (42%) who answered the questionnaire were included in the study and further analyses were performed. Female to male ratio of the 112 patients was 101/11. Trauma occurred during horseback riding accounted for 76.8% of all cases; these injuries represented more severe cases comparing to those which happened while handling a horse (23.2%). The mechanism as well as the localisation of injury displayed a close association with age. Prevention strategies targeting horse-related injuries at children should appreciate the age-dependent nature of injury as well as the fact that injury severity is not necessarily associated with the experience of the rider.

  4. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  5. National estimates of outdoor recreational injuries treated in emergency departments, United States, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adrian H; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2008-01-01

    To provide national estimates of nonfatal outdoor recreational injuries treated in US emergency departments (EDs). Outdoor recreational injuries from January 2004 through December 2005 were identified using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program, a nationally representative sample of ED visits. National estimates of outdoor recreational injuries were calculated, and activities leading to injury, demographic characteristics, principal diagnoses, and primary body parts affected were described. From January 2004 through December 2005, an estimated 212 708 (95% CI = 113 808- 311 608) persons were treated each year in US EDs for outdoor recreational injuries. The annual rate of injuries was 72.1 per 100 000 population (95% CI = 38.6-105.6). Males accounted for 68.2% of the injuries. The lower limb (27%), upper limb (25%), and head and neck region (23.3%) were the most commonly injured body regions. Fractures (27.4%) and sprains or strains (23.9%) were the most common diagnoses. Traumatic brain injuries were diagnosed in 6.5% of injuries, and 5% of injuries resulted in hospitalization or transfer to another hospital. The results of this study provide a starting point for further research into the epidemiology of outdoor and wilderness injury. The results reinforce many common perceptions about the nature of these injuries while highlighting the potential severity and long-term consequences of the injuries. The general recommendations of proper planning, preparation, and problem anticipation for outdoor and wilderness injury prevention should be followed to reduce both the number and severity of injuries.

  6. Injuries in Professional Male Soccer Players in the Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Janine H.; van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie M. C.; van der Knaap, Sissi; Stege, Jasper; Verhagen, Evert A.; van Mechelen, Willem; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Dutch premier soccer league. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2009–2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed. Main Outcome Measure(s): The medical staff recorded time-loss injuries, including information on injuries (ie, type, body part, duration) and exposure data for training sessions and matches. Results: A total of 286 injuries were recorded, affecting 62.7% of the players. The overall injury incidence was 6.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours, 2.8 in training sessions and 32.8 in matches. Most of the recorded injuries were acute (68.5%). Eight percent of the injuries were classified as recurrent. Injuries were most likely to be located in the lower extremities (82.9%). Injury time loss ranged from 1 to 752 days, with a median of 8 days. Knee injuries had the greatest consequences in terms of days of absence from soccer play (on average, 45 days). The most common diagnosis was muscle/tendon injury of the lower extremities (32.9%). Conclusions: Injury risk in the Dutch premier soccer league is high, especially during matches. Preventive measures should focus on the most common diagnoses, namely, muscle/tendon injuries of the lower extremities. PMID:25531144

  7. Two-Team Management of Vascular Injuries Concomitant with Osteo-Articular Injuries in 36 Patients over Six Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, B; Boyer, E; Menu, G; Leclerc, G; Sergent, P; Ducroux, E; Mont, L Salomon Du; Garbuio, P; Rinckenbach, S; Obert, L

    2018-03-22

    Patients with both vascular and osteoarticular injuries require multidisciplinary management. Vascular injuries may be function- and/or life-threatening. The lower limbs are predominantly affected. Traffic, domestic, and work-related accidents contribute most of the cases. The primary objective of this study was to describe the management of patients with concomitant vascular and osteo-articular injuries, with special attention to the rates of amputation and fasciotomy. The secondary objective was to suggest a management sequence to optimise our surgical practice. The management sequence is a crucial consideration in patients with both vascular and osteo-articular injuries. A 6-year, retrospective, observational study was conducted in patients with concomitant vascular and osteo-articular injuries. The study included 36 patients with a mean age of 40.6±22.1 years. The main sources of injury were traffic accidents (n=19, 52.8%), crush injury (n=8, 22.2%), and falls (n=5, 13.9%). A compound fracture was present in 20 (55.6%) patients. Evidence of ischaemia in 25 (69.4%) patients, and bleeding in 11 (30.6%) patients. Pre-operative imaging, by ultrasonography or computed tomography, was performed in 27 (75.0%) patients. The lower limb was involved in 30 (83.3%) patients, who had osteoarticular injuries to the femur and leg combined with injury to the popliteal artery. Fasciotomy was performed in 11 (30.6%) patients and secondary amputation in 7 (19.4%) patients. The limb salvage rate was 80.6%. Median patient survival was 9.3 [0-74.8] months. Coordinated work by two surgical teams is crucial to manage concomitant vascular and osteo-articular injuries. The management sequence must be defined clearly. Computed tomography angiography is the investigation of choice and should be performed at the slightest suspicion of vascular injury. IV, retrospective observational study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Time to return to full training is delayed and recurrence rate is higher in intratendinous ('c') acute hamstring injury in elite track and field athletes: clinical application of the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Noel; Patel, Anish; Chakraverty, Julian; Suokas, Anu; James, Stephen L J; Chakraverty, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification describes acute muscle injuries and their anatomical site within muscle based on MRI parameters of injury extent. It grades injuries from 0 to 4 and classifies location based on a myofascial (a), musculotendinous (b) or intratendinous (c) description. This is a retrospective cohort study that assessed time to return to full training (TRFT) and injury recurrence in the different British Athletics classifications for hamstring injuries sustained by elite track and field (T&F) athletes over a 4-year period. The electronic medical records (EMRs) of 230 elite British T&F athletes were reviewed. Athletes who sustained an acute hamstring injury, with MRI investigation within 7 days of injury, were included. MRI were graded by two musculoskeletal radiologists using the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. The EMRs were reviewed by 2 sports physicians, blinded to the new classification; TRFT and injury recurrence were recorded. There were 65 hamstring injuries in 44 athletes (24±4.4 years; 28 male, 16 female). TRFT differed among grades (pinjuries and 'c' injuries took significantly longer and grade 0 injuries took less TRFT. There were 12 re-injuries; the injury recurrence rate was significantly higher in intratendinous (c) injuries (pinjury rate between number grades 1-3, hamstring muscle affected, location (proximal vs central vs distal), age or sex. This study describes the clinical application of the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Different categories of hamstring injuries had different TRFT and recurrence rate. Hamstring injuries that extend into the tendon ('c') are more prone to re-injury and delay TRFT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. SECONDARY BRAIN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Basmatika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary brain injury is a condision that occurs at some times after the primary impact and can be largely prevented and treated. Most brain injury ends with deadly consequences which is caused by secondary damage to the brain. Traumatic brain injured still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals under the age of 45 years in the world. The classification of secondary brain injured is divided into extracranial and intracranial causes. The cause of extracranial such as hipoxia, hypotensi, hyponatremia, hypertermia, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The cause of intracranial such as extradural, subdural, intraserebral, intraventrikular, dan subarachnoid hemorrhage. Beside that secondary injury can also be caused by edema and infection. Post-traumatic cerebral injured is characterized by direct tissue damage, impaired regulation of cerebral blood flow (cerebral blood flow / CBF, and disruption of metabolism. Manifestations of secondary brain injured include increased intracranial pressure, ischemic brain damage, cerebral hypoxia and hypercarbi, as well as disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The first priority is to stabilize the patient's cervical spine injury, relieve and maintain airway, ensure adequate ventilation (breathing, and making venous access for fluid resuscitation pathways (circulation and assessing the level of awareness and disability. This steps is crucial in patients with head injured to prevent hypoxia and hypotension, which is the main cause of secondary brain injury.

  11. Epidemiology of electrical and lightning-related injuries among Canadian children and youth, 1997-2010: A Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhrer, Madeleine; Stewart, Samuel A; Hurley, Katrina F

    2017-06-27

    Introduction Although death due to electrical injury and lightning are rare in children, these injuries are often preventable. Twenty years ago, most injuries occurred at home, precipitated by oral contact with electrical cords, contact with wall sockets and faulty electrical equipment. We sought to assess the epidemiology of electrical injuries in children presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) that participate in the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). This study is a retrospective review of electrical and lightning injury data from CHIRPP. The study population included children and youth aged 0-19 presenting to participating CHIRPP EDs from 1997-2010. Age, sex, year, setting, circumstance and disposition were extracted. Variables were tested using Fisher's exact test and simple linear regression. The dataset included 1183 electrical injuries, with 84 (7%) resulting in hospitalization. Most events occurred at home in the 2-5 year age group and affected the hands. Since 1997 there has been a gradual decrease in the number of electrical injuries per year (plightning were rare (n=19). No deaths were recorded in the database. Despite the decrease in the number of electrical injuries per year, a large portion of injuries still appear to be preventable. Further research should focus on effective injury prevention strategies.

  12. Acute spinal cord injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Izunaga, H.; Sato, R.; Shinzato, I.; Korogi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on sequential MR images and neurologic findings that were correlated in 40 acute spinal cord injuries. Within 1 week after injury, frequent initial MR changes appeared isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images and isointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 2 months, hypointensity appeared on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity persisted or appeared on T2-weighted images. Clinical improvements were observed in patients with isointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the initial examination. A larger area of hyperintensity on subsequent T2-weighted images was correlated with no neurologic improvement. MR findings were good indicators of the spinal cord injury

  13. The use of antioxidants in the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegoni, Whitney; Shen, Qiuhua; Thimmesch, Amanda R; Bell, Meredith; Hiebert, John B; Pierce, Janet D

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss secondary traumatic brain injury, the mitochondria and the use of antioxidants as a treatment. One of the leading causes of death globally is traumatic brain injury, affecting individuals in all demographics. Traumatic brain injury is produced by an external blunt force or penetration resulting in alterations in brain function or pathology. Often, with a traumatic brain injury, secondary injury causes additional damage to the brain tissue that can have further impact on recovery and the quality of life. Secondary injury occurs when metabolic and physiologic processes alter after initial injury and includes increased release of toxic free radicals that cause damage to adjacent tissues and can eventually lead to neuronal necrosis. Although antioxidants in the tissues can reduce free radical damage, the magnitude of increased free radicals overwhelms the body's reduced defence mechanisms. Supplementing the body's natural supply of antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, can attenuate oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Discussion paper. Research literature published from 2011-2016 in PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane. Prompt and accurate assessment of patients with traumatic brain injury by nurses is important to ensure optimal recovery and reduced lasting disability. Thus, it is imperative that nurses be knowledgeable about the secondary injury that occurs after a traumatic brain injury and aware of possible antioxidant treatments. The use of antioxidants has potential to reduce the magnitude of secondary injury in patients who experience a traumatic brain injury. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Junsuke; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko

    2012-12-10

    The purpose of this present study was to examine contralateral ACL injury cases after ACL reconstruction, to determine the characteristics of such injuries. We performed a retrospective analysis of 24 patients with contralateral ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The control group consisted of 200 cases with unilateral ACL injury. The following were examined in the contralateral group: timing of the contralateral ACL injury, and the situations of the initial and contralateral ACL injuries. The following items were compared between the contralateral and control groups: age at the time of initial injury, level of competitive sports using Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity (KT-1000), and the ratio (%) of affected to unaffected legs in the strengths of the knee extensor and flexor muscles 6 months after surgery. Examination of injury situations showed that approximately 70% of the contralateral group was injured in situations similar to those at their initial injuries. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age at the time of initial injury , Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity, and the strengths of the knee extensor, flexor muscles and H/Q ratio 6 months after reconstruction. But, the age at the time of initial injury trended to be low in contralateral group. Knee anterior laxity and muscle weakness of the reconstructed legs six months following surgery were not individually related to contralateral ACL injury occurring approximately two years after surgery.

  15. Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakase Junsuke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this present study was to examine contralateral ACL injury cases after ACL reconstruction, to determine the characteristics of such injuries. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 24 patients with contralateral ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The control group consisted of 200 cases with unilateral ACL injury. The following were examined in the contralateral group: timing of the contralateral ACL injury, and the situations of the initial and contralateral ACL injuries. The following items were compared between the contralateral and control groups: age at the time of initial injury, level of competitive sports using Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity (KT-1000, and the ratio (% of affected to unaffected legs in the strengths of the knee extensor and flexor muscles 6 months after surgery. Results Examination of injury situations showed that approximately 70% of the contralateral group was injured in situations similar to those at their initial injuries. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age at the time of initial injury , Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity, and the strengths of the knee extensor, flexor muscles and H/Q ratio 6 months after reconstruction. But, the age at the time of initial injury trended to be low in contralateral group. Conclusions Knee anterior laxity and muscle weakness of the reconstructed legs six months following surgery were not individually related to contralateral ACL injury occurring approximately two years after surgery.

  16. Pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries in a Nigerian Referral Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Udeabor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of midface trauma with associated concomitant injuries seen in our environment. Methodology: This was a prospective analysis of trauma patients with midfacial injuries presenting at a referral center in South West Nigeria. In addition to socio-demographic data, the following information was also obtained: Mechanism of injuries, type of midfacial injuries, concomitant/associated injuries and treatment. Results: A total of 101 patients with midfacial injuries were involved. They were made up of 85 males and 16 females. The 20-29 year age group was mostly affected (44.6% and the most common cause of midface injuries was road traffic accident (91.1%. The zygoma was fractured more than any other midfacial bone (46.0%. A total of 144 associated injuries were recorded among these patients, head and ocular injuries accounted for 49 (34% and 35 (24.3% respectively. The patients were mostly treated conservatively or by closed reduction. Conclusion: The rate of head and ocular injuries among patients with midfacial injury was high. Knowledge of these associated injuries provides useful strategies for patient care and prevention of further complications. A multidisciplinary approach is important for optimum management of these patients.

  17. Understanding unintentional childhood home injuries: pilot surveillance data from Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Nukhba; Khan, Uzma R; Razzak, Junaid A; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2012-01-19

    Childhood injuries, an important public health issue, globally affects more than 95% of children living in low-and middle-income countries. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of childhood unintentional injuries in Karachi, Pakistan with a specific focus on those occurring within the home environment. This was a secondary analysis of a childhood unintentional injury surveillance database setup in the emergency department of the Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan for 3 months. The data was collected by interviewing caretakers of children under 12 years of age presenting with an unintentional injury to the emergency departments of the four major tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. The surveillance included 566 injured children of which 409 (72%) injuries had taken place at/around home. Of 409 children, 66% were males and mostly between 5 and 11 years of age. Injuries commonly occurred during play time (51%). Fall (59%), dog bites (11%) and burns (9%) were the commonest mechanisms of injury. The majority of the children (78%) were directly discharged from the emergency room with predicted short term disability (42%). There were 2 deaths in the emergency department both due to falls. Childhood injury surveillance system provides valuable in-depth information on child injuries. The majority of these unintentional childhood injuries occur at home; with falls, dog bites and burns being the most common types of unintentional childhood home injuries. Specific surveillance systems for child injuries can provide new and valuable information for countries like Pakistan.

  18. Increased injury rates after the restructure of Germany's national second league of team handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luig, Patrick; Krutsch, Werner; Nerlich, Michael; Henke, Thomas; Klein, Christian; Bloch, Hendrik; Platen, Petra; Achenbach, Leonard

    2018-02-05

    Scientific injury data in men's professional team handball injuries are rare and even less scientific information exists on injury prevention. In 2011, Germany's national second team handball league was restructured by merging the existing two regional leagues into one league. This study evaluates the injury patterns in professional team handball and compares the injury rates between the first and second league before and after the restructure. All players of Germany's national first and second men's team handball leagues have mandatory trauma insurance with the same insurance company. This retrospective cohort study analysed the injury data of three consecutive seasons 2010-2013 using standardized injury definitions. 1194 professional team handball players were included in this study. The majority of severe injuries affected the lower extremities, shoulders, and hands. The average injury incidence significantly differed between the first (4.9 injuries per 1000 h) and the second league (3.9 per 1000 h, p team handball league and presents details on prevalence, incidence, and patterns of injury in professional men's team handball. This study is an important basis for developing injury prevention strategies that should focus on the shoulders, hands, and lower extremities and on reducing the number of matches and travel burden. III.

  19. Development and environment of new electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`; Shingata denki jidosha eko vehicle kaihatsu to kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper introduces history of the development of an electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`. It is provided with a high overall energy efficiency compared with an engine vehicle. The Ecovihicle is 1.2m in width, 3.3m in length, 2 seating capacities and 910kg in overall weight with serially connected 56 batteries of each 4V, 40Ah and having the total weight of 269kg. Its travel distance per charging is 130km at a speed of 80 k.p.h. This vehicle is capable of running with an energy of approximately one third as much as that of a light car. In addition, the vehicle is provided with polycrystal solar batteries placed on 0.6m{sup 2} area on the roof and spoiler generating 60W maximum. Assuming the annual duration of sunshine is 1,800 hours, charging is possible for 63kWh annually. Assuming the charging efficiency is 83%, charging is possible about seven times, which is an equivalent of travelling about 1,000km annually. The characteristics for example are the employment of brushless DC motor, use of energy saving switching element IGBT in order to realize a low level of loss in the inverter, in-wheel motor system, and storage of storage batteries in a hollow aluminum frame installed under the floor. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development of practical solar-electric vehicle; Jitsuyo fukyugata solar denki jidosha no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S.; Fujinaka, M. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on a Tokyo-Nagoya travel test on a practical spread type solar-electric vehicle, Solar-EV. A comparative study was made running the same type gasoline vehicle, GV. The measured power consumption amount of Solar-EV is 57.6 kWh. By converting it into Mcal unit, an energy consumption amount of 49.5 Mcal was obtained. Further, as to GV, the energy consumption amount of 316 Mcal was obtained using the amount of supply of gasoline (mean heating value: 8.4 Mcal/h) of 37.6 l and the fuel consumption of 16.2 km/l. Accordingly, the energy consumption amount of Solar-EV became a sixth of that of GV. In the cost comparison, the cost of Solar-EV was 1,440 yen (power source price: 25 yen/kWh), which is about a third of that of GV, 3760 yen (gasoline unit price: 100 yen/l). Monocrystal Si solar cells, 270W, installed on hood/roof are connected to the main 288V system (the auxiliary 12V system is amorphous Si), and generate power 4.4 kWh during travel. A total power consumption amount of Solar-EV in the total travel (Tokyo-Nagoya) is 79.9 kWh including the auxiliary system, approximately 6% of which was to be supplied from solar cells. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A season of football injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J

    1994-06-01

    All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.

  2. Pemphigus vulgaris induced by electrical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Stephen R; McDermott, Mark R; Castillo, Carlos J; Sauder, Daniel N

    2006-03-01

    Pemphigus refers to a group of autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes. Pemphigus may be induced following exposure to various exogenous agents, including thermal burns, drugs, infectious agents, and neoplasms, as well as UV, ionizing, and x-ray irradiation. We report a case of a 28-year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) induced by a severe electrical injury. Approximately one month after the electrical injury, he began to develop recurrent painful oral ulcers; one year later, he began to develop cutaneous bullae. Results of a histopathologic examination and immunofluorescence studies were diagnostic of PV The primary mechanisms of high-voltage electrical injury involve electroporation, electroconformational protein denaturation, and both joule and dielectric heating. Cutaneous electrical injury ultimately results in the destruction of cells with release of their cellular constituents. Through these mechanisms, desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) may be released and become available to the immune system, which potentially leads to an autoantibody response and the subsequent development of PV.

  3. Factors Associated With Length of Stay and Hospital Charges among Pediatric Burn Injury in Kermanshah, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-01-01

    This study highlights that the independent predictors affecting hospital costs and LOS associated with pediatric burn injury in Kermanshah. Also, our study indicates the BBS was the main factors affecting hospital costs and LOS for the study population. 

  4. Injury Risk Estimation Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petushek, Erich J.; Ward, Paul; Cokely, Edward T.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Simple observational assessment of movement is a potentially low-cost method for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury screening and prevention. Although many individuals utilize some form of observational assessment of movement, there are currently no substantial data on group skill differences in observational screening of ACL injury risk. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare various groups’ abilities to visually assess ACL injury risk as well as the associated strategies and ACL knowledge levels. The hypothesis was that sports medicine professionals would perform better than coaches and exercise science academics/students and that these subgroups would all perform better than parents and other general population members. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 428 individuals, including physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength and conditioning coaches, exercise science researchers/students, athletes, parents, and members of the general public participated in the study. Participants completed the ACL Injury Risk Estimation Quiz (ACL-IQ) and answered questions related to assessment strategy and ACL knowledge. Results: Strength and conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and exercise science students exhibited consistently superior ACL injury risk estimation ability (+2 SD) as compared with sport coaches, parents of athletes, and members of the general public. The performance of a substantial number of individuals in the exercise sciences/sports medicines (approximately 40%) was similar to or exceeded clinical instrument-based biomechanical assessment methods (eg, ACL nomogram). Parents, sport coaches, and the general public had lower ACL-IQ, likely due to their lower ACL knowledge and to rating the importance of knee/thigh motion lower and weight and jump height higher. Conclusion: Substantial cross-professional/group differences in visual ACL

  5. Liquid ammonia injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Bang, R L; Lari, A R; Gang, R K; Kanjoor, J R

    2000-06-01

    The toxic effects of a gas depend on the time of exposure, concentration and its chemical nature. Pressurized liquids and gases exert an additional cold thermal injury and this may complicate the clinical picture. A patient who had an accidental exposure to liquid ammonia over a prolonged period, manifesting in cutaneous, respiratory and ocular damage in addition to a severe cold thermal injury (frostbite) with a fatal outcome is presented. The patient had flaccid quadriparesis and episodes of bradycardia, which has not been reported previously. These manifestations raise the possibility of the systemic toxicity in patients with prolonged exposure to ammonia.

  6. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  7. Cycling injuries and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaksinen, Noora K; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S; Kataja, J Matti; Kröger, Heikki P J; Lüthje, Peter M J

    2018-03-03

    Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of ≥ 1.2 g/L was measured in nearly 90% of all alcohol-related cases. A positive BAC result was more common among males than females (p < 0.001), and head injuries were more common among cyclists where alcohol was involved (AI) (60%) than among sober cyclists (29%) (p < 0.001). Two thirds (64%) of the cyclists with AI were not wearing a bicycle helmet. The figure for serious injuries (MAIS ≥ 3) was similar in both groups. Intoxication with an alcohol level of more than 1.5 g/L and the age of 15 to 24 years were found to be risk factors for head injuries. The mean cost of treatment was higher among sober cyclists than among cyclists with AI (€2143 vs. €1629), whereas in respect of the cost of work absence, the situation was the opposite (€1348 vs. €1770, respectively). Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve

  8. Maxillofacial injuries and traumatic brain injury--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Syed Omar, Syed Nabil; Rashdi, Muhd Fazly Nizam; Abdul Jabar, Mohd Nazimi

    2014-04-01

    Maxillofacial injuries comprising hard tissue as well as soft tissue injuries can be associated with traumatic brain injuries due to the impact of forces transmitted through the head and neck. To date, the role of maxillofacial injury on brain injury has not been properly documented with some saying it has a protective function on the brain while others opposing this idea. This cross-sectional retrospective study evaluated all patients with maxillofacial injuries. The aim of the study was to analyze the occurrence and relationship of maxillofacial injuries with traumatic brain injuries. We retrospectively studied the hospital charts of all trauma patients seen at the accident and emergency department of UKM Medical Centre from November 2010 until November 2011. A detail analysis was then carried out on all patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 11294 patients were classified as trauma patients in which 176 patients had facial fractures and 292 did not have facial fractures. Middle face fractures was the most common pattern of facial fracture seen. Traumatic brain injury was present in 36.7% of maxillofacial cases. A significant association was found between facial fractures and traumatic brain injury (P maxillofacial injuries with or without facial fractures are at risk of acute or delayed traumatic brain injury. All patients should always have proper radiological investigations together with a proper observation and follow-up schedule. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the prevalence ...

  10. Ocular injuries and eye care seeking patterns following injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The work environment of cocoa farmers exposes them to several ocular hazards that predispose them to eye diseases and injuries. However, the extent of ocular injuries and health seeking patterns following these injuries are unknown among cocoa farmers in Ghana. Objectives: To determine the ...

  11. Long-term health effects of unintentional injuries in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported health effects of unintentional injuries in the adult Danish population, including the limitation of daily activities and perceived general health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the 2005 National Health...... reported poor health in general. The most severe health effects affected the head, neck and back, as well as multiple body parts. Those injuries that entailed the most severe health effects were caused by traffic injuries and falls. CONCLUSION: Long-term effects of injuries are prevalent in the adult...... population and most can be attributed to falls and traffic injuries. Back injuries and multiple injuries had the largest influence on perceived health. FUNDING: The work was supported by TrygFonden grant no. 7585-07. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  12. Effects of head and extracranial injuries on serum protein S100B levels in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savola, Olli; Pyhtinen, Juhani; Leino, Tuomo K; Siitonen, Simo; Niemelä, Onni; Hillbom, Matti

    2004-06-01

    Serum protein S100B determinations have been recently suggested as markers of traumatic brain injury. However, little is known about the effects of extracranial injuries on S100B levels in trauma patients. We studied 224 patients with head trauma (54 of whom also had extracranial injuries), 155 patients with various types of extracranial injuries, and 8 healthy pilots exposed to high Gz forces. The head trauma patients had either no brain injury (n = 35), mild brain injury (n = 165), or moderate to severe brain injury (n = 24). The extracranial injuries were divided into small and large injuries. Serum protein S100B levels were determined from samples taken within 6 hours after the trauma event. The head trauma patients had a significantly higher median S100B (0.17 microg/L) than the patients with extracranial injuries (0.07 microg/L) (p head trauma did not significantly affect S100B levels (0.07 microg/L). Above the cutoff level of 0.13 microg/L, there were 61% of the head trauma patients and 26% of those with extracranial injuries (Pearson chi test, p head trauma patients with moderate to severe brain injury exceeded this cutoff in 67% of the cases. Exposure to high Gz forces did not influence serum S100B levels in healthy individuals. We conclude that serum S100B is a sensitive marker of brain injury, which correlates with the severity of the injury. Large extracranial injuries also elevate S100B levels. However, S100B has a high negative predictive power, and the finding of a normal S100B value shortly after trauma should thus exclude significant brain injury with a high accuracy.

  13. The epidemiology of sports injury during the 37th Thailand National Games 2008 in Phitsanulok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoruengthana, Artit; Poosamsai, Paisan; Fangsanau, Tharinee; Supanpaiboon, Pattrawan; Tungkasamesamran, Kasame

    2009-12-01

    Prevention of injury among athletes is of paramount importance for sport events. The incidence of injury differs depending on many factors, such as level of competition, type of sport, and standard of surveillance systems. It is our purpose to provide a descriptive epidemiology of a national level competition multi-sports event. During the 2008 Thailand National "Phitsanulok" Games, official medical teams of the various sports completed a report form after each match or competition. The demographic data, type of sport, details of injury or illness, diagnosis, and treatment were collected from the PLKGames 2008 program and analyzed by the Medical Surveillance Committee. There were 14,429 athletes and staff participating in the "Phitsanulok" games. A total of 496 injuries were reported during the competition, of which 300 male and 196 female athletes sustained injuries, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.1 injuries per 100 registered athletes. For all sports, 71, 50 and 38 injuries occurred during Rugby, Handball and Basketball, respectively, which accounted for 32% of all injuries. No injury was reported from many sports, such as table tennis, shooting, dancing, and golf The most common diagnoses were sprains and strains. About half of injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by noncontact (28.6%) and limited-contact incidences (27.6%). According to the number of athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in Pencak Silat, handball, basketball, and rugby football. About half of injuries affected lower extremities, while 135, 53, and 49 injuries involved upper extremity, head & neck, and axial body parts, respectively. The knee and ankle were the most common sites of injury. The data demonstrates a potential risk of injury occurring predominately in full-contact sports and limited-contact sports. The data is potentially useful in developing injury surveillance systems for future sporting events.

  14. Epidemiology of spinal injuries in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2015-01-01

    To assess the risk factors, mechanism of injury, and clinical outcome of hospitalized patients with spinal injuries in order to recommend preventive measures. Patients with spinal injuries admitted to Al Ain Hospital, United Arab Emirates (UAE) for more than 24 h or who died after arrival to the hospital were studied over 3 years. Demography, location and time of injury, affected body regions, hospital and ICU stay, and outcome were analyzed. 239 patients were studied, 90 % were males, and 84 % were in the productive years of 25-54. Majority were from the Indian subcontinent (56 %). Road was the most common location for spinal injury (47 %), followed by work (39 %). The most common mechanism of injury was traffic collisions (48 %) followed by fall from height (39 %) and fall from the same level (9 %). UAE nationals were often injured at road and home compared with non-UAE nationals, who were more injured at work (p < 0.0001). Patients falling from the same level were older (p = 0.001) and predominantly females (p < 0.0001) when compared with other mechanisms. Spinal fractures were more common in the lumbar region (57 %). Eleven patients (5 %) sustained paraplegia and five (4 %) patients died. Traffic injuries and falls were the leading causes for spinal injuries in the UAE. Expatriate males are at high risk for fall from height, UAE national males for traffic injuries and females for falls at the same level at homes. Prevention should focus on traffic and home injuries for UAE nationals and occupational safety for expatriate workers.

  15. Spinal cord injury and its association with blunt head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva WS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wellingson S Paiva, Arthur MP Oliveira, Almir F Andrade, Robson LO Amorim, Leonardo JO Lourenço, Manoel J TeixeiraDivision of Neurosurgery, University of São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Severe and moderate head injury can cause misdiagnosis of a spinal cord injury, leading to devastating long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors involving spine trauma and moderate-to-severe brain injury.Methods: A prospective study involving 1617 patients admitted in the emergency unit was carried out. Of these patients, 180 with moderate or severe head injury were enrolled. All patients were submitted to three-view spine series X-ray and thin cut axial CT scans for spine trauma investigations.Results: 112 male patients and 78 female patients, whose ages ranged from 11 to 76 years (mean age, 34 years. The most common causes of brain trauma were pedestrians struck by motor vehicles (31.1%, car crashes (27.7%, and falls (25%. Systemic lesions were present in 80 (44.4% patients and the most common were fractures, and lung and spleen injuries. 52.8% had severe and 47.2% moderate head trauma. Fourteen patients (7.8% suffered spinal cord injury (12 in cervical spine, one in lumbar, and one thoracic spine. In elderly patients, the presence of associated lesions and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS < 9 were statistically significant as risk factors (P < 0.05 for spine injury.Conclusion: Spinal cord injury related to moderate and severe brain trauma usually affects the cervical spine. The incidence of spinal lesions and GCS < 9 points were related to greater incidence of spinal cord injury.Keywords: head injury, spine trauma, risk factors

  16. [Diagnostic value of Blumensaat angle for anterior cruciate ligament injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang-Yun; Feng, Jiang-Feng; Lu, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Yang, Zi-Quan

    2017-08-25

    The receiver operator characteristic(ROC) curve was used to determine the best Blumensaat angle for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury, so as to objectively evaluate the diagnostic value of Blumensaat angle for anterior cruciate ligament injury. Total 167 patients who had knee arthroscopic treatment in a hospital from January 2015 to January 2016 were retrospectively studied, and the patients' age, gender, left and right limb condition were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups according to Blumensaat angle measured on the MRI: group A(Blumensaat angle0°). The ROC curve was drawn from the statistical data of the group B to get the best critical value of the anterior cruciate ligament injury when the Blumensaat angle was more than 0°. According to the best critical value obtained by ROC curve, the coincidence rate of the total sample was obtained. There were no significant differences in patients' age, gender, and affected limbs. There were 51 patients in group A, in which 49 patients were diagnosed as anterior cruciate injury under arthroscopy(gold standard for diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injury), and 2 patients were diagnosed as no anterior cruciate injury under arthroscopy. When the Blumensaat angle was=15°, the probability of anterior cruciate ligament injury was greater. When the Blumensaat angle was 0° to 15°, the anterior cruciate ligament was more likely to be not injured. The Blumensaat angle=15° were used to diagnose the injury of anterior cruciate ligament. Compared with the results of arthroscopy, the coincidence rate of the total sample was 92.8%. Blumensaat angle is helpful to diagnose the ACL injuries. When the Blumensaat angle was =15°, the probability of ACL injury is greater.

  17. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrab, Mirwais; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald A; Mathijssen, Nina M C

    2017-12-01

    CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Descriptive epidemiology study. A questionnaire that focused on injury incidence in CrossFit in the past year and included data on athlete demographics and characteristics was distributed to all 130 CrossFit gyms in the Netherlands and was also available online in active Facebook groups. Data were collected from July 2015 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria consisted of age ≥18 years and training at a registered CrossFit gym in the Netherlands. A total of 553 participants completed the survey. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to identify potential risk factors for injury. A total of 449 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of all respondents, 252 athletes (56.1%) sustained an injury in the preceding 12 months. The most injured body parts were the shoulder (n = 87, 28.7%), lower back (n = 48, 15.8%), and knee (n = 25, 8.3%). The duration of participation in CrossFit significantly affected the injury incidence rates (CrossFit was 56.1%. The most frequent injury locations were the shoulder, lower back, and knee. A short duration of participation (<6 months) was significantly associated with an increased risk for injury.

  18. Lymphocytes Contribute to the Pathophysiology of Neonatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshed Nazmi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeriventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the most common form of preterm brain injury affecting the cerebral white matter. This type of injury involves a multiphase process and is induced by many factors, including hypoxia–ischemia (HI and infection. Previous studies have suggested that lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain injury, and the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of lymphocyte subsets to preterm brain injury.MethodsImmunohistochemistry on brain sections from neonatal mice was performed to evaluate the extent of brain injury in wild-type and T cell and B cell-deficient neonatal mice (Rag1−/− mice using a mouse model of HI-induced preterm brain injury. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the presence of different types of immune cells in mouse brains following HI. In addition, immunostaining for CD3 T cells and CD20 B cells was performed on postmortem preterm human infant brains with PVL.ResultsMature lymphocyte-deficient Rag1−/− mice showed protection from white matter loss compared to wild type mice as indicated by myelin basic protein immunostaining of mouse brains. CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were observed in the postmortem preterm infant brains with PVL. Flow cytometry analysis of mouse brains after HI-induced injury showed increased frequency of CD3+ T, αβT and B cells at 7 days after HI in the ipsilateral (injured hemisphere compared to the contralateral (control, uninjured hemisphere.ConclusionLymphocytes were found in the injured brain after injury in both mice and humans, and lack of mature lymphocytes protected neonatal mice from HI-induced brain white matter injury. This finding provides insight into the pathology of perinatal brain injury and suggests new avenues for the development of therapeutic strategies.

  19. Lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Katharina; Connert, Thomas; Kühl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    There is an increased risk of orofacial injuries in swimming pool facilities. Nevertheless, only a few studies have addressed this issue. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of lip and tooth injuries at public swimming pools in Austria. A further aim was to examine which gender and age groups were affected, where and why these injuries occurred, and whether pool attendants had sufficient knowledge of dental first-aid measures. A total of 764 pool attendants in Austria were contacted by telephone and 689 participated in the study (90.2%). The attendants were interviewed retrospectively about accident occurrences in 2014 by a standardized questionnaire. Responses to the provision of first aid and choice of storage medium for avulsed teeth were subsequently evaluated. The frequency of lip injuries was 19.0%, and tooth injuries were 11.3%. Male bathers (P < .05) and children under 12 years (P < .001) most frequently suffered injuries. The waterslide was the most common accident site. The most common cause of lip injuries was slipping on wet surfaces (39.0%), and for tooth injuries it was collisions with other persons or objects (each 28.1%). The pool attendants' responses were predominantly good or sufficient on first aid, with the exception of what storage medium to choose. Tooth rescue boxes were available in only 8.6% of all pool facilities. Orofacial injuries are a frequently occurring problem in swimming pool facilities. The pool attendants' knowledge on first-aid care of tooth injuries could still be improved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. GASTROINTESTINAL INJURIES FROM BLUNT ABDOMINAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-04-04

    %) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury.