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Sample records for affecting important flavor

  1. Water deficit alters differentially metabolic pathways affecting important flavor and quality traits in grape berries of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deluc Laurent G

    2009-05-01

    . Chardonnay berries, which lack any significant anthocyanin content, exhibited increased photoprotection mechanisms under water deficit conditions. Water deficit increased ABA, proline, sugar and anthocyanin concentrations in Cabernet Sauvignon, but not Chardonnay berries, consistent with the hypothesis that ABA enhanced accumulation of these compounds. Water deficit increased the transcript abundance of lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase in fatty metabolism, a pathway known to affect berry and wine aromas. These changes in metabolism have important impacts on berry flavor and quality characteristics. Several of these metabolites are known to contribute to increased human-health benefits.

  2. Prenatal Flavor Exposure Affects Flavor Recognition and Stress-Related Behavior of Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to flavors in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk derived from the maternal diet has been shown to modulate food preferences and neophobia of young animals of several species. Aim of the experiment was to study the effects of pre- and postnatal flavor exposure on behavior of piglets during

  3. FLAVOR AVERSIONS INDUCED BY THALLIUM SULFATE: IMPORTANCE OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor aversions induced by thallium sulfate: Importance of route of administration. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 00: 00-00, 1985. Flavor aversions induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral (p.o.) administration of thallium sulfate were compared in a repeated trial...

  4. The effect of chewing gum flavor on the negative affect associated with tobacco abstinence among dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lee M; Collins, Frank L; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Weaver, Cameron C

    2010-11-01

    Many smokers relapse during cessation attempts due to increases in negative affect. Previous research has shown that chewing confectionary chewing gum appears to lessen the severity of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms and help individuals who are trying to reduce smoking in part due to the flavor of the gum chewed. The current study compared the effects of three flavored gums to a No Gum Control during 48-hour cessation periods for young dependent smokers. Forty-nine smokers participated in three experimental conditions (peppermint, vanilla, and baked apple cardamom flavored gum) as well as a No Gum Control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 48-hours each week. Compared to the No Gum Control, participants in the Gum conditions reported lower levels of anxiety, dysphoria, and tension. Vanilla and baked apple cardamom flavored gum resulted in lower levels of negative affect while peppermint flavored gum was not different from the No Gum Control. These findings indicate that some flavors of gum are effective in reducing the negative affect associated with nicotine withdrawal and may serve as a valuable tool in helping smokers quit. PMID:20598808

  5. Prenatal flavor exposure affects growth, health and behavior of newly weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Brand, van den H.; Roura, E.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    Young animals can learn about flavors from the maternal diet that appear in the amniotic fluid and mother's milk, which may reduce neophobia for similarly flavored food types at weaning. Flavor learning may be beneficial for piglets, which after the rather abrupt weaning in pig husbandry frequently

  6. Effect of blending Huanglongbing (HLB) disease affected orange juice with juice from healthy oranges on flavor quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, has been a concern for the citrus industry as it progressively damages and ultimately kills citrus trees. While this disease does not affect human health, it is associated with bitter off-flavor for orange juice. The objective of this study was to determine...

  7. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  8. Flavor and textural changes in radappertized chicken as affected by irradiation temperature, NaCl, and phosphate additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of food-grade phosphates; sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), tetrasodium pyrophosphate (PP), a mixture of tripolyphosphate and hexametaphosphate (HMP), and sodium chloride additions (0.05, 1.0, and 1.5 percent) in irradiated boneless chicken rolls were studied. Temperatures during irradiation processing were 00C, -300C, and -800C, and all samples received a 45 to 56 kJ/kg dose. Samples were evaluated for sensory characteristics and preference by technological or consumer type panels. Textural differences were determined using a Kramer Shear Press. Reflectance values at 640 nm were obtained using a reflectometer. The sensory characteristics and preference of the chicken rolls were significantly affected by temperature during irradiation. Samples irradiated at 00C were rated lower in preference and had higher intensities for off-odor and irradiation flavor. No significant differences were found between samples irradiated in a range of -300C to -800C. Shear press values increased and reflectance values decreased with the lowering of the irradiation temperatures. The addition of a small amount of salt with 0.5 percent tripolyphosphate significantly improved the preference ratings of irradiated chicken rolls. No differences in the sensory characteristics were found between roll samples with 0.5 percent additions of TPP, PP, or a TPP and HMP combination. Shear press values were significantly affected by the addition of NaCl and TPP in both irradiated and nonirradiated samples

  9. Heavy flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs

  10. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging is congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato than when it is incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato. In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color-word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels.

  11. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rapidly when the color of the packaging was congruent with the flavor label (e.g., red/tomato) than when it was incongruent (e.g., yellow/tomato). In addition, when the packaging color was incongruent, those flavor labels that were more strongly associated with a specific color yielded slower reaction times and more errors (Stroop interference) than those that were less strongly tied to a specific color. Importantly, search efficiency was affected both by color/flavor congruence and association strength. Taken together, these results therefore highlight the role of color congruence and color–word association strength when it comes to searching for specific flavor labels. PMID:25870568

  12. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated. PMID:27534114

  13. Open heavy-flavor observables at the LHC and the importance of higher-order flow harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Aichelin, Jörg; Gossiaux, Pol Bernard; Werner, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-quark dynamics in the quark-gluon plasma provide information about the medium properties and the details of the heavy-quark-medium interaction. Traditional observables like the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow of D mesons have shown suppression at intermediate and high momenta and collective flow at low momenta. Thanks to the improving accuracy of the experimental data a combined analysis of these two observables starts to have discriminating power between different heavy-quark transport coefficients or features of the energy-loss models. In this overview, we summarize the modern strategy of describing heavy-quark dynamics and show how recent advances to include more differential observables such as azimuthal correlations and higher-order flow harmonics can help us understand the properties of heavy-flavor transport.

  14. TREATMENT OF HYPOTHYROIDISM IS IMPORTANT IN TREATING BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath B Reddy; B Deepika; Harish, S

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder along with hypothyroidism is well documented. There are few studies regarding hypothyroidism in patients with bipolar affective disorder. Here our main motto is to report such a case who was presented with bipolar affective disorder along with hypothyroidism as a co-morbidity & to provide a brief information regarding association of hypothyroidism in bipolar affective disorder. Treatment approaches in such co-morbid conditions.

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING THE IMPORT OF WHEAT IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Goosi, Adbullah I.

    1980-01-01

    The modern economy of Saudi Arabia depends primarily on oil exports. Oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues, it follows that the oil sector affects the economy rather than the economy affecting the oil sector. Saudi Arabia lacks natural resources for most of its essential goods and because of sudden high income, it has become necessary to introduce new strategies for producing necessary goods and services. Since Saudi Arabia depends mo...

  16. Potential Hazards in Smoke-Flavored Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hong; JIANG Jie; LI Donghua

    2008-01-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alter- native to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocyto- genes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are dis- cussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  17. Importance and sensitivity of parameters affecting the Zion Seismic Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, L.L.; O' Connell, W.J.

    1985-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the importance and sensitivity of structures, systems, equipment, components and design parameters used in the Zion Seismic Risk Calculations. This study is part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) supported by the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The objective of this study is to provide the NRC with results on the importance and sensitivity of parameters used to evaluate seismic risk. These results can assist the NRC in making decisions dealing with the allocation of research resources on seismic issues. This study uses marginal analysis in addition to importance and sensitivity analysis to identify subject areas (input parameter areas) for improvements that reduce risk, estimate how much the improvement dfforts reduce risk, and rank the subject areas for improvements. Importance analysis identifies the systems, components, and parameters that are important to risk. Sensitivity analysis estimates the change in risk per unit improvement. Marginal analysis indicates the reduction in risk or uncertainty for improvement effort made in each subject area. The results described in this study were generated using the SEISIM (Systematic Evaluation of Important Safety Improvement Measures) and CHAIN computer codes. Part 1 of the SEISIM computer code generated the failure probabilities and risk values. Part 2 of SEISIM, along with the CHAIN computer code, generated the importance and sensitivity measures.

  18. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1–6) and at the end of a season (round 29–34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  19. Seasonal Pacing - Match Importance Affects Activity in Professional Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Daniel; de Lorenzo, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the influence of match importance on player activity in professional soccer. Therefore, we used an observational approach and analyzed 1,211 matches of German Bundesliga and 2nd Bundesliga. The importance measurement employed is based on post season consequences of teams involved in a match. This means, if a match result could potentially influence the final rank, and this rank would lead to different consequences for a team, such as qualification for Champions League opposed to qualification for Europe League, then this match is classified as important; otherwise not. Activity was quantified by TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED, SPRINTS, FAST RUNS, DUELS, FOULS and ATTEMPTS. Running parameters were recorded using a semi-automatic optical tracking system, while technical variables were collected by professional data loggers. Based on our importance classification, low important matches occurred at the beginning of round 29. A two-way ANOVA indicates significantly increased FAST RUNS (+4%, d = 0.3), DUELS (+16%, d = 1.0) and FOULS (+36%, d = 1.2) in important matches compared to low important ones. For FAST RUNS and FOULS, this effect only exists in Bundesliga. A comparison of the two leagues show that TOTAL DISTANCE COVERED (+3%, d = 0.9), SPRINTS (+25%, d = 1.4) and FAST RUNS (+15%, d = 1.4) are higher compared to 2nd Bundesliga, whilst FOULS is less in Bundesliga (-7%, d = 0.3). No difference in player activity was found between matches at the beginning of a season (round 1-6) and at the end of a season (round 29-34). We conclude that match importance influences player activity in German professional soccer. The most reasonable explanation is a conscious or unconscious pacing strategy, motivated by preserving abilities or preventing injury. Since this tendency mainly exists in Bundesliga, this may suggest that more skilled players show a higher awareness for the need of pacing. PMID:27281051

  20. An important concept affecting students' motivation levels: Rewards and punishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yaman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of reward and punishment on student’s motivation level. This research is performed by interviewing with 22 students who are eleven times rewarded and eleven times punished in total. 12 female and 10 males constitute the sample group of the study. The average age of the group is thirteen and they are secondary school students. Qualitative research method is used in data collection. Interviews are recorded by voice record device and a standardized open-ended interview was used as data collection tool for the study. Reward contribute to happiness, enthusiasm, ambition of success, will of studying lesson, following classroom rules, pride, self-confidence and socialization. Students require a reward to increase the level of motivation, but sometimes undeserving people are rewarded and certain people outside. When it comes to punishment, beating, removal from class, class changes, expel are the ways of punishments. Instead of bringing about the extinction of punishment, it is emphasized that punishment reinforce the punished behaviors. The cause of these negative judgments is that the teacher punishes the students with his/her bias without distinguishing fair or unfair. Students are adversely affected by the punishments. Especially, beaten in front of everyone may leave permanent scars on students and it cause a bias against the class and teachers. A student should be able to know which behaviors are rewarded and which ones are punished clearly before. While the award was given, the teacher should give spiritual awards that provide pupils feel themselves valued.

  1. Flavor mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, some researchers have been talking about the so-called 'fifth force'. This name suggests that four forces are already known to exist, which are generally called the strong, electromagnetic, weak, and gravitational interactions. However, the standard model of particle physics tells a different story; they are the gauge interactions, Yukawa interactions, Higgs interactions, and gravity. Of the first three, only the gauge interactions have been verified experimentally. However, the other two are truly necessary ingredients of the standard model to make it work. The present report discusses such matters as Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, KM matrix elements, CP violation, particle antiparticle mixing, flavor-charging neutral current decays, generation crossover, FCNC decay, and lepton flavor mixing. It is concluded that the Kobayashi-Maskawa scheme for the quark mixing is in good shape. So far five out of nine matrix elements are experimentally determined. Nonzero value of the sixth matrix element Kub is essential for the KM scenario of CP violation. The observed large B-B-bar mixing suggests a heavy top quark. A lot of work is still needed towards the understanding of 'flavor'. (N.K.)

  2. Food Preferences in Lambs After Exposure to Flavors in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Dale L; Provenza, Frederick D.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined whether experience with onion- or garlic-flavored milk affected intake of foods with those flavors. Orphaned lambs were exposed from 2 to 3 days of age for 50 days to either onion- or garlic-flavored milk at a 0.1% concentration. Lambs were then offered a choice of (1) onion- and garlic-flavored food; (2) onion-flavored and unflavored food; (3) garlic-flavored and unflavored food. Intake of foods offered in single choice tests with each flavor at concentrations of 2, 4, ...

  3. Lepton Flavor Violation in Flavored Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Calibbi, Lorenzo; Ziegler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) in the context of Flavored Gauge Mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY Partial Compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right (LR) flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressi...

  4. Gluino Meets Flavored Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2015-01-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizabl...

  5. Gluino meets flavored naturalness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Fuks, Benjamin; Galon, Iftah; Perez, Gilad

    2016-04-01

    We study constraints from LHC run I on squark and gluino masses in the presence of squark flavor violation. Inspired by the concept of `flavored naturalness', we focus on the impact of a non-zero stop-scharm mixing and mass splitting in the right-handed sector. To this end, we recast four searches of the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, dedicated either to third generation squarks, to gluino and squarks of the first two generations, or to charm-squarks. In the absence of extra structure, the mass of the gluino provides an additional source of fine tuning and is therefore important to consider within models of flavored naturalness that allow for relatively light squark states. When combining the searches, the resulting constraints in the plane of the lightest squark and gluino masses are rather stable with respect to the presence of flavor-violation, and do not allow for gluino masses of less than 1.2 TeV and squarks lighter than about 550 GeV. While these constraints are stringent, interesting models with sizable stop-scharm mixing and a relatively light squark state are still viable and could be observed in the near future.

  6. Texture of semi-solids : sensory flavor-texture interactions for custard desserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Rasing, F.; Wilkinson, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Possible interactions between flavor and oral texture sensations were investigated for four flavorants, diacetyl, benzaldehyde, vanillin, and caffeine, added in two concentrations to model vanilla custard desserts. The flavorants affected viscosities and resulted in corresponding changes in perceive

  7. Approximate flavor symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Rasin, A

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  8. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Sfakianakis; Constatnina Tzia

    2014-01-01

    Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization) and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation) physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk process...

  9. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine. PMID:27245045

  10. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calibbi, Lorenzo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Physique Theorique, Brussels (Belgium); Paradisi, Paride [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Ziegler, Robert [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, Paris (France)

    2014-12-01

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  11. Lepton flavor violation in flavored gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the anatomy and phenomenology of lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the context of flavored gauge mediation (FGM). Within FGM, the messenger sector couples directly to the MSSM matter fields with couplings controlled by the same dynamics that explains the hierarchies in the SM Yukawas. Although the pattern of flavor violation depends on the particular underlying flavor model, FGM provides a built-in flavor suppression similar to wave function renormalization or SUSY partial compositeness. Moreover, in contrast to these models, there is an additional suppression of left-right flavor transitions by third-generation Yukawas that in particular provides an extra protection against flavor-blind phases. We exploit the consequences of this setup for lepton flavor phenomenology, assuming that the new couplings are controlled by simple U(1) flavor models that have been proposed to accommodate large neutrino mixing angles. Remarkably, it turns out that in the context of FGM these models can pass the impressive constraints from LFV processes and leptonic electric dipole moments (EDMs) even for light superpartners, therefore offering the possibility of resolving the longstanding muon g - 2 anomaly. (orig.)

  12. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed

  13. 76 FR 16683 - Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AD31 Importation of Horses From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected... comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the regulations regarding the importation of horses from countries... imported horses 731 days of age or less and adding new testing protocols for test mares and...

  14. Imagination in Story Response: Relationships between Imagery, Affect, and Structural Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates patterns in readers' ratings of imagery, affect, and story structure in selected short stories read in a college classroom. Concludes that texts constrain the renditions of individual readers when they read for enjoyment. Finds that imagery appears to mediate affective associations of text viewed as structurally important. (MM)

  15. Flavor changing lepton processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flavor changing lepton processes, or in another words the lepton flavor changing processes, are described with emphasis on the updated theoretical motivations and the on-going experimental progress on a new high-intense muon source. (author)

  16. Effects of Lipoxygenase Null Genes of Soybean in Controlling Beany-flavor of Soymilk and Soyflour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hao; GUAN Chun-yun; HE Xiao-ling; ZHANG Guo-zheng; DIN An-lin

    2002-01-01

    The flavor of the soymilk and soyflour obtained from the lipoxygenase mutant isolines was concentrated by simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and its constituents were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that the same 24 flavor constituents were isolated in both soymilk and soyflour, and most of them were aldehydes and alcohols. Lox2 was most responsible for the production of the volatile and beany-flavor components, and Lox1 less responsible.Lox3 was least responsible and can reduce the yield of hexanal. Either Lx1 or Lx2 could significantly reduce the volatile and beany-flavor, and Lx3 could significantly increase the yield of hexanal. Primary and secondary interactions existed among the null mutant genes, and the major effects and interactions could be affected by processing conditions. The isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes yielded the least volatile and beany-flavor components, and the isoline without the lipoxygenase gene Lx3 produced the greatest amount of the volatile and beany-flavor components. The amounts of volatile and beany-flavor components produced by the other isolines were between that of the isoline with triple lipoxygenase null genes and the isoline without lipoxygenase gene Lx3. According to the correlation analysis, the hexanal amount could be used as an index in evaluating the importance of lipoxygenase isozymes in the yield of beany-flavor compounds, and the effects of the different types of lipoxygenase null mutants in controlling beany-flavor compounds. The cultivars with triple lipoxygenase null genes will be a quality raw material for soyfood processing.

  17. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    MPC decreased and furosine concentration increased with storage time and temperature. Solubility of MPC 80 was reduced more than that of MPC 45, but time and temperature adversely affected solubility of both proteins, with storage temperature having the greatest effect. Flavor and shelf stability of milk proteins provide a foundation of knowledge to improve the flavor and shelf-life of milk proteins. PMID:27060829

  18. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times, but could be inadequate in the crucial shock revival/explosion epoch of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new paradigm in supernova modeling.

  19. Refresher training as an important factor affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refresher training appears to be one of the most important factors, affecting safety of atomic energy utilization facilities. To provide up-to-date refresher training programs and courses TC NRS implements best training practice based on the actual and perspective Russian national and international norms, regulations, standards and recommendations. (author)

  20. Flavored Dark Matter: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kile, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The current status of flavored dark matter is reviewed. We discuss the main experimental constraints on models of flavored dark matter and survey some possible considerations which are relevant for the constructions of models. We then review the application of existing flavor principles to dark matter, with an emphasis on minimal flavor violation, and discuss implications of flavored dark matter on collider phenomenology.

  1. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Blaž Trbižan; Vasja Roblek

    2013-01-01

    Research Question (RQ): Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots) implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compar...

  2. Important factors affecting fault detection coverage in probabilistic safety assessment of digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems are gradually introduced into nuclear power plants (NPPs), concerns about the I and C systems’ reliability and safety are growing. Fault detection coverage is one of the most critical factors in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of digital I and C systems. To correctly estimate the fault detection coverage, it is first necessary to identify important factors affecting it. From experimental results found in the literature and the authors’ experience in fault injection experiments on digital systems, four system-related factors and four fault-related factors are identified as important factors affecting the fault detection coverage. A fault injection experiment is performed to demonstrate the dependency of fault detection coverage on some of the identified important factors. The implications of the experimental results on the estimation of fault detection coverage for the PSA of digital I and C systems are also explained. The set of four system-related factors and four fault-related factors is expected to provide a framework for systematically comparing and analyzing various fault injection experiments and the resultant estimations on fault detection coverage of digital I and C systems in NPPs. (author)

  3. FormFlavor Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the usage and structure of FormFlavor, a Mathematica-based tool for computing a broad list of flavor and CP observables in general new physics models. Based on the powerful machinery of FeynArts and FormCalc, FormFlavor calculates the one-loop Wilson coefficients of the dimension 5 and 6 Standard Model effective Lagrangian entirely from scratch. These Wilson coefficients are then evolved down to the low scale using one-loop QCD RGEs, where they are transformed into flavor and CP observables. The last step is accomplished using a model-independent, largely stand-alone package called FFObservables that is included with FormFlavor. The SM predictions in FFObservables include up-to-date references and accurate current predictions. Using the functions and modular structure provided by FormFlavor, it is straightforward to add new observables. Currently, FormFlavor is set up to perform these calculations for the general, non-MFV MSSM, but in principle it can be generalized to arbitrary FeynArts...

  4. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  5. Lepton flavor violating quarkonium decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hazard, Derek E

    2016-01-01

    We argue that lepton flavor violating (LFV) decays $M \\to \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ of quarkonium states $M$ with different quantum numbers could be used to put constraints on the Wilson coefficients of effective operators describing LFV interactions at low energy scales. We note that restricted kinematics of the two-body quarkonium decays allows us to select operators with particular quantum numbers, significantly reducing the reliance on the single operator dominance assumption that is prevalent in constraining parameters of the effective LFV Lagrangian. We shall also argue that studies of radiative lepton flavor violating $M \\to \\gamma \\ell_1 \\overline \\ell_2$ decays could provide important complementary access to those effective operators.

  6. Conventional and Innovative Processing of Milk for Yogurt Manufacture; Development of Texture and Flavor: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sfakianakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk and yogurt are important elements of the human diet, due to their high nutritional value and their appealing sensory properties. During milk processing (homogenization, pasteurization and further yogurt manufacture (fermentation physicochemical changes occur that affect the flavor and texture of these products while the development of standardized processes contributes to the development of desirable textural and flavor characteristics. The processes that take place during milk processing and yogurt manufacture with conventional industrial methods, as well as with innovative methods currently proposed (ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, microfluidization, pulsed electric fields, and their effect on the texture and flavor of the final conventional or probiotic/prebiotic products will be presented in this review.

  7. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavo...

  8. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  9. Food Preferences in Lambs After Exposure to Flavors in Solid Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Nolte, Dale L; Provenza, Frederick D.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether experience with onion- or garlic-flavored food early in life affected subsequent intake of foods with those flavors. From 30 to 110 days of age, lambs were exposed to either an onion- or a garlic-flavored ration of ground alfalfa and rolled barley. Lambs were tested using both two-choice and single-choice tests. The two-choice tests were between: (1) onion- and garlic-flavored rations; (2) onion-flavored and unflavored rations; (3) garlic-flavore...

  10. Split supersymmetry radiates flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stolarski, Daniel; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of mini-split supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and dark matter as a weakly interacting massive particle. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY-breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  11. Split SUSY Radiates Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Zorawski, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Radiative flavor models where the hierarchies of Standard Model (SM) fermion masses and mixings are explained via loop corrections are elegant ways to solve the SM flavor puzzle. Here we build such a model in the context of Mini-Split Supersymmetry (SUSY) where both flavor and SUSY breaking occur at a scale of 1000 TeV. This model is consistent with the observed Higgs mass, unification, and WIMP dark matter. The high scale allows large flavor mixing among the sfermions, which provides part of the mechanism for radiative flavor generation. In the deep UV, all flavors are treated democratically, but at the SUSY breaking scale, the third, second, and first generation Yukawa couplings are generated at tree level, one loop, and two loops, respectively. Save for one, all the dimensionless parameters in the theory are O(1), with the exception being a modest and technically natural tuning that explains both the smallness of the bottom Yukawa coupling and the largeness of the Cabibbo angle.

  12. Physics Opportunities at the Next Generation of Precision Flavor Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Marco CiuchiniINFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome, Italy; Achille Stocchi(LAL, Univ Paris-Sud, Orsay, France)

    2015-01-01

    Starting with next-generation experiments, flavor physics fully enters the era of precision measurements. The focus shifts from testing the Standard Model to finding and characterizing new physics contributions. We review the opportunities offered by future flavor experiments, discussing the expected sensitivities of the most important measurements. We also present some examples of measurable deviations from the Standard Model in the flavor sector generated in a selection of new physics model...

  13. A new detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis: Assessing the important meteorological factors affecting API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the unique contribution of meteorological factors to the air pollution index (API), a new method, the detrended semipartial cross-correlation analysis (DSPCCA), is proposed. Based on both a detrended cross-correlation analysis and a DFA-based multivariate-linear-regression (DMLR), this method is improved by including a semipartial correlation technique, which is used to indicate the unique contribution of an explanatory variable to multiple correlation coefficients. The advantages of this method in handling nonstationary time series are illustrated by numerical tests. To further demonstrate the utility of this method in environmental systems, new evidence of the primary contribution of meteorological factors to API is provided through DMLR. Results show that the most important meteorological factors affecting API are wind speed and diurnal temperature range, and the explanatory ability of meteorological factors to API gradually strengthens with increasing time scales. The results suggest that DSPCCA is a useful method for addressing environmental systems.

  14. An fMRI study on the influence of sommeliers’ expertise on the integration of flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel ePazart

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flavors guide consumers' choice of foodstuffs, preferring those that they like and meet their needs, and dismissing those for which they have a conditioned aversion. Flavor affects the learning and consumption of foods and drinks; what is already well-known is favored and what is new is apprehended. The flavor of foodstuffs is also crucial in explaining some eating behaviors such as overconsumption. The blind taste test of wine is a good model for assessing the ability of people to convert mouth feelings into flavor. To determine the relative importance of memory and sensory capabilities, we present the results of an fMRI neuro-imaging study involving 10 experts and 10 matched control subjects using wine as a stimulus in a blind taste test, focusing primarily on the assessment of flavor integration.The results revealed activations in the brain areas involved in sensory integration, both in experts and control subjects (insula, frontal operculum, orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala. However, experts were mainly characterized by a more immediate and targeted sensory reaction to wine stimulation with an economic mechanism reducing effort than control subjects. Wine experts showed brainstem and left-hemispheric activations in the hippocampal and parahippocampal formations and the temporal pole, whereas control subjects showed activations in different associative cortices, predominantly in the right hemisphere. These results also confirm that wine experts work simultaneously on sensory quality assessment and on label recognition of wine.

  15. Updated limits on lepton flavor violation in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the latest values of fermion masses, limits on lepton flavor violation in supersymmetric theories with/without flavor symmetries are calculated. They are compared with recent experimental results on lepton flavor violation. Analysis of the results are presented. Flavor symmetries are needed to study the observed flavor structure of masses, like the observed hierarchy of fermion masses and the particular values of mixing angles. These flavor symmetries are present at higher scales, and broken at lower scales. With these, models can be built to explain the masses of fermions. The unified explanation of fermion and neutrino masses is one of the important goals before theoretical physicists. Appropriate theoretical models are required to explain the observed fermion masses i.e. the masses of quarks, leptons, and neutrinos. These theories, should in principle, be able to explain, the measured values of fermion masses, and mixings among them. (author)

  16. Importance of Cognitive and Affective Processes when Working with a Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Trbižan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Why and how to measure human emotions when working and learning with a computer? Are machines (computers, robots implementing such binary records, where there is a simulation of cognitive phenomena and their processes, or do they actually reflect, therefore, able to think?Purpose: Show the importance of cognitive and affective processes of computer and ICT usage, both in learning and in daily work tasks.Method: Comparative method, where scientific findings were compared and based on these conclusions were drawn.Results: An individual has an active role and the use of ICT enables, through the processes of reflection and exchanges of views, for an individual to resolve problems and consequently is able to achieve excellent results at both the personal (educational level and in business. In learning and working with computers, individuals needinternal motivation. Internal motivation can be increased with positive affective processes that also positively influence cognitive processes.Organization:Knowledge of generational characteristics is currently becoming a competitive advantage of organizations. Younger generations are growing up with computers and both teachers and managers have to beaware and accommodate their teaching and business processes to the requirements of ICT.Society: In the 21st century we live in a knowledge society that is unconditionally connected and dependent on the development of information technology. Digital literacy is an everyday concept that society also is aware of and training programmes are being offered on computer literacy for all generations.Originality: The paper presents a concise synthesis of research and authors points of views recorded over the last 25 years and these are combined with our own conclusions based on observations.Limitations/Future Research:The fundamental limitation is that this is a comparative research study that compares the views and conclusions of different authors

  17. The importance of physical activity and sleep for affect on stressful days: Two intensive longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lavinia; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H; Witthauer, Cornelia; Mata, Jutta

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the potential stress-buffering effect of 3 health behaviors-physical activity, sleep quality, and snacking-on affect in the context of everyday life in young adults. In 2 intensive longitudinal studies with up to 65 assessment days over an entire academic year, students (Study 1, N = 292; Study 2, N = 304) reported stress intensity, sleep quality, physical activity, snacking, and positive and negative affect. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Stress and positive affect were negatively associated; stress and negative affect were positively associated. The more physically active than usual a person was on a given day, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Study 1) and negative affect (Studies 1 and 2). The better than usual a person's sleep quality had been during the previous night, the weaker the association between stress and positive affect (Studies 1 and 2) and negative affect (Study 2). The association between daily stress and positive or negative affect did not differ as a function of daily snacking (Studies 1 and 2). On stressful days, increasing physical activity or ensuring high sleep quality may buffer adverse effects of stress on affect in young adults. These findings suggest potential targets for health-promotion and stress-prevention programs, which could help reduce the negative impact of stress in young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26709860

  18. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  19. Rare flavor processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isabel García; March-Russell, John

    2015-01-01

    We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is untuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact U(1) R symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets, in particular the brane localization of the 3rd generation states, imply KK-parity is broken and tree-level contributions to flavor changing neutral currents are present in general. Nevertheless, we show that simple variants of the basic MNSUSY model are safe from present flavor constraints arising from kaon and B-meson oscillations, the rare decays B s, d → μ + μ -, μ → ēee and μ- e conversion in nuclei. We also briefly discuss some special features of the radiative decays μ → eγ and . Future experiments, especially those concerned with lepton flavor violation, should see deviations from SM predictions unless one of the MNSUSY variants with enhanced flavor symmetries is realized.

  20. Study on creation of an indocalamus leaf flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlavors represent a small but significant segment of food industry. Sensory characteristics play an important role in the process of consumer acceptance and preference. Indocalamus leaf takes on a pleasant odor and indocalamus leaf flavor can be used in many products. However, indocalamus leaf flavor formula has not been reported. Therefore, developing an indocalamus leaf flavor is of significant interests. Note is a distinct flavor or odor characteristic. This paper concentrates on preparation and creation of indocalamus leaf flavor according to the notes of indocalamus leaf. The notes were obtained by smelling indocalamus leaf, and the results showed that the notes of indocalamus leaf flavor can be classified as: green-leafy note, sweet note, beany note, aldehydic note, waxy note, woody note, roast note, creamy note, and nutty note. According to the notes of indocalamus leaf odor, a typical indocalamus leaf flavor formula was obtained. The indocalamus leaf flavor blended is pleasant, harmonious, and has characteristics of indocalamus leaf odor.

  1. Reader Response and Long-Term Recall for Journalistic Text: The Roles of Imagery, Affect, and Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Quast, Zeba

    1990-01-01

    Examines recall of three feature articles by rating paragraphs according to degree of mental imagery evoked, affect evoked, and importance of the article as a whole. Finds that readers are more likely to remember content that is subjectively important than content viewed as objectively important. (KEH)

  2. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears

  3. Neutrino flavor entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno (Italy); Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Neutrino oscillations can be equivalently described in terms of (dynamical) entanglement of neutrino flavor modes. We review previous results derived in the context of quantum mechanics and extend them to the quantum field theory framework, were a rich structure of quantum correlations appears.

  4. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D4, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D14. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element Vud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  5. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  6. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-0324) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 93.304, see the List of CFR Sections... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at...

  7. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is an on-going upgrade for the STAR detector at RHIC that aim to study heavy quark production. In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The HFT detectors will study this via the topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons. The HFT that consists of a thin two layer inner Pixel vertex detector, and two outer concentric layers of silicon, the Silicon Strip Detector, and the Intermediate Silicon Tracker. We will show how this detector system can assess heavy flavor physics with great precision. An overview of the HFT that will be completed for the upcoming RHIC run-14, its expected performance, and current status will be presented. Supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Open heavy flavor production at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Suaide, A A P

    2007-01-01

    The study of heavy flavor production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is an extreme experimental challenge but provides important information on the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) created in Au+Au collisions at RHIC. Heavy-quarks are believed to be produced in the initial stages of the collision, and are essential on the understanding of parton energy loss in the dense medium created in such environment. Moreover, heavy-quarks can help to investigate fundamental properties of QCD in elementary p+p collisions. In this work we review recent results on heavy flavor production and their interaction with the hot and dense medium at RHIC.

  9. Exploring Flavor Physics with Lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Daping; Fermilab/MILC Collaborations Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Standard Model has been a very good description of the subatomic particle physics. In the search for physics beyond the Standard Model in the context of flavor physics, it is important to sharpen our probes using some gold-plated processes (such as B rare decays), which requires the knowledge of the input parameters, such as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements and other nonperturbative quantities, with sufficient precision. Lattice QCD is so far the only first-principle method which could compute these quantities with competitive and systematically improvable precision using the state of the art simulation techniques. I will discuss the recent progress of lattice QCD calculations on some of these nonpurturbative quantities and their applications in flavor physics. I will also discuss the implications and future perspectives of these calculations in flavor physics.

  10. Sweetener/sweetness-induced changes in flavor perception and flavor release of fruity and green character in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bonnie M; Arents, Paul; Bouter, N; Duineveld, C A A; Meyners, M; Schroff, S I; Soekhai, S T

    2006-04-01

    Green leaf volatile (GLV) mixtures, commercial orange flavors, and commercial strawberry flavors were applied to beverage bases in which concentrations of citric acid as well as a sweetener (sucrose or aspartame/acesulfame-K) were varied. Sensory profiling showed that flavor-specific fruity character increased as perceptible sweetness increased, independent of whether the sweetness resulted from sucrose (a change from 9 to 12 Brix) or aspartame/acesulfame-K (a change from 0.2 to 0.4 Brix). Sweetness was affected only by the tastants in the base and not by the flavors, although flavor-specific interactions between sweetener type and sweetener level occurred. Flavor release from the sucrose bases was compared to flavor release from bases containing aspartame/acesulfame-K by static headspace measurements and by MS-Nose measurements using an artificial throat. These measurements showed greater flavor volatility from bases having low Brix (fewer soluble solids). This negative Brix effect was also evident in the sensory data for perception of some GLV green notes. The headspace data could not support a positive Brix effect, the typical salting out, which would correspond to the observed perceptual enhancement of fruity notes. PMID:16569060

  11. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  12. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  13. Open flavor strong decays

    CERN Document Server

    García-Tecocoatzi, H; Ferretti, J; Galatà, G; Santopinto, E

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified $^3P_0$ model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the Hypercentral Quark Model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  14. Heavy flavors study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy flavor study group concentrated on three issues. First the investigation of an energy transverse trigger to be used to select out charm and beauty events. Second, in a dedicated high sensitivity two-body B experiment is it possible to ''tag'' the beauty particle. Third, the design of a photoproduction experiment that could accumulate 108 charm particles in a single Fermilab running period

  15. Eight-flavor QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past year and one half, the group at Columbia has studied eight-flavor QCD with a dynamical quark mass ma = 0.015 on 163 x Nt and 324 lattices with Nt = 4, 6, 8, 16, and 32. On lattices with Nt ≥ 16 we have also computed hadron masses or correlation lengths for a variety of valence quark masses. In this paper we discuss three topics related to this work. (orig.)

  16. Flavor Violating Higgs Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Harnik, Roni; Zupan, Jure

    2012-01-01

    We study a class of nonstandard interactions of the newly discovered 125 GeV Higgs-like resonance that are especially interesting probes of new physics: flavor violating Higgs couplings to leptons and quarks. These interaction can arise in many frameworks of new physics at the electroweak scale such as two Higgs doublet models, extra dimensions, or models of compositeness. We derive constraints on flavor violating Higgs couplings using data on rare decays, electric and magnetic dipole moments, and meson oscillations. We find that flavor violating Higgs boson decays to leptons can be sizeable with, e.g., h -> tau mu and h -> tau e branching ratios of order 10% perfectly allowed by low energy constraints. We estimate the current LHC limits on h -> tau mu and h -> tau e decays by recasting existing searches for the SM Higgs in the tau-tau channel and find that these bounds are already stronger than those from rare tau decays. We also show that these limits can be improved significantly with dedicated searches an...

  17. Safety evaluation of food flavorings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food flavorings are an essential element in foods. Flavorings are a unique class of food ingredients and excluded from the legislative definition of a food additive because they are regulated by flavor legislation and not food additive legislation. Flavoring ingredients naturally present in foods, have simple chemical structures, low toxicity, and are used in very low levels in foods and beverages resulting in very low levels of human exposure or consumption. Today, the overwhelming regulatory trend is a positive list of flavoring substances, e.g. substances not listed are prohibited. Flavoring substances are added to the list following a safety evaluation based on the conditions of intended use by qualified experts. The basic principles for assessing the safety of flavoring ingredients will be discussed with emphasis on the safety evaluation of flavoring ingredients by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the US Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Expert Panel (FEXPAN). The main components of the JECFA evaluation process include chemical structure, human intake (exposure), metabolism to innocuous or harmless substances, and toxicity concerns consistent with JECFA principles. The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) evaluation is very similar to the JECFA procedure. Both the JECFA and FEMA evaluation procedures are widely recognized and the results are accepted by many countries. This implies that there is no need for developing countries to conduct their own toxicological assessment of flavoring ingredients unless it is an unique ingredient in one country, but it is helpful to survey intake or exposure assessment. The global safety program established by the International Organization of Flavor Industry (IOFI) resulting in one worldwide open positive list of flavoring substances will be reviewed

  18. 78 FR 12414 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Importation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Switzerland. Major Issues Raised by Argentina Due to the presence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Argentina... application for FMD disease-free status (which would include permission to import fresh beef that is either..., Argentina submitted an application to APHIS requesting FMD disease-free status (which would...

  19. Flavor mediation delivers natural SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathaniel; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    If supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the hierarchy problem, then naturalness considerations coupled with recent LHC bounds require non-trivial superpartner flavor structures. Such "Natural SUSY" models exhibit a large mass hierarchy between scalars of the third and first two generations as well as degeneracy (or alignment) among the first two generations. In this work, we show how this specific beyond the standard model (SM) flavor structure can be tied directly to SM flavor via "Flavor Mediation". The SM contains an anomaly-free SU(3) flavor symmetry, broken only by Yukawa couplings. By gauging this flavor symmetry in addition to SM gauge symmetries, we can mediate SUSY breaking via (Higgsed) gauge mediation. This automatically delivers a natural SUSY spectrum. Third-generation scalar masses are suppressed due to the dominant breaking of the flavor gauge symmetry in the top direction. More subtly, the first-two-generation scalars remain highly degenerate due to a custodial U(2) symmetry, where the SU(2) factor arises because SU(3) is rank two. This custodial symmetry is broken only at order ( m c /m t )2. SUSY gauge coupling unification predictions are preserved, since no new charged matter is introduced, the SM gauge structure is unaltered, and the flavor symmetry treats all matter multiplets equally. Moreover, the uniqueness of the anomaly-free SU(3) flavor group makes possible a number of concrete predictions for the superpartner spectrum.

  20. Solar light, seawater temperature, and nutrients, which one is more important in affecting phytoplankton growth?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhenqing; Yang Dongfang

    2009-01-01

    Based on research results on the impacts of solar light, seawater temperature, and nutrient available to phytoplankton growth and changes in phytoplankton physiology and assemblage, we discussed the order of influence of these factors. By clarifying the mechanisms and processes of the impacts by these factors, we have determined the rising order of the importance as solar light, seawater temperature, and nutrient silicon (Si). Therefore, for human interests in sustaining economic development, the first thing to be considered is the input of nutrient Si into the ocean, followed by seawater temperature change.

  1. Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit Textural Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadur Adhikari, Khem; Shomer, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strength......Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA...... strengthening was exempli ed in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5(< pKa) and pH 6.5(> pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of p......H 3.5 (< pKa) incubated mesocarp (~10.5 N) was signi cantly higher than that of pH 6.5 (> pKa) incubated fruits (~2 N). The protein bands at ~29 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~32 kDa and 87 kDa were exclusively or prominently found in ICA strengthened fruits (pH 3.5< pKa) compared to texturally injured fruits (pH 6...

  2. Flavor Violation in the Scalar Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In many extensions of the Standard Model, the alignment in flavor space of the fermion mass matrices and the Yukawa coupling matrices can be broken. The physical scalar boson $h(125)$ could then have flavor changing couplings. In this talk, we summarize constraints on such couplings from rare decay searches, and we investigate current and future detection prospects at the LHC. We emphasize the importance of several yet unexplored final states: (i) anomalous single top + $h$ production in $p p \\to t h$, arising from $tuh$ couplings (but not from the more widely studied $tch$ couplings); (ii) $p p \\to t + (H^0 \\to h h)$ through $tuh$ couplings in the context of a Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM), perhaps the simplest model with flavor violation in the scalar sector; (iii) $p p \\to H^0 \\to \\tau\\mu$ in the 2HDM context. For all of these processes, we perform a detailed phenomenological studies. Finally, we comment on the possibility of flavor violation combined with CP violation, which may be interesting if the cur...

  3. A tropical coastal lagoon affected by agricultural activities. The importance of radiolabelled pesticide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to integrate the results obtained from laboratory and field radiolabelled pesticide studies on an appropriate management model for a tropical coastal lagoon in which diverse human activities (e.g. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and tourism) take place. The tropical coastal lagoon studied is surrounded by agricultural fields on which large quantities of pesticides are used, and pesticide residue commonly enter the lagoon as runoff. Information on the distribution and dynamics of these contaminants is necessary for establishing coastal lagoon management. The distribution of pesticide residues in sediments of the lagoon was evaluated and the dynamics of the pesticides (water:sediment partitioning and bioaccumulation) experimentally assessed using 14C labelled pesticides (chlorpyrifos, DDT and parathion) in model ecosystems. The results of these experiments indicate that partitioning between phases (water:sediment) is very rapid, with the half-life varying from a few hours for chlorpyrifos and DDT to up to 8 days for parathion. In the same way, bio-accumulation of the different pesticides is an active process that varied for the different organisms exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations for 30 days. The results demonstrate that the persistence and the degree of bioaccumulation of pesticides are a threat to the ecosystem, both from the ecological and the economic point of view. Thus, traditional fisheries in the lagoon, shrimp farms and tourism could be seriously affected by their excessive use. Improved environmental management is urgently needed to reduce the risk of these ecological hazards. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Determinations of flavor ratios and flavor transitions of astrophysical neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Lai, Kwang-Chang [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Minghuey [National United University, Lianda, Miaoli City, Miaoli County 360, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-01

    We argue that effective flavor discrimination in neutrino telescopes is the key to probe the flavor ratios of astrophysical neutrinos at the source [1,3] and flavor transition mechanisms [2] of these neutrinos during their propagations from the source to the Earth. We first discuss how well one can reconstruct the flavor ratios of astrophysical neutrinos at the source, given achievable efficiencies of neutrino telescopes in flavor discriminations and expected understandings of neutrino mixing parameters in the future. It will be shown that the signatures for tau neutrinos are energy dependent, hence the methods for flavor reconstruction depend on neutrino energies as well. We then discuss how to probe flavor transition mechanisms of propagating astrophysical neutrinos. In this regard, we propose a model independent parametrization for neutrino flavor transitions, with the neutrino oscillation as a special case. We illustrate how one can determine parameters of this parameterization by neutrino telescope measurements. The situation with non-conservation of neutrino flux during neutrino propagations (such as that caused by neutrino decays) is also discussed. Refs.: [1] T. C. Liu, M. A. Huang and G. L. Lin, arXiv: 1004.5154. [2] K. C. Lai, G. L. Lin and T. C. Liu, arXiv: 1004.1583. [3] K. C. Lai, G. L. Lin and T. C. Liu, Phys. Rev. D80, 103005 (2009). (authors)

  5. Self-induced neutrino flavor conversion without flavor mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino-neutrino refraction in dense media can cause self-induced flavor conversion triggered by collective run-away modes of the interacting flavor oscillators. The growth rates were usually found to be of order a typical vacuum oscillation frequency $\\Delta m^2/2E$. However, even in the simple case of a $\

  6. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects. PMID:26710265

  7. Bromofenóis simples relacionados ao "flavor" de organismos marinhos Brominated phenols as key flavor compounds found in marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the flavor is an important attribute of quality in marine fish and other seafoods, being the first and main factor of discrimination for the evaluation, later acceptance and preference of the product by the consumer. Recently, the simple bromophenols have been considered an important group of key flavor compounds occurring in a wide variety of seafood species like fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and algae. When present in high concentration, in seafood, the bromophenols produce an undesirable flavor and are associated with inferior quality. Meanwhile, when present in low concentration levels (for example ng g-1 these compounds produce a desirable marine - or ocean-like - flavor and enhance the existing flavor in seafood. Indeed, simple bromophenols are widespread in seafood but virtually absent in freshwater fish. Herein we present a review on these flavor components found in the marine environment.

  8. Are three flavors special?

    CERN Document Server

    Fariborz, Amir H; Schechter, Joseph; Shahid, M Naeem

    2010-01-01

    It has become clearer recently that the regular pattern of three flavor nonets describing the low spin meson multiplets seems to require some modification for the case of the spin 0 scalar mesons. One picture which has had some success, treats the scalars in a chiral Lagrangian framework and considers them to populate two nonets. These are, in turn, taken to result from the mixing of two "bare" nonets, one of which is of quark- antiquark type and the other of two quark- two antiquark type. Here we show that such a mixing is, before chiral symmetry breaking terms are included, only possible for three flavors. In other cases, the two types of structure can not have the same chiral symmetry transformation property. Specifically, our criterion would lead one to believe that scalar and pseudoscalar states containing charm would not have "four quark" admixtures. This work is of potential interest for constructing chiral Lagrangians based on exact chiral symmetry which is then broken by well known specific terms. It...

  9. Are three flavors special?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has become clearer recently that the regular pattern of three flavor nonets describing the low spin meson multiplets seems to require some modification for the case of the spin 0 scalar mesons. One picture, which has had some success, treats the scalars in a chiral Lagrangian framework and considers them to populate two nonets. These are, in turn, taken to result from the mixing of two ''bare'' nonets, one of which is of quark-antiquark type and the other of two-quark-two-antiquark type. Here we show that such a mixing is, before chiral symmetry breaking terms are included, only possible for three flavors. In other cases, the two types of structure cannot have the same chiral symmetry transformation property. Specifically, our criterion would lead one to believe that scalar and pseudoscalar states containing charm would not have ''four quark'' admixtures. This work is of potential interest for constructing chiral Lagrangians based on exact chiral symmetry which is then broken by well-known specific terms. It may also be of interest in studying some kinds of technicolor theories.

  10. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data

  11. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low pT heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  12. STAR heavy flavor tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Hao

    2014-11-15

    Hadrons containing heavy quarks are a clean probe of the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. To explore heavy quark production at RHIC, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment was built and installed in time for RHIC Run 14. The HFT consists of four layers of silicon detectors. The two outermost layers are silicon strip detectors and the two innermost layers are made from state-of-the-art ultra-thin CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This is the first application of a CMOS MAPS detector in a collider experiment. The use of thin pixel sensors plus the use of carbon fiber supporting material limits the material budget to be only 0.4% radiation length per pixel detector layer, enabling the reconstruction of low p{sub T} heavy flavor hadrons. The status and performance of the HFT in the RHIC 200 GeV Au + Au run in 2014 are reported. Very good detector efficiency, hit residuals and track resolution (DCAs) were observed in the cosmic ray data and in the Au + Au data.

  13. Neutrino Flavor Evolution in Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Frensel, Maik; Volpe, Cristina; Perego, Albino

    2016-01-01

    We study the neutrino flavor evolution in the neutrino-driven wind from a binary neutron star merger remnant consisting of a massive neutron star surrounded by an accretion disk. With the neutrino emission characteristics and the hydrodynamical profile of the remnant consistently extracted from a three-dimensional simulation, we compute the flavor evolution by taking into account neutrino coherent forward scattering off ordinary matter and neutrinos themselves. We employ a "single-trajectory" approach to investigate the dependence of the flavor evolution on the neutrino emission location and angle. We also show that the flavor conversion in the merger remnant can affect the (anti-)neutrino absorption rates on free nucleons and may thus impact the $r$-process nucleosynthesis in the wind. We discuss the sensitivity of such results on the change of neutrino emission characteristics, also from different neutron star merger simulations.

  14. Neutrinos from Cosmic Accelerators including Magnetic Field and Flavor Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Winter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the particle physics ingredients affecting the normalization, shape, and flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos fluxes, such as different production modes, magnetic field effects on the secondaries (muons, pions, and kaons, and flavor mixing, where we focus on pγ interactions. We also discuss the interplay with neutrino propagation and detection, including the possibility to detect flavor and its application in particle physics, and the use of the Glashow resonance to discriminate pγ from pp interactions in the source. We illustrate the implications on fluxes and flavor composition with two different models: (1 the target photon spectrum is dominated by synchrotron emission of coaccelerated electrons and (2 the target photon spectrum follows the observed photon spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. In the latter case, the multimessenger extrapolation from the gamma-ray fluence to the expected neutrino flux is highlighted.

  15. Skew-flavored dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2016-05-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects minimal flavor violation and is, therefore, naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space, the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this class of models to be distinguished from other theories of dark matter.

  16. Flavor Physics in an SO(10) Grand Unified Model

    CERN Document Server

    Girrbach, Jennifer; Knopf, Markus; Martens, Waldemar; Nierste, Ulrich; Scherrer, Christian; Wiesenfeldt, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In supersymmetric grand-unified models, the lepton mixing matrix can possibly affect flavor-changing transitions in the quark sector. We present a detailed analysis of a model proposed by Chang, Masiero and Murayama, in which the near-maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle governs large new b -> s transitions. Relating the supersymmetric low-energy parameters to seven new parameters of this SO(10) GUT model, we perform a correlated study of several flavor-changing neutral current (FCNC) processes. We find the current bound on B(tau -> mu gamma) more constraining than B(B -> X_s gamma). The LEP limit on the lightest Higgs boson mass implies an important lower bound on tan beta, which in turn limits the size of the new FCNC transitions. Remarkably, the combined analysis does not rule out large effects in B_s-B_s-bar mixing and we can easily accomodate the large CP phase in the B_s-B_s-bar system which has recently been inferred from a global analysis of CDF and DO data. The model predicts a particle spectrum...

  17. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N

    2016-08-01

    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows

  18. Neutrino flavor ratios as diagnostic of solar WIMP annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Ralf; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2008-06-01

    We consider the neutrino (and antineutrino) flavors arriving at the Earth for neutrinos produced in the annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the sun’s core. Solar-matter effects on the flavor propagation of the resulting ≳GeV neutrinos are studied analytically within a density-matrix formalism. Matter effects, including mass-state level crossings, influence the flavor fluxes considerably. The exposition herein is somewhat pedagogical, in that it starts with adiabatic evolution of single flavors from the sun’s center, with θ13 set to zero, and progresses to fully realistic processing of the flavor ratios expected in WIMP decay, from the sun’s core to the Earth. In the fully realistic calculation, nonadiabatic level crossing is included, as are possible nonzero values for θ13 and the CP-violating phase δ. Because of resonance enhancement in matter, nonzero values of θ13 even smaller than a degree can noticeably affect flavor propagation. Both normal and inverted neutrino-mass hierarchies are considered. Our main conclusion is that measuring flavor ratios (in addition to energy spectra) of ≳GeV solar neutrinos can provide discrimination between WIMP models. In particular, we demonstrate the flavor differences at the Earth for neutrinos from the two main classes of WIMP final states, namely W+W- and 95%bb¯+5%τ+τ-. Conversely, if WIMP properties were to be learned from production in future accelerators, then the flavor ratios of ≳GeV solar neutrinos might be useful for inferring θ13 and the mass hierarchy. From the full calculations, we find (and prove) some general features: a flavor-democratic flux produced at the sun’s core arrives at the Earth still flavor democratic; for maximal θ32 but arbitrary θ21 and θ13, the replacement δ→π-δ leaves the νe flavor spectra unaltered but interchanges νμ and ντ spectra at the Earth; and, only for neutrinos in the inverted hierarchy and antineutrinos in the normal

  19. Relative importance of various measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological outcomes among children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-06-01

    To assess the relative importance of four different measures of HIV-related stigma in predicting psychological problems among children affected by HIV in rural China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 orphans (i.e., children who lost one or both of their parents to HIV), 466 vulnerable children (children who were living with HIV-infected parents), and 404 comparison children who were from the same community and did not have HIV-related illness or death in their families. Four HIV-related stigma measures include perceived public stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), perceived public stigma against children affected by HIV (orphans and vulnerable children), personal stigmatizing attitudes against PLWHA, and enacted stigma among children affected by HIV. Psychological problems included depression and adjustment problems. Various measures of HIV-related stigma independently and differentially contribute to children's psychological problems. Enacted stigma and children's perceived public stigma against PLWHA or children affected by HIV are generally stronger predictors of psychological problems than their own feelings or attitudes towards PLWHA. Various aspects of HIV-related stigma are important for us to understand the perception, attitudes, and experience of children affected by HIV, including both children experiencing HIV-related parental illness and death in their own family and children who were living in the communities hardly hit by HIV. Future health promotion and psychological care efforts for children affected by HIV need to consider the effect of various forms of HIV-related stigma on these children's psychosocial well-being and mobilize the community resources to mitigate the negative effect of HIV-related stigma on PLWHA and their children. PMID:21681458

  20. The role of the human orbitofrontal cortex in taste and flavor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Dana M; Bender, Genevieve; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Rudenga, Kristin; Nachtigal, Danielle; Felsted, Jennifer

    2007-12-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays an important role in representing taste, flavor, and food reward. The primary role of the OFC in taste is thought to be the encoding of affective value and the computation of perceived pleasantness. The OFC also encodes retronasal olfaction and oral somatosensation. During eating, distinct sensory inputs fuse into a unitary flavor percept, and there is evidence that this percept is encoded in the orbital cortex. Studies examining the effect of internal state on neural representation of food and drink further suggest that processing in the OFC is critical for representing the reward value of foods. Thus, it is likely that, in addition to serving as higher-order gustatory cortex, the OFC integrates multiple sensory inputs and computes reward value to guide feeding behavior. PMID:17846155

  1. Optimisation des plannings des affectations multi niveaux des flux des céréales importées

    OpenAIRE

    Mkaouar, Houssemeddine; Mesghouni, Khaled

    2009-01-01

    International audience Dans cet article on s'intéresse aux problèmes de prise de décision dans le domaine de la distribution des céréales en Tunisie notamment ceux relatifs à la planification et à l'affectation multi niveaux des céréales importés. L'objectif est d'optimiser la gestion d'une entité de la chaîne logistique céréalière depuis l'approvisionnement (importation) jusqu'à la vente aux clients (minoteries, semouleries,...) en passant par trois niveaux d'affectation. A cet effet on a...

  2. Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Eby, David A

    2013-01-01

    A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...

  3. Flavored model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S4, the dihedral group D5 and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, √((md)/(ms))= vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke and √((md)/(ms))= vertical stroke (Vtd)/(Vts) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries Dn and D'n. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle θC, i.e. vertical stroke Vus(cd) vertical stroke cos((3π)/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, θ23=(π)/(4), and vanishing θ13 in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  4. Flavor Mediation Delivers Natural SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    If supersymmetry (SUSY) solves the hierarchy problem, then naturalness considerations coupled with recent LHC bounds require non-trivial superpartner flavor structures. Such "Natural SUSY" models exhibit a large mass hierarchy between scalars of the third and first two generations as well as degeneracy (or alignment) among the first two generations. In this work, we show how this specific beyond the standard model (SM) flavor structure can be tied directly to SM flavor via "Flavor Mediation". The SM contains an anomaly-free SU(3) flavor symmetry, broken only by Yukawa couplings. By gauging this flavor symmetry in addition to SM gauge symmetries, we can mediate SUSY breaking via (Higgsed) gauge mediation. This automatically delivers a natural SUSY spectrum. Third-generation scalar masses are suppressed due to the dominant breaking of the flavor gauge symmetry in the top direction. More subtly, the first-two-generation scalars remain highly degenerate due to a custodial U(2) symmetry, where the SU(2) factor ari...

  5. Supersymmetric QCD flavor-changing top quark decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed and complete calculation of the gluino and scalar quarks contribution to the flavor-changing top quark decay into a charm quark and a photon, gluon, or a Z0 boson within the minimal supersymmetric standard model including flavor-changing gluino-quark-scalar-quark couplings in the right-handed sector. We compare the results with the ones presented in an earlier paper where we considered flavor-changing couplings only in the left-handed sector. We show that these new couplings have important consequences leading to a large enhancement when the mixing of the scalar partners of the left- and right-handed top quark is included. Furthermore CP violation in the flavor-changing top quark decay will occur when a SUSY phase is taken into account. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Suppressing supersymmetric flavor violations through quenched gaugino-flavor interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, James D.; Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Realizing that couplings related by supersymmetry (SUSY) can be disentangled when SUSY is broken, it is suggested that unwanted flavor and CP violating SUSY couplings may be suppressed via quenched gaugino-flavor interactions, which may be accomplished by power-law running of sfermion anomalous dimensions. A simple theoretical framework to accomplish this is exemplified and the defeated constraints are tallied. One key implication of the scenario is the expectation of enhanced top, bottom and...

  7. 21 CFR 169.177 - Vanilla flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla flavoring. 169.177 Section 169.177 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... and Flavorings § 169.177 Vanilla flavoring. (a) Vanilla flavoring conforms to the definition...

  8. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  9. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  10. Heavy Flavor Physics in STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbæk, Flemming; STAR Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The STAR Collaboration should complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. These detectors will greatly enhance the STAR physics capability to measure heavy quark collectivity and correlations using topologically reconstructed charmed hadrons and heavy quark decay electron-muon correlations. In addition, measurements of the quarkonium muon decay channels will enable us to separate Upsilon 1S from 2S and 3S states in p + p and A+A collisions. Selected STAR results on open charm and quarkonia production in p + p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV are presented. An overview of the upgrades, their expected performance and current status is presented.

  11. Heavy Flavor Physics in STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC, heavy quarks are primarily created from initial hard scatterings. Since their large masses are not easily affected by the strong interaction with QCD medium they may carry information from the system at early stage. The interaction between heavy quarks and the medium is sensitive to the medium dynamics; therefore heavy quarks are suggested as an ideal probe to quantify the properties of the strongly interacting QCD matter. The STAR Collaboration should complete the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) and the Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) upgrades by 2014. These detectors will greatly enhance the STAR physics capability to measure heavy quark collectivity and correlations using topologically reconstructed charmed hadrons and heavy quark decay electron-muon correlations. In addition, measurements of the quarkonium muon decay channels will enable us to separate Upsilon 1S from 2S and 3S states in p + p and A+A collisions. Selected STAR results on open charm and quarkonia production in p + p and Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV are presented. An overview of the upgrades, their expected performance and current status is presented.

  12. Flavor physics and right-handed models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaq, Saba

    2010-08-20

    The Standard Model of particle physics only provides a parametrization of flavor which involves the values of the quark and lepton masses and unitary flavor mixing matrix i.e. CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Masakawa) matrix for quarks. The precise determination of elements of the CKM matrix is important for the study of the flavor sector of quarks. Here we concentrate on the matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke. In particular we consider the effects on the value of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from possible right-handed admixtures along with the usually left-handed weak currents. Left Right Symmetric Model provide a natural basis for right-handed current contributions and has been studied extensively in the literature but has never been discussed including flavor. In the first part of the present work an additional flavor symmetry is included in LRSM which allows a systematic study of flavor effects. The second part deals with the practical extraction of a possible right-handed contribution. Starting from the quark level transition b{yields}c we use heavy quark symmetries to relate the helicities of the quarks to experimentally accessible quantities. To this end we study the decays anti B{yields}D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} which have been extensively explored close to non recoil point. By taking into account SCET (Soft Collinear Effective Theory) formalism it has been extended to a maximum recoil point i.e. {upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '} >>1. We derive a factorization formula, where the set of form factors is reduced to a single universal form factor {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}) up to hard-scattering corrections. Symmetry relations on form factors for exclusive anti B {yields} D(D{sup *})l anti {nu} transition has been derived in terms of {xi}({upsilon} . {upsilon}{sup '}). These symmetries are then broken by perturbative effects. The perturbative corrections to symmetry-breaking corrections to first order in the strong

  13. Heavy flavors at fixed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of Heavy Flavor physics at fixed target experiments is reviewed. High statistics charm production and decay data are summarized and new results on beauty physics are presented. (author)

  14. Flavored model building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2008-01-15

    In this thesis we discuss possibilities to solve the family replication problem and to understand the observed strong hierarchy among the fermion masses and the diverse mixing pattern of quarks and leptons. We show that non-abelian discrete symmetries which act non-trivially in generation space can serve as profound explanation. We present three low energy models with the permutation symmetry S{sub 4}, the dihedral group D{sub 5} and the double-valued group T' as flavor symmetry. The T' model turns out to be very predictive, since it explains tri-bimaximal mixing in the lepton sector and, moreover, leads to two non-trivial relations in the quark sector, {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke and {radical}((m{sub d})/(m{sub s}))= vertical stroke (V{sub td})/(V{sub ts}) vertical stroke. The main message of the T' model is the observation that the diverse pattern in the quark and lepton mixings can be well-understood, if the flavor symmetry is not broken in an arbitrary way, but only to residual (non-trivial) subgroups. Apart from leading to deeper insights into the origin of the fermion mixings this idea enables us to perform systematic studies of large classes of discrete groups. This we show in our study of dihedral symmetries D{sub n} and D'{sub n}. As a result we find only five distinct (Dirac) mass matrix structures arising from a dihedral group, if we additionally require partial unification of either left-handed or left-handed conjugate fermions and the determinant of the mass matrix to be non-vanishing. Furthermore, we reveal the ability of dihedral groups to predict the Cabibbo angle {theta}{sub C}, i.e. vertical stroke V{sub us(cd)} vertical stroke = cos((3{pi})/(7)), as well as maximal atmospheric mixing, {theta}{sub 23}=({pi})/(4), and vanishing {theta}{sub 13} in the lepton sector. (orig.)

  15. Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects will also be addressed.

  16. Color-flavor locked strangelets

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Jes

    2001-01-01

    Finite lumps of color-flavor locked strange quark matter (CFL-strangelets) are significantly more stable than strangelets without color-flavor locking for wide ranges of parameters, increasing the likelihood of strangelet metastability, or even absolute stability beyond some minimum baryon number $A_{min}$. Whereas bulk CFL strange quark matter is electrically neutral, CFL-strangelets are positively charged, with $Z\\approx 0.3 A^{2/3}$. This is quite different from ``ordinary'' strangelets an...

  17. Developments of analysis method for tobacco flavors%烟用增香物质的分析技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志芹; 艾小勇; 张元; 王志; 付体鹏; 许成保; 张峰

    2014-01-01

    Public concern over varied flavor added in cigarettes have been increasing during the past few years. Tobacco flavors is indispensable for the production of cigarette. It is also an important factor affecting the taste of the cigarette. Some of the flavor added in cigarettes have been identified physiological toxicity. However, tobacco flavors is composed of complex chemicals. For the most part, we select different analytical methods based on the various nature of flavors. In this paper, pretreatment, separation and detection methods for tobacco flavors were reviewed. Some new analytical methods are also briefly introduced. Till now, Mass spectrometry is the most popular method of analysis over varied flavor added in cigarettes because of its high sensitivity and reproducibility.%卷烟中的增香物质是卷烟生产中不可或缺的原料,该物质既能减少焦油含量,同时也能影响卷烟口味。然而卷烟中的增香物质化学成分复杂,很多物质有不同程度的生理毒性,因此对烟草中增香成分的测定具有显著意义。目前烟用增香物质的的前处理和检测技术多种多样,本文对烟用增香物质的前处理和检测技术进行了综述和比较,对一些新的分析技术也作了简要介绍,拟为卷烟中增香物质的检测提供依据。

  18. Meson Strings and Flavor Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Bando, M; Terunuma, S; Bando, Masako; Sugamoto, Akio; Terunuma, Sachiko

    2006-01-01

    In a QCD-like string model based on D6 flavor branes in the presence of D4 color branes wrapping one of the compactified dimension on an $S^1$, the shape of meson strings in the five dimensional curved space as well as the potential between quark and anti-quark are investigated. The flavor branes on which both ends of a meson string live are assumed to be separated in this five dimensional space, depending on the values of the constituent quark masses. It is shown in this picture that the meson string with different flavors on both ends changes its shape at a critical distance. There is, however, no critical distance for the meson with the same flavors. At this critical distance the potential between quark and anti-quark with different flavors gives a point of reflection and changes its shape around this point. Accordingly, the attractive force between quark and anti-quark seems to become stronger when the distance of flavor branes connecting meson strings becomes larger. This indicates quark systems with dif...

  19. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, Vub/Vcb = √mu/mc and Vtd/Vts = √md/ms, are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  20. Early trauma and affect: the importance of the body for the development of the capacity to symbolize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Hessel

    2014-11-01

    In this paper I aim to outline the importance of working clinically with affect when treating severely traumatized patients who have a limited capacity to symbolize. These patients, who suffer the loss of maternal care early in life, require the analyst to be closely attuned to the patient's distress through use of the countertransference and with significantly less attention paid to the transference. It is questionable whether we can speak of transference when there is limited capacity to form internal representations. The analyst's relationship with the patient is not necessarily used to make interpretations but, instead, the analyst's reverie functions therapeutically to develop awareness and containment of affect, first in the analyst's mind and, later, in the patient's, so that, in time, a relationship between the patient's mind and the body, as the first object, is made. In contrast to general object-relations theories, in which the first object is considered to be the breast or the mother, Ferrari (2004) proposes that the body is the first object in the emerging mind. Once a relationship between mind and body is established, symbolization becomes possible following the formation of internal representations of affective states in the mind, where previously there were few. Using Ferrari's body-mind model, two clinical case vignettes underline the need to use the countertransference with patients who suffered chronic developmental trauma in early childhood. PMID:25331507

  1. Flavor asymmetry in polarized proton-deuteron Drell-Yan process

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, S.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of finding polarized antiquark flavor asymmetry in Drell-Yan processes. We find that the difference between polarized proton-proton and proton-deuteron Drell-Yan cross sections should provide valuable information on the polarized flavor asymmetry. Numerical results indicate that the asymmetry effects are conspicuous especially in the large-x_F region. Our analysis is important for the transversity distributions because the flavor asymmetry cannot be found by inclusi...

  2. Scalar mass relations and flavor violations in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetry provides the most promising solution to the gauge hierarchy problem. For supersymmetry to stablize the hierarchy, it must be broken at the weak scale. The combination of weak scale supersymmetry and grand unification leads to a successful prediction of the weak mixing angle to within 1% accuracy. If supersymmetry is a symmetry of nature, the mass spectrum and the flavor mixing pattern of the scalar superpartners of all the quarks and leptons will provide important information about a more fundamental theory at higher energies. We studied the scalar mass relations which follow from the assumption that at high energies there is a grand unified theory which leads to a significant prediction of the weak mixing angle; these will serve as important tests of grand unified theories. Two intragenerational mass relations for each of the light generations are derived. A third relation is also found which relates the Higgs masses and the masses of all three generation scalars. In a realistic supersymmetric grand unified theory, nontrivial flavor mixings are expected to exist at all gaugino vertices. This could lead to important contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment, the decay mode p → K0μ+, weak scale radiative corrections to the up-type quark masses, and lepton flavor violating signals such as μ → eγ. These also provide important probes of physics at high energy scales. Supersymmetric theories involving a spontaneously broken flavor symmetry can provide a solution to the supersymmetric flavor-changing problem and an understanding of the fermion masses and mixings. We studied the possibilities and the general conditions under which some fermion masses and mixings can be obtained radiatively. We also constructed theories of flavor in which the first generation fermion masses arise from radiative corrections while flavor-changing constraints are satisfied. 69 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Flavor perception test: evaluation in patients with Kallmann syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Luigi; Cantone, Elena; Nettore, Immacolata Cristina; Cerbone, Gaetana; De Brasi, Davide; Maione, Nunzia; Young, Jacques; Di Somma, Carolina; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino; Iengo, Maurizio; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-05-01

    In Kallmann syndrome (KS), congenital hypogonadism is associated with olfactory impairment. To evaluate flavor perception-related disability in KS patients, 30 patients with KS, 12 with normosmic hypogonadism (nIHH), 24 with acquired anosmia (AA), and 58 healthy controls entered the study. All participants completed questionnaires concerning dietary habits, olfaction-related quality of life (QoL), and self-determined olfactory, flavor, and taste abilities prior to undergoing standardized olfactometry and gustometry. Each subject underwent flavor testing, using orally administered aqueous aromatic solutions, identifying 21 different compounds by choosing each out of 5 alternative items. Flavor score (FS) was calculated as the sum of correct answers (range 0-21). Flavor perception by self-assessment was similar between KS, nIHH, and controls, and was mostly reduced only in AA. FS was similar between KS (5.4 ± 1.4) and AA (6.4 ± 1.9), and lower than in nIHH (16.2 ± 2.4, p < 0.001) and controls (16.8 ± 1.7, p < 0.0001). FS showed strong reproducibility, and correlated with olfactory scores in the overall population. KS and AA patients identified aromatics eliciting trigeminal stimulation better than pure odorants. Olfaction-related QoL was more impaired in AA than in KS. We report significant flavor impairment in KS. This contrasts with routine clinic evidence; KS patients, in contrast with AA, do not complain of flavor perception impairment, perhaps owing to the congenital nature of the dysfunction. Flavor perception impairment should be considered a specific KS disability, because of important detrimental effects on physical and mental health and on QoL. KS patients should also be advised of this impairment in order to prevent accidental and life-threatening events. PMID:26209039

  4. Influence of color on acceptance and identification of flavor of foods by adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Aparecida Araújo Dias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensory characteristics color and flavor of food play an important role not only in the selection, but also in the determination of consumption, satiation, and ingestion. With the objective to determine and evaluate the influence of color on the acceptance and identification of flavor of foods for adults, sensory analysis was performed on jellies by non-trained tasters of both sexes aged between 18 and 60 years (1750 tests. A hedonic scale and combinations of five colors (red, yellow, green, blue and purple and three flavors (strawberry, pineapple, and limes were used in the acceptance test totaling 15 samples. In the duo-trio discrimination test, together with the reference sample (R, one sample identical to the reference and another of identical color and different flavor were offered, and the judges were requested to identify the sample that was different from the reference sample. The colors used did not influence the acceptance of the samples (P > 0.05, and as there was not significant interaction between color and flavor. However, the limes flavor negatively influenced acceptance when compared to the other flavors. With regard to flavor differentiation, the colors used did not influence flavor identification (P > 0.05; However, differentiated behavior was identified between females and males, and the latter were more error-prone. Therefore, under the experimental conditions tested, color did not influence the acceptance and identification of the flavor of the samples by adults.

  5. Rare Flavor Processes in Maximally Natural Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    García, Isabel García

    2014-01-01

    We study CP-conserving rare flavor violating processes in the recently proposed theory of Maximally Natural Supersymmetry (MNSUSY). MNSUSY is an unusual supersymmetric (SUSY) extension of the Standard Model (SM) which, remarkably, is un-tuned at present LHC limits. It employs Scherk-Schwarz breaking of SUSY by boundary conditions upon compactifying an underlying 5-dimensional (5D) theory down to 4D, and is not well-described by softly-broken $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY, with much different phenomenology than the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its variants. The usual CP-conserving SUSY-flavor problem is automatically solved in MNSUSY due to a residual almost exact $U(1)_R$ symmetry, naturally heavy and highly degenerate 1st- and 2nd-generation sfermions, and heavy gauginos and Higgsinos. Depending on the exact implementation of MNSUSY there exist important new sources of flavor violation involving gauge boson Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations. The spatial localization properties of the matter multiplets...

  6. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-01

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths. PMID:26421418

  7. The phenomenology of lepton flavored dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanchet, Steve; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can

    2013-05-01

    In Flavored Dark Matter theories the dark matter particle carries flavor quantum numbers, and has renormalizable contact interactions with the Standard Model fields. The phenomenology of this scenario depends sensitively on whether dark matter carries lepton flavor, quark flavor or its own internal flavor quantum numbers. For the lepton flavored case, we investigate the implications for direct detection experiments and collider signatures. We show that the region of parameter space which leads to the right abundance for a thermal relic is in general within reach of current direct detection experiments. Focusing on a class of models where dark matter carries tau flavor, we show that in a significant part of parameter space these theories can be discovered above Standard Model backgrounds at the Large Hadron Collider. We also study the extent to which flavor and charge correlations among the final state leptons allows models of this type to be distinguished from theories where dark matter couples to leptons but does not carry flavor.

  8. Flavor Pairing in Medieval European Cuisine: A Study in Cooking with Dirty Data

    CERN Document Server

    Varshney, Kush R; Wang, Jun; Myers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important part of cooking with computers is using statistical methods to create new, flavorful ingredient combinations. The flavor pairing hypothesis states that culinary ingredients with common chemical flavor components combine well to produce pleasant dishes. It has been recently shown that this design principle is a basis for modern Western cuisine and is reversed for Asian cuisine. Such data-driven analysis compares the chemistry of ingredients to ingredient sets found in recipes. However, analytics-based generation of novel flavor profiles can only be as good as the underlying chemical and recipe data. Incomplete, inaccurate, and irrelevant data may degrade flavor pairing inferences. Chemical data on flavor compounds is incomplete due to the nature of the experiments that must be conducted to obtain it. Recipe data may have issues due to text parsing errors, imprecision in textual descriptions of ingredients, and the fact that the same ingredient may be known by different names in different recipes. ...

  9. Fund Balances: What Flavors and How Many Scoops Are Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1986-01-01

    Just as ice cream comes in many flavors for different tastes, fund balances need to be reserved and designated to meet school district plans and commitments. This article examines accounting principles and other issues determining the segregation and size of a school district's fund balance, a legally restricted reserve that can affect the…

  10. Suppressing supersymmetric flavor violations through quenched gaugino-flavor interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D

    2016-01-01

    Realizing that couplings related by supersymmetry (SUSY) can be disentangled when SUSY is broken, it is suggested that unwanted flavor and CP violating SUSY couplings may be suppressed via quenched gaugino-flavor interactions, which may be accomplished by power-law running of sfermion anomalous dimensions. A simple theoretical framework to accomplish this is exemplified and the defeated constraints are tallied. One key implication of the scenario is the expectation of enhanced top, bottom and tau production at the LHC, accompanied by large missing energy. Also, direct detection signals of dark matter may be more challenging to find than in conventional SUSY scenarios.

  11. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1978-01-01

    reactions are rare due to several reasons; local factors in the mouth, the low sensitizing potential of the flavors generally used, and the lack of recognition. It is emphasized that the toothpaste battery for patch testing has to be relevant and changed according to the consumers' and manufacturers' taste......Toothpaste flavors are fragrance mixtures. Oil of peppermint and spearmint, carvone and anethole are ingredients with a low sensitizing potential, but they are used in almost every brand of toothpaste and caused seven cases of contact allergy in a 6-year period at Gentofte Hospital. Toothpaste...

  12. Flavorful Ways to New Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The workshop is intended to bring together young PhD students and postdocs with international renown representatives of the field of flavor physics. The workshop is specifically intended for PhD students and young postdocs. The overview talks about four big topics in flavor physics are given by international experts. The informal atmosphere should lead to fruitful discussions between the young and the experienced scientists. Furthermore, the participants themselves are invited to present their own work. Thus all young academics will get insights into selected fields of current research.

  13. Chiral Flavor Violation from Extended Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jared A; Thalapillil, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation ($\\chi$FV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  14. Chiral flavor violation from extended gauge mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jared A.; Shih, David; Thalapillil, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Models of extended gauge mediation, in which large A-terms arise through direct messenger-MSSM superpotential couplings, are well-motivated by the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs. However, since these models are not necessarily MFV, the flavor constraints could be stringent. In this paper, we perform the first detailed and quantitative study of the flavor violation in these models. To facilitate our study, we introduce a new tool called FormFlavor for computing precision flavor observables in the general MSSM. We validate FormFlavor and our qualitative understanding of the flavor violation in these models by comparing against analytical expressions. Despite being non-MFV, we show that these models are protected against the strongest constraints by a special flavor texture, which we dub chiral flavor violation (χFV). This results in only mild bounds from current experiments, and exciting prospects for experiments in the near future.

  15. Formation of Poultry Meat Flavor by Heating Process and Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavor is an important factor in the acceptance of food. Flavor of poultry meat is naturally formed through a specific process of heating, where various chemical reactions complex occurred among nonvolatile precursors in fatty tissue or in lean tissue. The main flavor in the form of volatile and nonvolatile components play a major influence on the acceptance of various processed meat, especially the taste. Removal of sulfur components decreases meat flavor (meaty, while removal of carbonyl compounds decrease the specific flavor and increases common flavor of the meat. Poultry meat has a fairly high fat content that easily generates lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation in poultry meat is a sign that the meat was damaged and caused off odor. Addition of antioxidants in the diet can inhibit lipid oxidation in the meat. Lipids interaction with proteins and carbohydrates is unavoidable during the thermal processing of food, causing the appearance of volatile components. The main reaction in meat flavor formation mechanism is Maillard reaction followed by Stecker reaction and degradation of lipids and thiamine. They involve in the reaction between carbonyl and amine components to form flavor compounds, which enhance the flavor of poultry meat.

  16. Analysis of characters of bitter flavor in Chinese medicinal%苦味药材性状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪玉佳; 王鹏; 李佳; 张永清; 滕佳林; 王振国

    2012-01-01

    Bitter flavor(taste) is an important part of the theory of Chinese herbal property. Different material composition not only aflect the medicinal characters,but also affect the the properties and flavors of Chinese materia medica. Total 1 728 Chinese medicinal which cold or heat property were described definitely in Herbal Medicine were selected. The relationship between bitter flavor and the characters was studied by using mathematical statistical methods. The results showed that the bitter flavor was effected by texture,flavor,taste,external color. The more crisp,bitter and astringent the Chinese medicinal is,the more bitter it is. The more sweet,salty,spicy and white the Chinese medicinal is,the less bitter it is.%苦味是中药药性理论的重要组成部分.不同的物质组成影响着药材性状,也影响着药材性味.选取《中华本草》所载1 728种寒热药性明确的中药,运用数学统计方法,研究了中药苦味与药材性状的关系,认为药材质地、气味、味道、外观颜色共同影响着中药苦味.药材性状质脆、味苦或味涩越多的中药,药材性味越偏向苦味;药材性状气香、味甘、味咸、味辛和白色越多的中药,药材性味越远离苦味.

  17. Fast neutrino flavor conversions near the supernova core with realistic flavor-dependent angular distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Sen, Manibrata

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently pointed out that neutrino fluxes from a supernova can show substantial flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Using linear stability analyses and numerical solutions of the fully nonlinear equations of motion, we perform a detailed study of these fast conversions, focussing on the region just above the supernova core. We carefully specify the instabilities for evolution in space or time, and find that neutrinos travelling towards the core make fast conversions more generic, i.e., possible for a wider range of flux ratios and angular asymmetries. Using fluxes and angular distributions predicted by supernova simulations, we find that fast conversions can occur within tens of nanoseconds, only a few meters away from the putative neutrinospheres. If these fast flavor conversions indeed take place, they would have important implications for the supernova explosion mechanism and nucleosynthesis.

  18. Dark Matter from Minimal Flavor Violation

    OpenAIRE

    Batell, Brian; Pradler, Josef(Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, Vienna, 1050, Austria); Spannowsky, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We consider theories of flavored dark matter, in which the dark matter particle is part of a multiplet transforming nontrivially under the flavor group of the Standard Model in a manner consistent with the principle of Minimal Flavor Violation (MFV). MFV automatically leads to the stability of the lightest state for a large number of flavor multiplets. If neutral, this particle is an excellent dark matter candidate. Furthermore, MFV implies specific patterns of mass splittings among the flavo...

  19. Two Component Theory of Neutrino Flavor Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Sassaroli, Elisabetta

    1997-01-01

    Neutrino flavor mixing is discussed in terms of two-component coupled left-handed flavor fields. This is to take into account the fact that the weak interaction couples only to left-handed fields. The flavor fields are written through a rotation matrix, as a linear combination of left-handed free fields. In order to obtain properly normalized wave functions directly from those free fields, states of mixed helicity have to be considered. Neutrino flavor oscillation amplitudes are also derived.

  20. The Importance of Vocal Affect to Bimodal Processing of Emotion: Implications for Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Neumann, Dawn; Babbage, Duncan R.; Willer, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty recognizing emotion in others. This is likely due to difficulties in interpreting non-verbal cues of affect. Although deficits in interpreting facial cues of affect are being widely explored, interpretation of vocal cues of affect has received much less attention. Accurate…

  1. Flavor profile of radiation processed food commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Flavor is one of the major quality attributes that play an important role in driving consumer choices and preferences for food. Among the several attributes that decide the flavor quality of any food, aroma and taste are the most important. While volatile constituents contribute to aroma, taste is a perception stimulated by non-volatile principles of food. Radiation processing of food has in recent years assumed increasing importance as a method for hygenization. At the doses employed for food irradiation no significant qualitative changes in the aroma constituents have been reported in most cases. An increase in perceived aroma has however been observed in several radiation processed foods. Besides volatile aroma compounds non-volatile aroma precursors are ubiquitous in plant kingdom. These compounds have been reported to exist largely as bound glycosidic conjugates and are known to undergo breakdown during processing and storage. This results in release of free aroma, thereby, modifying the flavor quality of the product. No report, however, exists on the effect of radiation processing on these bound aroma precursors. Four major class of food namely spices, oil seeds, fruits and beverages were therefore taken up for a detailed study. With respect to aroma, an enhanced breakdown of aroma precursors namely isoeugenol and 4-vinyl guaiacol glycosides and release of free aglycones was demonstrated to result in an increased aroma quality of radiation processed monsooned coffee. Breakdown of phenyl ethanol glucoside resulted in a fruitier note to pomegranate while enhanced spicy note of irradiated nutmeg arise as a result of radiolytic break down p-cymene-7-ol rutinoside precursor and release of free p-cymene-7-ol. An increased color quality of irradiated saffron was a result of the formation of free carotene aglycones namely crocetin from its glycosidic precursors while changes in perceived taste quality of radiation processed soybean could be attributed to

  2. Effects of Chewing Different Flavored Gums on Salivary Flow Rate and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karami Nogourani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.

  3. About flavor, spin, and color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral symmetry breaking (restoration) for SU(N) gauge theories is a topic of great interest and not yet fully explained. We consider the phenomenon as a collective spin effect and determine its behavior in terms of the number of flavors Nf.

  4. About flavor, spin and color

    CERN Document Server

    Jora, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking (restoration) for SU(N) gauge theories is a topic of great interest and not yet fully explained. We consider the phenomenon as a collective spin effect and determine its behavior in terms of the number of flavors, N_f.

  5. Flavor Constraints on New Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    This talk highlights, from a theoretical point of view, some recent exciting results in flavor physics, as well as future prospects. We discuss possible implications of a subset of the experimental results in tension with the standard model, such as the $4\\sigma$ deviation in the $B\\to D^{(*)}\\tau\\bar\

  6. Flavor Decomposition of the Nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Melnitchouk, W.

    1999-01-01

    I review some recent developments in the study of quark flavor distributions in the nucleon, including (i) valence quark distributions and the quark-hadron duality prediction for the x -> 1 d/u ratio (ii) sea quark asymmetries and electromagnetic form factors (iii) strange quarks in the nucleon.

  7. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here it is...

  8. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and...

  9. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sultansoy, S

    2007-01-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle "massless" Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tan(beta) approx.eq. 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle "massless" composite objects within...

  10. Oscillating Flavors in Massless Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Lester C

    2016-01-01

    By considering Dirac's equation using quaternions ($\\mathbb{H}$) with their greater degree of freedom in imaginaries, it is shown that a model can be created with oscillations among flavors even if the particles, are massless. Furthermore the solutions are spin $\\frac{1}{2}$ and have helicities depending on whether their energy is positive or negative.

  11. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ≅ mt/mb ≅ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models

  12. HEAVY FLAVOR PRODUCTION AND PROPERTIES AT ATLAS AND CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavi, Carlo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Measuring heavy-flavor properties plays an important role in the physics program of the ATLAS and CMS experiments operating at LHC. Such measurements provide stringent tests for the description of QCD processes and, at the same time, new insights in hadron spectroscopy and indirect searches for physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model (SM). Both the ATLAS and CMS experiments already delivered a lot of new results in the heavy flavor sector and this note is meant to summarize some of the most recent ones, focusing on measurements of production cross sections, decay polarizations, oscillations and rare decays.

  13. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e+e- annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed

  14. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  15. Flavor Mixing Phenomenology in Supersymmetric Models

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the flavor mixing effects in supersymmetric models on electroweak precision observables, Higgs boson mass predictions, B-physics observables, quark flavor violating Higgs decays, lepton flavor violating charged lepton decays and lepton flavor violating Higgs decays. The flavor mixing effects are studied in model independent way i.e. by putting off-diagonal entries in the sfermion mass matrix by hand as well as in the minimal flavor violating constrained MSSM, where mixing can originate from CKM matrix in the case of squarks and from PMNS matrix in the case of sleptons. We found that flavor mixing can have large impact to some observables, enabling us to put new constraints on parameter space in supersymmetric models.

  16. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  17. Heavy flavor measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS measurements in the area of heavy flavor physics are reviewed with focus on the most recent results. The topics discussed include heavy flavor production rates and properties, exclusive b-hadron production, with attention to the recent observations of rare b-hadrons and to the precise measurements of Lambda_b production cross section, lifetime and mass. Differential production cross sections and polarization measurements of Upsilon states are presented, along with production ratios of chi_c states in the charmonium system. Evidence for a new Xsi_b state and observations of structures in the J/Psi phi spectrum from B+- decays to J/Psi phi K+- in the CMS data are also reported. Precision studies of the Bs system and determination of CP-violation sensitive parameters are discussed. Finally the status of the searches for rare FCNC decays is presented.

  18. Simple Models of Superconformal Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed hierarchy of fermion masses and mixings may be generated by renormalization group flow if the Standard Model is coupled to a near-conformal sector at high energies. If the conformal sector is supersymmetric, these effects are rendered calculable by a combination of superconformal symmetry and a-maximization. The viability of such models depends on whether they generate the observed fermion mass hierarchy before the Standard Model gauge couplings hit a Landau pole. Here we construct a variety of simple vector-like models of superconformal flavor, including both ten-centered and democratic variations. We discuss in detail the subtleties of applying the a-maximization procedure to determine anomalous dimensions of Standard Model fields. We find that a wide range of models based on SU(N) or Sp(2N) SQCD with fundamental and adjoint matter are viable theories of superconformal flavor.

  19. Factors affecting Import Shares of Powdered Milk and other Milk Products and their Implications in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bogahawatte, C.; Herath, Janaranjana

    2006-01-01

    Import shares of liquid milk, powdered milk, condensed milk and other milk products were estimated to determine their relative competitiveness. The change of import shares with changes of exchange rate and world price of milk. The analysis based on yearly data between 1975-2006 showed that relative CIF prices and incomes were important factors influencing the market shares of milk and milk products. The results also showed that imported milk powder is price inelastic and a weak substitute for...

  20. Top quark flavor changing via photon

    CERN Document Server

    Khatibi, Sara

    2015-01-01

    We present constraints on the top quark flavor changing neutral current in the vertices of $tu\\gamma$ and $tc\\gamma$ from the measured diphoton mass spectrum at the LHC. It is shown that the angular distributions of diphoton is highly affected by the anomalous $tu\\gamma$ and $tc\\gamma$ couplings at the LHC and can provide stringent limits on these couplings. We determine the constraints on the anomalous $tu\\gamma$ from the upper bound on the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM). It is found that the current upper limit on the neutron EDM excludes any value of the branching fraction of top quark rare decay to an up-quark plus a photon above $2.04\\times 10^{-6}$.

  1. A possible solution of the flavor problem and radiative neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, we discuss two important problems of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), namely the flavor problem and the reason for the smallness of neutrino masses. The first one might be related to the origin of non-abelian discrete flavor symmetries. We discuss the possibility of obtaining them from an underlying continuous flavor symmetry, i.e. SU(2) or SU(3) through spontaneous symmetry breaking. Moreover, we investigate their possible origin from an orbifold compactification. We discuss all non-abelian discrete symmetries, which can arise from an orbifold T2/ZN. They are A4, S4, D4, D3, and D6. We present the idea of combining the breaking of an orbifold GUT and the flavor symmetry arising from the orbifold. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d SUSY SO(10) x S4. For the second problem, we propose a one-loop neutrino mass model in the left-right symmetric framework. We observe the transmitted hierarchy from the charged lepton masses to the right-handed neutrino masses, which we call ''Radiative Transmission of Lepton Flavor Hierarchy''. Finally, we study the phenomenological aspects of the model such as lepton flavor violation (LFV), flavor number violation (FNV), and flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs). (orig.)

  2. A possible solution of the flavor problem and radiative neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adulpravitchai, Adisorn

    2010-06-23

    In this thesis, we discuss two important problems of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM), namely the flavor problem and the reason for the smallness of neutrino masses. The first one might be related to the origin of non-abelian discrete flavor symmetries. We discuss the possibility of obtaining them from an underlying continuous flavor symmetry, i.e. SU(2) or SU(3) through spontaneous symmetry breaking. Moreover, we investigate their possible origin from an orbifold compactification. We discuss all non-abelian discrete symmetries, which can arise from an orbifold T{sup 2}/Z{sub N}. They are A{sub 4}, S{sub 4}, D{sub 4}, D{sub 3}, and D{sub 6}. We present the idea of combining the breaking of an orbifold GUT and the flavor symmetry arising from the orbifold. We demonstrate the construction in a 6d SUSY SO(10) x S{sub 4}. For the second problem, we propose a one-loop neutrino mass model in the left-right symmetric framework. We observe the transmitted hierarchy from the charged lepton masses to the right-handed neutrino masses, which we call ''Radiative Transmission of Lepton Flavor Hierarchy''. Finally, we study the phenomenological aspects of the model such as lepton flavor violation (LFV), flavor number violation (FNV), and flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs). (orig.)

  3. The Flavor World of Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mennella, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the chronic illnesses that plague modern society, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, derive in large part from poor food choices, dictated in part by flavor preferences. Against the advice and recommendations of health authorities worldwide, people eat too much salt, fat, and simple sugars and too few fruits and vegetables, even and especially among children. How can we account for patterns of food choice that are antithetical to health, and why is it so difficult to develo...

  4. Status of charm flavor physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shipsey, I.

    2006-01-01

    The role of charm in testing the Standard Model description of quark mixing and CP violation through measurements of lifetimes, decay constants and semileptonic form factors is reviewed. Together with Lattice QCD, charm has the potential this decade to maximize the sensitivity of the entire flavor physics program to new physics. and pave the way for understanding physics beyond the Standard Model at the LHC in the ...

  5. Brain mechanisms of flavor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eYamamoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Once the flavor of the ingested food (conditioned stimulus, CS is associated with a preferable (e.g., good taste or nutritive satisfaction or aversive (e.g., malaise with displeasure signal (unconditioned stimulus, US, animals react to its subsequent exposure by increasing or decreasing ingestion to the food. These two types of association learning (preference learning vs. aversion learning are known as classical conditioned reactions which are basic learning and memory phenomena, leading selection of food and proper food intake. Since the perception of flavor is generated by interaction of taste and odor during food intake, taste and/or odor are mainly associated with bodily signals in the flavor learning. After briefly reviewing flavor learning in general, brain mechanisms of conditioned taste aversion is described in more detail. The CS-US association leading to long-term potentiation in the amygdala, especially in its basolateral nucleus, is the basis of establishment of conditioned taste aversion. The novelty of the CS detected by the cortical gustatory area may be supportive in CS-US association. After the association, CS input is conveyed through the amygdala to different brain regions including the hippocampus for contextual fear formation, to the supramammilary and thalamic paraventricular nuclei for stressful anxiety or memory dependent fearful or stressful emotion, to the reward system to induce aversive expression to the CS, or hedonic shift from positive to negative, and to the CS-responsive neurons in the gustatory system to enhance the responsiveness to facilitate to detect the harmful stimulus.

  6. Model of Flavor Gauge Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam

    Berlin: Springer, 2014, s. 83-126. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  7. The Flavor World of Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Mennella

    2014-07-01

    Although some may view food choice as a cultural trait, not directly related to our biology, overwhelming evidence suggests that children’s biology makes them especially vulnerable to the current food environment of processed foods high in salt and refined sugars. Emerging research in humans and animal models suggests that, beginning very early in life, sensory experiences shape and modify flavor and food preferences and have far-reaching effects on behavior. Such early life experiences with healthy levels of salt and sweet tastes and repeated exposure to healthy food flavors may go a long way toward promoting healthy eating and growth, which could have a significant impact in addressing the many chronic illnesses associated with poor food choice. Yet because of the lack of research, many feeding practices are based on idiosyncratic parental behavior, family traditions, or medical lore, rather than research. One of the keys to continued advances and applications on how to develop good food habits comes from studying the fundamental principles underlying flavor learning, which provides an understanding and appreciation of essential aspect of cultural food practices and habits.

  8. CP violation and flavor mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the studies of CP violation and the quark and lepton flavors are reviewed based on the author's personal career. He started studying physics at Nagoya University before quark model came into the world. He entered the graduate program and the belonged to theoretical particle physics group led by Professor S. Sakata. In 1956, Sakata model was proposed on three baryons, n, p and lambda, which was eventually replaced by the quark model, but the root of the idea of the fundamental triplet was in Sakata model. Activities of Sakata group including proposal of Nagoya model, its further developments and the formulation of lepton flavor mixing are described based on his experience as a graduate student. After leaving Nagoya, he started to work on CP violation problem in Kyoto. The theoretical process they followed to explain CP violation and finally to propose the six-quark model in 1973 is described. Following their proposal, J/φ, τ-lepton, γ (bound state of quark b and anti-b) and quark t were discovered in '74, '75, '77 and '95', respectively. The large CP asymmetry in B-meson system expected from their theory was verified with electron positron collision experiments at B factories, KEKB of KEK and PEPII of SLAC. Measuring method and results of B factories are illustrated. Finally the lepton flavor mixing observed by K2K experiment with Super Kamiokande and reactor neutrinos with KamLAND, which are clearly showing the oscillating behavior, is described. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Flavor Symmetry and Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Stech, Berthold

    2010-01-01

    The combination of flavor symmetries with grand unification is considered: GUT $ \\times$ flavor . To accommodate three generations the flavor group SO(3) is used. All fermions transform as 3-vectors under this group. The Yukawa couplings are obtained from vacuum expectation values of flavon fields. For the flavon fields (singlets with respect to the GUT group) and the Higgs fields (singlets with respect to the generation group) a simple form for the effective potentials is postulated. It automatically leads to spontaneous symmetry breaking for these scalar fields. Discrete S4 transformations relate the different locations of the minima of the potentials.These potentials can be used to describe the hierarchy of the well known up quark mass spectrum. Also the huge hierarchy of the masses of the Higgs fields in grand unified models can be parametrized in this way. It leads to a prediction of the mass of the lightest Higgs boson in terms of its vacuum expectation value $v_0$: $ m_{Higgs} = \\frac{v_0}{\\sqrt{2}} = ...

  10. Flavor conversion of cosmic neutrinos from hidden jets

    CERN Document Server

    Razzaque, Soebur

    2010-01-01

    High energy cosmic neutrino fluxes can be produced inside relativistic jets under the envelopes of collapsing stars. In the energy range E ~ (0.3 - 1e5) GeV, flavor conversion of these neutrinos is modified by various matter effects inside the star and the Earth. We present a comprehensive (both analytic and numerical) description of the flavor conversion of these neutrinos which includes: (i) oscillations inside jets, (ii) flavor-to-mass state transitions in an envelope, (iii) loss of coherence on the way to observer, and (iv) oscillations of the mass states inside the Earth. We show that conversion has several new features which are not realized in other objects, in particular interference effects ("L- and H- wiggles") induced by the adiabaticity violation. The neutrino-neutrino scattering inside jet and inelastic neutrino interactions in the envelope may produce some additional features at E > 1e4 GeV. We study dependence of the probabilities and flavor ratios in the matter-affected region on angles theta1...

  11. The Right Supramarginal Gyrus Is Important for Proprioception in Healthy and Stroke-Affected Participants: A Functional MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Shabat, Ettie; Matyas, Thomas A.; Pell, Gaby S; Brodtmann, Amy; Carey, Leeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high-order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality, and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke-affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Propriocept...

  12. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD. PMID:26708440

  13. The Importance of Affective Containment during Unwelcome Educational Change: The Curious Incident of the Deer Hut Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Di; James, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Educational change can call up a range of feelings that can pose a number of problems for those experiencing and/or organizing it. This article analyses the processes of educational change from a psychodynamic standpoint. In particular it explores affective containment, which enables feelings to be fully experienced and to be used productively. an…

  14. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Ockerman, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. T...

  15. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    OpenAIRE

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I S

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to in...

  16. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: defining dairy flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, MaryAnne

    2004-04-01

    Production and consumption of dairy foods continue to increase annually. Further, new ingredient applications for dairy foods continue to expand. With continued production and consumption, there is also increased competition. Increased competition exists regionally, nationally, and globally. Processors as well as product developers must find ways to maximize existing markets and expand into new markets. A consistent high quality product is necessary to maintain competitiveness. Although microbial safety and stability are key ways to define quality, flavor is one method of defining quality that is often assumed or overlooked. The aggressive and competitive nature of today's market demands more precise and powerful tools for defining flavor and flavor quality. Traditional as well as more recent methods for evaluating dairy flavor are reviewed. The application of defining sensory flavors to fundamental research on flavor chemistry, product understanding, and effective marketing is addressed. PMID:15259211

  17. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-flavor solvent interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-01

    The release kinetics of l-menthol dissolved in propylene glycol (PG), Miglyol, or 1,8-cineole (two common odorless flavor solvents differing in polarity and a hydrophobic flavor compound) were monitored from a model aqueous system via atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS). Breath analysis was also conducted via APCI-MS to monitor release of l-menthol from hard candy that used PG and Miglyol for l-menthol incorporation. The quantities of l-menthol released when dissolved in PG or Miglyol from the model aqueous system were found to be similar and overall significantly greater in comparison to when dissolved in 1,8-cineole. Analogous results were reported by the breath analysis of hard candy. The release kinetics of l-menthol from PG or Miglyol versus from 1,8-cineole were notably more rapid and higher in quantity. Results from the sensory time-intensity study also indicated that there was no perceived difference in the overall cooling intensity between the two flavor solvent delivery systems (PG and Miglyol). PMID:15113169

  18. Seesaw Models with Minimal Flavor Violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    In this talk, I discuss implementation of minimal flavor violation (MFV) in seesaw models based on work appeared in arXiv:1401.2615, arXiv:1404.4436 and arXiv:1411.6612. Phenomenological implications on flavor-changing interactions related to leptons are studied by considering some effective dimension-six operators. We also comment on how one of the new effective operators can induce flavor-changing dilepton decays of the Higgs boson.

  19. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Showler, Allan T.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar). The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop i...

  20. Flavor physics of leptons and dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, M.; Kadastik, M.; Kajiyama, Y.; Muntel, M.; Rebane, L. [National Inst. for Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn (Estonia); Schaaf, A. van der [Physik-Inst. der Univ. Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bigi, I. [Univ. of Notre Dame du Lac, Physics Dept., Notre Dame, IN (United States); Mangano, M.L.; Ceccucci, A.; Felcini, M.; Giudice, G.; Lebedev, O.; Masina, I. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland); Semertzidis, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abel, S.; Underwood, T.E.J. [Durham Univ., Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); Albino, S. [Univ. of Hamburg, II. Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Antusch, S.; Biggio, C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Arganda, E.; Herrero, M.J.; Joaquim, F.R. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Dept. de Fisica Teorica (Spain)]|[IFT/CSIC-UAM, Madrid (Spain); Bajc, B. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Banerjee, S.; Roney, J.M. [Univ. of Victoria, Dept. of Physics, Victoria, BC (Canada); Blanke, M. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)]|[TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Bonivento, W.; Serra, N. [Univ. degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy)]|[INFN Cagliari, Monserrato (Italy); Branco, G.C.; Rebelo, M.N. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneva (Switzerland)]|[Inst. Superior Tecnico, Dept. de Fisica (Portugal)]|[Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Bryman, D. [Univ. of British Columbia, TRIUMF, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Buras, A.J.; Duling, B.; Poschenrieder, A.; Tarantino, C. [TU Munich, Physics Dept., Garching (Germany); Calibbi, L. [SISSA (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)]|[Univ. de Valencia-CSIC, Dept. de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain)]|[Dipt. di Fisica ' G. Galilei' (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy); Chankowski, P.H. [Univ. of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Davidson, S.; Deandrea, A. [Univ. Lyon-1, IPNL, CNRS, Villeurbanne (France)] [and others

    2008-09-15

    This chapter of the report of the ''Flavor in the era of the LHC'' Workshop discusses the theoretical, phenomenological and experimental issues related to flavor phenomena in the charged lepton sector and in flavor conserving CP-violating processes. We review the current experimental limits and the main theoretical models for the flavor structure of fundamental particles. We analyze the phenomenological consequences of the available data, setting constraints on explicit models beyond the standard model, presenting benchmarks for the discovery potential of forthcoming measurements both at the LHC and at low energy, and exploring options for possible future experiments. (orig.)

  1. Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop NJL model

    OpenAIRE

    H. AbukiINFN, Bari; Ciminale, M.; Gatto, R.; Nardulli, G.; Ruggieri, M.

    2008-01-01

    We study how the charge neutrality affects the phase structure of three-flavor PNJL model. We point out that, within the conventional PNJL model at finite density the color neutrality is missing because the Wilson line serves as an external ``colored'' field coupled to dynamical quarks. In this paper we heuristically assume that the model may still be applicable. To get color neutrality one has then to allow non vanishing color chemical potentials. We study how the quark mat...

  2. Flavor characterization of ripened cod roe by gas chromatography, sensory analysis, and electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Rosa; Olafsdottir, Gudrun; Martinsdottir, Emilia; Stefansson, Gudmundur

    2004-10-01

    Characterization of the flavors of ripened roe products is of importance to establish a basis for a standardized product. Flavor profiles of commercially processed ripened roe from Iceland and Norway were studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and an electronic nose to characterize the headspace of ripened roe. Sensory analysis showed that ripened roe odor and flavor in combination with caviar flavor and whey/caramel-like odor give the overall positive effect of the complex characteristic roe flavor. Analysis of volatiles by GC-MS and electronic nose confirmed the presence of aroma compounds contributing to the typical ripening and spoilage flavors detected by the sensory analysis. Methional, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2,6-nonadienal were the most important compounds contributing to ripened roe odor. Spoilage flavors were partly contributed by 3-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methylbutanal, which can be measured by the electronic nose and are suggested as quality indicators for objectively assessing the ripening of roe. Principal component analysis of the overall data showed that GC-O correlated well with sensory evaluation and the electronic nose measurements. PMID:15453695

  3. The right supramarginal gyrus is important for proprioception in healthy and stroke affected participants: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettie eBen-Shabat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human proprioception is essential for motor control, yet its central processing is still debated. Previous studies of passive movements and illusory vibration have reported inconsistent activation patterns related to proprioception, particularly in high order sensorimotor cortices. We investigated brain activation specific to proprioception, its laterality and changes following stroke. Twelve healthy and three stroke affected individuals with proprioceptive deficits participated. Proprioception was assessed clinically with the Wrist Position Sense Test, and participants underwent functional MRI (fMRI scanning. An event-related study design was used, where each proprioceptive stimulus of passive wrist movement was followed by a motor response of mirror copying with the other wrist. Left (LWP and right (RWP wrist proprioception were tested separately. Laterality indices (LI were calculated for the main cortical regions activated during proprioception. We found proprioception-related brain activation in high order sensorimotor cortices in healthy participants especially in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG LWP z=4.51, RWP z=4.24 and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd LWP z=4.10, RWP z=3.93. Right hemispheric dominance was observed in the SMG (LI LWP mean 0.41, SD 0.22; RWP 0.29, SD 0.20, and to a lesser degree in the PMd (LI LWP 0.34, SD 0.17; RWP 0.13, SD 0.25. In stroke affected participants the main difference in proprioception-related brain activation was reduced laterality in the right SMG. Our findings indicate that the SMG and PMd play a key role in proprioception probably due to their role in spatial processing and motor control respectively. The findings from stroke affected individuals suggest that decreased right SMG function may be associated with decreased proprioception. We recommend that clinicians pay particular attention to the assessment and rehabilitation of proprioception following right hemispheric lesions

  4. Post-September 11 responses in US regulatory practice affecting the export and import of radioactive materials and related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses certain significant changes in the US laws and regulations in the post-September 11 era regarding the export and import of nuclear and other radioactive materials, as well as related equipment. These changes demonstrate the US Government's growing vigilance concerning the movement and end-user of such materials and equipment in light of the intensified threat of their diversion to terrorist activities. In particular, both the congress and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have recently devoted particular attention to the transportation, storage, use and disposition of radioactive sources. Meanwhile, the NRC has made it easier to import major nuclear reactor components. (author)

  5. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  6. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Malekzadeh, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3He), the A and A* phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for...

  7. Flavor Democracy: On which basis?

    CERN Document Server

    Rador, T

    2003-01-01

    I argue that flavor democracy should not be considered as a "mere" assumption, but rather a fact that is inherent where there is hierarchy of quark masses. Briefly the crux of the argument is the ambiguity of defining a basis when one introduces a mass matrix. That is there is a degree of freedom of also defining a basis other than the weak eigenbasis with respect to which one can write down mass matrices. Since the ultimate aim is to diagonalize to the mass eigenbasis this is physically equivalent. But not necessarily so for the human eye.

  8. Partial improvements in the flavor quality of soybean seeds using intercropping systems with appropriate shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Zhang, Qing; Lou, Ying; Wu, Hai-Jun; Deng, Jun-Cai; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2016-09-15

    The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. PMID:27080886

  9. Structures of neutrino flavor mixing matrix and neutrino oscillations at CHORUS and NOMAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study structures of the neutrino flavor mixing matrix focusing on the neutrino oscillations at CHORUS and NOMAD as well as the one at LSND (or KARMEN). We assume two typical neutrino mass hierarchies m3≅m2>m1 and m3>m2>m1 (or ≅m1). Taking into account the seesaw mechanism of neutrino masses, reasonable neutrino flavor mixing patterns are discussed. The observation of the neutrino oscillation at CHORUS and NOMAD presents an important constraint for the structure of the neutrino flavor mixing matrix. The atmospheric neutrino anomaly is discussed in relation to the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Flavor physics at the Tevatron. Decay, mixing and CP-violation measurements in pp-collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview. The book reviews the latest experimental results of charm and bottom flavor physics at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The measurements of lifetimes, branching ratios and mixing properties of heavy flavored hadrons provide important constraints on fundamental parameters of the standard model - the elements of the CKM matrix. Comparisons of experimental results with theoretical predictions allow to search for physics beyond the standard model or to set bounds on parameters of new physics models. The experimental techniques developed at the Tevatron are highly relevant for the next generation flavor physics experiments at the LHC.

  11. Elicitation of the most important structural properties of ionic liquids affecting ecotoxicity in limnic green algae; a QSAR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadiyan, Parisa; Fatemi, M H; Izadiyan, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Many ionic liquids are soluble in water and their impact on the aquatic environment has to be evaluated. However, due to the large number of ionic liquids and lack of experimental data, it is necessary to develop estimation procedures in order to reduce the materials and time consumption. In this study using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP), ant colony optimization (ACO) and multiple linear regression (MLR) strategies, good predictive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models were introduced and structural parameters affecting ecotoxicity of ionic liquids in limnic green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) were revealed. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) approaches were also applied to visualize any possible patterns or relationships among ionic liquids data. It was revealed that selected descriptors of the MLR model are also capable of clustering ionic liquids according to their four level of toxicity. PMID:23107477

  12. Entrepreneurship and Human Resources as Important Forces Affecting Electronic Readiness in Building the Information Society in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Kordha (Tolica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Today information has become an important element without which society actors cannotachieve their goals. The term “information society” is increasingly used nowadays instead of theterms “production” or “consumption society”, because of the importance and necessity of informationin today's dynamic environment. In these conditions, even Albania is trying to give the properimportance and emphasis to, not just the use of information, but to the use of tools and technologiesthat enable efficiency in the collection, storage, processing, and distribution of data and the useinformation. Thus, information and communication technologies (ICT, are finding today in theAlbanian society, a steadily increasing use. For the Albanian Government has established andimplements the strategy is the national information and communication technologies (ICT.

  13. Mutations Affecting Potassium Import Restore the Viability of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holD Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    Mutants lacking the ψ (HolD) subunit of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) have poor viability, but a residual growth allows the isolation of spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore ΔholD mutant viability. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of two suppressor mutations in the trkA and trkE genes, involved in the main E. coli potassium import system. Viability of ΔholD trk mutants is abolished on media with low or high K+ concentrations, where alternative K+ import systems are activated, and is restored on low K+ concentrations by the inactivation of the alternative Kdp system. These findings show that the ΔholD mutant is rescued by a decrease in K+ import. The effect of trk inactivation is additive with the previously identified ΔholD suppressor mutation lexAind that blocks the SOS response indicating an SOS-independent mechanism of suppression. Accordingly, although lagging-strand synthesis is still perturbed in holD trkA mutants, the trkA mutation allows HolD-less Pol III HE to resist increased levels of the SOS-induced bypass polymerase DinB. trk inactivation is also partially additive with an ssb gene duplication, proposed to stabilize HolD-less Pol III HE by a modification of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) binding mode. We propose that lowering the intracellular K+ concentration stabilizes HolD-less Pol III HE on DNA by increasing electrostatic interactions between Pol III HE subunits, or between Pol III and DNA, directly or through a modification of the SSB binding mode; these three modes of action are not exclusive and could be additive. To our knowledge, the holD mutant provides the first example of an essential protein-DNA interaction that strongly depends on K+ import in vivo. PMID:27280472

  14. Non-standard neutrino interactions in the Earth and the flavor of astrophysical neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M C; Martinez-Soler, Ivan; Song, Ningqiang

    2016-01-01

    We study the modification of the detected flavor content of ultra high-energy astrophysical neutrinos in the presence of non-standard interactions of neutrinos with the Earth matter. Unlike the case of new physics affecting the propagation from the source to the Earth, non-standard Earth matter effects induce a dependence of the flavor content on the arrival direction of the neutrino. We find that, within the current limits on non-standard neutrino interaction parameters, large deviations from the standard 3-nu oscillation predictions can be expected, in particular for fluxes dominated by one flavor at the source. Conversely they do not give sizable corrections to the expectation of equalized flavors in the Earth for sources dominated by production via pion-muon decay-chain.

  15. Repulsive Vector Interaction in Three Flavor Magnetized Quark and Stellar Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, Débora P; Castro, Luis B; Costa, Pedro; Providência, Constan\\cca

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the vector interaction on three flavor magnetized matter is studied within the SU(3) Nambu--Jona-Lasiono quark model. We have considered cold matter under a static external magnetic field within two different models for the vector interaction in order to investigate how the form of the vector interaction and the intensity of the magnetic field affect the equation of state as well as the strangeness content. It was shown that the flavor independent vector interaction predicts a smaller strangeness content and, therefore, harder equations of state. On the other hand, the flavor dependent vector interaction favors larger strangeness content the larger the vector coupling. We have confirmed that at low densities the magnetic field and the vector interaction have opposite competing effects: the first one softens the equation of state while the second hardens it. Quark stars and hybrid stars subject to an external magnetic field were also studied. Larger star masses are obtained for the flavor indepen...

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era

  17. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  18. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.

    2005-03-14

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  19. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Xu; Chen, Y; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; H. Huang; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi, A.; Hu, C; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  20. Cheese flavors: chemical origin and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hundreds of flavor compounds found in cheese arise from the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates it contains. Flavor compounds are products of diverse reactions that occur in milk during processing, in curd during manufacture, and in cheese during storage, and are detected by a number of methods...

  1. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  2. What is the most important factor affecting the cognitive function of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients: a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS usually complain of daytime hypersomnia and decrease in cognitive function, which affects the quality of their work and life. The reason why the cognitive function of OSAS patients decreased remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impairment and the main influencing factors of cognitive function in OSAS. Methods There were totally 50 OSAS patients (OSAS group and 25 volunteers (control group included in our study. All of them were monitored by polysomnography (PSG and tested by Continuous Performance Test (CPT, n-back test and Stroop Color?Word Test (CWT to evaluate their sleep condition and cognitive function. Results No significant difference was found between the two groups in total sleep time and sleep efficiency (P > 0.05, for all. Compared with control group, OSAS group had significant increased time of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅰ and stage Ⅱ, significant decreased time of stage Ⅲ (P 0.05, for all, while had significant connection with AI and NREM Ⅲ (P < 0.05, for all. The rate of OSAS patients who underwent nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP treatment was very low, only 8% (4/50. Conclusion The abnormality of OSAS patients' sleep structure is characterized with sleep fragmentation and decrease of NREM Ⅲ, which may be the main factors of cognitive impairment. Exploration of treatment methods targeted on regulating the effected hormones and receptors is meaningful.

  3. Factors affecting adventitious regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of 'Improved French' plum, the most important dried plum cultivar in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    An adventitious shoot regeneration protocol from leaves of the most important dried plum cultivar in the U.S., 'Improved French', has been established. Factors affecting regeneration were studied, and relatively high percentages have been obtained. The proliferation medium were shoots, used as the...

  4. A Flavor Sector for the Composite Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Vecchi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Partial Compositeness provides a very natural explanation of the fermion mass hierarchy, and an attractive organizing principle for flavor violation beyond the standard model. Here we discuss its implementation within large N Composite Higgs models. We argue that a separation of scales between flavor and Higgs dynamics can be employed to parametrically suppress dipole and penguin operators. Such a separation effectively removes the most stringent experimental constraints on these scenarios, arising from the lepton sector and the neutron EDM. The dominant source of flavor violation is controlled by 4-fermion operators, whose Wilson coefficients may also be suppressed if a hierarchy of couplings is arranged. Models consistent with all flavor and elecroweak data can be obtained with a new physics scale within the reach of the LHC. The dual 5D picture of these models is realized via wavefunction localization on a warped background featuring additional flavor branes between the UV and IR cutoffs.

  5. Collective neutrino flavor conversion: Recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sovan; Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino flavor evolution in core-collapse supernovae, neutron-star mergers, or the early universe is dominated by neutrino-neutrino refraction, often spawning "self-induced flavor conversion", i.e., shuffling of flavor among momentum modes. This effect is driven by collective run-away modes of the coupled "flavor oscillators" and can spontaneously break the initial symmetries such as axial symmetry, homogeneity, isotropy, and even stationarity. Moreover, the growth rates of unstable modes can be of the order of the neutrino-neutrino interaction energy instead of the much smaller vacuum oscillation frequency: self-induced flavor conversion does not always require neutrino masses. We illustrate these newly found phenomena in terms of simple toy models. What happens in realistic astrophysical settings is up to speculation at present.

  6. Patterns of flavor signals in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quark and lepton flavor signals are studied in four supersymmetric models, namely the minimal supergravity model, the minimal supersymmetric standard model with right-handed neutrinos, SU(5) supersymmetric grand unified theory with right-handed neutrinos and the minimal supersymmetric standard model with U(2) flavor symmetry. We calculate b→s(d) transition observables in Bd and Bs decays, taking the constraint from the Bs- anti Bs mixing recently observed at Tevatron into account. We also calculate lepton flavor violating processes μ → eγ, τ → μγ and τ → eγ for the models with right-handed neutrinos. We investigate possibilities to distinguish the flavor structure of the supersymmetry breaking sector with use of patterns of various flavor signals which are expected to be measured in experiments such as MEG, LHCb and a future Super B Factory. (orig.)

  7. Delirium in Intensive Care Unit. Factors that affect the appearance of delirium and its importance to the patients’ final outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kadda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a common cause of acute brain dysfunction in patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of delirium in the ICU, to establish risk factors for its development and to determine the effect of delirium on patient’s length of the stay and mortality in the ICU.Material and Methods: The sample studied consisted of 122 patients hospitalized in the ICU of a General Hospital in Attica, having completed 48 hours of stay. In order to diagnose delirium the CAM-ICU delirium scale was used. There were recorded the demographic characteristics of the sample studied, the medical history, the type of sedation, the severity of their illness during admission, the complications, the environment and psychological factors. Moreover, the length of stay, morbidity and mortality of patients were recorded. Data analysis was performed with the statistical package SPSS-ver.17.Results: 62% (n=76 of the sample studied were male. The mean age of the sample was 57±18 years. Intubation and mechanical ventilation was applied in 90% (n=110 of the studied population and seductive drugs in 90% (n=110 of the sample. Delirium frequency was 43%. Risk factors, according to the results, seems to be arterial hypertension (p= 0.009, smoking history (p=0.023, alcohol abuse (p=0.005, severity of illness in admission Apache II (p=0.033. The age and length of stay in ICU doesn’t seem to affect delirium development in ICU. Finally, mortality was clearly increased (p=0.001.Conclusions: The increased frequency of delirium in ICU patients requires measures to prevent it. Factors that seem to be related to delirium development are: arterial hypertension, alcohol abuse, smoking, hyperpyrexia and the usage of sedative drugs., Delirium, also, increases mortality in ICU patients.

  8. Turbulence patterns and neutrino flavor transitions in high-resolution supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the shock-wave propagation in a core-collapse supernova (SN), matter turbulence may affect neutrino flavor conversion probabilities. Such effects have been usually studied by adding parametrized small-scale random fluctuations (with arbitrary amplitude) on top of coarse, spherically symmetric matter density profiles. Recently, however, two-dimensional (2D) SN models have reached a space resolution high enough to directly trace anisotropic density profiles, down to scales smaller than the typical neutrino oscillation length. In this context, we analyze the statistical properties of a large set of SN matter density profiles obtained in a high-resolution 2D simulation, focusing on a post-bounce time (2 s) suited to study shock-wave effects on neutrino propagation on scales as small as O(100) km and possibly below. We clearly find the imprint of a broken (Kolmogorov-Kraichnan) power-law structure, as generically expected in 2D turbulence spectra. We then compute the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos along representative realizations of the turbulent matter density profiles, and observe no or modest damping of the neutrino crossing probabilities on their way through the shock wave. In order to check the effect of possibly unresolved fluctuations at scales below O(100) km, we also apply a randomization procedure anchored to the power spectrum calculated from the simulation, and find consistent results within ± 1σ fluctuations. These results show the importance of anchoring turbulence effects on SN neutrinos to realistic, fine-grained SN models

  9. Heavy-flavor correlation measurements via electron azimuthal correlations with open charm mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Mischke, A.; Abelev, B. I.; Benedosso, F.; Botje, M.A.J.; Braidot, E.; Peitzmann, T.(Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands); Russcher, M. J.; Snellings, R. J M; van der Kolk, N.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first STAR measurement on two heavy-flavor particle correlations in p+p collisions at RHIC. Heavy-flavor (charm and bottom) events are identified and separated on a statistical basis by the azimuthal correlation of their decay electrons and open charm mesons, which yield important information about the underlying production mechanism. The azimuthal correlation distribution exhibits a two-peak structure which can be attributed to B decays on the near-side and predominantly charm ...

  10. Effect of Hadron Contamination on Dielectron Signal Reconstruction in Heavy Flavor Production Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectron signal reconstruction is an important tool for heavy flavor measurements because of its trigger feasibility and its relatively straightforward particle identification process. However, in the case of time projection chamber detectors, some hadron contamination is unavoidable, even if additional means are used to improve the particle identification process. In this paper, we investigate the effects of hadron (protons, pions, and kaons) contamination on the dielectron signal reconstruction process in the measurement of J/ψ and electrons from heavy flavor hadron decays

  11. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53+/+ and p53−/− cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53+/+ cells but not in p53−/− cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53+/+ cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53+/+ colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach

  12. Flavor in the context of ancestral human diets

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Wrangham

    2014-01-01

    Given that nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution, to understand the evolutionary biology of human flavor perception we need to know what kinds of foods have been sufficiently important in the human past for natural selection to favor specific mechanisms for perceiving and digesting them. Humans share with great apes a long prehistory of specializing on eating ripe fruits. Wild ripe fruits have much less sugar and more fiber than domestic fruits, but are similar i...

  13. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubovskaya, Vita M., E-mail: Vita.Golubovskaya@roswellpark.org; Ho, Baotran [Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Conroy, Jeffrey [Genomics Shared Resource, Center for Personalized Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Liu, Song; Wang, Dan [Bioinformatics Core Facility, Biostatistics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States); Cance, William G. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup −/−} cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53{sup +/+} cells but not in p53{sup −/−} cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53{sup +/+} cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53{sup +/+} colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach.

  14. A study on difference and importance of sacral slope and pelvic sacral angle that affect lumbar curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seyoung; Lee, Minsun; Kwon, Byongan

    2014-01-01

    slightly greater than the normal range by being located in the lowest end of spine considering that the compensation for pelvic tilt, in other words, pelvic limb is not much causes an excess of lumbar lordosis angle. The meaning of this study based on these results is to prove that PSA is one of the important factors that fundamentally determine lumbar curvature. And this is because it is definitely required to have a study on the guideline for appropriate posture and life habit to the maintenance and management of ideal PSA before the end of growth phase and also the exercise therapy and adjustment for the control of PSA. PMID:24704656

  15. Lattice inputs to Flavor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Della Morte, Michele

    2015-01-01

    We review recent lattice results for quark masses and low-energy hadronic parameters relevant for flavor physics. We do that by describing the FLAG initiative, with emphasis on its scope and rating criteria. The emerging picture is that while for light quantities a large number of computations using different approaches exist, and this increases the overall confidence on the final averages/estimates, in the heavy-light case the field is less advanced and, with the exception of decay constants, only a few computations are available. The precision reached for the light quantities is such that electromagnetic (EM) corrections, beyond the point-like approximation, are becoming relevant. We discuss recent computations of the spectrum based on direct simulations of QED+QCD. We also present theoretical developments for including EM effects in leptonic decays. We conclude describing recent results for the $K \\to \\pi \\pi$ transition amplitudes and prospects for tackling hadronic decays on the lattice.

  16. Neutral B meson flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R J

    2001-01-01

    We present an investigation of the use of net charge and kaon identification to tag the flavor of neutral B mesons. The net charge of the neutral B meson decay products is zero if all charged particles are used and slightly non-zero if only undiscriminated hadronic final states are used. The net charge of the kaons alone correctly tags the identity of the neutral meson in at least a third of all decays. We have parametrized the particle identification capability of several techniques, such as dE/dx in time projection chambers, LEP/SLC ring-imaging chambers and an enhanced BaBar DIRC. Using these parametrisations we compare the relative tagging power of each technique to that of an ideal detector. (8 refs).

  17. SUGRA interactions within flavor triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Towe, J

    2005-01-01

    A specific new quark permits that flavor generations constitute a representation of the 3-dimensional SU(3) symmetry that characterizes the Z(3) orbifold. In this context, color and supergravity bind triplets and 4-tuplets into composite fields of spin 3/2 and spin 2; and the symmetry E(8) that characterizes (the observable sector of) 10-spacetime is interpreted as having reduced to SU(5)XSU(3), where SU(3) refers to the 3-dimensional symmetry described above and SU(5) consists of colors and of isotopic spin classes that are devoid of color and hypercharge. In this context, supergravity interactions occur to color bound quarks that are experiencing asymptotic freedom within triplets. Quark-lepton transitions are produced, but quickly reverse, preserving the triplets. The symmetry consisting of six quark classes and six lepton classes is also maintained because the predicted quark is an anomalous, left-handed version of the strange quark.

  18. Flavor release and perception in hard candy: influence of flavor compound-compound interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Amanda L; Peterson, Devin G

    2004-05-01

    The influence of flavor compound-compound interactions on flavor release properties and flavor perception in hard candy was investigated. Hard candies made with two different modes of binary flavor delivery, (1) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added as a mixture and (2) L-menthol and 1,8-cineole added separate from one another, were analyzed via breath analysis and sensory time-intensity testing. Single-flavor candy containing only L-menthol or 1,8-cineole was also investigated via breath analysis for comparison. The release rates of both L-menthol and 1,8-cineole in the breath were more rapid and at a higher concentration when the compounds were added to hard candy separate from one another in comparison to their addition as a mixture (conventional protocol). Additionally, the time-intensity study indicated a significantly increased flavor intensity (measured as overall cooling) for hard candy made with separate addition of these flavor compounds. In conclusion, the flavor properties of hard candy can be controlled, at least in part, by flavor compound-compound interactions and may be altered by the method of flavor delivery. PMID:15113168

  19. Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes and the flavor-dependent EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion-induced Drell-Yan processes are proposed as a promising tool with which to measure the flavor dependence of the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) effect, that is, the flavor-dependent modification of quark distributions in the nuclear medium. Existing pionic Drell-Yan data are compared with calculations using a recent model for nuclear quark distributions that incorporates flavor-dependent nuclear effects. While no firm conclusions can yet be drawn, we find that existing Drell-Yan data likely imply a flavor dependence of the EMC effect. We demonstrate that pion-induced Drell-Yan experiments on nuclear targets can access new aspects of the EMC effect not probed in deep inelastic scattering and can therefore provide important new constrains on the nuclear quark distributions. Predictions for possible future pion-induced Drell-Yan experiments are also presented.

  20. Heavy flavor baryons in hypercentral model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavin Patel; Ajay Kumar Rai; P C Vinodkumar

    2008-05-01

    Heavy flavor baryons containing single and double charm (beauty) quarks with light flavor combinations are studied using the hypercentral description of the three-body problem. The confinement potential is assumed as hypercentral Coulomb plus power potential with power index . The ground state masses of the heavy flavor, $J^{P} = \\dfrac{1}{2}^{+}$ and $\\dfrac{3}{2}^{+}$ baryons are computed for different power indices, starting from 0.5 to 2.0. The predicted masses are found to attain a saturated value in each case of quark combinations beyond the power index = 1.0.

  1. Contributed report: Flavor anarchy for Majorana neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yosef Nir; Yael Shadmi

    2004-12-01

    We argue that neutrino flavor parameters may exhibit features that are very different from those of quarks and charged leptons. Specifically, within the Froggatt–Nielsen (FN) framework, charged fermion parameters depend on the ratio between two scales, while for neutrinos a third scale – that of lepton number breaking – is involved. Consequently, the selection rules for neutrinos may be different. In particular, if the scale of lepton number breaking is similar to the scale of horizontal symmetry breaking, neutrinos may become flavor-blind even if they carry different horizontal charges. This provides an attractive mechanism for neutrino flavor anarchy.

  2. 21 CFR 169.181 - Vanilla-vanillin flavoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. 169.181 Section 169... Dressings and Flavorings § 169.181 Vanilla-vanillin flavoring. (a) Vanilla-vanillin flavoring conforms to... ingredients prescribed for vanilla-vanillin extract by § 169.180, except that its content of ethyl alcohol...

  3. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  4. Importance of within-lake processes in affecting the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in an Adirondack forested lake/watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, P.-G.; M. J. Mitchell; McHale, P J; Driscoll, C T; M. R. McHale; Inamdar, S.; Park, J.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes nested in forested watersheds play important roles in mediating the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic matter. We compared long-term patterns of concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the Arbutus Lake Watershed to evaluate how a lake nested in a forested watershed affects the dynamics of DOC and DON in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State...

  5. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    OpenAIRE

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydrox...

  6. Probing new physics with flavor physics (and probing flavor physics with new physics)

    OpenAIRE

    Nir, Yosef

    2007-01-01

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in particle theory/string theory/particle experiment familiar with the basics of the Standard Model. We begin with an overview of flavor physics and its implications for new physics. We emphasize the "new physics flavor puzzle". Then, we give four specific examples of flavor measurements and the lessons that have been (or can be) drawn from them: (i) Charm physics: lessons for supersymmetry f...

  7. Benchmark 3-Flavor Pattern and Small Universal Flavor-Electroweak Parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Lipmanov, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    The electroweak theory contains too many empirical parameters. Most of them are related to the flavor part of particle physics. In this paper we discuss a relevant simple idea: the complicated system of actual dimensionless, small versus large, quantities in elementary particle flavor phenomenology is small deviated from an explicitly defined benchmark flavor pattern with no tuning parameters. One small empirical universal dimensionless parameter measures this deviation. Its possible physical...

  8. Heavy flavors in e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently a considerable amount of both theoretical and experimental effort has been given to Heavy Flavor Physics, mainly since: The Q anti Q system is simple. Spectroscopy and successful calculations are possible. A good separation of the Heavy Flavors (Jets, Mesons) is possible. So, Single Flavor Jets or isolated processes can be studied in analogy to μ -> eanti νsub(e)νsub(μ) decays. Therefore: 1. We can determine the Standard-Model parameters like masses, and the K-M matrix. 2. We can check the validity of the Standard-Model by the absence of forbidden processes. 3. We can test for flavor independence required by QCD. 4. We can find possible clues for new physics, 4th generation effects, for new CP-violations in B0 decays and others. (orig.)

  9. Prospects in lepton-flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical and experimental situation regarding lepton-flavor conservation is reviewed and upcoming experiments are described. It is concluded that future improvements in experimental sensitivities will require higher flux, higher quality muon and kaon beams

  10. Radion Flavor Violation in Warped Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Huitu, K; Moursy, A; Rai, S K; Sabanci, A

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the flavor violation in warped extra dimension due to radion mediation. We show that \\Delta S=2 and \\Delta B=2 flavor violating processes impose stringent constraints on radion mass, m_\\phi and the scale \\Lambda_\\phi. In particular, for \\Lambda_\\phi ~ O(1) TeV, B_d^0-\\bar{B}^0_d implies that m_\\phi ~ 25 GeV. We also study radion contributions to lepton flavor violating processes: \\tau -> (e,\\mu) \\phi, \\tau -> e\\mu^+\\mu^- and B -> l_i l_j. We show that BR(B_s -> \\mu^+ \\mu^-) can be of order 10^{-8}, which is reachable at the LHCb. The radion search at LHC, through the flavor violation decays into \\tau \\mu or top-charm quarks, is also considered.

  11. Strong color fields and heavy flavor production

    OpenAIRE

    Pajares, C.; Bautista, I.

    2010-01-01

    The clustering of color sources provides a natural framework for soft partonic interactions producing strong color fields. We study the consequences of these color fields in the production of heavy flavor and the behavior of the nuclear modification factor.

  12. On flavor violation for massive and mixed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss flavor charges and states for interacting mixed neutrinos in QFT. We show that the Pontecorvo states are not eigenstates of the flavor charges. This implies that their use in describing the flavor neutrinos produces a violation of lepton charge conservation in the production/detection vertices. The flavor states defined as eigenstates of the flavor charges give the correct representation of mixed neutrinos in charged current weak interaction processes.

  13. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R; Gómez-Bock, M; Mondragón, M

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  14. Supernova Neutrino Spectra and Applications to Flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Mathias Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We study the flavor-dependent neutrino spectra formation in the core of a supernova (SN) by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Several neutrino detectors around the world are able to detect a high-statistics signal from a galactic SN. From such a signal one may extract information that severely constrains the parameter space for neutrino oscillations. Therefore, reliable predictions for flavor-dependent fluxes and spectra are urgently needed. In all hydrodynamic simulations the treatment of nu...

  15. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Schambach, Joachim; Anderssen, Eric; Wieman, Howard; Woodmansee, Sam; Contin, Giacomo; Greiner, Leo; Silber, Joe; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Szelezniak, Michal; Videbæk, Flemming; Vu, Chinh

    2014-01-01

    The heavy quark hadrons are suggested as a clean probe for studying the early dynamic evolution of the dense and hot medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) of the STAR experiment, designed to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, was installed for the 2014 heavy ion run of RHIC. It is composed of three different silicon detectors arranged in four concentric cylinders close to the STAR interac...

  16. Biocatalytic production of flavors and fragrances

    OpenAIRE

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Alessandrini, L.; Terraneo, G.

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of flavors and fragrances has to be done with great care. When these compounds are meant for consumption, no toxic chemicals are allowed during their preparation. For use in non-food additives, a high purity is required. Both constraints can be easily fulfilled when enzymes are used as catalyst during the production of these compounds. This paper summarizes the work that we have done regarding the preparation of branchedchain fatty acids (sheep flavors) using lipases, the prod...

  17. A Couplet from Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Verhaaren, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    We show that a couplet, a pair of closely spaced photon lines, in the X-ray spectrum is a distinctive feature of lepton flavored dark matter models for which the mass spectrum is dictated by Minimal Flavor Violation. In such a scenario, mass splittings between different dark matter flavors are determined by Standard Model Yukawa couplings and can naturally be small, allowing all three flavors to be long-lived and contribute to the observed abundance. Then, in the presence of a tiny source of flavor violation, heavier dark matter flavors can decay via a dipole transition on cosmological timescales, giving rise to three photon lines. The ratios of the line energies are completely determined in terms of the charged lepton masses, and constitute a firm prediction of this framework. For dark matter masses of order the weak scale, the couplet lies in the keV-MeV region, with a much weaker line in the eV-keV region. This scenario constitutes a potential explanation for the recent claim of the observation of a 3.5 ke...

  18. LHC Benchmarks from Flavored Gauge Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    Ierushalmi, N; Lee, G; Nepomnyashy, V; Shadmi, Y

    2016-01-01

    We present benchmark points for LHC searches from flavored gauge mediation models, in which messenger-matter couplings give flavor-dependent squark masses. Our examples include spectra in which a single squark - stop, scharm, or sup - is much lighter than all other colored superpartners, motivating improved quark flavor tagging at the LHC. Many examples feature flavor mixing; in particular, large stop-scharm mixing is possible. The correct Higgs mass is obtained in some examples by virtue of the large stop A-term. We also revisit the general flavor and CP structure of the models. We find that, even though the A-terms can be substantial, their contributions to EDM's are very suppressed, because of the particular dependence of the A-terms on the messenger coupling. This holds regardless of the messenger-coupling texture. More generally, the special structure of the soft terms often leads to stronger suppression of flavor- and CP-violating processes, compared to naive estimates.

  19. Flavored Peccei-Quinn symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Y H

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to uncover any underlying physics in the standard model (SM), we suggest a $\\mu$--$\\tau$ power law in the lepton sector, such that relatively large 13 mixing angle with bi-large ones can be derived. On the basis of this, we propose a neat and economical model for both the fermion mass hierarchy problem of the SM and a solution to the strong CP problem, in a way that no domain wall problem occurs, based on $A_{4}\\times U(1)_{X}$ symmetry in a supersymmetric framework. Here we refer to the global $U(1)_X$ symmetry that can explain the above problems as "flavored Peccei-Quinn symmetry". In the model, a direct coupling of the SM gauge singlet flavon fields responsible for spontaneous symmetry breaking to ordinary quarks and leptons, both of which are charged under $U(1)_X$, comes to pass through Yukawa interactions, and all vacuum expectation values breaking the symmetries are connected each other. So, the scale of Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking is shown to be roughly located around $10^{12}$ GeV se...

  20. Heavy Flavor Physics in PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Heavy quarks are good probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions since they are mainly generated early in the collision and interact with the medium in all collision stages. In addition, heavy flavor quarkonia production is thought to be uniquely sensitive to the deconfined medium of the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) through color screening. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays, in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. Large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and strong flow of the heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/psi production in p + p, d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au collisions at energies up to 200 GeV. In central Au+Au at 200 GeV, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity...

  1. Three-flavor color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I investigate some of the inert phases in three-flavor, spin-zero color-superconducting quark matter: the CFL phase (the analogue of the B phase in superfluid 3He), the A and A* phases, and the 2SC and sSC phases. I compute the pressure of these phases with and without the neutrality condition. Without the neutrality condition, after the CFL phase the sSC phase is the dominant phase. However, including the neutrality condition, the CFL phase is again the energetically favored phase except for a small region of intermediate densities where the 2SC/A* phase is favored. It is shown that the 2SC phase is identical to the A* phase up to a color rotation. In addition, I calculate the self-energies and the spectral densities of longitudinal and transverse gluons at zero temperature in color-superconducting quark matter in the CFL phase. I find a collective excitation, a plasmon, at energies smaller than two times the gap parameter and momenta smaller than about eight times the gap. The dispersion relation of this mode exhibits a minimum at some nonzero value of momentum, indicating a van Hove singularity. (orig.)

  2. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A G; Santana, G M; Ferreira, P M P; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-06-01

    Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion) are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1) for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05). No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic. PMID:26959949

  3. Searching for flavor labels in food products: the influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang; Knoeferle, Klemens; Zhou, Xi; Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labeled with specific flavors. The two experiments reported here document a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors. The participants were able to search for packaging flavor labels more rap...

  4. Flavor chemistry of lemon-lime carbonated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausch, Bethany J; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-01-14

    The most potent aroma-active components of Sprite (SP), Sierra Mist (SM), and 7UP (7UP) were identified. Aroma extracts were prepared by liquid–liquid continuous extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (LLCE/SAFE). Twenty-eight compounds were detected by gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC-O) with linalool (floral, lavender), octanal (pungent orange), and 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole (minty) determined to be predominant aroma compounds based on their high flavor dilution (FD) factors by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The data indicate that lemon-lime flavor is composed of a small number of compounds (22 at the most in SM), and only a subset of these may be important because many compounds were detected only at low FD factors. Predominant aroma compounds (23) were quantified using static headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). In contrast to FD factors, the calculated odor-activity values (OAVs) indicate that octanal and limonene make the greatest contribution to the overall aroma of lemon-lime carbonated beverages, followed by nonanal, decanal, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and geranyl acetate. The results demonstrate that lemon-lime carbonated beverages share many of the same compounds but the relative abundance of these compounds varies by brand. PMID:25494537

  5. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products. PMID:24001396

  6. Improving flavor metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by mixed culture with Bacillus licheniformis for Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing; Wu, Qun; Wang, Li; Wang, Diqiang; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial interactions could impact the metabolic behavior of microbes involved in food fermentation, and therefore they are important for improving food quality. This study investigated the effect of Bacillus licheniformis, the dominant bacteria in the fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor, on the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results indicated that S. cerevisiae inhibited the growth of B. licheniformis in all mixed culture systems and final viable cell count was lower than 20 cfu/mL. Although growth of S. cerevisiae was barely influenced by B. licheniformis, its metabolism was changed as initial inoculation ratio varied. The maximum ethanol productions were observed in S. cerevisiae and B. licheniformis at 10(6):10(7) and 10(6):10(8) ratios and have increased by 16.8 % compared with single culture of S. cerevisiae. According to flavor compounds, the culture ratio 10(6):10(6) showed the highest level of total concentrations of all different kinds of flavor compounds. Correlation analyses showed that 12 flavor compounds, including 4 fatty acids and their 2 corresponding esters, 1 terpene, and 5 aromatic compounds, that could only be produced by S. cerevisiae were significantly correlated with the initial inoculation amount of B. licheniformis. These metabolic changes in S. cerevisiae were not only a benefit for liquor aroma, but may also be related to its inhibition effect in mixed culture. This study could help to reveal the microbial interactions in Chinese liquor fermentation and provide guidance for optimal arrangement of mixed culture fermentation systems. PMID:26323612

  7. Probing new physics with flavor physics (and probing flavor physics with new physics)

    CERN Document Server

    Nir, Yosef

    2007-01-01

    This is a written version of a series of lectures aimed at graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in particle theory/string theory/particle experiment familiar with the basics of the Standard Model. We begin with an overview of flavor physics and its implications for new physics. We emphasize the "new physics flavor puzzle". Then, we give four specific examples of flavor measurements and the lessons that have been (or can be) drawn from them: (i) Charm physics: lessons for supersymmetry from the upper bound on $\\Delta m_D$. (ii) Bottom physics: model independent lessons on the KM mechanism and on new physics in neutral B mixing from $S_{\\psi K_S}$. (iii) Top physics and beyond: testing minimal flavor violation at the LHC. (iv) Neutrino physics: interpreting the data on neutrino masses and mixing within flavor models.

  8. An update on the effect of HLB on orange juice flavor: Sensory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been some anecdotal reports that Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease, recently introduced in Florida, may impart off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the processing industry to determine what affect fruit from trees of various stages of infection would have on proce...

  9. An update on the effect of citrus greening on flavor and taste of orange juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been some anecdotal reports that Huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease, recently introduced in Florida, may impart off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the processing industry to determine what affect fruit from trees of various stages of infection would have on proce...

  10. Unified Flavor Symmetry from warped dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scenario which accommodates all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions in a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of the symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons) and wash-out the obvious effects of the symmetry. With the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, and Dirac neutrinos sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated by the fundamental flavor structure. The neutrino sector would then reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas the quark sector would probe the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. As an example, we explo...

  11. Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Raffelt, Georg

    2013-01-01

    We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of nu_e and anti-nu_e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1 2 allows for the usual bimodal instability ("flavor pendulum") in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy (IH) and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulum-like solution that occurs in NH where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle (MAA) instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmet...

  12. Neutrino flavor pendulum in both mass hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffelt, Georg; Seixas, David de Sousa

    2013-08-01

    We construct a simple example for self-induced flavor conversion in dense neutrino gases, showing new solutions that violate the symmetries of initial conditions. Our system consists of two opposite momentum modes 1 and 2, each initially occupied with equal densities of νe and ν¯e. Restricting solutions to symmetry under 1↔2 allows for the usual bimodal instability (“flavor pendulum”) in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy and stability (no self-induced flavor conversion) in the normal hierarchy (NH). Lifting this symmetry restriction allows for a second pendulumlike solution that occurs in NH, where the modes 1 and 2 swing in opposite directions in flavor space. Any small deviation from 1-2 symmetry in the initial condition triggers the new instability in NH. This effect corresponds to the recently identified multi-azimuth angle instability of supernova neutrino fluxes. Both cases show explicitly that solutions of the equations of collective flavor oscillations need not inherit the symmetries of initial conditions, although this has been universally assumed.

  13. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  14. Flavor Preferences Conditioned by Dietary Glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    Our understanding of the molecular basis of umami taste and its appetitive qualities has been greatly aided by studies in laboratory rodents. This review describes methods for testing responses to the prototypical umami substance monosodium glutamate (MSG) in rodents. Two techniques, forced exposure to MSG and 2-bottle choice tests with ascending concentrations, were used to evaluate the responses to the taste of umami itself, and 2 other methods used oral or postoral MSG to modify the responses to other flavors. Intake and preference for MSG are enhanced in mice by experience with MSG and with other nutrients with positive postoral effects. In addition, flavor preferences are enhanced in mice and rats by gastric or intestinal MSG infusions via an associative learning process. Even mice with an impaired or absent ability to taste MSG can learn to prefer a flavor added to an MSG solution, supporting the notion that glutamate acts postorally. The more complex flavor of dashi seasoning, which includes umami substances (inosinate, glutamate), is attractive to rodents, but dashi does not condition flavor preferences. Details of the postoral glutamate detection process and the nature of the signal involved in learned preferences are still uncertain but probably involve gastric or intestinal sensors or both and vagal transmission. Some findings suggest that postoral glutamate effects may enhance food preferences in humans, but this requires further study. PMID:27422522

  15. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  16. Modeling the sensory impact of defined combinations of volatile lipid oxidation products on fishy and metallic off-flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venkateshwarlu Venkat, Guidipati; Bruni Let, Mette; Meyer, Anne S.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    highlighted the importance of two-factor interactions for contribution toward off-flavors. The results suggest that (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal and 1-penten-3-one could be useful markers for fishy and metallic off-flavors in fish oil and fish oil enriched foods. Within the addition levels of the volatiles there was a...... volatiles were subjected to sensory descriptive analysis for fishy and metallic off-flavors. The data were analyzed using partial least-squares regression and multiple linear regression to develop mathematical models. The models revealed significant main effects of (EZ)-2,6-nonadienal and 1-penten-3-one and...

  17. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Lipid Oxidation and Warmed-over Flavor of Precooked Roast Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jen-Hua; Ockerman, Herbert W

    2013-02-01

    Many manufacturing processes damage the structure of meat products and this often contributes to lipid oxidation which could influence warmed-over flavor (WOF) in precooked beef that is reheated beef. Electrical stimulation causes contraction of muscles and improves tissue tenderization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of lipid oxidation or warmed-over flavor that could be affected by electrical stimulation of precooked roast beef after refrigerated storage and reheating. The results show that there was no significant difference between chemical compositions and cooking yields when comparing non-electrically stimulated and electrically stimulated roast beef. Moreover, electrical stimulation had no significant effect on oxidative stability and off-flavor problems of precooked roast beef as evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory test (warmed-over aroma and warmed-over flavor). However, there was an increased undesirable WOF and a decrease in tenderness for both ES and Non-ES treatments over refrigerated storage time. Electrical stimulation did cause reactions of amino acids or other compounds to decrease the desirable beef flavor in re-cooked meat. PMID:25049788

  18. Informatic prediction of Cheddar cheese flavor pathway changes due to sodium substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Increased interest in reduced and low sodium dairy foods generates flavor issues for cheeses. Sodium is partly replaced with potassium or calcium to sustain the salty flavor perception, but the other cations may also alter metabolic routes and the resulting flavor development in aged cheeses. The effect of some cations on selected metabolic enzyme activity and on lactic acid bacterial physiology and enzymology has been documented. Potassium, for example, is an activator of 40 enzymes and inhibits 25 enzymes. Currently, we can visualize the effects of these cations only as lists inside metabolic databases such as MetaCyc. By visualizing the impact of these activating and inhibitory activities as biochemical pathways inside a metabolic database, we can understand their relevance, predict, and eventually dictate the aging process of cheeses with cations that replace sodium. As examples, we reconstructed new metabolic databases that illustrate the effect of potassium on flavor-related enzymes as microbial pathways. After metabolic reconstruction and analysis, we found that 153 pathways of lactic acid bacteria are affected due to enzymes likely to be activated or inactivated by potassium. These pathways are primarily linked to sugar metabolism, acid production, and amino acid biosynthesis and degradation that relate to Cheddar cheese flavor. PMID:24246043

  19. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption. PMID:23170947

  20. Heavy flavor electron RAA and υ2 in event-by-event relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Caio A. G.; Cosentino, Mauro R.; Munhoz, Marcelo G.; Noronha, Jorge; Suaide, Alexandre A. P.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate how event-by-event hydrodynamics fluctuations affect the nuclear suppression factor and elliptic flow of heavy flavor mesons and non-photonic electrons. We use a 2D+1 Lagrangian ideal hydrodynamic code [1, 2] on an event-by-event basis in order to compute local temperature and flow profiles. Using a strong coupling inspired energy loss parametrization [3] on top of the evolving space-time energy density distributions we are able to propagate the heavy quarks inside the medium until the freeze-out temperature is reached and a Pythia [4] modeling of hadronization takes place. The resulting D0 and heavy-flavor electron yield is compared with recent experimental data for R AA and υ 2 from the STAR and PHENIX collaborations [5-7]. In addition we present preditions for the higher order Fourier harmonic coefficients υ3(pt) of heavy-flavor electrons at Rhic’s collisions.

  1. Quark flavor tagging in polarized hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a general approach to quark flavor tagging in polarized hadronic processes, with particular emphasis on semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. A formalism is introduced that allows one to relate chosen quark flavor polarizations to an arbitrary combination of final-state hadron spin asymmetries. Within the context of the presented formalism, we quantify the sensitivity of various semi-inclusive hadron asymmetries to the light quark flavors. We show that unpolarized Λ close-quote s may allow one to measure strange quark and antiquark polarizations independently. We also highlight several applications of our formalism, particularly to measurements intended to probe further the spin structure of the nucleon. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.;

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio......-scaled using the signal from acetone in the breath of subjects. Next, APCI-MS and sensory TI curves are smoothed by low-pass filtering. Principal component analysis of the individual curves is used to display graphically the product differentiation by APCI-MS or TI signals. It is shown that differences in gum...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  3. Radion mediated flavor changing neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of a warped extra dimension with standard model fields in the bulk, we obtain the general flavor structure of the radion couplings to fermions and show that the result is independent of the particular nature of the Higgs mechanism (bulk or brane localized). These couplings will be generically misaligned with respect to the fermion mass matrix when the fermion bulk mass parameters are not all degenerate. When the radion is light enough, the generic size of these tree-level flavor changing couplings will be strongly constrained by the experimental bounds on ΔF=2 processes. At the LHC the possibility of a heavier radion decaying into top and charm quarks is then considered as a promising signal to probe the flavor structure of both the radion sector and the whole scenario.

  4. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrio, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to $N_\\textrm{f}$ quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of $N_\\textrm{f}$ flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of $N_\\textrm{c}$ color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  5. Candidate genes affecting fat deposition, carcass composition and meat quality traits in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Gandolfi, Greta

    2011-01-01

    Pig meat quality is determined by several parameters, such as lipid content, tenderness, water-holding capacity, pH, color and flavor, that affect consumers’ acceptance and technological properties of meat. Carcass quality parameters are important for the production of fresh and dry-cure high-quality products, in particular the fat deposition and the lean cut yield. The identification of genes and markers associated with meat and carcass quality traits is of prime interest, for the possibilit...

  6. On the Flavor Structure of Natural Composite Higgs Models & Top Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Azatov, Aleksandr; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam

    2014-01-01

    We explore the up flavor structure of composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone-boson Higgs models, where we focus on the flavor anarchic minimal $SO(5)$ case. We identify the different sources of flavor violation in this framework and emphasise the differences from the anarchic Randall-Sundrum scenario. In particular, the fact that the flavor symmetry does not commute with the symmetries that stabilize the Higgs potential may constrain the flavor structure of the theory. In addition, we consider the interplay between the fine tuning of the model and flavor violation. We find that generically the tuning of this class of models is worsen in the anarchic case due to the contributions from the additional fermion resonances. We show that, even in the presence of custodial symmetry, large top flavor violating rate are naturally expected. In particular, $t\\to cZ$ branching ratio of order of $10^{-5}$ is generic for this class of models. Thus, this framework can be tested in the next run of the LHC as well as in other future...

  7. A new vision for the science of human flavor perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon M Shepherd

    2014-07-01

    flavor from their energy content to reveal dopamine pathways that function as energy sensors independent of taste. Anthony Sclafani reported how post-ingestive sensors of sugar, fat and protein in the gut can stimulate or reduce appetite and condition flavor preferences. These and other contributions showed how essential it is to have both animal and human experimental approaches to these difficult problems. How modern foods target brain circuits to stimulate eating was addressed in experiments in humans reported by Dana Small: high energy-dense foods stimulate dopaminergic brain reward circuits and metabolic effects even in the absence of hunger to an extent never experienced during human evolution. Neuroscience research on obesity and food addiction are finding that the brain regions activated by cravings for food are similar to those activated by drug addiction. The importance of early experience in establishing food and flavor preferences was addressed by Julie Mennella and Leah Birch. They highlighted the critical role of parents in shaping preferences that favor fresh fruits and vegetables against processed sweet, salt and fat foods through strategies including familiarization, associative processes, and observational learning. A third principle was the common goal of applying flavor science to achieve better nutrition and public health. This reflected the fact that the conference took place within the unique framework of food studies, nutrition and public health provided by the NYU Steinhardt School and the College of Dentistry. It also reflected the fact that most of the participants are supported by the National Institutes of Health, which has the express goal of improving the health of the public. Highlighting this effort was the keynote speech by Michael Moss, introduced by Marian Nestle of the Steinhardt School. Building on his recent book "Sugar, Salt, Fat", Moss laid out in detail how the food producers manipulate these elements to hook consumers on high

  8. An obesity-associated risk allele within the FTO gene affects human brain activity for areas important for emotion, impulse control and reward in response to food images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Ence-Eriksson, Fia; Castillo, Sandra; Larsen, Anna L; Bylund, Simon B A; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Olivo, Gaia; Bandstein, Marcus; Titova, Olga E; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how genetics influences obesity, brain activity and eating behaviour will add important insight for developing strategies for weight-loss treatment, as obesity may stem from different causes and as individual feeding behaviour may depend on genetic differences. To this end, we examined how an obesity risk allele for the FTO gene affects brain activity in response to food images of different caloric content via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty participants homozygous for the rs9939609 single nucleotide polymorphism were shown images of low- or high-calorie food while brain activity was measured via fMRI. In a whole-brain analysis, we found that people with the FTO risk allele genotype (AA) had increased activity compared with the non-risk (TT) genotype in the posterior cingulate, cuneus, precuneus and putamen. Moreover, higher body mass index in the AA genotype was associated with reduced activity to food images in areas important for emotion (cingulate cortex), but also in areas important for impulse control (frontal gyri and lentiform nucleus). Lastly, we corroborate our findings with behavioural scales for the behavioural inhibition and activation systems. Our results suggest that the two genotypes are associated with differential neural processing of food images, which may influence weight status through diminished impulse control and reward processing. PMID:26797854

  9. SUSY_FLAVOR library for rare decays in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    SUSY_FLAVOUR 2.0 is a FORTRAN code calculating over 30 low-energy flavour- and CP-related observables in the R-parity conserving MSSM. The code admits for the most general flavour structure of the SUSY breaking terms and complex flavour-diagonal couplings. It includes the numerically important resummation of chirally enhanced effects and it is fast enough for scanning over a large SUSY-parameter space. The program can be obtained from http://www.fuw.edu.pl/susy_flavor.

  10. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  11. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  12. Effects on Flavor. In E.A. Yahia, Ed., Modified and Controlled Atmospheres for the Storage, Transportation, and Packaging of Horticultural Commodities. Boca Ratan, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavor of fresh fruits and vegetables is an important factor in determining quality and consumer satisfaction. However, there is often dissatisfaction among consumers concerning the flavor of fruits and vegetables. First time purchases are usually based on appearance and firmness, but repeat b...

  13. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-07-01

    New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z‧ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h → μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ → μZ‧ opens up and for MZ‧ vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  14. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    OpenAIRE

    Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2016-01-01

    We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the...

  15. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-07-01

    New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z‧ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h → μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ → μZ‧ opens up and for MZ‧ year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  16. Gapless Color-Flavor-Locked Quark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alford, Mark; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    In neutral cold quark matter that is sufficiently dense that the strange quark mass M_s is unimportant, all nine quarks (three colors; three flavors) pair in a color-flavor locked (CFL) pattern, and all fermionic quasiparticles have a gap. We argue that as a function of decreasing quark chemical...... a linear combination Qtilde of electric and color charges, but it is a Qtilde-conductor with a nonzero electron density. These electrons and the gapless quark quasiparticles make the low energy effective theory of the gapless CFL phase and, consequently, its astrophysical properties are qualitatively...

  17. Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1)R symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.

  18. Variants of fattening and flavor symmetry restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Orginos, K; Toussaint, D; Orginos, Kostas; Toussaint, Doug

    1999-01-01

    We study the effects of different "fat link" actions for Kogut-Susskind quarks on flavor symmetry breaking. Our method is mostly empirical - we compute the pion spectrum with different valence quark actions on common sets of sample lattices. Different actions are compared, as best we can, at equivalent physical points. We find significant reductions in flavor symmetry breaking relative to the conventional or to the "link plus staple" actions, with a reasonable cost in computer time. We also develop and test a scheme for approximate unitarization of the fat links. While our tests have concentrated on the valence quark action, our results will be useful in designing simulations with dynamical quarks.

  19. Bound States of Double Flavor Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Froemel, F; Riska, D O

    2005-01-01

    Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the $\\Xi_c^{'}$ and $\\Xi_{cc}$ charm hyperons as well as between $\\Xi$ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two $\\Sigma_c$ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.

  20. Bound states of heavy flavor hyperons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömel, F.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Riska, D. O.

    2005-04-01

    Several realistic phenomenological nucleon-nucleon interaction models are employed to investigate the possibility of bound deuteron-like states of such heavy flavor hyperons and nucleons, for which the interaction between the light flavor quark components is expected to be the most significant interaction. The results indicate that deuteron-like bound states are likely to form between nucleons and the Ξc' and Ξ charm hyperons as well as between Ξ hyperons and double-charm hyperons. Bound states between two Σ hyperons are also likely. In the case of beauty hyperons the corresponding states are likely to be deeply bound.

  1. Systematic model building with flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plentinger, Florian

    2009-12-19

    The observation of neutrino masses and lepton mixing has highlighted the incompleteness of the Standard Model of particle physics. In conjunction with this discovery, new questions arise: why are the neutrino masses so small, which form has their mass hierarchy, why is the mixing in the quark and lepton sectors so different or what is the structure of the Higgs sector. In order to address these issues and to predict future experimental results, different approaches are considered. One particularly interesting possibility, are Grand Unified Theories such as SU(5) or SO(10). GUTs are vertical symmetries since they unify the SM particles into multiplets and usually predict new particles which can naturally explain the smallness of the neutrino masses via the seesaw mechanism. On the other hand, also horizontal symmetries, i.e., flavor symmetries, acting on the generation space of the SM particles, are promising. They can serve as an explanation for the quark and lepton mass hierarchies as well as for the different mixings in the quark and lepton sectors. In addition, flavor symmetries are significantly involved in the Higgs sector and predict certain forms of mass matrices. This high predictivity makes GUTs and flavor symmetries interesting for both, theorists and experimentalists. These extensions of the SM can be also combined with theories such as supersymmetry or extra dimensions. In addition, they usually have implications on the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe or can provide a dark matter candidate. In general, they also predict the lepton flavor violating rare decays {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, and {tau} {yields} e{gamma} which are strongly bounded by experiments but might be observed in the future. In this thesis, we combine all of these approaches, i.e., GUTs, the seesaw mechanism and flavor symmetries. Moreover, our request is to develop and perform a systematic model building approach with flavor symmetries and

  2. Quark flavor mixing and its physical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments on the subject of flavor mixing, especially the Kobayashi-Maskawa model, since the Tokyo conference in 1978 are reviewed. Aspects discussed include the following: history of the development of the understanding of weak interaction quark states, the determination of the mixing matrix V, nonleptonic decays (the ΔI = 1/2 rule of K decays, charm nonleptonic decays), the neutron electric dipole moment, decay interference from CP violation, dynamical origin of the quark flavor mixing, and alternatives to the three doublet model. 34 references, 1 figure

  3. Supergravitational Production of "Flavor and Color"

    CERN Document Server

    Towe, J

    2004-01-01

    A conventional graviton vertex operator is generated from the gauging of global supersymmetry. If the outgoing gravitino is replaced by a fermion-boson pair of like helicity, and if a new principle of equivalence associates supergravity with the introduction of color, then every quark flavor can be described as a gravitationally excited lepton. In this context, A SUSY SU(5)can be constructed exclusively of leptons and their scaler superpartners (or of quarks and their superpartners). This SUSY GUT flavor symmetry, which is preserved by the proposed supergravity interactions, accounts for three fermionic generations and predicts a new quark--aleft-handed (non-strange) version of the strange quark.

  4. Higgs-induced lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the smallness of the lepton Yukawa couplings, higher-dimensional operators can give a significant contribution to the lepton masses. In this case, the lepton mass matrix and the matrix of lepton-Higgs couplings are misaligned leading to lepton flavor violation (LFV) mediated by the Standard Model Higgs boson. We derive model-independent bounds on the Higgs flavor violating couplings and quantify LFV in decays of leptons and electric dipole moments for a class of lepton-Higgs operators contributing to lepton masses. We find significant Higgs-mediated LFV effects, especially if they involve virtual τ's. (orig.)

  5. Probing flavor changing interactions in hadron collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Han, Liang; Jiang, Yi; Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Mian-Lai

    2000-01-01

    The subprocess $gg \\to t\\bar{c}+\\bar{t}c$ in the two-Higgs-doublet model with flavor-changing scalar couplings is examined at the one loop level. With perturbative QCD factorization theorem, the corresponding cross sections for hadron-hadron collisions are computed numerically. The results are applicable to the whole mass range of the weakly coupled Higgs bosons. In case we could efficiently exclude the severe backgrounds of the $t\\bar{c}(\\bar{t}c)$ production signal, probing the flavor-chang...

  6. Flavor democracy and quark mass matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, C. S.; Cvetic, G.

    1997-01-01

    Based on experimental mass hierarchy, a set of flavor-democratic (FD) quark mass matrices at low energies is discussed. The model predicts CP violation parameters $J_{CP}=(0.3 \\pm 0.2) 10^{-4}$ and ${\\epsilon'/\\epsilon} = (0.6 \\pm 0.5) 10^{-3}$. However, this simple FD model also predicts a physical top quark mass not much higher than 100 GeV. As a next step, we assume that the Standard Model (SM) breaks down around some high energy $\\Lambda$, and is replaced by a new FD flavor gauge theory (...

  7. How will the greening of the Arctic affect an important prey species and disturbance agent? Vegetation effects on arctic ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, H C; Chipperfield, J D; Roland, C; Svenning, J-C

    2015-07-01

    Increases in terrestrial primary productivity across the Arctic and northern alpine ecosystems are leading to altered vegetation composition and stature. Changes in vegetation stature may affect predator-prey interactions via changes in the prey's ability to detect predators, changes in predation pressure, predator identity and predator foraging strategy. Changes in productivity and vegetation composition may also affect herbivores via effects on forage availability and quality. We investigated if height-dependent effects of forage and non-forage vegetation determine burrowing extent and activity of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We collected data on burrow networks and activity of arctic ground squirrels across long-term vegetation monitoring sites in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The implications of height-specific cover of potential forage and non-forage vegetation on burrowing behaviour and habitat suitability for arctic ground squirrels were investigated using hierarchical Bayesian modelling. Increased cover of forbs was associated with more burrows and burrow systems, and higher activity of systems, for all forb heights. No other potential forage functional group was related to burrow distribution and activity. In contrast, height-dependent negative effects of non-forage vegetation were observed, with cover over 50-cm height negatively affecting the number of burrows, systems and system activity. Our results demonstrate that increases in vegetation productivity have dual, potentially counteracting effects on arctic ground squirrels via changes in forage and vegetation stature. Importantly, increases in tall-growing woody vegetation (shrubs and trees) have clear negative effects, whereas increases in forb should benefit arctic ground squirrels. PMID:25666700

  8. Resurrection of large lepton number asymmetries from neutrino flavor oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il

    2016-01-01

    We numerically solve the evolution equations of neutrino three-flavor density matrices, and show that, even if neutrino oscillations mix neutrino flavors, large lepton number asymmetries are still allowed in certain limits by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN).

  9. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l) is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26557744

  10. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l) is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26557744

  11. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  12. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses. PMID:26551333

  13. Radiative Corrections to the Sum Rule of Lepton Flavor Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jue

    2016-01-01

    The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles $(\\theta^{}_{12}, \\theta^{}_{13}, \\theta^{}_{23})$ and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase $\\delta$ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the sum rule $\\theta^{}_{12} \\approx \\theta^{\

  14. Bioconcentration of Dissolved Organic Compounds from Oil Sands Process-Affected Water by Medaka (Oryzias latipes): Importance of Partitioning to Phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Wiseman, Steve; Giesy, John P; Martin, Jonathan W

    2016-06-21

    The complex mixture of dissolved organics in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is acutely lethal to fish at environmentally relevant concentrations, but few bioconcentration factors (BCFs) have been measured for its many chemical species. Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to 10% OSPW, and measured BCFs were evaluated against predicted BCFs from octanol-water distribution ratios (DOW) and phospholipid membrane-water distribution ratios (DMW). Two heteroatomic chemical classes detected in positive ion mode (SO(+), NO(+)) and one in negative mode (O2(-), also known as naphthenic acids) had the greatest DMW values, as high as 10 000. Estimates of DMW were similar to and correlated with DOW for O(+), O2(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, but for O2(-) and SO2(-) species the DMW values were much greater than the corresponding DOW, suggesting the importance of electrostatic interactions for these ionizable organic acids. Only SO(+), NO(+), and O2(-) species were detectable in medaka exposed to OSPW, and BCFs for SO(+) and NO(+) species ranged from 0.6 to 28 L/kg, lower than predicted (i.e., 1.4-1.7 × 10(3) L/kg), possibly because of biotransformation of these hydrophobic substances. BCFs of O2(-) species ranged from 0.7 to 53 L/kg, similar to predicted values and indicating that phospholipid partitioning was an important bioconcentration mechanism. PMID:27224302

  15. The 3-, 4-, and 5-flavor NNLO parton distributions functions from deep-inelastic-scattering data and at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J.; Klein, S.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    We determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD-analysis of the inclusive neutral-current deep-inelastic-scattering (DIS) world data combined with the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon data and the fixed-target Drell-Yan data. The PDF-evolution is performed in the N{sub f} = 3 fixed-flavor scheme and supplementary sets of PDFs in the 4- and 5-flavor schemes are derived from the results in the 3-flavor scheme using matching conditions. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in a general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme interpolating between the zero mass 4-flavor scheme at asymptotically large values of momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and the 3-flavor scheme prescription of Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven (BMSN) at the value of Q{sup 2} = m{sub c}{sup 2}. The results in the GMVFN scheme are compared with those of the fixed-flavor scheme and other prescriptions used in global fits of PDFs. The strong coupling constant is measured at an accuracy of {approx} 1.5%. We obtain at NNLO {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1135{+-}0.0014 in the fixed-flavor scheme and {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1129{+-}0.0014 applying the BMSN-prescription. The implications for important standard candle and hard scattering processes at hadron colliders are illustrated. Predictions for cross sections of W{sup {+-}}- and Z-boson, the top-quark pair- and Higgs-boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC based on the 5-flavor PDFs of the present analysis are provided. (orig.)

  16. Associations of Volatile Compounds with Sensory Aroma and Flavor: The Complex Nature of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Chambers IV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to relate sensory analysis data to specific chemicals such as volatile compounds have been frequent. Often these associations are difficult to interpret or are weak in nature. Although some difficulties may relate to the methods used, the difficulties also result from the complex nature of flavor. For example, there are multiple volatiles responsible for a flavor sensation, combinations of volatiles yield different flavors than those expected from individual compounds, and the differences in perception of volatiles in different matrices. This review identifies some of the reasons sensory analysis and instrumental measurements result in poor associations and suggests issues that need to be addressed in future research for better understanding of the relationships of flavor/aroma phenomena and chemical composition.

  17. Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos eVelasco; Xiaoang eWan; Klemens eKnoeferle; Xi eZhou; Alejandro eSalgado-Montejo; Charles eSpence

    2015-01-01

    Prior research provides robust support for the existence of a number of associations between colors and flavors. In the present study, we examined whether congruent (vs. incongruent) combinations of product packaging colors and flavor labels would facilitate visual search for products labelled with specific flavors in a Stroop-like manner. Across two experiments, a Stroop-like effect between flavor words and packaging colors is documented and we demonstrate that people are able to search for ...

  18. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede; Daneysa Lahis Kalschne; Adriana Pereira Coelho Santos; Marta de Toledo Benassi

    2015-01-01

    Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A) was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B), pineapple (C), jabuticaba (D), mango (E) and cashew (F). The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall bever...

  19. Quark condensate in two-flavor QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrand, T.; Liu, Z. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2006-09-15

    We compute the condensate in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions using numerical simulation. The simulations use overlap fermions, and the condensate is extracted by fitting the distribution of low lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in sectors of fixed topological charge to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory. (orig.)

  20. New signatures of flavor violating Higgs couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-06-01

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) pp → thh (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top-up-Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) pp → tH 0, where H 0 is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels H 0 → tu, WW, ZZ, hh and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the thh final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter space, it is superior to other searches, including searches for flavor violating top quark decays ( t → hq). (3) H 0 → τ μ, again in the context of a 2HDM. This channel is particularly well motivated by the recent CMS excess in h → τ μ, and we use the data from this search to constrain the properties of H 0.

  1. Flavor Physics and CP Violation at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Schopper, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Flavor Physics at LHC will contribute significantly to the search for New Physics via precise and complementary measurements of CKM angles and the study of loop decays. Here we present the expected experimental sensitivity and physics performance of the LHC experiments that will to B-physics.

  2. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%, respectiv

  3. Search for Lepton Flavor Violation with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Blocker, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Searches for Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) are performed with 8- and 13-TeV data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Processes considered include LFV decays of Standard model particles (Z and H), LFV decays of potential new particles (Z' and sneutrino), RPV SUSY, heavy Marjorana neutrinos, and Quantum Black Holes.

  4. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Mariana, E-mail: mariana.frank@concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Hamzaoui, Cherif, E-mail: hamzaoui.cherif@uqam.ca [Groupe de Physique Théorique des Particules, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de L' Atmosphère, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Pourtolami, Nima, E-mail: n_pour@live.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Toharia, Manuel, E-mail: mtoharia@physics.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2015-03-06

    In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons), thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  5. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  6. Phase Transition Critical Flavor Number of QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Ndili, F. N.

    2005-01-01

    We present an entirely perturbative QCD determination of the critical phase transition flavor number $N^{cr}_{f}$ of QCD. The results obtained are compared with various determinations of $N^{cr}_{f}$ by non-pertrubative methods, including lattice QCD. The wider physics implication of the existence of the Banks-Zaks regime of QCD with only weakly interacting quarks, is discussed briefly.

  7. Flavored Dark Matter and its Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Steve

    2012-09-01

    In this talk, based on the paper 1109.3516, we consider theories where the dark matter particle carries lepton flavor quantum numbers, and has renormalizable contact interactions with the Standard Model fields. We find that the region of parameter space where dark matter has the right abundance to be a thermal relic is in general within reach of current direct detection experiments. In order to evaluate the collider prospects, we focus on a class of models where dark matter carries tau flavor, and show that the collider signals of these models include events with four or more isolated leptons and missing energy. A significant part of parameter space in these theories can be discovered above Standard Model backgrounds at the 14 TeV Large Hadron Collider. We also study the extent to which flavor and charge correlations among the final state leptons allows models of this type to be distinguished from theories where dark matter couples to leptons but does not carry flavor, similarly to a neutralino.

  8. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and...

  9. Signatures of Top Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Can; Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2015-01-01

    We study the experimental signatures of top flavored dark matter (top FDM) in direct detection searches and at the LHC. We show that for a dark matter mass above 200 GeV, top FDM can be consistent with current bounds from direct detection experiments and relic abundance constraints. We also show that next generation direct detection experiments will be able to exclude the entire perturbative parameter region for top FDM. For regions of parameter space where the flavor partners of top FDM are not readily produced, the LHC signatures of top FDM are similar to those of other models previously studied in the literature. For the case when the flavor partners are produced at the LHC, we study their impact on a search based on transverse mass variables and find that they diminish the signal significance. However, when the DM flavor partners are split in mass by less than 120-130 GeV, the LHC phenomenology becomes very distinctive through the appearance of displaced vertices. We also propose a strategy by which all p...

  10. Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Frank

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM, including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons, thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.

  11. Parameters for a Super-Flavor-Factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeman, J.T.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Seryi, A.; Sullivan, M.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati

    2006-06-27

    A Super Flavor Factory, an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric colliders in producing unprecedented luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in a new parameter regime. Furthermore, the success of the SLAC Linear Collider and the subsequent work on the International Linear Collider allow a new Super-Flavor collider to also incorporate linear collider techniques. This note describes the parameters of an asymmetric Flavor-Factory collider at a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the Y(4S) resonance and about 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the {tau} production threshold. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the Y(4S) resonance. In the following note only the parameters relative to the Y(4S) resonance will be shown, the ones relative to the lower energy operations are still under study.

  12. Recent heavy flavor results from STAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on recent heavy flavor measurements from the STAR experiment at RHIC[1]. The measured charm cross section in heavy-ion collisions scales with the number of binary collisions, which is an indication for exclusive charm production in the initial state of the collision. The observed strong su

  13. Biocatalytic production of flavors and fragrances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Alessandrini, L.; Terraneo, G.

    2005-01-01

    The preparation of flavors and fragrances has to be done with great care. When these compounds are meant for consumption, no toxic chemicals are allowed during their preparation. For use in non-food additives, a high purity is required. Both constraints can be easily fulfilled when enzymes are used

  14. Finite Theories and the SUSY Flavor Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Kubo, J; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kubo, Jisuke

    2003-01-01

    We study a finite SU(5) grand unified model based on the non-Abelian discrete symmetry A_4. This model leads to the democratic structure of the mass matrices for the quarks and leptons. In the soft supersymmetry breaking sector, the scalar trilinear couplings are aligned and the soft scalar masses are degenerate, thus solving the SUSY flavor problem.

  15. Tets of lepton universality and searches for lepton flavor violation at BaBar

    CERN Document Server

    Guido, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    The BaBar experiment has recently obtained some important results in the search for new physics in leptonic and lepton flavor violating decays, exploiting the complete datasets collected at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$, $\\Upsilon(3S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$ energies. In particular, new limits on the ratio $\\Gamma(\\Upsilon(1S)\\to\\tau^+\\tau^-)/\\Gamma(\\Upsilon(1S)\\to\\mu^+\\mu^-)$, on lepton flavor violating decays of the $\\Upsilon(3S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$, and on $\\tau$ decays to three charged leptons or $\\tau\\to e/\\mu \\gamma$ are presented.

  16. New Results on the 3-Loop Heavy Flavor Wilson Coefficients in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ablinger, J; De Freitas, A; Hasselhuhn, A; Klein, S; Schneider, C; Wißbrock, F

    2012-01-01

    We report on recent results obtained for the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at general values of the Mellin variable $N$ at larger scales of $Q^2$. These concern contributions to the gluonic ladder-topologies, the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme of $O(n_f T_F^2)$ and $O(T_F^2)$, and first results on higher 3-loop topologies. The knowledge of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at 3-loop order is of importance to extract the parton distribution functions and $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2)$ in complete NNLO QCD analyses of the world precision data on the structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$.

  17. New results on the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent results obtained for the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deepinelastic scattering (DIS) at general values of the Mellin variable N at larger scales of Q2. These concern contributions to the gluonic ladder-topologies, the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme of O(nfT2F) and O(T2F), and first results on higher 3-loop topologies. The knowledge of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at 3-loop order is of importance to extract the parton distribution functions and αs(M2Z) in complete NNLO QCD analyses of the world precision data on the structure function F2(x,Q2).

  18. New results on the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes; Freitas, Abilio de; Wissbrock, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hasselhuhn, Alexander [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E

    2013-01-02

    We report on recent results obtained for the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deepinelastic scattering (DIS) at general values of the Mellin variable N at larger scales of Q{sup 2}. These concern contributions to the gluonic ladder-topologies, the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme of O(n{sub f}T{sup 2}{sub F}) and O(T{sup 2}{sub F}), and first results on higher 3-loop topologies. The knowledge of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at 3-loop order is of importance to extract the parton distribution functions and {alpha}{sub s}(M{sup 2}{sub Z}) in complete NNLO QCD analyses of the world precision data on the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  19. ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record of Tectona grandis from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, K.; Karamperidou, C.; Krusic, P.; Cook, E.; Helle, G.

    2015-10-01

    Indonesia's climate is dominated by the equatorial monsoon system, and has been linked to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events that often result in extensive droughts and floods over the Indonesian archipelago. In this study we investigate ENSO-related signals in a tree-ring δ18O record (1900-2007) of Javanese teak. Our results reveal a clear influence of Warm Pool (central Pacific) El Niño events on Javanese tree-ring δ18O, and no clear signal of Cold Tongue (eastern Pacific) El Niño events. These results are consistent with the distinct impacts of the two ENSO flavors on Javanese precipitation, and illustrate the importance of considering ENSO flavors when interpreting palaeoclimate proxy records in the tropics, as well as the potential of palaeoclimate proxy records from appropriately selected tropical regions for reconstructing past variability of. ENSO flavors.

  20. [Study on determination of Chinese medicine flavor and its regularity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Five flavors are basic nature of Chinese medicine. But the labeling of Chinese medicine flavors was in a chaos. Song Jin and Yuan dynasty is a transconformation stage of labeling Chinese medicine flavors. In this article the author put forward that the determination of Chinese medicine flavor shifted from tasting of early and middle age of Northern Song dynasty to categorical analogizing and functional analogizing in the late age of Northern Song dynasty. The latter method had a flourished development in Southern Song, Jin and Yuan dynasty. This regularity conclusion has provided a reference for the standardizing Chinese medicine flavors. PMID:24946566

  1. Anatomy and phenomenology of flavor and CP violation in supersymmetric theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang

    2010-07-20

    The main subject of this PhD thesis is a comprehensive and systematic analysis of flavor and CP violating low energy processes in the framework of the MSSM, the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. Supersymmetric (SUSY) models are among the best motivated and most thoroughly analyzed New Physics (NP) models. The new degrees of freedom predicted by Supersymmetry are expected to have masses of the order of the TeV scale and the direct search for these particles is one of the major goals at the LHC. A complementary strategy to probe the MSSM is given by the analysis of low energy high-precision observables, that can be modified through virtual effects of the new degrees of freedom. Of particular importance in this respect are so-called Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) processes that, forbidden in the Standard Model at the tree level, are highly sensitive probes of the flavor structure of NP models. We first analyze model independently low energy processes that show high sensitivity to the new sources of flavor and CP violation contained in the MSSM. Next, we discuss in detail the rich flavor structure of the MSSM and the implied SUSY contributions to FCNC and CP violating observables both in the low and high tan {beta} regime. In fact, well measured low energy observables lead to remarkably strong constraints on the MSSM parameter space, which is often referred to as the SUSY flavor problem. We outline possibilities to control dangerously large SUSY effects in such observables and analyze the implied predictions for those low energy processes that are not measured with high precision, yet. We consider both the Minimal Flavor Violating MSSM and SUSY models based on abelian and non-abelian flavor symmetries that show representative flavor structures in the soft SUSY breaking terms. We identify the distinctive patterns of SUSY effects in the low energy observables, focussing in particular on CP violation in the b {yields} s{gamma} transition, the

  2. Anatomy and phenomenology of flavor and CP violation in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of this PhD thesis is a comprehensive and systematic analysis of flavor and CP violating low energy processes in the framework of the MSSM, the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. Supersymmetric (SUSY) models are among the best motivated and most thoroughly analyzed New Physics (NP) models. The new degrees of freedom predicted by Supersymmetry are expected to have masses of the order of the TeV scale and the direct search for these particles is one of the major goals at the LHC. A complementary strategy to probe the MSSM is given by the analysis of low energy high-precision observables, that can be modified through virtual effects of the new degrees of freedom. Of particular importance in this respect are so-called Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) processes that, forbidden in the Standard Model at the tree level, are highly sensitive probes of the flavor structure of NP models. We first analyze model independently low energy processes that show high sensitivity to the new sources of flavor and CP violation contained in the MSSM. Next, we discuss in detail the rich flavor structure of the MSSM and the implied SUSY contributions to FCNC and CP violating observables both in the low and high tan β regime. In fact, well measured low energy observables lead to remarkably strong constraints on the MSSM parameter space, which is often referred to as the SUSY flavor problem. We outline possibilities to control dangerously large SUSY effects in such observables and analyze the implied predictions for those low energy processes that are not measured with high precision, yet. We consider both the Minimal Flavor Violating MSSM and SUSY models based on abelian and non-abelian flavor symmetries that show representative flavor structures in the soft SUSY breaking terms. We identify the distinctive patterns of SUSY effects in the low energy observables, focussing in particular on CP violation in the b → sγ transition, the Bs mixing

  3. Topics in three flavor chiral dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissler, Robin

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we investigate several processes in low-energy hadron physics by combining chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), the effective field theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at low energies, with a unitarization method based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Such so-called chiral unitary approaches are capable of describing processes in the three flavor sector of the strong interaction which involve substantial effects from final-state interactions and the excitation of (subthreshold) resonances, a domain where the perturbative framework of ChPT is not applicable. In part I of this work we study {eta} and {eta}' decays which constitute a perfect tool to examine symmetries and symmetry breaking patterns of QCD being incorporated in a model-independent fashion in ChPT. In particular, these decays allow to investigate the breaking of isospin symmetry due to the light quark mass difference m{sub d}-m{sub u} as well as effects of anomalies stemming from the quantum nature of QCD. For these reasons the decays of {eta} and {eta}' have also attracted considerable experimental interest. They are currently under investigation at several facilities including KLOE rate at DA{phi}NE, Crystal Ball at MAMI, WASA-at-COSY, VES at IHEP, and CLEO at CESR. In part II we investigate low-energy meson-baryon scattering in the strangeness S=-1 sector which is dominated by the {lambda}(1405) resonance immediately below the anti KN threshold. The anti KN interaction below threshold is of relevance for the quest of possible deeply bound anti K-nuclear clusters and has recently received an additional tight constraint: the K{sup -}p scattering length as determined from kaonic hydrogen by the KEK and the DEAR collaborations. Apart from successfully describing a large amount of experimental data and furnishing predictions for yet unmeasured quantities, our calculations allow to interrelate different experimental observables providing important consistency tests of experiments. E

  4. Predictive Modeling of Flavor Compound Formation in the Maillard Reaction: A SWOT Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Maillard flavor compounds for food quality is undisputed, but we are far from being able to control such formation quantitatively in food processing. Kinetic models attempt to predict rates of formation as a function of temperature, pH, water activity/content, and chemical reactivi

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Glucomoringin Bioactivated with Myrosinase against Two Important Pathogens Affecting the Health of Long-Term Patients in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Galuppo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucosinolates (GLs are natural compounds present in species of the order Brassicales and precursors of bioactive isothiocyanates (ITCs. In the recent years, they have been studied mainly for their chemopreventive as well as novel chemotherapeutics properties. Among them 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxybenzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG, purified from seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., a plant belonging to the Moringaceae family, represents an uncommon member of the GL family with peculiar characteristics. This short communication reports new evidences about the properties of GMG and presents a new innovative utilization of the molecule. The bioactivation of GMG by myrosinase enzyme just before treatment, permits to maximize the power of the final product of the reaction, which is the 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxybenzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC. We tested the antibiotic activity of this latter compound on two strains of pathogens affecting the health of patients in hospital, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus casseliflavus, and on the yeast Candida albicans. Results show that the sensibility of S. aureus BAA-977 strain and E. casseliflavus to GMG-ITC treatment reveals an important possible application of this molecule in the clinical care of patients, more and more often resistant to traditional therapies.

  6. Limitation of nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts seems to affect hormonal crosstalk, prime defense, and enhance disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gudrun; Reinhold, Thomas; Göbel, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Conrath, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    When grown under short-day conditions at low light, leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Col-0) mutant with defects in the two genes encoding plastid ATP/ADP antiporters (so-called ntt1-2 null mutants) display a variety of physiological changes. These include the formation of necrotic lesions and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in the leaves. Here, we show that, under short-day conditions, leaves of the ntt1-2 mutant display enhanced resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, Botrytis cinerea, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Resistance to these pathogens was associated with constitutively elevated levels of the plant hormone salicylic acid and, eventually, jasmonic acid, and constitutive or primed activation after pathogen attack of various defense genes that are dependent on these hormones. In addition, the antagonistic crosstalk between the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways seems to be affected in ntt1-2. Because the enhanced resistance of ntt1-2 to H. arabidopsidis was not seen when the mutant was grown under long-day conditions, our findings argue that nocturnal ATP import into chloroplasts is crucial to keep A. thaliana from runaway activation of pathogen resistance. PMID:21039274

  7. Neutrino Luminosity and Matter-Induced Modification of Collective Neutrino Flavor Oscillations in Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Carlson, Joe; Duan, Huaiyu; Fuller, George M; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    We show that the bump in the electron number density profile at the base of the hydrogen envelope in O-Ne-Mg core-collapse supernovae causes an interesting interplay between neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering effects in the flavor evolution of low-energy nu_e in the neutronization burst. The bump allows a significant fraction of the low-energy nu_e to survive by rendering their flavor evolution nonadiabatic. Increasing the luminosity of the neutronization burst shifts the bump-affected nu_e to lower energy with reduced survival probability. Similarly, lowering the luminosity shifts the bump-affected neutrinos to higher energies. While these low energy neutrinos lie near the edge of detectability, the population of bump-affected neutrinos has direct influence on the spectral swap formation in the neutrino signal at higher energies.

  8. Higgs mediated Double Flavor Violating top decays in Effective Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, A; Ramirez-Zavaleta, F; Toscano, J J

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of detecting double flavor violating top quark transitions at future colliders is explored in a model-independent manner using the effective Lagrangian approach through the $t \\to u_i\\tau \\mu$ ($u_i=u,c$) decays. A Yukawa sector that contemplates $SU_L(2)\\times U_Y(1)$ invariants of up to dimension six is proposed and used to derive the most general flavor violating and CP violating $q_iq_jH$ and $l_il_jH$ vertices of renormalizable type. Low-energy data, on high precision measurements, and experimental limits are used to constraint the $tu_iH$ and $H\\tau \\mu$ vertices and then used to predict the branching ratios for the $t \\to u_i\\tau \\mu$ decays. It is found that this branching ratios may be of the order of $ 10^{-4}-10^{-5}$, for a relative light Higgs boson with mass lower than $2m_W$, which could be more important than those typical values found in theories beyond the standard model for the rare top quark decays $t\\to u_iV_iV_j$ ($V_i=W,Z,\\gamma, g$) or $t\\to u_il^+l^-$. %% LHC experimen...

  9. Models of Flavor with Discrete Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Aranda, A

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the observed patterns of lepton and quark masses, models invoking a flavor symmetry $G_f$, under which the Standard Model generations are charged, have been proposed. One particularly successful symmetry, U(2), has been extensively discussed in the literature. The Yukawa matrices in models based on this symmetry reproduce the observed mass ratios in the lepton and quark sectors. The features of the symmetry that determine the texture of the Yukawa matrices can be found in other symmetries as well. We present a model based on a minimal, non-Abelian discrete symmetry that reproduces the Yukawa matrices associated with U(2) theories of flavor. In addition to reproducing the mass and mixing angle relations obtained in such theories, the different representation structure of our new horizontal symmetry allows for solutions to the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems.

  10. Flavor corrections to the entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the holographic entanglement entropy in N=4 SYM coupled to massive flavor degrees of freedom. The flavors are introduced by putting D7 branes in AdS5. The resulting geometry including the backreaction of the branes is known in a perturbation expansion in the ratio Nf/Nc. We consider the expansion to first order, and compute the entanglement entropy of a region of the boundary. We consider two different cases for the geometry of the region: a slab and a ball. We find analytic solutions for the minimal surfaces in the bulk whose area gives the entropy, and analyze the structure of the UV divergence and the dependence on the masses. Our results confirm the general structure that was predicted by free field theory calculations, but with coefficients that depend on the coupling

  11. Delta(54) flavor phenomenology and strings

    CERN Document Server

    Carballo-Perez, Brenda; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Delta(54) can serve as a flavor symmetry in particle physics, but remains almost unexplored. We show that in a classification of semi-realistic Z3xZ3 heterotic string orbifolds, Delta(54) turns out to be the most natural flavor symmetry, providing additional motivation for its study. We revisit its phenomenological potential from a low-energy perspective and subject to the constraints of string models. We find that Delta(54) arising from heterotic orbifolds leads to the Gatto-Sartori-Tonin relation for quarks and charged-leptons. Additionally, in the neutrino sector, it generically leads to a normal hierarchy for neutrino masses and a correlation between the reactor and the atmospheric mixing angles, the latter taking values in the second octant and being compatible at three sigmas with experimental data.

  12. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z' not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for $h\\to\\mu\\tau$ at CMS, the two-body decay mode $\\tau \\to \\mu Z'$ opens up and for $M_{Z'} < 2 m_\\mu$ gives better constraints than $\\tau\\to 3\\mu$ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  13. Lepton flavor violation with light vector bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available New sub-GeV vector bosons with couplings to muons but not electrons have been discussed in order to explain the muon's magnetic moment, the gap of high-energy neutrinos in IceCube or the proton radius puzzle. If such a light Z′ not only violates lepton universality but also lepton flavor, as expected for example from the recent hint for h→μτ at CMS, the two-body decay mode τ→μZ′ opens up and for MZ′<2mμ gives better constraints than τ→3μ already with 20-year-old ARGUS limits. We discuss the general prospects and motivation of light vector bosons with lepton-flavor-violating couplings.

  14. Flavor instabilities in the neutrino line model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Huaiyu, E-mail: duan@unm.edu; Shalgar, Shashank, E-mail: shashankshalgar@unm.edu

    2015-07-30

    A dense neutrino medium can experience collective flavor oscillations through nonlinear neutrino–neutrino refraction. To make this multi-dimensional flavor transport problem more tractable, all existing studies have assumed certain symmetries (e.g., the spatial homogeneity and directional isotropy in the early universe) to reduce the dimensionality of the problem. In this work we show that, if both the directional and spatial symmetries are not enforced in the neutrino line model, collective oscillations can develop in the physical regimes where the symmetry-preserving oscillation modes are stable. Our results suggest that collective neutrino oscillations in real astrophysical environments (such as core-collapse supernovae and black-hole accretion discs) can be qualitatively different from the predictions based on existing models in which spatial and directional symmetries are artificially imposed.

  15. Electroweak Baryogenesis with Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Senaha, Eibun

    2016-01-01

    We investigate feasibility of electroweak baryogenesis with lepton flavor violation in a two-Higgs doublet model. By scrutinizing heavy Higgs boson mass spectra, regions satisfying both strong first-order electroweak phase transition and the muon $g-2$ anomaly are identified. We also estimate the baryon number density by exploiting extra Yukawa couplings in the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ sector. It is found that a CP-violating source term can be enhanced by the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ flavor-violating coupling together with the extra $\\tau$ coupling. With $\\mathcal{O}(1)$ Yukawa couplings and CP-violating phases, the observed baryon number density is marginally produced under a generous assumption on a bubble wall profile.

  16. Light-flavor squark reconstruction at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)548062; Weuste, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present a simulation study of the prospects for the mass measurement of TeV-scale light- flavored right-handed squark at a 3 TeV e+e collider based on CLIC technology. The analysis is based on full GEANT4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including Standard Model physics backgrounds and beam-induced hadronic backgrounds from two- photon processes. The analysis serves as a generic benchmark for the reconstruction of highly energetic jets in events with substantial missing energy. Several jet finding algorithms were evaluated, with the longitudinally invariant kt algorithm showing a high degree of robustness towards beam-induced background while preserving the features typically found in algorithms developed for e+e- collisions. The presented study of the reconstruction of light-flavored squarks shows that for TeV-scale squark masses, sub-percent accuracy on the mass measurement can be achieved at CLIC.

  17. Importance of within-lake processes in affecting the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in an Adirondack forested lake/watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Phil-Goo; Mitchell, Myron J.; McHale, Patrick J.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Inamdar, Shreeram; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2016-05-01

    Lakes nested in forested watersheds play an important role in mediating the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic matter. We compared long-term patterns of concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic (DON) and inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in aquatic ecosystems of the Arbutus Lake watershed to evaluate how a lake nested in a forested watershed affects the sources (e.g., production) and sinks (e.g., retention) of DOC and DON in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA. We observed no significant long-term changes of DOC and DON in the lake outlet since 1983 and 1994, respectively. However, the temporal patterns of DOC and DON concentrations in the lake inlet showed significant seasonality such as increases during the vegetation-growing season along with notable decreases in the dormant season. A comparison of mass balances between inlet and outlet for the period from 2000 to 2009 suggested that the lake was a sink of DOC (mean of influx minus outflux: +1140 mol C ha-1 yr-1). In contrast, the difference of discharge-weighted DON concentrations (mean of inlet minus outlet: -1.0 µmol N L-1) between inlet and outlet was much smaller than the discharge-weighted DOC concentrations (average of inlet minus outlet: + 87 µmol C L-1). DON fluxes showed considerable variation among years (mean of influx minus outflux: +8 mol N ha-1 yr-1; range of differences: -15 to 27 mol N ha-1 yr-1). DON exhibited low percent retention ((influx-outflux)/influx) (mean: 6.9 %, range: -34.8 to +31.2) compared to DOC (mean: 30.1 %, range: +9.2 to +44.1). The resultant increase of DON within the lake was closely linked with a net decrease of DIN through monthly Pearson correlation analysis, suggesting the importance of biotic factors in mediating lake DON dynamics. Our results show different relative retentions of DOC compared with DON, along with a larger retention of DIN than DON, suggesting that DOC and DON might display substantially different

  18. Importance of within-lake processes in affecting the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in an Adirondack forested lake/watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-G. Kang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lakes nested in forested watersheds play important roles in mediating the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic matter. We compared long-term patterns of concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN in the Arbutus Lake Watershed to evaluate how a lake nested in a forested watershed affects the dynamics of DOC and DON in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA. We observed no significant long-term changes of concentrations and fluxes of DOC and DON in the Lake outlet since 1983 and 1994, respectively. However, the temporal patterns of DOC and DON concentrations in the Lake inlet showed significant seasonality such as increases during the vegetation-growing season along with notable decreases in the dormant season. A comparison of mass-balances between inlet and outlet for the period from 2000 to 2009 suggested that the Lake was a sink of DOC (mean of influx minus outflux: +1140 mol C ha−1 yr−1. In contrast, the difference of discharge-weighted DON concentrations (mean of inlet minus outlet: −1.0 μmol N L−1 between inlet and outlet was much smaller than the discharge-weighted DOC concentrations (average of inlet minus outlet: +87 μmol C L−1. DON fluxes showed considerable variation among years (mean of influx minus outflux: +8 mol N ha−1 yr−1; range of differences: −15 to 27 mol N ha−1 yr−1. DON exhibited low % retention ((influx − outflux / influx (mean: 6.9 %, range: −34.8 to +31.2 compared to DOC (mean: 30.1 %, range: +9.2 to +44.1. The resultant increase of DON within the lake was closely linked with a net decrease of DIN through monthly Pearson correlation analysis, suggesting the importance of biotic factors in mediating a lake DON dynamics. Our results show different relative retentions of DOC compared with DON, along with a larger retention of DIN than DON, suggesting that DOC and DON might display substantially

  19. Importance of within-lake processes in affecting the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in an Adirondack forested lake/watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, P.-G.; Mitchell, M. J.; McHale, P. J.; Driscoll, C. T.; McHale, M. R.; Inamdar, S.; Park, J.-H.

    2015-10-01

    Lakes nested in forested watersheds play important roles in mediating the concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic matter. We compared long-term patterns of concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the Arbutus Lake Watershed to evaluate how a lake nested in a forested watershed affects the dynamics of DOC and DON in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State, USA. We observed no significant long-term changes of concentrations and fluxes of DOC and DON in the Lake outlet since 1983 and 1994, respectively. However, the temporal patterns of DOC and DON concentrations in the Lake inlet showed significant seasonality such as increases during the vegetation-growing season along with notable decreases in the dormant season. A comparison of mass-balances between inlet and outlet for the period from 2000 to 2009 suggested that the Lake was a sink of DOC (mean of influx minus outflux: +1140 mol C ha-1 yr-1). In contrast, the difference of discharge-weighted DON concentrations (mean of inlet minus outlet: -1.0 μmol N L-1) between inlet and outlet was much smaller than the discharge-weighted DOC concentrations (average of inlet minus outlet: +87 μmol C L-1). DON fluxes showed considerable variation among years (mean of influx minus outflux: +8 mol N ha-1 yr-1; range of differences: -15 to 27 mol N ha-1 yr-1). DON exhibited low % retention ((influx - outflux) / influx) (mean: 6.9 %, range: -34.8 to +31.2) compared to DOC (mean: 30.1 %, range: +9.2 to +44.1). The resultant increase of DON within the lake was closely linked with a net decrease of DIN through monthly Pearson correlation analysis, suggesting the importance of biotic factors in mediating a lake DON dynamics. Our results show different relative retentions of DOC compared with DON, along with a larger retention of DIN than DON, suggesting that DOC and DON might display substantially different biogeochemical

  20. Flavor physics in the quark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved; apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments; thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that are about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  1. Flavor physics in the quark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M. [INFN LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Asner, D.M. [Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada); Bauer, D. [Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Becher, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500 Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States); Beneke, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik E, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 (Germany); Bevan, A.J. [Queen Mary, University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Blanke, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Bloise, C. [INFN LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bona, M. [CERN CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Bondar, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11, Prosp. Akademika Lavrentieva Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Bozzi, C. [INFN Sez. di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico. Edificio C. Via Saragat, 1. 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Brod, J. [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Liefer-und Besuchsanschrift: Kaiserstrasse 12 - 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Buras, A.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cabibbo, N. [INFN Sez. di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00185 Roma (Italy); Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5 00185, Roma (Italy); Carbone, A. [INFN Sez. di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Cavoto, G. [INFN Sez. di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2 00185 Roma (Italy); Cirigliano, V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ciuchini, M. [INFN Sez. di Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale, 84 00146 Roma (Italy); Coleman, J.P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cronin-Hennessy, D.P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved; apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments; thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that are about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  2. Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Da Rold, Leandro; Delaunay, Cédric; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad

    2012-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations ar...

  3. Flavor changing strings and domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the cosmological consequences of a spontaneous breaking of non-abelian discrete symmetries, which may appear as a natural remnant of a continuous symmetry, such as a family symmetry. The result may be a stable domain wall across which an electron would turn into a muon (orνe into νμ) or a flavor analogue of an Alice string-domain wall structure with the same property. (author). 16 refs

  4. Heavy flavor, QCD and soft physics

    CERN Document Server

    Viegas Guerreiro Leonardo, Nuno Teotonio

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements in QCD, soft physics, and heavy flavor made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. A selection of first results at the new frontier collision energy of 13 TeV at LHC Run2 is shown. The collision environment is characterized by studying charged particle distributions and correlations. Inclusive jet, exclusive dimuon and b-hadron production cross-section measurements are reported.

  5. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Bugarski; Viktor Nedovic; Nevenka Rajic; Steva Levic; Verica Manojlovic; Jelena Milanovic

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  6. Comments on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Charged lepton flavor violation has been of interest since the muon (and subsequently, the tau lepton) was identified as a heavy version of the electron. CLFV continues to be pursued vigorously with the hope that its observation would reveal new information relating to the generation puzzle or about physics beyond the Standard Model. Theories abound which incorporate hypothetical CLFV at potentially observable levels although the mass scales and couplings are unknown, and innovative experiments continue to push the boundaries of sensitivity.

  7. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Mario; /Frascati; Asner, David Mark; /Carleton U.; Bauer, Daniel Adams; /Imperial Coll., London; Becher, Thomas G.; /Fermilab; Beneke, M.; /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Bevan, Adrian John; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Blanke, Monika; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Bloise, C.; /Frascati; Bona, Marcella; /CERN; Bondar, Alexander E.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara; Brod, Joachim; /Karlsruhe U.; Buras, Andrzej J.; /Munich, Tech. U.; Cabibbo, N.; /INFN, Rome /Rome U.; Carbone, A.; /INFN, Bologna; Cavoto, Gianluca; /INFN, Rome; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; /Los Alamos; Ciuchini, Marco; /INFN, Rome; Coleman, Jonathon P.; /SLAC; Cronin-Hennessy, Daniel P.; /Minnesota U.; Dalseno, J.P.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Glasgow U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Freiburg U. /Charles U. /Pisa U. /Vienna, OAW /Imperial Coll., London /Bergen U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Munich, Tech. U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Southampton U. /INFN, Rome /Nara Women' s U. /Florida U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Edinburgh U. /Warwick U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /KEK, Tsukuba /Bern U. /CERN /Munich, Tech. U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Frascati /Brookhaven /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Munich, Tech. U. /Siegen U. /Imperial Coll., London /Victoria U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Fermilab /Washington U., St. Louis /Frascati /Warwick U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Madras /Melbourne U. /Princeton U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Fermilab /SLAC /York U., Canada /Brookhaven /UC, Irvine /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Valencia U., IFIC /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Barcelona U. /Warwick U. /Tata Inst. /Frascati /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Vienna U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LPT /Frascati /Munich, Tech. U. /Brookhaven /Bern U. /CERN /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Wayne State U. /Valencia U., IFIC /CERN /Kentucky U. /Oxford U. /Iowa State U. /Bristol U. /INFN, Rome /Rutherford /CERN /Orsay, LAL /Glasgow U. /INFN, Padua /Queen Mary, U. of London /Texas U. /LPHE, Lausanne /Fermilab /UC, Santa Cruz /Vienna, OAW /Cincinnati U. /Frascati /Orsay, LAL /Ohio State U. /Purdue U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /Frascati /INFN, Rome /Padua U. /INFN, Rome /Bern U. /Karlsruhe U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Paris U., VI-VII /Zurich, ETH /Pisa U. /Frascati /Oxford U. /Orsay, LAL /INFN, Rome2 /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome3 /Princeton U. /Fermilab /Queen' s U., Kingston /KEK, Tsukuba /Melbourne U. /Brookhaven /Indiana U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Pisa U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford U. /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Edinburgh U. /CERN

    2010-08-26

    In the past decade, one of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor. In this time frame, measurements and the theoretical interpretation of their results have advanced tremendously. A much broader understanding of flavor particles has been achieved, apart from their masses and quantum numbers, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. In the past, observations of CP violation were confined to neutral K mesons, but since the early 1990s, a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral B mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of K,D, and B mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near future, there will be a transition from the current to a new generation of experiments, thus a review of the status of quark flavor physics is timely. This report is the result of the work of the physicists attending the 5th CKM workshop, hosted by the University of Rome 'La Sapienza', September 9-13, 2008. It summarizes the results of the current generation of experiments that is about to be completed and it confronts these results with the theoretical understanding of the field which has greatly improved in the past decade.

  8. Model of flavor with quaternion symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Alfredo; Bonilla, Cesar; Ramos, Raymundo; Rojas, Alma D.

    2011-01-01

    We present a renormalizable fermion mass model based on the symmetry $Q_4$ that accommodates all fermion masses and mixing angles in both the quark and lepton sectors. It requires the presence of only four SU(2) doublet scalar fields transforming non trivially under the flavor symmetry and the assumption of an alignment between first and second generation Yukawa couplings. No right-handed neutrinos are present in the model and neutrino masses are generated radiatively through the introduction...

  9. Antiquark Flavor Asymmetry with New Accelerator Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, S.

    1997-01-01

    Flavor asymmetry in light antiquark distributions is discussed. In particular, recent progress on the u-bar/d-bar asymmetry is explained. Then, we discuss possible future experimental studies. 1. Introduction 2. Present situation 3. Future u-bar/d-bar asymmetry studies 3.1 Drell-Yan process 3.2 Charged-hadron production 3.3 W charge asymmetry 3.4 Deuteron acceleration at HERA

  10. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    OpenAIRE

    Chasman, C.

    2008-01-01

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approxim...

  11. A Heavy-Flavor Tracker for STAR

    CERN Document Server

    Schweda, K

    2006-01-01

    We propose to construct a heavy flavor tracker for the STAR experiment at RHIC in order to measure the elliptic flow of charmed hadrons in the low pt region and identify B-meson contributions in the region pt > 4 GeV/c. In this talk, we will present the design of the detector in-depth and its expected performance as studied in detailed simulations and analytic calculations. Physics potentials of the detector will also be discussed.

  12. AdS-Sliced Flavor Branes and Adding Flavor to the Janus Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Adam B; Newman, George M; Rommal, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We implement D7 flavor branes in AdS-sliced coordinates on $AdS_5\\times S^5$ with the ansatz that the brane fluctuates only in the warped ($\\mu$) direction in this slicing, which is particularly appropriate for studying the Janus solution. The natural field theory dual in this slicing is $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills on two copies of $AdS_4$. Branes extending from $\\mu=\\pm\\pi/2$ can end at different locations, giving rise to quarks with piecewise constant mass on each $AdS_4$ half-space, jumping discontinuously between them. A second class of flavor brane solutions exists in this coordinate system, dubbed "continuous" flavor branes, that extend across the entire range of $\\mu$. We propose that the correct dual interpretation of "disconnected" flavor brane in this ansatz is a quark hypermultiplet with constant mass on one of the AdS$_4$ half-spaces with totally reflecting boundary conditions at the boundary of AdS$_4$; whereas the dual interpretation of a continuous flavor brane has totally transparent boun...

  13. New Signatures of Flavor Violating Higgs Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Buschmann, Malte; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    We explore several novel LHC signatures arising from quark or lepton flavor violating couplings in the Higgs sector, and we constrain such couplings using LHC data. Since the largest signals are possible in channels involving top quarks or tau leptons, we consider in particular the following flavor violating processes: (1) $pp \\to thh$ (top plus di-Higgs final state) arising from a dimension six coupling of up-type quarks to three insertions of the Higgs field. We develop a search strategy for this final state and demonstrate that detection is possible at the high luminosity LHC if flavor violating top--up--Higgs couplings are not too far below the current limit. (2) $pp \\to tH^0$, where $H^0$ is the heavy neutral CP-even Higgs boson in a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM). We consider the decay channels $H^0 \\to tu, WW, ZZ, hh$ and use existing LHC data to constrain the first three of them. For the fourth, we adapt our search for the $thh$ final state, and we demonstrate that in large regions of the parameter sp...

  14. Color, flavor, duality and the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea that the Harari-Freund (HF) P+f model of diffraction is valid at Nsub(c)/Nsub(f)=infinity where the P is naturally identified with QCD glue, but that at Nsub(c)=3 the Chew-Rosenzweig-Chan P-f identity dominates. This transition can be effected by the emergence of quark-produced scales and by the suppression of glueball effects through virtual quark loops. Nsub(c)=3 models for the cylinder or bare P are reviewed. Rather mixed phenomenological results are presented. The recently observed failure of f pole-resonances duality in πN scattering for conventional p+f parametrizations is confirmed. Finally flavoring renormalization in the p+f model is examined. Acceptable p+f fits to sigmasub(NN) and sigmasub(πN) are find, if the unflavored P intercept is 0.9 and the flavored P intercept is 1.1. Moreover we are able to find solutions which satisfy both strong f-w EXD and f-pole approximately resonances duality. Thus flavoring seems to play a significant role in P+f phenomenology as well as in P-f identity phenomenology

  15. Flavor Physics in the Quark Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, M; Bauer, D; Becher, T; Beneke, M; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bloise, C; Bóna, M; Bondar, A; Bozzi, C; Brod, J; Cabibbo, N; Carbone, A; Cavoto, G; Cirigliano, V; Ciuchini, M; Coleman, J P; Cronin-Hennessy, D P; Dalseno, J P; Davies, C H; Di Lodovico, F; Dingfelder, J; Dolezal, Z; Donati, S; Dungel, W; Egede, U; Faccini, R; Feldmann, T; Ferroni, F; Flynn, J M; Franco, E; Fujikawa, M; Furic, I K; Gambino, P; Gardi, E; Gershon, T J; Giagu, S; Golowich, E; Goto, T; Greub, C; Grojean, C; Guadagnoli, D; Haisch, U A; Harr, R F; Hoang, A H; Isidori, G; Jaffe, D E; Jüttner, A; Jäger, S; Khodjamirian, A; Koppenburg, P; Kowalewski, R V; Krokovny, P; Kronfeld, A S; Laiho, J; Lanfranchi, G; Latham, T E; Libby, J; Limosani, A; Pegna, D Lopes; Lü, C D; Lubicz, V; Lunghi, E; Lüth, V G; Maltman, K; Marciano, W J; Martin, E C; Martinelli, G; Martínez-Vidal, F; Masiero, A; Mateu, V; Mescia, F; Mohanty, G; Moulson, M; Neubert, M; Neufeld, H; Nishida, S; Offen, N; Palutan, M; Paradisi, P; Parsa, Z; Passemar, E; Patel, M; Pecjak, B D; Petrov, A A; Pich, A; Pierini, M; Plaster, B; Powell, A; Prell, S; Rademaker, J; Rescigno, M; Ricciardi, S; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rotondo, M; Sacco, R; Schilling, C J; Schneider, O; Scholz, E E; Schumm, B A; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Sciascia, B; Serrano, J; Shigemitsu, J; Shipsey, I J; Sibidanov, A; Silvestrini, L; Simonetto, F; Simula, S; Smith, C; Soni, A; Sonnenschein, L; Sordini, V; Sozzi, M; Spadaro, T; Spradlin, P; Stocchi, A; Tantalo, N; Tarantino, C; Telnov, A V; Tonelli, D; Towner, I S; Trabelsi, K; Urquijo, P; Van de Water, R S; Van Kooten, R J; Virto, J; Volpi, G; Wanke, R; Westhoff, S; Wilkinson, G; Wingate, M; Xie, Y; Zupan, J

    2010-01-01

    One of the major challenges of particle physics has been to gain an in-depth understanding of the role of quark flavor and measurements and theoretical interpretations of their results have advanced tremendously: apart from masses and quantum numbers of flavor particles, there now exist detailed measurements of the characteristics of their interactions allowing stringent tests of Standard Model predictions. Among the most interesting phenomena of flavor physics is the violation of the CP symmetry that has been subtle and difficult to explore. Till early 1990s observations of CP violation were confined to neutral $K$ mesons, but since then a large number of CP-violating processes have been studied in detail in neutral $B$ mesons. In parallel, measurements of the couplings of the heavy quarks and the dynamics for their decays in large samples of $K, D$, and $B$ mesons have been greatly improved in accuracy and the results are being used as probes in the search for deviations from the Standard Model. In the near...

  16. Flavor mixing in the instanton vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SU(2) instanton vacuum is investigated beyond the dilute gas approximation, using Langevin simulation techniques to average over the set of collective coordinates. Both cases of zero and finite current quark masses are studied. At high density the vacuum state exhibits the characteristics of a liquid phase of instantons and anti-instantons. In this phase chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken in agreement with Shuryak's recent investigation. For more than one flavor a mixed liquid-gas phase is observed at low density with a strong tendency for chiral symmetry restoration. Within the limitations of our model, we study the effect of the strange mass on the chiral condensate of the light quarks. Our results suggest that the coupling between strange and up-down quarks is due to the mass dependence of the average size and density of the pseudoparticles. In a constituent quark model picture, the same conclusion holds for the strangeness admixture in the nucleon state at zero momentum transfer. Finally, in the quenched approximation we derive an effective action in terms of delocalized fermions for one, two and three flavors. In the mean field approximation, we find that the coupling between flavors is strongly suppressed. (orig.)

  17. Falling flavors in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    McGuirk, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We consider the behavior of D7 probes of supersymmetric warped geometries that are perturbed by the presence of anti-D3-branes. Such constructions are the gravitational duals of non-supersymmetric states in supersymmetric flavored gauge theories. Although the D7s we consider do not feel a force from either D3s or anti-D3s alone, when both types of 3-branes are present the D7s deform and fall a small distance toward the 3-branes. We perform our analysis in AdS^5 x S^5 and the Klebanov-Witten solution and find qualitatively similar behavior in each case. We then extend our consideration to the approximately conical region of the Klebanov-Strassler solution and find that the effect is parametrically larger than in the AdS^5 x X^5 examples. Additionally, we discuss how these behaviors are modified by the presence of other flavors by considering the backreaction of such flavor branes in AdS^5 x X^5. Finally, we touch upon some of the implications that our results may have for model building and argue that the defo...

  18. The Flavor of the Composite Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Telem, Ofri; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The assumption of anarchic quark flavor puts serious stress on composite Higgs models: flavor bounds imply a tuning of a few per-mille (at best) in the Higgs potential. Composite twin Higgs (CTH) models significantly reduce this tension by opening up a new region of parameter space, obtained by raising the coupling among the composites close to the strong coupling limit $g_* \\sim 4\\pi$, thereby raising the scale of composites to around 10 TeV. This does not lead to large tuning in the Higgs potential since the leading quantum corrections are canceled by the twin partners (rather than the composites). We survey the leading flavor bounds on the CTH, which correspond to tree-level $\\Delta F=2$ four-Fermi operators from Kaluza-Klein (KK) Z exchange in the kaon system and 1-loop corrections from KK fermions to the electric dipole moment of the neutron. We provide a parametric estimate for these bounds and also perform a numeric scan of the parameter space using the complete calculation for both quantities. The res...

  19. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Latif; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model - like the MSSM - has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10-20 TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of mu -> e gamma and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also epsilon_K neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  20. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    CERN Document Server

    Itsios, Georgios; Ramallo, Alfonso V

    2016-01-01

    We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1)-dimensional intersections, we further study a...

  1. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Itsios

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2+1-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  2. Collective excitations of massive flavor branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsios, Georgios; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.

    2016-08-01

    We study the intersections of two sets of D-branes of different dimensionalities. This configuration is dual to a supersymmetric gauge theory with flavor hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group which live on the defect of the unflavored theory determined by the directions common to the two types of branes. One set of branes is dual to the color degrees of freedom, while the other set adds flavor to the system. We work in the quenched approximation, i.e., where the flavor branes are considered as probes, and focus specifically on the case in which the quarks are massive. We study the thermodynamics and the speeds of first and zero sound at zero temperature and non-vanishing chemical potential. We show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition when the chemical potential approaches its minimal value and we obtain the corresponding non-relativistic critical exponents that characterize its critical behavior. In the case of (2 + 1)-dimensional intersections, we further study alternative quantization and the zero sound of the resulting anyonic fluid. We finally extend these results to non-zero temperature and magnetic field and compute the diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic regime. The numerical results we find match the predictions by the Einstein relation.

  3. Uncovering Mass Generation Through Higgs Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Kagan, Alexander L; Silvestrini, Luca; Zupan, Jure

    2015-01-01

    If the flavor violating decay h --> tau mu is observed at the LHC, extra sources of electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) beyond the Higgs would be required in order to reconcile it with the bounds from tau --> mu gamma, barring fine-tuned cancellations. In fact, an h --> tau mu decay rate at a level indicated by the CMS measurement is easily realized if the muon and electron masses are due to a new source of EWSB, while the tau mass is due to the Higgs. We illustrate this with two examples: a two Higgs doublet model, and a model in which the Higgs is partially composite, with EWSB triggered by a technicolor sector. The 1st and 2nd generation quark masses and CKM mixing can also be assigned to the new EWSB source. Large deviations in the flavor diagonal lepton and quark Higgs Yukawa couplings are generic. If m_mu is due to a rank 1 mass matrix contribution, a novel Yukawa coupling sum rule holds, providing a precision test of our framework. Flavor violating quark and lepton (pseudo)scalar couplings combine to ...

  4. Flavor democracy and quark mass matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C S

    1998-01-01

    Based on experimental mass hierarchy, a set of flavor-democratic (FD) quark mass matrices at low energies is discussed. The model predicts CP violation parameters $J_{CP}=(0.3 \\pm 0.2) 10^{-4}$ and ${\\epsilon'/\\epsilon} = (0.6 \\pm 0.5) 10^{-3}$. However, this simple FD model also predicts a physical top quark mass not much higher than 100 GeV. As a next step, we assume that the Standard Model (SM) breaks down around some high energy $\\Lambda$, and is replaced by a new FD flavor gauge theory (FGT). This possibility can be investigated by studying renormalization group equations for the Yukawa couplings of the SM with two Higgs doublets for various $m_t$ and VEV ratios $v_U/v_D$. With appropriate flavor-democratic boundary conditions at $\\Lambda_{FGT}$, bounds on masses of top quark and tau-neutrino are derived, which are compatible with experimental bounds.

  5. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Jean-Marc; Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-06-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase ϕq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase ϕl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the ϕl→0 limit and predicts sin θ13=1/√{2}sin(ϕl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sin ϕl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  6. Flavor Mixing Democracy and Minimal CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerard, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle \\theta_C \\simeq 13^\\circ with the CP-violating phase \\phi_q around 1^\\circ, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around \\pi/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase \\phi_l is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the \\phi_l \\to 0 limit and predicts \\sin\\theta_13 = 1/\\sqrt{2} \\sin (\\phi_l/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation J_l = (\\sin\\phi_l)/12 can reach a few percent if \\theta_13 lies in the range 7^\\circ \\leq \\theta_13 \\leq 10^\\circ.

  7. Flavor mixing democracy and minimal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out that there is a unique parametrization of quark flavor mixing in which every angle is close to the Cabibbo angle θC≃13° with the CP-violating phase φq around 1°, implying that they might all be related to the strong hierarchy among quark masses. Applying the same parametrization to lepton flavor mixing, we find that all three mixing angles are comparably large (around π/4) and the Dirac CP-violating phase φl is also minimal as compared with its values in the other eight possible parametrizations. In this spirit, we propose a simple neutrino mixing ansatz which is equivalent to the tri-bimaximal flavor mixing pattern in the φl→0 limit and predicts sinθ13=1/√(2)sin(φl/2) for reactor antineutrino oscillations. Hence the Jarlskog invariant of leptonic CP violation Jl=(sinφl)/12 can reach a few percent if θ13 lies in the range 7°⩽θ13⩽10°.

  8. A sensory perspective of effect of feeds on flavor in meats: poultry meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poste, L M

    1990-12-01

    Reduction of feed costs is a major concern of poultry producers. However, replacement of components of a corn-soybean diet with a lower-cost alternative requires the assessment not only of poultry performance and carcass characteristics but also of resulting meat quality. A brief overview of research studies, conducted over the past 10 yr, investigating the effects of alternative poultry feedstuffs on poultry meat flavor is presented. The primary focus is on the sensory analysis technique employed in these studies to evaluate flavor. The studies discussed include examinations of poultry diets that contain various levels of rapeseed meal, fishmeal and other feed additives. Diversity of the sensory techniques used illustrates the difficulty of comparing sensory results among studies. This difficulty is emphasized further with an example of how two different sensory sample preparation techniques affected the conclusion drawn from replicate studies of poultry diets supplemented with fishmeal (0, 4, 8 and 12%). One of the replicates was cooked and sampled for sensory analysis; the other was placed in 4 degrees C storage overnight. For the samples tested immediately following cooking, no difference between the treatments was detected. However, when the samples were tested following overnight storage (4 degrees C), chicken flavor decreased (P less than .001) and fish-off flavor increased (P less than .001) as percentage of fish meal in the diet increased. PMID:2286577

  9. PHENIX recent heavy flavor results

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects provide an important baseline for the interpretation of data in heavy ion collisions. Such effects include nuclear shadowing, Cronin effect, and initial patron energy loss, and it is interesting to study the dependence on impact parameter and kinematic region. Heavy quark production is a good measurement to probe the CNM effects particularly on gluons, since heavy quarks are mainly produced via gluon fusions at RHIC energy. The PHENIX experiment has experiment has ability to study the CNM effects by measuring heavy quark production in $d$$+$Au collisions at variety of kinematic ranges. Comparisons of heavy quark production at different rapidities allow us to study modification of gluon density function in the Au nucleus depending on momentum fraction. Furthermore, comparisons to the results from heavy ion collisions (Au$+$Au and Cu$+$Cu) measured by PHENIX provide insight into the role of CNM effects in such collisions. Recent PHENIX results on heavy quark production are disc...

  10. Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Brower, Richard C.; Buchoff, Michael I.; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D.; Fleming, George T.; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T.; Osborn, James C.

    2012-04-01

    We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with N{sub f} = 10 light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension {gamma}* {approx} 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.

  11. On the Parity-Flavor-Breaking Phase in QCD With Two Flavors of Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bitar, K M

    1998-01-01

    We present further data in search of a parity-flavor-breaking phase in simulations of dynamical QCD with two flavors of light Wilson fermions in the strong coupling region. This is done on lattice sizes of 4^4 an up to 10^4 for a variety of values of beta and kappa as well as the coefficient, h, of an explicit breaking term included in the action. We confirm the existence of a region in the beta-kappa plane where such a phase exists at beta=6/g^2 smaller than 5.0 and above kappa_c.

  12. Resource factor in production of quality and safe flavored food

    OpenAIRE

    Фролова, Наталія Епінетівна; Івчук, Надія Павлівна

    2015-01-01

    Research of methods for establishing authenticity of essential oil of cumin and dill based on optical isomerism of components is presented in the article.In modern food technology more often used frozen raw, concentrates fruit and vegetables, growing issue of healthy products and this all require the use of flavors. Synthetic flavors can be dangerous to the human body. Usage of counterfeit natural flavors is dangerous.

  13. Taste: The Bedrock of Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Beauchamp

    2014-07-01

    There are two general approaches to reducing dietary sodium. First, there is considerable interest in developing salt substitutes and salt enhancers. Potassium chloride is widely used (usually in combination with NaCl as a substitute but it is not ideal since many find it has an unpleasant off-taste. There is considerable academic and industry research to identify new substitutes but to date there are none for salty as there are for sweet taste. A second approach to lowering sodium intake on a population-wide level in the United States, where more than 80% of the average person’s salt intake comes from food purchased and not from being added during cooking or at the table, is for food manufacturers and restaurants to gradually reduce the amount of salt in prepared foods. Experimental studies have demonstrated that if one reduces salt intake preferences for salt are similarly reduced. Based on this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommended that the Food and Drug Administration require gradual reduction by food manufacturers and large restaurant chains (IOM. The FDA has not acted on this recommendation. Conclusion. As illustrated by the difficulties in reducing salt in spite of the health benefits (a similar set of arguments for reducing excess consumption of carbohydrate sugars could be made, the sense of taste is a powerful driver of food intake. A deeper understanding of this important but neglected sensory system is required if we are to adequately address critical health problems in modern society that are often driven by excess consumption of tasty nutrients.

  14. 3-, 4-, and 5-flavor next-to-next-to-leading order parton distribution functions from deep-inelastic-scattering data and at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in a next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the inclusive neutral-current deep-inelastic-scattering (DIS) world data combined with the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon data and the fixed-target Drell-Yan data. The PDF evolution is performed in the Nf=3 fixed-flavor scheme and supplementary sets of PDFs in the 4- and 5-flavor schemes are derived from the results in the 3-flavor scheme using matching conditions. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in a general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme interpolating between the zero-mass 4-flavor scheme at asymptotically large values of momentum transfer Q2 and the 3-flavor scheme prescription of Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven (BMSN) at the value of Q2=mc2. The results in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme are compared with those of the fixed-flavor scheme and other prescriptions used in global fits of PDFs. The strong coupling constant is measured at an accuracy of ≅1.5%. We obtain at next-to-next-to-leading order αs(MZ2)=0.1135±0.0014 in the fixed-flavor scheme and αs(MZ2)=0.1129±0.0014 applying the Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven prescription. The implications for important standard candle and hard scattering processes at hadron colliders are illustrated. Predictions for cross sections of W±- and Z-boson, the top-quark pair, and Higgs-boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC based on the 5-flavor PDFs of the present analysis are provided.

  15. 3-, 4-, and 5-flavor next-to-next-to-leading order parton distribution functions from deep-inelastic-scattering data and at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekhin, S.; Blümlein, J.; Klein, S.; Moch, S.

    2010-01-01

    We determine the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in a next-to-next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the inclusive neutral-current deep-inelastic-scattering (DIS) world data combined with the neutrino-nucleon DIS di-muon data and the fixed-target Drell-Yan data. The PDF evolution is performed in the Nf=3 fixed-flavor scheme and supplementary sets of PDFs in the 4- and 5-flavor schemes are derived from the results in the 3-flavor scheme using matching conditions. The charm-quark DIS contribution is calculated in a general-mass variable-flavor-number (GMVFN) scheme interpolating between the zero-mass 4-flavor scheme at asymptotically large values of momentum transfer Q2 and the 3-flavor scheme prescription of Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven (BMSN) at the value of Q2=mc2. The results in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme are compared with those of the fixed-flavor scheme and other prescriptions used in global fits of PDFs. The strong coupling constant is measured at an accuracy of ≈1.5%. We obtain at next-to-next-to-leading order αs(MZ2)=0.1135±0.0014 in the fixed-flavor scheme and αs(MZ2)=0.1129±0.0014 applying the Buza-Matiounine-Smith-van Neerven prescription. The implications for important standard candle and hard scattering processes at hadron colliders are illustrated. Predictions for cross sections of W±- and Z-boson, the top-quark pair, and Higgs-boson production at the Tevatron and the LHC based on the 5-flavor PDFs of the present analysis are provided.

  16. Squark Flavor Implications from B --> K(*) l+ l-

    OpenAIRE

    Behring, Arnd; GROSS, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun; Schacht, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical progress regarding B --> K(*) l+ l- decays led to improved bounds on the Wilson coefficients C_9 and C_10 of four-fermion operators of the |Delta B|=|Delta S|=1 effective Hamiltonian. We analyze the resulting implications on squark flavor violation in the MSSM and obtain new constraints on flavor-changing left-right mixing in the up-squark-sector. We find the dimensionless flavor mixing parameter (delta^u_23)_LR, depending on the flavor-diagonal MSSM masses...

  17. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  18. Effect of Liberibacter infection (Huanglongbing or "greening" disease) of citrus on orange juice flavor quality by sensory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been some anecdotal reports that Liberibacter asiaticus [(+) Las] infection of citrus trees, recently introduced in Florida, imparts off flavor to orange juice. It is of interest to the industry to know how much Liberibacter infection affects juice quality with respect to variety, maturit...

  19. The Role of Flavor Physics in the LHC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Stephen Lars

    2014-01-01

    Although searches for new physics at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will probably dominate the the agenda of the experimental high energy physics community during the next decade or more, high-intensity experiments at the tau-charm and beauty thresholds will continue to play important complementary roles. These include the establishment of stringent constraints on proposed theories for beyond-the-Standard-Model physics and unique opportunities to address some new physics scenarios that are inaccessible at the LHC. In addition, in the event that the LHC does discover some new phenomena, high sensitivity flavor physics measurements could provide diagnostic clues as to the physics processes responsible for the observed effects. In this talk I present a few examples that illustrate the close inter-relation of new physics searches at the high-energy frontier and high-sensitivity measurements at the intensity frontier.

  20. Real-time flavor tagging selection in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sahinsoy, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In high-energy physics experiments, online selection is crucial to reject most uninteresting collisions; in particular, b-jet selections, part of the ATLAS trigger strategy, are meant to select final states with heavy-flavor content. This is the only option to select fully hadronic final states containing b-jets, and is important to reject QCD light jets and maintain affordable trigger rates without raising jet energy thresholds. ATLAS operated b-jet triggers in both 2011 and 2012 data-taking campaigns and is now working to improve the performance of tagging algorithms for Run2. An overview of the ATLAS b-jet trigger strategy and its performance on real data is presented in this contribution, along with future prospects. Data-driven techniques to extract the online b-tagging performance, a key ingredient for all analyses relying on such triggers, are also discussed and results presented.

  1. AN of Single Heavy Flavor Decay Muon in the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorong; Wei, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Transverse single-spin asymmetries provide valuable information about the spin structure of the nucleon. At RHIC energies, heavy-flavor production is dominated by gluon-gluon fusion, and the subsequent decay into high pT electrons or muons can be observed statistically in a collider detector like PHENIX. The transverse single-spin asymmetry in heavy-flavor production originates from the initial state correlation between the internal transverse momentum of the parton and the transverse spin of the nucleon (similar with the known Sivers effect). The measurement of transverse single-spin asymmetry of single muons from heavy flavor decay at RHIC serves as a clean probe and would provide important information on the gluon Sivers function. In 2012, the PHENIX experiment collected 9.2 pb‑1 integrated luminosity in transversely polarized p + p collisions at s = 200 GeV with a polarization of 60%. The signal-to-background ratio was improved by a factor of two compared to the previous RHIC 2006 and 2008 results in high transverse momentum region (pT > 3GeV). The recent PHENIX preliminary results of transverse single-spin asymmetries of single heavy flavor decay muon at forward-rapidity will be shown and the possible improvement on this measurement in 2015 with the help of the FVTX detector will be discussed.

  2. As bitter as a trombone: synesthetic correspondences in nonsynesthetes between tastes/flavors and musical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisinel, Anne-Sylvie; Spence, Charles

    2010-10-01

    In parallel to studies of various cases of synesthesia, many cross-modal correspondences have also been documented in nonsynesthetes. Among these correspondences, implicit associations between taste and pitch have been reported recently (Crisinel & Spence, 2009, 2010). Here, we replicate and extend these findings through explicit matching of sounds of varying pitch to a range of tastes/flavors. In addition, participants in the experiment reported here also chose the type of musical instrument most appropriate for each taste/flavor. The association of sweet and sour tastes to high-pitched notes was confirmed. By contrast, umami and bitter tastes were preferentially matched to low-pitched notes. Flavors did not display such strong pitch associations. The choice of musical instrument seems to have been driven primarily by a matching of the hedonic value and familiarity of the two types of stimuli. Our results raise important questions about our representation of tastes and flavors and could also lead to applications in the marketing of food products. PMID:20952795

  3. Flavor-Changing Higgs Decays in Grand Unification with Minimal Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Seungwon

    2016-01-01

    We consider the flavor-changing decays of the Higgs boson in a grand unified theory framework which is based on the SU(5) gauge group and implements the principle of minimal flavor violation. This allows us to explore the possibility of connecting the tentative hint of the Higgs decay $h\\to\\mu\\tau$ recently reported in the CMS experiment to potential new physics in the quark sector. We look at different simple scenarios with minimal flavor violation in this context and how they are subject to various empirical restrictions. In one specific case, the relative strengths of the flavor-changing leptonic Higgs couplings are determined by the known quark mixing parameters and masses alone, and a branching fraction ${\\cal B}(h\\to\\mu\\tau)\\sim1\\%$ is achievable without the couplings being incompatible with the relevant constraints. Upcoming data on the Higgs leptonic decays and searches for the $\\mu\\to e\\gamma$ decay with improved precision can offer further tests on this scenario.

  4. Extracting Rb and Rc without flavor tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We note that a flavor tagging independent measurement of the branching fractions Rb and Rc may be obtained from the width of hadronic Z decays with a prompt photon, Γqbarqγ, and an additional theoretical assumption. We find that the current value of Γqbarqγ supports the direct measurements and favors generation-blind corrections to quark widths. An updated measurement of Γqbarqγ with the currently available LEP data will provide an even stronger constraint. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Model of flavor with quaternion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a renormalizable fermion mass model based on the symmetry Q4 that accommodates all fermion masses and mixing angles in both the quark and lepton sectors. It requires the presence of only four SU(2) doublet scalar fields transforming nontrivially under the flavor symmetry and the assumption of an alignment between first and second generation Yukawa couplings. No right-handed neutrinos are present in the model and neutrino masses are generated radiatively through the introduction of two additional SU(2) singlet fields charged under both hypercharge and lepton number.

  6. SUSY Flavor Problem and Warped Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Ian-Woo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    We point out that supersymmetric warped geometry can provide a solution to the SUSY flavor problem, while generating hierarchical Yukawa couplings. In supersymmetric theories in a slice of AdS_5 with the Kaluza-Klein scale M_KK much higher than the weak scale, if all visible fields originate from 5D bulk fields and supersymmetry breaking is mediated by the bulk radion superfield and/or some brane chiral superfields, potentially dangerous soft scalar masses and trilinear $A$ parameters at M_KK...

  7. Three Flavor QCD at High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have continued our study of the phase diagram of high temperature QCD with three flavors of improved staggered quarks. We are performing simulations with three degenerate quarks with masses less than or equal to the strange quark mass m s and with denegerate up and down quarks with masses m u,d decreases, rather than a bona fide phase transition. We present new results for the crossover temperature extrapolated to the physical value of m u,d and for quark number susceptibilities

  8. Flavor mixing with quarks and leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last year has brought such a wealth of new information on heavy flavors that meaningful bounds can now be placed on all fermion mass related parameters in the Standard Model. The status of the KM matrix is reviewed with particular emphasis on the theoretical uncertainties. B0-anti B0 mixing is reevaluated and CP violation is discussed as it is observed in K/sub L/ decays and as it hopefully can be studied in B decays. The report is concluded with short remarks on neutrino oscillations

  9. Heavy flavor physics with the CMS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiochia Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the excellent tracking and muon identification performance, combined with a flexible trigger system, the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is conducting a rich and competitive program of measurements in the field of heavy flavor physics. We review the status of b-quark production cross section measurements in inclusive and exclusive final states, the measurement of B hadron angular correlations, the search for rare Bs0 and B0 decays to dimuons, and the observation of the X(3872 resonance.

  10. Hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation with flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study models with contributions of similar size to the soft masses from anomaly-and gravity mediation, thereby curing the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. A possible origin of this hybrid setup in a 5-dimensional brane world is briefly discussed. The absence of excessive flavor violation is explained by alignment. The gravitino can be heavy enough so that the gravitino problem of supersymmetric theories with leptogenesis is avoided. The model has a characteristic signature: It predicts the distinctive gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation and, at the same time, O(1) slepton mass splittings.

  11. Lepton flavor model from Δ(54) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the lepton flavor model with Δ(54), which appears typically in heterotic string models on the T2/Z3 orbifold. Our model reproduces the tri-bimaximal mixing in the parameter region around degenerate neutrino masses or two massless neutrinos. We predict the deviation from the tri-bimaximal mixing by putting the experimental data of neutrino masses in the normal hierarchy of neutrino masses. The upper bound of sin 2θ13 is 0.01. There is the strong correlation between θ23 and θ13. Unless θ23 is deviated from the maximal mixing considerably, θ13 remains to be tiny.

  12. Analysis of Bs flavor oscillations at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardo, Nuno T

    2006-09-01

    The search for and study of flavor oscillations in the neutral B{sub s}B{sub s} meson system is an experimentally challenging task. It constitutes a flagship analysis of the Tevatron physics program. In this dissertation, they develop an analysis of the time-dependent B{sub s} flavor oscillations using data collected with the CDF detector. The data samples are formed of both fully and partially reconstructed B meson decays: B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}{pi}({pi}{pi}) and B{sub s} {yields} D{sub s}lv. A likelihood fitting framework is implemented and appropriate models and techniques developed for describing the mass, proper decay time, and flavor tagging characteristics of the data samples. The analysis is extended to samples of B{sup +} and B{sup 0} mesons, which are further used for algorithm calibration and method validation. The B mesons lifetimes are extracted. The measurement of the B{sup 0} oscillation frequency yields {Delta}m{sub d} = 0.522 {+-} 0.017 ps{sup -1}. The search for B{sub s} oscillations is performed using an amplitude method based on a frequency scanning procedure. Applying a combination of lepton and jet charge flavor tagging algorithms, with a total tagging power {epsilon}'D{sup 2} of 1.6%, to a data sample of 355 pb{sup -1}, a sensitivity of 13.0 ps{sup -1} is achieved. They develop a preliminary same side kaon tagging algorithm, which is found to provide a superior tagging power of about 4.0% for the B{sub s} meson species. A study of the dilution systematic uncertainties is not reported. From its application as is to the B{sub s} samples the sensitivity is significantly increased to about 18 ps{sup -1} and a hint of a signal is seen at about 175. ps{sup -1}. They demonstrate that the extension of the analysis to the increasing data samples with the inclusion of the same side tagging algorithm is capable of providing an observation of B{sub s} mixing beyond the standard model expectation. They show also that the improved knowledge of

  13. Heavy Flavor Simplified Models at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven; /YITP, Stony Brook /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /SLAC; Izaguirre, Eder; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2012-04-03

    We consider a comprehensive set of simplified models that contribute to final states with top and bottom quarks at the LHC. These simplified models are used to create minimal search strategies that ensure optimal coverage of new heavy flavor physics involving the pair production of color octets and triplets. We provide a set of benchmarks that are representative of model space, which can be used by experimentalists to perform their own optimization of search strategies. For data sets larger than 1 fb{sup -1}, same-sign dilepton and 3b search regions become very powerful. Expected sensitivities from existing and optimized searches are given.

  14. Two and Three Particle Flavor Dependent Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent work, the PHENIX collaboration has applied a novel technique to the analysis of azimuthal correlations which extinguishes the harmonic part of the underlying event revealing the true jet shape. The extension of this method to three particle correlations allows a much more detailed study of jet topologies. Correlation functions and extracted jet landscapes are studied for wide range of pT and centrality selections and particle flavors in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV. They reveal substantial modifications of jet properties resulting from the coupling of jets to the strongly interacting matter produced in RHIC collisions

  15. Gauge Coupling Unification in MSSM + 5 Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jeff L

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gauge coupling unification at 2-loops for theories with 5 extra vectorlike SU(5) fundamentals added to the MSSM. This is a borderline case where unification is only predicted in certain regions of parameter space. We establish a lower bound on the scale for the masses of the extra flavors, as a function of the sparticle masses. Models far outside of the bound do not predict unification at all (but may be compatible with unification), and models outside but near the boundary cannot reliably claim to predict it with an accuracy comparable to the MSSM prediction. Models inside the boundary can work just as well as the MSSM.

  16. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good. PMID:10890508

  17. Flavor Universal Resonances and Warped Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Hong, Sungwoo; Sundrum, Raman

    2016-01-01

    Warped higher-dimensional compactifications with "bulk" standard model, or their AdS/CFT dual as the purely 4D scenario of Higgs compositeness and partial compositeness, offer an elegant approach to resolving the electroweak hierarchy problem as well as the origins of flavor structure. However, low-energy electroweak/flavor/CP constraints and the absence of non-standard physics at LHC Run 1 suggest that a "little hierarchy problem" remains, and that the new physics underlying naturalness may lie out of LHC reach. Assuming this to be the case, we show that there is a simple and natural extension of the minimal warped model in the Randall-Sundrum framework, in which matter, gauge and gravitational fields propagate modestly different degrees into the IR of the warped dimension, resulting in rich and striking consequences for the LHC (and beyond). The LHC-accessible part of the new physics is AdS/CFT dual to the mechanism of "vectorlike confinement", with TeV-scale Kaluza-Klein excitations of the gauge and gravit...

  18. Holographic Flavor Transport in Schroedinger Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Martin; O'Bannon, Andy; Wu, Jackson M S

    2010-01-01

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study the transport properties of a finite density of charge carriers in a strongly-coupled theory with non-relativistic symmetry. The field theory is N=4 supersymmetric SU(Nc) Yang-Mills theory in the limit of large Nc and with large 't Hooft coupling, deformed by an irrelevant operator, coupled to a number Nf of massive N=2 supersymmetric hypermultiplets in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, i.e. flavor fields. The irrelevant deformation breaks the relativistic conformal group down to the Schroedinger group, which has non-relativistic scale invariance with dynamical exponent z=2. Introducing a finite baryon number density of the flavor fields provides us with charge carriers. We compute the associated DC and AC conductivities using the dual gravitational description of probe D7-branes in an asymptotically Schroedinger spacetime. We generically find that in the infrared the conductivity exhibits scaling with temperature or frequency that is relativistic, while ...

  19. Light-flavor squark reconstruction at CLIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frank; Weuste, Lars

    2015-08-01

    We present a simulation study of the prospects for the mass measurement of TeV-scale light-flavored right-handed squarks at a 3 TeV collider based on CLIC technology. In the considered model, these particles decay into their standard-model counterparts and the lightest neutralino, resulting in a signature of two jets plus missing energy. The analysis is based on full GEANT4 simulations of the CLIC_ILD detector concept, including Standard Model physics backgrounds and beam-induced hadronic backgrounds from two-photon processes. The analysis serves as a generic benchmark for the reconstruction of highly energetic jets in events with substantial missing energy. Several jet finding algorithms were evaluated, with the longitudinally invariant algorithm showing a high degree of robustness towards beam-induced background while preserving the features typically found in algorithms developed for collisions. The presented study of the reconstruction of light-flavored squarks shows that for TeV-scale squark masses, sub-percent accuracy on the mass measurement can be achieved at CLIC.

  20. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  1. Up Asymmetries From Exhilarated Composite Flavor Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rold, Leandro; Grojean, Christophe; Perez, Gilad

    2013-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimension (composite Higgs) models which conjointly accommodates the t\\bar t forward-backward asymmetry observed at the Tevatron and the direct CP asymmetry in singly Cabibbo suppressed D decays first reported by the LHCb collaboration. We argue that both asymmetries, if arising dominantly from new physics beyond the Standard Model, hint for a flavor paradigm within partial compositeness models in which the right-handed quarks of the first two generations are not elementary fields but rather composite objects. We show that this class of models is consistent with current data on flavor and CP violating physics, electroweak precision observables, dijet and top pair resonance searches at hadron colliders. These models have several predictions which will be tested in forthcoming experiments. The CP asymmetry in D decays is induced through an effective operator of the form (\\bar u c)_{V+A}(\\bar s s)_{V+A} at the charm scale, which implies a larger CP asymmetry in the D^0\\to K^+K^...

  2. Critical number of flavors in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors Nf. This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling α beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in α to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of α and Nf. Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (α,αc)↔(1/Nf,1/Nfc). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension γm shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the β function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (α,Nf) phase space which clearly depicts how larger Nf is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  3. Monopole correlations in holographically flavored liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Many-body systems with a conserved U(1) current in (2+1) dimensions may be probed by weakly gauging this current and studying correlation functions of magnetic monopole operators in the resulting dynamical gauge theory. We study such monopole correlations in holographic liquids with fundamental flavor, where the monopole operator is dual to a magnetically charged particle in the bulk. In charge-gapped phases the monopole operator is expected to condense. We show that this condensation is holographically dual to the capping off of the bulk flavor brane and compute the monopole condensate. We argue that from the lower-dimensional point of view this may be understood as a simple example of confinement of a gauge field in the bulk. In a compressible finite-density phase we present a novel calculation of the monopole correlation in space and time: the correlation is power law in time but is Gaussian in space due to interaction with the background charge density.

  4. Light flavor asymmetry of nucleon sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Huiying; Zhang, Xinyu [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Ma, Bo-Qiang [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-02-15

    The light flavor antiquark distributions of the nucleon sea are calculated in the effective chiral quark model and compared with experimental results. The contributions of the flavor-symmetric sea-quark distributions and the nuclear EMC effect are taken into account to obtain the ratio of Drell-Yan cross sections {sigma}{sup pD}/2{sigma}{sup pp}, which can match well with the results measured in the FermiLab E866/NuSea experiment. The calculated results also match the anti d(x)- anti u(x) measured in different experiments, but unmatch the behavior of anti d(x)/ anti u(x) derived indirectly from the measurable quantity {sigma}{sup pD}/2{sigma}{sup pp} by the FermiLab E866/NuSea Collaboration at large x. We suggest to measure again anti d(x)/ anti u(x) at large x from precision experiments with careful treatment of the experimental data. We also propose an alternative procedure for experimental data treatment. (orig.)

  5. Quantum evaporation of flavor-mixed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2014-03-01

    Particles whose propagation (mass) and interaction (flavor) bases are misaligned are mixed, e.g., neutrinos, quarks, Kaons, etc. We show that interactions (elastic scattering) of individual mass-eigenstates can result in their inter-conversions. Most intriguing and counter-intuitive implication of this process is a new process, which we refer to as the ``quantum evaporation.'' Consider a mixed particle trapped in a gravitational potential. If such a particle scatters off something (e.g., from another mixed particle) elastically from time to time, this particle (or both particles, respectively) can eventually escape to infinity with no extra energy supplied. That is as if a ``flavor-mixed satellite'' hauled along a bumpy road puts itself in space without a rocket, fuel, etc. Of course, the process at hand is entirely quantum and has no counterpart in classical mechanics. It also has nothing to do with tunneling or other known processes. We discuss some implications to the dark matter physics, cosmology and cosmic neutrino background. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.

  6. Neutrino mass and grand unification of flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    2010-01-01

    The problem of understanding quark mass and mixing hierarchies has been an outstanding problem of particle physics for a long time. The discovery of neutrino masses in the past decade, exhibiting mixing and mass patterns so very different from the quark sector has added an extra dimension to this puzzle. This is specially difficult to understand within the framework of conventional grand unified theories which are supposed to unify the quarks and leptons at short distance scales. In the paper, I discuss a recent proposal by Dutta, Mimura and this author that appears to provide a promising way to resolve this puzzle. After stating the ansatz, we show how it can be realized within a SO(10) grand unification framework. Just as Gell-Mann's suggestion of SU(3) symmetry as a way to understand the hadronic flavor puzzle of the sixties led to the foundation of modern particle physics, one could hope that a satisfactory resolution of the current quark-lepton flavor problem would provide fundamental insight into the na...

  7. The String Origin of SUSY Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Camara, Pablo G; Valenzuela, Irene

    2013-01-01

    We argue that in large classes of string compactifications with a MSSM-like structure substantial flavor violating SUSY-breaking soft terms are generically induced. We specify to the case of flavor dependent soft-terms in type IIB/F-theory SU(5) unified models, although our results can be easily extended to other settings. The Standard Model (SM) degrees of freedom reside in a local system of 7-branes wrapping a 4-fold S in the extra dimensions. It is known that in the presence of closed string 3-form fluxes SUSY-breaking terms are typically generated. We explore the generation dependence of these soft terms and find that non-universalities arise whenever the flux varies over the 4-fold S. These non-universalities are parametrically suppressed by (M_{GUT}/M_{Pl})^{1/3}. They also arise in the case of varying open string fluxes, in this case parametrically suppressed by \\alpha_{GUT}^{1/2}. For a standard unification scheme with M_{GUT} = 10^{16} GeV and \\alpha_{\\rm GUT} = 1/24 these suppressions are very mild....

  8. The running coupling of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih; Wolff, Ulli [Berlin Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC

    2010-06-15

    We have calculated the step scaling function and the running coupling of QCD in the Schroedinger functional scheme with four flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks. Comparisons of our non-perturbative results with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with non-perturbative data for only two flavors are made. (orig.)

  9. Flavor violating leptonic decays of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Fathy, Seham; Itani, Ahmad; Nath, Pran

    2016-01-01

    Recent data from the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN give a hint of possible violation of flavor in the leptonic decays of the Higgs boson. In this work we analyze the flavor violating leptonic decays $H^0_1\\to l_i \\bar l_j$ ($i\

  10. Flavor structure in $SO(32)$ heterotic string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime; Takano, Yasufumi; Tatsuishi, Takuya H

    2016-01-01

    We study the flavor structure in $SO(32)$ heterotic string theory on six-dimensional torus with magnetic fluxes. In particular, we focus on models with the flavor symmetries $SU(3)_f$ and $\\Delta(27)$. In both models, we can realize the realistic quark masses and mixing angles.

  11. Gluons as Goldstone Bosons when Flavor Symmetry is Broken Spontaneously

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism where flavor symmetry is broken spontaneously is discussed within a scalar QCD model with effective three-meson couplings. For sufficiently large coupling the model is unstable with respect to quantum loops from mesonic vacuum polarization. It is argued that color and gluons naturally can account for the Goldstone degrees of freedom expected when flavor symmetry is spontaneously broken.

  12. Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Parida; Nita Sinha; B Adhikary; B Allanach; A Alok; K S Babu; B Brahmachari; D Choudhury; E J Chun; P K Das; A Ghosal; D Hitlin; W S Hou; S Kumar; H N Li; E Ma; S K Majee; G Majumdar; B Mishra; G Mohanty; S Nandi; H Pas; M K Parida; S D Rindani; J P Saha; N Sahu; Y Sakai; S Sen; C Sharma; C D Sharma; S Shalgar; N N Singh; S Uma Sankar; N Sinha; R Sinha; F Simonetto; R Srikanth; R Vaidya

    2006-11-01

    This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at WHEPP-9. While activities in flavor physics have been mainly focused on -physics, those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. We present summary of working group discussions carried out during the workshop in the above fields, and also briefly review the progress made in some projects subsequently

  13. On the Dynamics of Non-Relativistic Flavor-Mixed Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Medvedev, Mikhail V

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of a system of interacting non-relativistic quantum flavor-mixed particles is considered both theoretically and numerically. It was shown that collisions of mixed particles not only scatter them elastically, but can also change their mass eigenstates thus affecting particles' flavor composition and kinetic energy. The mass eigenstate conversions and elastic scattering are related but different processes, hence the conversion cross-section can be arbitrarily large even when the elastic scattering cross-section vanishes. The conversions are efficient when the mass eigenstates are well-separated in space but suppressed if their wave-packets overlap; the suppression is most severe for mass-degenerate eigenstates in flat space-time. The mass eigenstate conversions can lead to an interesting process, called `quantum evaporation,' in which mixed particles, initially confined deep inside a gravitational potential well and scattering only off each other, can escape from it without extra energy supply leaving...

  14. A solution to the flavor problem in warped extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Martin; Malm, Raoul; Neubert, Matthias [Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet, THEP, Mainz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Models with warped extra dimensions (Randall Sundrum models) can explain the hierarchy in the quark masses and mixings based on the geometry of the fifth dimension. Furthermore can the same geometry arrange for a suppression of dangerous flavor changing neutral currents, without the need of additional assumptions such as minimal flavor violation. This so called RS-GIM mechanism has proven to be extremely successful, apart from one observable: The CP-violating quantity in K- anti K mixing, {epsilon}{sub K}, which requires significant fine-tuning in order to agree with a new physics scale in the TeV range. This is known as the RS flavor problem. We have found that an extension of the strong interaction gauge group can solve the RS flavor problem without suppressing interesting effects in other flavor sectors.

  15. Squark Flavor Implications from B --> K* l+ l-

    CERN Document Server

    Behring, Arnd; Hiller, Gudrun; Schacht, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical progress regarding B --> K* l+ l- decays led to improved bounds on the Wilson coefficients C_9 and C_10 of four-fermion operators of the |Delta B|=|Delta S|=1 effective Hamiltonian. We analyze the resulting implications on squark flavor violation in the MSSM and obtain new constraints on flavor-changing left-right mixing in the up-squark-sector. We find the dimensionless flavor mixing parameter (delta^u_23)_LR, depending on the flavor-diagonal MSSM masses and couplings, to be as low as \\lesssim 0.1. This has implications for models based on radiative flavor violation and leads to BR(B_s --> mu+ mu-) \\gtrsim 1 x 10^-9. Rare top decays t --> c gamma, t --> c g, t --> c Z have branching ratios predicted to be below \\lesssim few times 10^-8, 10^-6 and 10^-7, respectively.

  16. Flavor versus mass eigenstates in neutrino asymmetries: implications for cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Park, Wan-Il

    2016-01-01

    We show that, if they exist, lepton number asymmetries ($L_\\alpha$) of neutrino flavors should be distinguished from the ones ($L_i$) of mass eigenstates, since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the flavor eigenstates cannot be directly applied to the mass eigenstates. Similarly, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) constraints on mass eigenstates do not directly constrain flavor asymmetries. Due to the difference of mass and flavor eigenstates, the cosmological constraint on the asymmetries of neutrino flavors can be much stronger than conventional expectation, but not uniquely determined unless at least the asymmetry of the heaviest neutrino is well constrained. Cosmological constraint on $L_i$ for a specific case is presented as an illustration.

  17. Test of Lorentz Violation with Astrophysical Neutrino Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei; Salvado, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The high-energy astrophysical neutrinos recently discovered by IceCube opened a new way to test Lorentz and CPT violation through the astrophysical neutrino mixing properties. The flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos is a very powerful tool to investigate tiny effects caused by Lorentz and CPT violation. There are 3 main findings; (1) current limits on Lorentz and CPT violation in neutrino sector are not tight and they allow for any flavor ratios, (2) however, the observable flavor ratio on the Earth is tied with the flavor ratio at production, this means we can test both the presence of new physics and the astrophysical neutrino production mechanism simultaneously, and (3) the astrophysical neutrino flavor ratio is one of the most stringent tests of Lorentz and CPT violation.

  18. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2)L x SU(2)R x PLR in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on ΔF=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the Bs0- anti Bs0 system, the rare decays Bs,d→μ+μ- and K→πνanti ν allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  19. Cajá-flavored drinks: a proposal for mixed flavor beverages and a study of the consumer profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed flavor beverages represent a trend that is gaining the allegiance of potential fruit juice consumers. The present study proposed to prepare mixed flavor beverages and verify their consumer acceptance. Cajá beverage (sample A was used as the standard. The other beverages were prepared by mixing the cajá-flavored product with other flavors: strawberry (B, pineapple (C, jabuticaba (D, mango (E and cashew (F. The consumer profiles in the two regions studied were similar. Overall beverages B, A and F were the most accepted, with scores of 7.7, 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Internal Preference Mapping showed that most of the consumers were located near beverages A, B and F, confirming the acceptance results. The consumers indicated appearance and flavor as the most appreciated characteristics in beverages A, B and F. Beverages A, B and F presented higher total soluble solids contents and viscosities than the other beverages. Consumer segmentation did not depend on the different levels of familiarity with the cajá flavor. Thus the preparation of mixed flavor beverages of cajá-strawberry and cajá-cashew is an excellent proposal because it presents flavors with good potential for marketing in different regions of Brazil.

  20. 3-flavor and 4-flavor implications of the latest T2K and NOνA electron (anti-)neutrino appearance results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The two long-baseline experiments T2K and NO νA have recently presented new findings. T2K has shown the first νbare appearance data while NO νA has released the first νe appearance results. These data are of particular importance because they allow us to probe for the first time in a direct (or manifest) way the leptonic CP-violation. In fact, it is the first time that a hint of CP-violation arises from the comparison of the observations of neutrinos and antineutrinos. We consider the implications of such new results both for the standard 3-flavor framework and for the non-standard 3 + 1 scheme involving one sterile neutrino species. The 3-flavor analysis shows a consolidation of the previous trends, namely a slight preference for sin ⁡ δ statistical significance close to 90% C.L., and a mild preference (at more than 68% C.L.) for the normal hierarchy. In a 3 + 1 framework, the data constrain two CP-phases (δ13 ≡ δ and δ14), which exhibit a slight preference for the common value δ13 ≃δ14 ≃ - π / 2. Interestingly, in the enlarged four neutrino scheme the preference for the normal hierarchy found within the 3-flavor framework completely disappears. This indicates that light sterile neutrinos may constitute a potential source of fragility in the capability of the two LBL experiments of discriminating the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  1. Enforced neutrality and color-flavor unlocking in the three-flavor Polyakov-loop NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Abuki, H; Gatto, R; Nardulli, G; Ruggieri, M

    2008-01-01

    We study how the charge neutrality affects the phase structure of three-flavor PNJL model. We point out that, within the conventional PNJL model at finite density the color neutrality is missing because the Wilson line serves as an external ``colored'' field coupled to dynamical quarks. In this paper we heuristically assume that the model may still be applicable. To get color neutrality one has then to allow non vanishing color chemical potentials. We study how the quark matter phase diagram in $(T,m_s^2/\\mu)$-plane is affected by imposing neutrality and by including the Polyakov loop dynamics. Although these two effects are correlated in a nonlinear way, the impact of the Polyakov loop turns out to be significant in the $T$ direction, while imposing neutrality brings a remarkable effect in the $m_s^2/\\mu$ direction. In particular, we find a novel unlocking transition, when the temperature is increased, even in the chiral SU(3) limit. We clarify how and why this is possible once the dynamics of the colored Po...

  2. In vivo solid-phase microextraction with in vitro calibration: determination of off-flavor components in live fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ziwei; Pilote, Alexandre; Sarker, Pallab Kumer; Vandenberg, Grant; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-02-19

    The presence of off-flavor compounds in fish represents a significant economic problem encountered in aquaculture production. The off-flavor compounds are due to the absorption of substances produced by a range of microorganisms. Currently, a number of strategies have been used to prevent or limit the growth of these microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies via monitoring the concentrations of off-flavor compounds in the recirculating aquaculture system. In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a rapid and simple sample preparation method, will allow monitoring the concentration of off-flavor compounds in live fish. In this research, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) produced by cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, which are the major sources for "earthy" and "muddy" flavors in fish, were selected as representatives. In order to accurately quantify these compounds in fish muscle, two kinetic calibration methods, on-fiber standardization and measurement using predetermined sampling rate, were used as quantification methods, which were both validated by traditional methods. The detection limit of in vivo SPME in fish muscle was 0.12 ng/g for geosmin and 0.21 ng/g for 2-MIB, which are both below the human sensory thresholds. PMID:23330671

  3. Baclofen differentially mediates fructose-conditioned flavor preference and quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francis M; Vig, Vishal; Olsson, Kerstin; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Aminov, Alon; Kohen, Ilanna; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-03-15

    Rats display both fructose-conditioned flavor preference (CFP) and quinine conditioned flavor avoidance (CFA). Dopamine (D1 and D2), muscarinic and nicotinic, but not NMDA or opioid receptor antagonists reduced fructose-CFP expression. Dopamine D1, dopamine D2, muscarinic or NMDA, but not opioid or nicotinic receptor antagonists reduced fructose-CFP acquisition. Dopamine D1, NMDA, nicotinic or opioid, but not dopamine D2 or muscarinic receptor antagonists enhanced quinine-CFA acquisition. Baclofen (BAC), a GABAB receptor agonist, alternately enhances or reduces feeding under specific conditions. The present study examined whether systemic BAC administration mediated fructose-CFP expression and acquisition or quinine-CFA acquisition. Fructose-CFP expression studies trained rats with one flavor (CS+) in 8% fructose and 0.2% saccharin and a second (CS-) flavor in 0.2% saccharin, followed by vehicle (VEH) and BAC (0.5-5 mg/kg) preceding 2-bottle (CS+, CS-) 0.2% saccharin choice tests. Fructose-CFP acquisition studies administered VEH or BAC (3 or 5 mg/kg) prior to CS+ and CS- training sessions followed by six 2-bottle (CS+, CS-) 0.2% saccharin choice tests. Quinine-CFA acquisition studies administered VEH or BAC (3 or 5 mg/kg) prior to CS- (8% fructose+0.2% saccharin) and CS+ (fructose+saccharin+0.030% quinine) training sessions followed by six 2-bottle (CS-, CS+) fructose+saccharin choice tests. BAC (3 mg/kg) minimally (66%) reduced fructose-CFP expression. BAC failed to alter fructose-CFP acquisition. Quinine-CFA acquisition was enhanced by the 5 mg/kg BAC dose (15-25%) relative to VEH (34-48%). These data implicate GABAB receptor signaling in acquisition of quinine avoidance with minimal or no effects upon fructose preferences. PMID:26852956

  4. Heavy Flavor and Jets at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    We present recent results for heavy flavor and jets produced in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200$ GeV p-p, d-Au, Cu-Cu and Au-Au collisions at at RHIC. We find J/$\\psi$ production is suppressed in Au-Au, but high energy J/$\\psi$ are not suppressed in d-Au or Cu-Cu. Non-photonic electrons from D and B mesons are both suppressed in Au-Au. We study jets using two-particle 2D angular correlations as well as jet reconstruction algorithms. We find that jets show little if any suppression, but are highly modified in central Au-Au, becoming elongated in the $\\eta$ direction and having fewer high-$p_t$ particles but many more low-$p_t$ particles for central Au-Au.

  5. Flavor-changing Z0 decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapter I reviews the phenomenological situation. Simple estimates of various rates are also provided in order to convey the physical intuition necessary to guide one through the equations and numbers that follow. Chapter II presents technical aspects of the general flavor changing Z0 decay calculation, with emphasis on the integration scheme used. Chapter III describes a number of nontrivial checks on the calculation that were performed. Chapter IV contains the entire general algebraic result for the decay rate. Chapter V describes numerical aspects of the computer evaluation, and discusses the parameter values used and the results for the three generation case. A similar presentation for the four generation case is given in Chapter VI. Chapter VII describes what experimentalists should look for in a semiquantitative way. Some possibilities for rate enhancement, and some related processes are mentioned in Chapter VIII

  6. Prospects for Detecting Supernova Neutrino Flavor Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G M; McLaughlin, G C

    1999-01-01

    The neutrinos from a Type II supernova provide perhaps our best opportunity to probe cosmologically interesting muon and/or tauon neutrino masses. This is because matter enhanced neutrino oscillations can lead to an anomalously hot nu_e spectrum, and thus to enhanced charged current cross sections in terrestrial detectors. Two recently proposed supernova neutrino observatories, OMNIS and LAND, will detect neutrons spalled from target nuclei by neutral and charged current neutrino interactions. As this signal is not flavor specific, it is not immediately clear whether a convincing neutrino oscillation signal can be extracted from such experiments. To address this issue we examine the responses of a series of possible light and heavy mass targets, 9Be, 23Na, 35Cl, and 208Pb. We find that strategies for detecting oscillations which use only neutron count rates are problematic at best, even if cross sections are determined by ancillary experiments. Plausible uncertainties in supernova neutrino spectra tend to obs...

  7. Lepton Flavor Violation in the Scotogenic Model

    CERN Document Server

    Toma, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigate lepton flavor violation in the scotogenic model proposed by Ma in which neutrinos acquire non-zero masses at the 1-loop level. Although some works exist in this direction, they have mainly focused on the radiative decay $\\ell_\\alpha \\to \\ell_\\beta \\gamma$. Motivated by the promising new projects involving other low-energy processes, we derive complete analytical expressions for $\\ell_\\alpha \\to 3 \\, \\ell_\\beta$ and $\\mu-e$ conversion in nuclei, and numerically study their impact on the phenomenology. We will show that these processes can actually have rates larger than the one for $\\ell_\\alpha \\to \\ell_\\beta \\gamma$, thus providing more stringent constraints and better experimental perspectives.

  8. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  9. Quark Flavor Mixings from Hierarchical Mass Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the Fritzsch ansatz of quark mass matrices while retaining their hierarchical structures, and show that the main features of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix $V$, including $|V^{}_{us}| \\simeq |V^{}_{cd}|$, $|V^{}_{cb}| \\simeq |V^{}_{ts}|$ and $|V^{}_{ub}|/|V^{}_{cb}| < |V^{}_{td}|/|V^{}_{ts}|$, can be well understood. The phenomenological consequences of these for the allowed texture content and gross structural features of hierarchical quark mass matrices are addressed in a model-independent way. The approximate and analytical expressions of the CKM matrix elements are derived, and a detailed numerical analysis reveals that such hierarchical structures offer a promising explanation for the observed quark flavor mixing angles and the CP-violating phase at the $1\\sigma$ level.

  10. Eight light flavors on large lattice volumes

    CERN Document Server

    Schaich, David

    2013-01-01

    I present first results from large-scale lattice investigations of SU(3) gauge theory with eight light flavors in the fundamental representation. Using leadership computing resources at Argonne, we are generating gauge configurations with lattice volumes up to $64^3\\times128$ at relatively strong coupling, in an attempt to access the chiral regime. We use nHYP-improved staggered fermions, carefully monitoring finite-volume effects and other systematics. Here I focus on analyses of the light hadron spectrum and chiral condensate, measured on lattice volumes up to $48^3\\times96$ with fermion masses as light as m=0.004 in lattice units. We find no clear indication of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in these observables. I discuss the implications of these initial results, and prospects for further physics projects employing these ensembles of gauge configurations.

  11. Naturally large radiative lepton flavor violating Higgs decay mediated by lepton-flavored dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seungwon; Kang, Zhaofeng

    2016-03-01

    In the standard model (SM), lepton flavor violating (LFV) Higgs decay is absent at renormalizable level and thus it is a good probe to new physics. In this article we study a type of new physics that could lead to large LFV Higgs decay, i.e., a lepton-flavored dark matter (DM) model which is specified by a Majorana DM and scalar lepton mediators. Different from other similar models with similar setup, we introduce both left-handed and right-handed scalar leptons. They allow large LFV Higgs decay and thus may explain the tentative Br(h → τμ) ˜ 1% experimental results from the LHC. In particular, we find that the stringent bound from τ → μγ can be naturally evaded. One reason, among others, is a large chirality violation in the mediator sector. Aspects of relic density and especially radiative direct detection of the leptonic DM are also investigated, stressing the difference from previous lepton-flavored DM models.

  12. Naturally Large Radiative Lepton Flavor Violating Higgs Decay Mediated by Lepton-flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Seungwon

    2015-01-01

    In the standard model (SM), lepton flavor violating (LFV) Higgs decay is absent at renormalizable level and thus it is a good probe to new physics. In this article we study a type of new physics that could lead to large LFV Higgs decay, i.e., a lepton-flavored dark matter (DM) model which is specified by the particle property of DM (a Majorana fermion) and DM-SM mediators (scalar leptons). Different from other similar setups, here we introduce both the left-handed and the right-handed scalar leptons. They allow large LFV Higgs decay and thus may explain the tentative Br$(h\\ra\\tau\\mu)\\sim1\\%$ experimental results from LHC. In particular, we find that the stringent bound from $\\tau\\ra\\mu\\gamma$ can be naturally evaded. One reason, among others, is a large chirality violation in the mediator sector. Aspects of relic density and especially radiative direct detection of the leptonic DM are also investigated, stressing the difference from previous lepton-flavored DM models.

  13. S4 Flavor Symmetry and Fermion Masses: Towards a Grand Unified theory of Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, C; Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    2006-01-01

    Pursuing a bottom-up approach to explore which flavor symmetry could serve as an explanation of the observed fermion masses and mixings, we discuss an extension of the standard model (SM) where the flavor structure for both quarks and leptons is determined by a spontaneously broken S4 and the requirement that its particle content is embeddable simultaneously into the conventional SO(10) grand unified theory (GUT) and a continuous flavor symmetry G_f like SO(3)_f or SU(3)_f. We explicitly provide the Yukawa and the Higgs sector of the model and show its viability in two numerical examples which arise as small deviations from rank one matrices. In the first case, the corresponding mass matrix is democratic and in the second one only its 2-3 block is non-vanishing. We demonstrate that the Higgs potential allows for the appropriate vacuum expectation value (VEV) configurations in both cases, if CP is conserved. For the first case, the chosen Yukawa couplings can be made natural by invoking an auxiliary Z2 symmetr...

  14. Variable flavor scheme for final state jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis I describe a setup to treat mass effects from secondary radiation of heavy quark pairs in inclusive hard scattering processes with various dynamical scales. The resulting variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) generalizes a well-known scheme for massive initial state quarks which has been developed for deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the classical region 1 - x ⁓ O(1) and which will be also discussed here. The setup incorporated in the formalism of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) consistently takes into account the effects of massive quark loops and allows to deal with all hierarchies between the mass scale and the involved kinematic scales corresponding to collinear and soft radiation. It resums all large logarithms due to flavor number dependent evolution, achieves both decoupling for very large masses and the correct massless behavior for very small masses, and provides a continuous description in between. In the bulk of this work I will concentrate on DIS in the endpoint region x → 1 serving mainly as a showcase for the concepts and on the thrust distribution for e+ e- -collisions in the dijet limit as a phenomenologically relevant example for an event shape. The computations of the corrections to the structures in the factorization theorems are described explicitly for the singular terms at O(αs2 CF TF) arising from secondary radiation of massive quarks through gluon splitting. Apart from the soft function for thrust, which requires a dedicated calculation, these results are directly obtained from the corresponding results for the radiation of a massive gauge boson with vector coupling at O(αs) with the help of dispersion relations, and most of the relevant conceptual and technical issues can be dealt with already at this level. Finally, to estimate the impact of the corrections I carry out a numerical analysis for secondary massive bottom and top quarks on thrust distributions at different center-of-mass energies.(author)

  15. Roles of NMDA and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the acquisition and expression of flavor preferences conditioned by oral glucose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz, J A D; Coke, T; Icaza-Cukali, D; Khalifa, N; Bodnar, R J

    2014-10-01

    Animals learn to prefer flavors associated with the intake of sugar (sucrose, fructose, glucose) and fat (corn oil: CO) solutions. Conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) have been elicited for sugars based on orosensory (flavor-flavor: e.g., fructose-CFP) and post-ingestive (flavor-nutrient: e.g., intragastric (IG) glucose-CFP) processes. Dopamine (DA) D1, DA D2 and NMDA receptor antagonism differentially eliminate the acquisition and expression of fructose-CFP and IG glucose-CFP. However, pharmacological analysis of fat (CO)-CFP, mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes, indicated that acquisition and expression of fat-CFP were minimally affected by systemic DA D1 and D2 antagonists, and were reduced by NMDA antagonism. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic DA D1 (SCH23390), DA D2 (raclopride) or NMDA (MK-801) receptor antagonists altered acquisition and/or expression of CFP induced by oral glucose that should be mediated by both flavor-flavor and flavor-nutrient processes. Oral glucose-CFP was elicited following by training rats to drink one novel flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) mixed in 8% glucose and another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) mixed in 2% glucose. In expression studies, food-restricted rats drank these solutions in one-bottle sessions (2 h) over 10 days. Subsequent two-bottle tests with the CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 2% glucose occurred 0.5 h after systemic administration of vehicle (VEH), SCH23390 (50-800 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-800 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (50-200 μg/kg). Rats displayed a robust CS+ preference following VEH treatment (94-95%) which was significantly though marginally attenuated by SCH23390 (67-70%), raclopride (77%) or MK-801 (70%) at doses that also markedly reduced overall CS intake. In separate acquisition studies, rats received VEH, SCH23390 (50-400 nmol/kg), raclopride (50-400 nmol/kg) or MK-801 (100 μg/kg) 0.5 h prior to ten 1-bottle training trials with CS+/8%G and CS-/2%G training solutions that was

  16. Understanding the basic biology underlying the flavor world of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. MENNELLA, Alison K. VENTURA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health organizations worldwide recommend that adults and children minimize intakes of excess energy and salty, sweet, and fatty foods (all of which are highly preferred tastes and eat diets richer in whole grains, low- and non- fat dairy products, legumes, fish, lean meat, fruits, and vegetables (many of which taste bitter. Despite such recommendations and the well-established benefits of these foods to human health, adults are not complying, nor are their children. A primary reason for this difficulty is the remarkably potent rewarding properties of the tastes and flavors of foods high in sweetness, saltiness, and fatness. While we cannot easily change children’s basic ingrained biology of liking sweets and avoiding bitterness, we can modulate their flavor preferences by providing early exposure, starting in utero, to a wide variety of flavors within healthy foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Because the flavors of foods mothers eat during pregnancy and lactation also flavor amniotic fluid and breast milk and become preferred by infants, pregnant and lactating women should widen their food choices to include as many flavorful and healthy foods as possible. These experiences, combined with repeated exposure to nutritious foods and flavor variety during the weaning period and beyond, should maximize the chances that children will select and enjoy a healthier diet [Current Zoology 56 (6: 834–841, 2010].

  17. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Mutai

    Full Text Available Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5, and auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  18. Confinement and flavor symmetry breaking via monopole condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss dynamics of N=2 supersymmetric SU (nc) gauge theories with nf quark hypermultiplets. Upon N=1 perturbation of introducing a finite mass for the adjoint chiral multiplet, we show that the flavor U(nf) symmetry is dynamically broken to U(r) x U(nf - r), where r ≤ [nf/2] is an integer. This flavor symmetry breaking occurs due to the condensates of magnetic degrees of freedom which acquire flavor quantum numbers due to the quark zero modes. We briefly comment on the U Sp(2nc) gauge theories. This talk is based on works with Giuseppe Carlino and Ken Konishi. (author)

  19. Generalized gravitational entropy of probe branes: flavor entanglement holographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Andreas; Uhlemann, Christoph F.

    2014-05-01

    The notion of generalized gravitational entropy introduced by Lewkowycz and Maldacena allows, via the AdS/CFT correspondence, to calculate CFT entanglement entropies. We adapt the method to the case where flavor branes are present and treated in the probe approximation. This allows to calculate the leading flavor correction to the CFT entanglement entropy from the on-shell action of the probe, while dealing with the backreaction is avoided entirely and from the outset. As an application we give concise derivations for the contribution of massless and massive flavor degrees of freedom to the entanglement entropy in = 4 SYM theory.

  20. Generalized gravitational entropy of probe branes: flavor entanglement holographically

    CERN Document Server

    Karch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The notion of generalized gravitational entropy introduced by Lewkowycz and Maldacena allows, via the AdS/CFT correspondence, to calculate CFT entanglement entropies. We adapt the method to the case where flavor branes are present and treated in the probe approximation. This allows to calculate the leading flavor correction to the CFT entanglement entropy from the on-shell action of the probe, while dealing with the backreaction is avoided entirely and from the outset. As an application we give concise derivations for the contribution of massless and massive flavor degrees of freedom to the entanglement entropy in N=4 SYM theory.

  1. Applications of flavor symmetry to the phenomenology of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some applications of flavor symmetry are examined. Approximate flavor symmetries and their consequences in the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) are considered, and found to give natural values for the possible B- and L-violating couplings that are empirically acceptable, except for the case of proton decay. The coupling constants of SU(3) are calculated and used to parameterize the decays of the D mesons in broken flavor SU(3). The resulting couplings are used to estimate the long-distance contributions to D-meson mixing

  2. Flavor network and the principles of food pairing

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Bagrow, James P; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    The cultural diversity of culinary practice, as illustrated by the variety of regional cuisines, raises the question of whether there are any general patterns that determine the ingredient combinations used in food today or principles that transcend individual tastes and recipes. We introduce a flavor network that captures the flavor compounds shared by culinary ingredients. Western cuisines show a tendency to use ingredient pairs that share many flavor compounds, supporting the so-called food pairing hypothesis. By contrast, East Asian cuisines tend to avoid compound sharing ingredients. Given the increasing availability of information on food preparation, our data-driven investigation opens new avenues towards a systematic understanding of culinary practice.

  3. D3-D5 theories with unquenched flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Conde, Eduardo; Penin, Jose Manuel; Ramallo, Alfonso V; Zoakos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    We construct the string duals of the defect theories generated when N_f flavor D5-branes intersect N_c color D3-branes along a 2+1 dimensional subspace. We work in the Veneziano limit in which N_c and N_f are large and N_f/N_c is fixed. By smearing the D5-branes, we find supergravity solutions that take into account the backreaction of the flavor branes and preserve two supercharges. When the flavors are massless the resulting metric displays an anisotropic Lifshitz-like scale invariance. The case of massive quarks is also considered.

  4. Constraining astrophysical neutrino flavor composition from leptonic unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, using the unitarity of leptonic mixing matrix, we derive nontrivial unitarity constraints on the flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos detected by IceCube. Applying leptonic unitarity triangles, we deduce these unitarity bounds from geometrical conditions, such as triangular inequalities. These new bounds generally hold for three flavor neutrinos, and are independent of any experimental input or the pattern of leptonic mixing. We apply our unitarity bounds to derive general constraints on the flavor compositions for three types of astrophysical neutrino sources (and their general mixture), and compare them with the IceCube measurements.

  5. Flavor in the context of ancestral human diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wrangham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution, to understand the evolutionary biology of human flavor perception we need to know what kinds of foods have been sufficiently important in the human past for natural selection to favor specific mechanisms for perceiving and digesting them. Humans share with great apes a long prehistory of specializing on eating ripe fruits. Wild ripe fruits have much less sugar and more fiber than domestic fruits, but are similar in tending to offer two main tastes, sweet mixed with sour. While a preference for sweetness is easily explained, the attraction of a sweet-sour combination is still uncertain. A plausible explanation is that because mild acidity inhibits microbial growth, it signals a low probability of toxins. Whatever the explanation, the human preference for a combination of sweet and sour tastes appears to be a strong response reflecting our frugivorous ancestry. However for at least 2 million years fruit-eating has been less important for humans than it is for most other primates. Humans specialized dietarily in two respects, composition and processing. First, though composition varies widely, for their body size humans select items of unusually high caloric density. Thus compared to great apes, hunter-gatherers consume less fiber and more starch and lipids. They do so by eating much less foliage and fruit than great apes do, and more roots and animal-derived foods including both meats and honey [1]. Although meat is often regarded as important because it provides protein, great ape diets provide more than enough protein from fruits and foliage alone: fat is a more critical component of meat. Honey from honey-bees Apis mellifera has a surprisingly large role in the human evolutionary diet, i.e. for African hunter-gatherers. It is a strongly preferred item which can be the predominant sources of calories: hunter-gatherers eat as much as 1 kg per day for weeks at a time

  6. Chirally enhanced corrections to flavor-changing neutral current processes in the generic MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirally enhanced supersymmetric QCD corrections to flavor-changing neutral current processes are investigated in the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with generic sources of flavor violation. These corrections arise from flavor-changing self-energy diagrams and can be absorbed into a finite renormalization of the squark-quark-gluino vertex. In this way enhanced two-loop and even three-loop diagrams can be efficiently included into a leading-order calculation. Our corrections substantially change the values of the parameters δ23dLL, δ23dLR, δ23dRL, and δ23dRR extracted from Br[B→Xsγ] if tanβ is large. We find stronger (weaker) constraints compared to the leading-order result for negative (positive) values of μ. The constraints on δ13dLR,RL and δ23dLR,RL from Bd-Bd and Bs-Bs mixing change drastically if the third-generation squark masses differ from those of the first two generations. K-K mixing is more strongly affected by the chirally enhanced loop diagrams and even subpercent deviations from degenerate down and strange squark masses lead to profoundly stronger constraints on δ12dLR,RL.

  7. Flavor-Enhanced Modulation of Cerebral Blood Flow during Gum Chewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.

  8. ENSO flavors in a tree-ring δ18O record of Tectona grandis from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schollaen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia's climate is dominated by the equatorial monsoon system, and has been linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO events that often result in extensive droughts and floods over the Indonesian archipelago. In this study we investigate ENSO-related signals in a tree-ring δ18O record (1900–2007 of Javanese teak. Our results reveal a clear influence of Warm Pool (central Pacific El Niño events on Javanese tree-ring δ18O, and no clear signal of Cold Tongue (eastern Pacific El Niño events. These results are consistent with the distinct impacts of the two ENSO flavors on Javanese precipitation, and illustrate the importance of considering ENSO flavors when interpreting palaeoclimate proxy records in the tropics.

  9. Flavor revolution at IceCube horizons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highest-energy neutrino events identified so far were detected by the IceCube telescope between May and November 2013. Most of these events (21 out of 28) are cascade showers whose flux exhibits sharp hardening with respect to other lower-energy atmospheric neutrino components. These events suggest an injection of extraterrestrial neutrinos, mostly νe and ντ, making cascades. According to the IceCube consortium, a (10.63.6+5.0) component of these events must be a trace of expected downward muons and/or atmospheric neutrinos (mostly dominated by muon tracks). This implies that nearly all of the muon tracks observed (at least 6 of the 7) must be themselves of atmospheric origin. Therefore, the remaining 16–18 extraterrestrial events must be of mostly electron or tau flavor (or rare neutral current (NC) events). The probability of this scenario is very low (approx. 0.1–0.5%). This νμν¯μ paucity paradox cannot be solved if some or even all of the events are induced by terrestrially prompted charm signals, because the probability of this scenario is still less than 1.31%. The paradox might be solved if nearly all of the 28 events originate from extraterrestrial sources arriving in decoherent states. At first sight a partial flavor solution may arise if the highest-energy events at Eν>60 TeV (17 showers vs 4 muon tracks) are mostly of extraterrestrial origin. However, this still leaves the problem of the earlier 30–60-TeV energy region, for which the eight showers and three tracks are in more in tension with most atmospheric neutrino signals, by a sharp difference at TeV energy ruled (as shown by Deep Core data) by 10 over one neutrino (muon) events over showers. This puzzling (fast) transition from an atmospheric νμν¯μ flux at TeV to tens of TeV has deep consequences: more abundant 10-TeV extraterrestrial neutrino maps may provide a better insight into astronomical clustering and sky anisotropy. In addition, counting of vertical vs horizontal

  10. A left-right symmetric flavor symmetry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss flavor symmetries in left-right symmetric theories. We show that such frameworks are a different environment for flavor symmetry model building compared to the usually considered cases. This does not only concern the need to obey the enlarged gauge structure, but also more subtle issues with respect to residual symmetries. Furthermore, if the discrete left-right symmetry is charge conjugation, potential inconsistencies between the flavor and charge conjugation symmetries should be taken care of. In our predictive model based on A4 we analyze the correlations between the smallest neutrino mass, the atmospheric mixing angle and the Dirac CP phase, the latter prefers to lie around maximal values. There is no lepton flavor violation from the Higgs bi-doublet. (orig.)

  11. Effective Theories of Flavor and the Non-Universal MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Dipankar; Pérez, M Jay; Vives, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Flavor symmetries \\`a la Froggatt-Nielsen~(FN) provide a compelling way to explain the hierarchies of fermionic masses and mixing angles in the Yukawa sector. In Supersymmetric (SUSY) extensions of the Standard Model where the mediation of SUSY breaking occurs at scales larger than the breaking of flavor, this symmetry must be respected not only by the Yukawas of the superpotential, but by the soft-breaking masses and trilinear terms as well. In this work we show that contrary to naive expectations, even starting with completely flavor blind soft-breaking in the full theory at high scales, the low-energy sfermion mass matrices and trilinear terms of the effective theory, obtained upon integrating out the heavy mediator fields, are strongly non-universal. We explore the phenomenology of these SUSY flavor models after the latest LHC searches for new physics.

  12. A left-right symmetric flavor symmetry model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodejohann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We discuss flavor symmetries in left-right symmetric theories. We show that such frameworks are a different environment for flavor symmetry model building compared to the usually considered cases. This does not only concern the need to obey the enlarged gauge structure, but also more subtle issues with respect to residual symmetries. Furthermore, if the discrete left-right symmetry is charge conjugation, potential inconsistencies between the flavor and charge conjugation symmetries should be taken care of. In our predictive model based on $A_4$ we analyze the correlations between the smallest neutrino mass, the atmospheric mixing angle and the Dirac CP phase, the latter prefers to lie around maximal values. There is no lepton flavor violation from the Higgs bi-doublet.

  13. The color-flavor transformation of induced QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The color-flavor transformation is applied to the U(Nc) lattice model, in which the gauge theory is induced by the chiral scalar field associated with an elementary plaquette. The flavor degrees of freedom are related with the number of generations of the auxiliary field, and flavor components of each generation are associated with all the plaquettes having a lattice site in common. The property of the dual color-flavor transformed theory, which is expressed in terms of the gauge singlets, are analyzed in d=2 and d=3 dimensions. The saddle point solution of the model in the large-Nc limit is discussed. The correlations between the plaquettes, which are described by the dual theory, allows to define the dual lattice. In d=3 dimensions it is made of tetradecahedra which correspond to the cubes of the original lattice. The continuum limit of d=2 effective theory is discussed. (author)

  14. A left-right symmetric flavor symmetry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodejohann, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Xu, Xun-Jie [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Tsinghua University, Institute of Modern Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-03-15

    We discuss flavor symmetries in left-right symmetric theories. We show that such frameworks are a different environment for flavor symmetry model building compared to the usually considered cases. This does not only concern the need to obey the enlarged gauge structure, but also more subtle issues with respect to residual symmetries. Furthermore, if the discrete left-right symmetry is charge conjugation, potential inconsistencies between the flavor and charge conjugation symmetries should be taken care of. In our predictive model based on A{sub 4} we analyze the correlations between the smallest neutrino mass, the atmospheric mixing angle and the Dirac CP phase, the latter prefers to lie around maximal values. There is no lepton flavor violation from the Higgs bi-doublet. (orig.)

  15. Flavor physics: kaons, charm, beauty, taus and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The summary of the presentations at the workshop on Heavy Flavor Physics, Part II at the International Lecture and Workshop Series: ''Frontiers in Contemporary Physics: Fundamental Particles and Interactions'' should include a wide variety of topics in flavor physics. This paper provides a brief selection from each presentation to give a flavor of the session. Results on the production and decays of taus, kaons, charm and beauty particles are reported. The results from several experiments that have looked for neutrino oscillations at accelerator based experiments are also discussed, including new results from LSND using neutrinos produced in pion decay in flight. Projections and plans for several ongoing and future experiments in flavor physics are discussed

  16. Democratic (S)fermions and Lepton Flavor Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, K; Yamaguchi, M; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The democratic approach to account for fermion masses and mixing is known to be successful not only in the quark sector but also in the lepton sector. Here we extend this ansatz to supersymmetric standard models, in which the K\\"ahler potential obeys underlying S_3 flavor symmetries. The requirement of neutrino bi-large mixing angles constrains the form of the K\\"ahler potential for left-handed lepton multiplets. We find that right-handed sleptons can have non-degenerate masses and flavor mixing, while left-handed sleptons are argued to have universal and hence flavor-blind masses. This mass pattern is testable in future collider experiments when superparticle masses will be measured precisely. Lepton flavor violation arises in this scenario. In particular, \\mu \\to e \\gamma is expected to be observed in a planning future experiment if supersymmetry breaking scale is close to the weak scale.

  17. Cosmic Neutrino Flavor Democracy and Unitarity Violation at Neutrino Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Provided ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos are produced from the decays of charged pions arising from proton-proton and (or) proton-gamma collisions, their flavor ratios at a neutrino telescope will be \\phi^T_e : \\phi^T_\\mu : \\phi^T_\\tau \\approx 1 : 1 : 1. We show that the exact flavor democracy can occur if the unitary neutrino mixing matrix satisfies either \\theta_13 = 0 and \\theta_{23} = \\pi/4 (CP invariance) or \\delta= \\pm \\pi/2 and \\theta_{23} = \\pi/4 (CP violation) in the standard parametrization. Allowing for slight deviations from either condition, we calculate the corresponding neutrino flavor distribution at neutrino telescopes. If the neutrino mixing matrix is non-unitary, as expected in a class of seesaw models with TeV-scale Majorana neutrinos, we demonstrate that the effect of unitarity violation on the flavor democracy of cosmic neutrinos at neutrino telescopes can be as large as several percent.

  18. Flavor structure in D-brane models: Majorana neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Uemura, Shohei

    2014-01-01

    We study the flavor structure in intersecting D-brane models. We study anomalies of the discrete flavor symmetries. We analyze the Majorana neutrino masses, which can be generated by D-brane instanton effects. It is found that a certain pattern of mass matrix is obtained and the cyclic permutation symmetry remains unbroken. As a result, trimaximal mixing matrix can be realized if Dirac neutrino mass and charged lepton mass matrices are diagonal.

  19. Instantons and Spin-Flavor effects in Hadron Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kochelev, N I

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the role of instantons in the spectroscopy of ordinary and exotic hadrons as well as in high energy reactions. We argue that the instanton induced flavor- and spin-dependent quark-quark and quark-gluon interactions can explain many features of the hadron spectrum. The observed anomalous spin and flavor effects in various reactions with hadrons can also be understood within the instanton model for QCD vacuum.

  20. Multi baryons with flavors in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the possible existence of multi baryons with heavy flavor quantum numbers using the bound state approach to the topological soliton model and the recently proposed approximation for multi skyrmion fields based on rational maps. We use an effective interaction Lagrangian which consistently incorporates both chiral symmetry and the heavy quark symmetry including the corrections up to order ο(1/mQ). The model predicts some narrow heavy flavored multi baryon states with baryon number four and seven. (author)

  1. Flavor Data Constraints on the SUSY Parameter Space

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the indirect constraints from flavor physics on supersymmetric models. During the past few years flavor data, and in particular b -> s gamma transitions, have been extensively used in order to constrain supersymmetric parameter spaces. We will briefly illustrate here the constraints obtained by a collection of low energy observables including FCNC transitions, rare decays, leptonic and semileptonic decays of B mesons, as well as leptonic decays of K mesons. The theor...

  2. 14th Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 edition of the Conference on Flavor Physics and CP Violation will be held at on the campus of the California Institute of Technology on 6-9 June. The FPCP conference series was founded in 2002 through the merger of the Heavy Flavor (HF) and B Physics and CP Violation (BPCP) conference series. A list of previous FPCP venues can be found here.

  3. Seesaw model and two zero flavor neutrino texture

    CERN Document Server

    Kitabayashi, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the two zero flavor neutrino mass matrix scheme with nonvanishing Majorana effective mass $M_{ee}$ for the neutrino less double beta decay, four textures are compatible with observed data. We obtain the complete list of the possible textures of four zero Dirac neutrino mass matrix $m_D$ in the seesaw mechanism providing these four flavor neutrino textures. Explicit analytical analysis of $m_D$ turns out to provide the relation of $m_D \\propto \\sqrt{M_{ee}}$.

  4. Flavor Gauge Theory, and Masses of Top and Neutrino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, G.; Kim, C. S.

    We assume that the standard model (SM) breaks down around some energy Λ, and is replaced by a new (Higgsless) flavor gauge theory (FGT). We investigate this possibility by studying the renormalization group equations for the Yukawa couplings of SM with two Higgs doublets for various mt and υU/υD. With appropriate flavor democratic boundary conditions at ΛFGT, we derive the bounds on masses of top and tau-neutrino, which are compatible with experimental bounds.

  5. Report of the Quark Flavor Physics Working Group

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, J N; Ritchie, J L; Cirigliano, V; Kettell, S; Briere, R; Petrov, A A; Schwartz, A; Skwarnicki, T; Zupan, J; Christ, N; Sharpe, S R; Van de Water, R S; Altmannshofer, W; Arkani-Hamed, N; Artuso, M; Asner, D M; Bernard, C; Bevan, A J; Blanke, M; Bonvicini, G; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Campana, P; Cenci, R; Cline, D; Comfort, J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; El-Khadra, A X; Fast, J E; Forty, R; Flood, K T; Gershon, T; Grossman, Y; Hamilton, B; Hill, C T; Hill, R J; Hitlin, D G; Jaffe, D E; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kagan, A L; Kaplan, D M; Kohl, M; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Lee, K; Littenberg, L S; MacFarlane, D B; Mackenzie, P B; Meadows, B T; Olsen, J; Papucci, M; Parsa, Z; Paz, G; Perez, G; Piilonen, L E; Pitts, K; Purohit, M V; Quinn, B; Ratcliff, B N; Roberts, D A; Rosner, J L; Rubin, P; Seeman, J; Seth, K K; Schmidt, B; Schopper, A; Sokoloff, M D; Soni, A; Stenson, K; Stone, S; Sundrum, R; Tschirhart, R; Vainshtein, A; Wah, Y W; Wilkinson, G; Wise, M B; Worcester, E; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T

    2013-01-01

    This report represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Quark Flavor Physics Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of quark flavor physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of strange, charm, and bottom quarks. The ability of these studies to reveal the effects of new physics at high mass scales make them an essential ingredient in a well-balanced experimental particle physics program.

  6. Solving the supersymmetric CP problem with flavor breaking F terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cruz, J. Lorenzo; Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Supersymmetric flavor models for the radiative generation of fermion masses offer an alternative way to solve the SUSY-CP problem. We assume that the supersymmetric theory is flavor and CP conserving. CP violating phases are associated to the vacuum expectation values of flavor violating SUSY-breaking fields. As a consequence, phases appear at tree level only in the soft supersymmetry-breaking matrices. Using a U(2) flavor model as an example we show that it is possible to generate radiatively the first and second generation of quark masses and mixings as well as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) CP phase. The one-loop supersymmetric contributions to electric dipole moments are automatically zero since all the relevant parameters in the Lagrangian are flavor conserving and as a consequence real. The size of the flavor and CP mixing in the SUSY-breaking sector is mostly determined by the fermion mass ratios and CKM elements. We calculate the contributions to ɛ, ɛ' and to the CP asymmetries in the B decays to ψKs, ϕKs, η'Ks and Xsγ. We analyze a case study with maximal predictivity in the fermion sector. For this worst case scenario the measurements of ΔmK, ΔmB and ɛ constrain the model requiring extremely heavy squark spectra.

  7. Instanton-dyon Ensembles III: Exotic Quark Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    "Exotic quarks" in the title refers to a modification of quark periodicity condition on the thermal circle by introduction of some phases -- known also as "flavor holonomies" -- different quark flavors. These phases provide a valuable tool, to be used for better understanding of deconfinement and chiral restoration phase transitions: by changing them one can dramatically modify both phase transitions. In the language of instanton constituents -- instanton-dyons or monopoles -- it has a very direct explanation: the interplay of flavor and color holonomies can switch topological zero modes between various dyon types. The model we will study in detail, the so called $Z_{N_c}$-symmetric QCD model with equal number of colors and flavors $N_c=N_f=2$ and special arrangement of flavor and color holonomies, ensure "most democratic" setting, in which each quark flavor and each dyon type are in one-to-one correspondence. The usual QCD has the opposite "most exclusive" arrangement: all quarks are antiperiodic and thus al...

  8. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  9. Emotional susceptibility trait modulates insula responses and functional connectivity in flavor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Bello, Annalisa; Spitoni, Grazia F.; Perrucci, Mauro G.; Gallese, Vittorio; Committeri, Giorgia; Pastorelli, Concetta; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between Emotional Susceptibility (ES), an aspect of the personality trait Neuroticism, and individual differences in the neural responses in anterior insula to primary sensory stimuli colored by affective valence, i.e., distasting or pleasantly tasting oral stimuli. In addition, it was studied whether intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of brain regions characterized by such differential responses could be related to ES. To this purpose 25 female participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, while being involved in a flavor experiment. During the experiment, flavor stimuli were administered consisting of small amounts of liquid with a different affective valence: neutral, pleasant, unpleasant. The results showed that individual differences in ES trait predicted distinct neural activity patterns to the different stimulus conditions in a region of left anterior insula that a previous meta-analysis revealed to be linked with olfacto-gustatory processing. Specifically, low ES was associated with enhanced neural responses to both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli. By contrast, high ES participants showed equally strong neural responses to all types of stimuli without differentiating between the neutral and affective stimuli. Finally, during a task-free state, high ES trait appeared also to be related to decreased intrinsic functional connectivity between left anterior insula and left cerebellum. Our findings show that individual differences in ES are associated with differential anterior insula responses to primary sensory (flavor) stimuli as well as to intrinsic functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity, the latter suggesting a basis in the brain intrinsic functional architecture of the regulation of emotional experiences. PMID:26594159

  10. Emotional susceptibility trait modulates insula responses and functional connectivity in flavor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Bello, Annalisa; Spitoni, Grazia F; Perrucci, Mauro G; Gallese, Vittorio; Committeri, Giorgia; Pastorelli, Concetta; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between Emotional Susceptibility (ES), an aspect of the personality trait Neuroticism, and individual differences in the neural responses in anterior insula to primary sensory stimuli colored by affective valence, i.e., distasting or pleasantly tasting oral stimuli. In addition, it was studied whether intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of brain regions characterized by such differential responses could be related to ES. To this purpose 25 female participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, while being involved in a flavor experiment. During the experiment, flavor stimuli were administered consisting of small amounts of liquid with a different affective valence: neutral, pleasant, unpleasant. The results showed that individual differences in ES trait predicted distinct neural activity patterns to the different stimulus conditions in a region of left anterior insula that a previous meta-analysis revealed to be linked with olfacto-gustatory processing. Specifically, low ES was associated with enhanced neural responses to both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli. By contrast, high ES participants showed equally strong neural responses to all types of stimuli without differentiating between the neutral and affective stimuli. Finally, during a task-free state, high ES trait appeared also to be related to decreased intrinsic functional connectivity between left anterior insula and left cerebellum. Our findings show that individual differences in ES are associated with differential anterior insula responses to primary sensory (flavor) stimuli as well as to intrinsic functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity, the latter suggesting a basis in the brain intrinsic functional architecture of the regulation of emotional experiences. PMID:26594159

  11. Emotional susceptibility trait modulates insula responses and functional connectivity in flavor processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd JH Ebisch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between Emotional Susceptibility (ES, an aspect of the personality trait Neuroticism, and individual differences in the neural responses in anterior insula to primary sensory stimuli colored by affective valence, i.e. distasting or pleasantly tasting oral stimuli. In addition, it was studied whether intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of brain regions characterized by such differential responses could be related to ES. To this purpose 25 female participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, while being involved in a flavor experiment. During the experiment, flavor stimuli were administered consisting of small amounts of liquid with a different affective valence: neutral, pleasant, unpleasant. The results showed that individual differences in ES trait predicted distinct neural activity patterns to the different stimulus conditions in a region of left anterior insula that a previous meta-analysis revealed to be linked with olfacto-gustatory processing. Specifically, low ES was associated with enhanced neural responses to both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, compared to neutral stimuli. By contrast, high ES participants showed equally strong neural responses to all types of stimuli without differentiating between the neutral and affective stimuli. Finally, during a task-free state, high ES trait appeared also to be related to decreased intrinsic functional connectivity between left anterior insula and left cerebellum. Our findings show that individual differences in ES are associated with differential anterior insula responses to primary sensory (flavor stimuli as well as to intrinsic functional cortico-cerebellar connectivity, the latter suggesting a basis in the brain intrinsic functional architecture of the regulation of emotional experiences.

  12. Chiral U(1) flavor models and flavored Higgs doublets: the top FB asymmetry and the W jj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, P.; Omura, Yuji; Yu, Chaehyun

    2012-01-01

    We present U(1) flavor models for leptophobic Z' with flavor dependent couplings to the right-handed up-type quarks in the Standard Model (SM), which can accommodate the recent data on the top forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the dijet resonance associated with a W boson reported by CDF Collaboration. Such flavor-dependent leptophobic charge assignments generally require extra chiral fermions for anomaly cancellation. Also the chiral nature of U(1)' flavor symmetry calls for new U(1)'-charged Higgs doublets in order for the SM fermions to have realistic renormalizable Yukawa couplings. The stringent constraints from the top FB asymmetry at the Tevatron and the same sign top pair production at the LHC can be evaded due to contributions of the extra Higgs doublets. We also show that the extension could realize cold dark matter candidates.

  13. Flavor Constraints on Split Fermion Models

    CERN Document Server

    Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; Lillie, Ben; Hewett, JoAnne

    2003-01-01

    We examine the contributions to rare processes that arise in models where the Standard Model fermions are localized at distinct points in compact extra dimensions. Tree-level flavor changing neutral current interactions for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge field excitations are induced in such models, and hence strong constraints are thought to exist on the size of the additional dimensions. We find a general parameterization of the model which does not depend on any specific fermion geography and show that typical values of the parameters can reproduce the fermion hierarchy pattern. Using this parameterization, we reexamine the contributions to neutral meson mixing, rare meson decays, and single top-quark production in $e^+e^-$ collisions. We find that is it possible to evade the stringent bounds for natural regions of the parameters, while retaining finite separations between the fermion fields and without introducing a new hierarchy. The resulting limits on the size of the compact dimension can be as low as TeV...

  14. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  15. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

    2010-05-26

    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p < 0.05) than basic taste thresholds suggesting that aromatics and bitter taste are both crucial to control in WPH food applications. PMID:20415487

  16. New Physics at a Super Flavor Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Browder, Thomas E; Pirjol, Dan; Soni, Amarjit; Zupan, Jure

    2009-01-01

    The potential of a Super Flavor Factory (SFF) for searches of New Physics is reviewed. While very high luminosity B physics is assumed to be at the core of the program, its scope for extensive charm and tau studies are also emphasized. The possibility to run at the Upsilon(5S) as well as at the Upsilon(4S) is also very briefly discussed; in principle, this could provide very clean measurements of B_s decays. The strength and reach of a SFF is most notably due to the possibility of examining an impressive array of very clean observables. The angles and the sides of the unitarity triangle can be determined with unprecedented accuracy. These serve as a reference for New Physics (NP) sensitive decays such as B^+ ->tau^+ nu and penguin dominated hadronic decay modes, providing tests of generic NP scenarios with an accuracy of a few percent. Besides, very precise studies of direct and time dependent CP asymmetries in radiative B decays and forward-backward asymmetry studies in B -> X_s l^+ l^- and numerous null tes...

  17. A Minimal Model of Neutrino Flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Luhn, Christoph; Wingerter, Akın

    2012-01-01

    Models of neutrino mass which attempt to describe the observed lepton mixing pattern are typically based on discrete family symmetries with a non-Abelian and one or more Abelian factors. The latter so-called shaping symmetries are imposed in order to yield a realistic phenomenology by forbidding unwanted operators. Here we propose a supersymmetric model of neutrino flavor which is based on the group T7 and does not require extra Z_N or U(1) factors, which makes it the smallest realistic family symmetry that has been considered so far. At leading order, the model predicts tribimaximal mixing which arises completely accidentally from a combination of the T7 Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and suitable flavon alignments. Next-to-leading order (NLO) operators break the simple tribimaximal structure and render the model compatible with the recent results of the Daya Bay and Reno collaborations which have measured a reactor angle of around 9 degrees. Problematic NLO deviations of the other two mixing angles can be cont...

  18. Flavor Constraints on Split Fermion Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the contributions to rare processes that arise in models where the Standard Model fermions are localized at distinct points in compact extra dimensions. Tree-level flavor changing neutral current interactions for the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge field excitations are induced in such models, and hence strong constraints are thought to exist on the size of the additional dimensions. We find a general parameterization of the model which does not depend on any specific fermion geography and show that typical values of the parameters can reproduce the fermion hierarchy pattern. Using this parameterization, we reexamine the contributions to neutral meson mixing, rare meson decays, and single top-quark production in e+e- collisions. We find that is it possible to evade the stringent bounds for natural regions of the parameters, while retaining finite separations between the fermion fields and without introducing a new hierarchy. The resulting limits on the size of the compact dimension can be as low as TeV-1

  19. Flavor constraints on split fermion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the contributions to rare processes that arise in models where the standard model fermions are localized at distinct points in compact extra dimensions. Tree-level flavor changing neutral current interactions for the Kaluza-Klein gauge field excitations are induced in such models, and hence strong constraints are thought to exist on the size of the additional dimensions. We find a general parametrization of the model which does not depend on any specific fermion geography and show that typical values of the parameters can reproduce the fermion hierarchy pattern. Using this parametrization, we reexamine the contributions to neutral meson mixing, rare meson decays, and single top-quark production in e+e- collisions. We find that it is possible to evade the stringent bounds for natural regions of the parameters, while retaining finite separations between the fermion fields and without introducing a new hierarchy. The resulting limits on the size of the compact dimension can be as low as TeV-1

  20. Development of a Beef Flavor Lexicon and Its Application to Compare Flavor Profiles and Consumer Acceptance of Grain- and Pasture-Finished Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Curtis A

    2011-01-01

    Flavor lexicons are used in sensory evaluation to determine the flavor profile of a food product. The objective of this study was to develop a flavor lexicon for cooked beef, which can then be used in various projects relating to beef quality such as studies investigating animal diet, marinating, ageing, or other enhancements. A descriptive panel of 10 people was used to develop a flavor lexicon of 18 attributes, including astringent, barny, bloody, brothy, browned, gamey, grassy, juicy, fa...

  1. Heavy Flavor Production and Energy Loss with Two-Particle Correlations at PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Engelmore, Tatia

    2009-01-01

    Heavy quarks are a valuable probe of the hot, dense medium created in a heavy ion collision, and are an important test of proposed mechanisms of energy loss. It was discovered that single non-photonic electrons are suppressed at a similar level to light hadrons, implying a comparable level of energy loss between light and heavy partons. Because theory has had a difficult time explaining the level of heavy quark energy loss, it is crucial to better understand charm and bottom suppression. Electron-hadron correlations have been used at PHENIX to study heavy flavor in both p+p and Au+Au collisions. In p+p the ratio of charm to bottom production has been measured using mass correlations through a partial reconstruction of the D meson. Electron-hadron angular correlations have also been used to study medium modification of heavy flavor, and we see hints of energy loss effects. A complementary study of correlated electron-muon pairs provides a clean measurement of heavy flavor production in a rapidity range not yet...

  2. Open heavy flavor and quarkonia measurements in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielcik Jaroslav

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the hot and dense nuclear matter produced at RHIC in heavy-ion collisions can be investigated in multiple ways by heavy flavor production. The STAR and PHENIX experiments have excellent capability to study both open heavy flavor and quarkonia. Heavy quarks are produced in early stage of the collisions and the mechanisms of their interaction with nuclear matter are not yet well understood. The open heavy flavor hadrons can be studied using electrons from their semileptonic decays or via direct reconstruction through their hadronic decay channels. The heavy quarkonia production is expected to be sequentially suppressed depending on the temperature of the produced nuclear matter. However, cold nuclear matter effects play an important role and have to be well understood. In this paper we report recent results from the RHIC heavyion program on non-photonic electrons, direct reconstruction of charm mesons, J/ψ as well as ϒ in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV.

  3. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario. PMID:24720661

  4. Randall-Sundrum models vs. supersymmetry. The different flavor signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gori, Stefania

    2010-07-15

    The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model based on flavor symmetries and models with a warped extra dimension as first proposed by Randall and Sundrum represent two of the best founded theories beyond the Standard Model. They provide two appealing solutions both to the gauge hierarchy problem and to the Standard Model flavor hierarchy problems. In this thesis we focus on a particular Randall-Sundrum model based on the custodial symmetry SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x P{sub LR} in the bulk and on two Supersymmetric flavor models: the one based on a U(1) abelian flavor symmetry, the other on a SU(3) non abelian flavor symmetry. We first analyze and compare the flavor structure of the two frameworks, showing two possible ways to address the New Physics flavor problem: warped geometry and custodial protection vs. flavor symmetry. Subsequently, we study the impact of the new particles (Kaluza-Klein states in the Randall-Sundrum model and superpartners in Supersymmetry) in the K and B meson mixings and rare decays. We perform a global numerical analysis of the new physics effects in the models in question and we show that it is possible to naturally be in agreement with all the available data on {delta}F=2 observables, even fixing the energy scale of the models to the TeV range, in order to have new particles in the reach of the LHC. We then study distinctive patterns of flavor violation which can enable future experiments to distinguish the two frameworks. In particular, the specific correlations between the CP violating asymmetry in the B{sub s}{sup 0}- anti B{sub s}{sup 0} system, the rare decays B{sub s,d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and K{yields}{pi}{nu}anti {nu} allow in principle for an experimental test of the Randall-Sundrum model and of the two Supersymmetric flavor models and a clear distinction between the two frameworks, once new data will be available. (orig.)

  5. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  6. Relaxing Constraints from Lepton Flavor Violation in 5D Flavorful Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh

    2009-01-01

    We propose new mechanisms for ameliorating the constraints on the Kaluza-Klein (KK) mass scale from charged lepton flavor violation in the framework of the Standard Model (SM) fields propagating in a warped extra dimension, especially in models accounting for neutrino data. These mechanisms utilize the extended five-dimensional (5D) electroweak gauge symmetry [SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x U(1)_X] which is already strongly motivated in order to satisfy electroweak precision tests in this framework. New choices of representations for leptons under this symmetry (naturally) allow small mixing angles for left-handed (LH) charged leptons and simultaneously large mixing angles for their SU(2)_L partners, i.e., the LH neutrinos, with the neutrino data being accounted for by the latter mixings. Enhancement of charged lepton flavor violation by the large mixing angle observed in leptonic charged currents, which is present for the minimal choice of representations where the LH charged lepton and neutrino mixing angles are simil...

  7. Broken S_3 Flavor Symmetry of Leptons and Quarks: Mass Spectra and Flavor Mixing Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhou, Shun

    2010-01-01

    We apply the discrete S_3 flavor symmetry to both lepton and quark sectors of the standard model extended by introducing one Higgs triplet and realizing the type-II seesaw mechanism for finite neutrino masses. The resultant mass matrices of charged leptons (M_l), neutrinos (M_nu), up-type quarks (M_u) and down-type quarks (M_d) have a universal form consisting of two terms: one is proportional to the identity matrix I and the other is proportional to the democracy matrix D. We argue that the textures of M_l, M_u and M_d are dominated by the D term, while that of M_nu is dominated by the I term. This hypothesis implies a near mass degeneracy of three neutrinos and can naturally explain why the mass matrices of charged fermions are strongly hierarchical, why the quark mixing matrix is close to I and why the lepton mixing matrix contains two large angles. We discuss a rather simple perturbation ansatz to break the S_3 symmetry and obtain more realistic mass spectra of leptons and quarks as well as their flavor m...

  8. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APS sensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay

  9. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasman, C.; Beavis, D.; Debbe, R.; Lee, J.H.; Levine, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Xu, Z.; Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Cendejas, R.; Huang, H.; Sakai, S.; Whitten, C.; Joseph, J.; Keane, D.; Margetis, S.; Rykov, V.; Zhang, W.M.; Bystersky, M.; Kapitan, J.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Baudot, J.; Hu-Guo, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Winter, M.; Kelsey, J.; Milner, R.; Plesko, M.; Redwine, R.; Simon, F.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Anderssen, E.; Dong, X.; Greiner, L.; Matis, H.S.; Morgan, S.; Ritter, H.G.; Rose, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Singh, R.P.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Thomas, J.H.; Tram, V.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Xu, N.; Hirsch, A.; Srivastava, B.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Bichsel, H.

    2008-02-25

    The STAR Collaboration proposes to construct a state-of-the-art microvertex detector,the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT), utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precision measurement of the yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. This will be accomplished through topological identification of D mesons by reconstruction of their displaced decay vertices with a precision of approximately 50 mu m in p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions. The HFT consists of 4 layers of silicon detectors grouped into two sub-systems with different technologies, guaranteeing increasing resolution when tracking from the TPC and the Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) towards the vertex of the collision. The Intermediate Silicon Tracker (IST), consisting of two layers of single-sided strips, is located inside the SSD. Two layers of Silicon Pixel Detector (PIXEL) are inside the IST. The PIXEL detectors have the resolution necessary for a precision measurement of the displaced vertex. The PIXEL detector will use CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS), an innovative technology never used before in a collider experiment. The APSsensors are only 50 mu m thick and at a distance of only 2.5 cm from the interaction point. This opens up a new realm of possibilities for physics measurements. In particular, a thin detector (0.28percent radiation length per layer) in STAR makes it possible to do the direct topological reconstruction of open charm hadrons down to very low pT by the identification of the charged daughters of the hadronic decay.

  10. PROSES RECOVERY BAHAN FLAVOR PADA LIMBAH CAIR PENGOLAHAN RAJUNGAN DENGAN TEKNOLOGI REVERSE OSMOSIS [Recovery of Flavor Components from Blue Crab Processing Wastewater by Reverse Osmosis Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uju

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The waste water of blue crab pasteurization is potential to cause environmental pollution. It contained TSS 206.5 mg/L, BOD 7,092.6 mg/L and COD 51,000 mg/L. However the was te water also contains an interesting flavor compounds, which composed of 0.23% non protein nitrogen and 17 amino acids with the highest being glutamic acid. In this work, pre-filtration step using filter of 0.3 µ size followed by reverse osmosis has been used to reduce these pollutions load and recover the flavor compound. During pre-filtration steps, TSS was reduced to 74.8% so the turbidity increased up to 31%. After reverse osmosis process, BOD, and COD were decreased more than 99%, and there was no amino acids detected in the permeate stream. Factors that affect performance of reverse osmosis were transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH. Higher transmembrane pressure, temperature and pH resulted in the higher permeate flux.

  11. Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposure of human cultured airway epithelial cells: Ion transport effects and metabolism of butter flavoring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Goldsmith, W Travis; Shimko, Michael J; Wells, J R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willard, Patsy A; Case, Shannon L; Thompson, Janet A; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of butter flavoring by workers in the microwave popcorn industry may result in “popcorn workers' lung.” In previous in vivo studies rats exposed for 6 h to vapor from the flavoring agents, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, acquired flavoring concentration-dependent damage of the upper airway epithelium and airway hyporeactivity to inhaled methacholine. Because ion transport is essential for lung fluid balance,we hypothesized that alterations in ion transport may be an early manifestation of butter flavoring-induced toxicity.We developed a system to expose cultured human bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBEs) to flavoring vapors. NHBEs were exposed for 6 h to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione vapors (25 or ≥ 60 ppm) and the effects on short circuit current and transepithelial resistance (Rt) were measured. Immediately after exposure to 25 ppm both flavorings reduced Na+ transport,without affecting Cl- transport or Na+,K+-pump activity. Rt was unaffected. Na+ transport recovered 18 h after exposure. Concentrations (100-360 ppm) of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione reported earlier to give rise in vivo to epithelial damage, and 60 ppm, caused death of NHBEs 0 h post-exposure. Analysis of the basolateral medium indicated that NHBEs metabolize diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione to acetoin and 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, respectively. The results indicate that ion transport is inhibited transiently in airway epithelial cells by lower concentrations of the flavorings than those that result in morphological changes of the cells in vivo or in vitro. PMID:26454031

  12. Classifying and probing flavor transition mechanisms of astrophysical high energy neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future neutrino telescopes are expected to identify the flavors of astrophysical neutrinos and therefore determine the flavor ratio. The flavor ratio of astrophysical neutrinos observed at the Earth depends on both the initial flavor ratio at the source and flavor transitions taking place during the propagations of these neutrinos. We propose a model-independent way to parameterize the above flavor transitions, including standard oscillations and beyond. A systematical way is also described to probe those mechanisms taking advantage of R ≡ φμ/(φe + φτ) and S ≡ φe/eτ, the observables in neutrino telescope measurements.

  13. Adding Flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Martin; Meyer, Rene; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-01-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a C4/Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional N=6 supersymmetric U(Nc) x U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 x S7/Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero N=3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one N=(0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by...

  14. The Propagation Matrix and Flavor Triangle for Cosmic Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Lingjun; Weiler, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The Tribimaximal (TBM) ansatz for neutrino mixing has recently been invalidated. Since the TBM ansatz yielded a vanishing determinant for the neutrino propagation matrix, $\\mathscr{P}$, the door is now open for a non-vanishing determinant, i.e., for an invertible $\\mathscr{P}$, which would allow an inference of flavor ratios at cosmic sources directly from measurements at Earthly observatories. However, we show that the determinant of $\\mathscr{P}$ can still vanish if the CP-violating phase $\\delta$ is equal to a unique value determined by the three leptonic mixing angles. Validation of this result would beg for a new symmetry in the three-neutrino sector. Neutrino flavor ratios evolve according to this $\\mathscr{P}$ matrix. The evolved flavor ratios are best exhibited in a triangular flavor diagram. We prove a theorem, that the area of this Earthly flavor triangle is proportional to the determinant of the $\\mathscr{P}$ matrix. This theorem therefore relates the triangle's area to the invertiblity of $\\mathsc...

  15. Lepton Flavor and Nonuniversality from Minimal Composite Higgs Setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Adrián; Goertz, Florian

    2016-06-24

    We present a new class of models of lepton flavor in the composite Higgs framework. Following the concept of minimality, they lead to a rich phenomenology in good agreement with the current experimental picture. Because of a unification of the right-handed leptons, our scenario is very predictive and can naturally lead to a violation of lepton-flavor universality in neutral current interactions. We will show that, in particular, the anomaly in R_{K}=B(B→Kμ^{+}μ^{-})/B(B→Ke^{+}e^{-}), found by LHCb, can be addressed, while other constraints from quark- and lepton-flavor physics are met. In fact, the minimal structure of the setup allows for the implementation of a very powerful flavor protection, which avoids the appearance of new sources of flavor-changing neutral currents to very good approximation. Finally, the new lepton sector provides a parametrically enhanced correction to the Higgs mass, such that the need for ultralight top partners is weakened considerably, linking the mass of the latter with the size of the neutrino masses. PMID:27391714

  16. Reaching the Chiral Limit in Many Flavor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfratz, Anna; Cheng, Anqi; Petropoulos, Gregory; Schaich, David

    We present a brief overview of our recent lattice studies of SU(3) gauge theory with Nf = 8 and 12 fundamental fermions, including some new and yet-unpublished results. To explore relatively unfamiliar systems beyond lattice QCD, we carry out a wide variety of investigations with the goal of synthesizing the results to better understand the non-perturbative dynamics of these systems. All our findings are consistent with conformal infrared dynamics in the 12-flavor system, but with 8 flavors we observe puzzling behavior that requires further investigation. Our new Monte Carlo renormalization group technique exploits the Wilson flow to obtain more direct predictions of a 12-flavor IR fixed point. Studies of Nf = 12 bulk and finite-temperature transitions also indicate IR conformality, while our current results for the 8-flavor phase diagram do not yet provide clear signs of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. From the Dirac eigenvalue spectrum we extract the mass anomalous dimension γm, and predict γ*m = 0:32(3) at the 12-flavor fixed point. The Nf = 8 system again shows interesting behavior, with a large anomalous dimension across a wide range of energy scales. We use the eigenvalue density to predict the chiral condensate, and compare this approach with direct and partially-quenched < overline ψ ψ rangle measurements.

  17. Lepton Flavor and Nonuniversality from Minimal Composite Higgs Setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Adrián; Goertz, Florian

    2016-06-01

    We present a new class of models of lepton flavor in the composite Higgs framework. Following the concept of minimality, they lead to a rich phenomenology in good agreement with the current experimental picture. Because of a unification of the right-handed leptons, our scenario is very predictive and can naturally lead to a violation of lepton-flavor universality in neutral current interactions. We will show that, in particular, the anomaly in RK=B (B →K μ+μ-)/B (B →K e+e-), found by LHCb, can be addressed, while other constraints from quark- and lepton-flavor physics are met. In fact, the minimal structure of the setup allows for the implementation of a very powerful flavor protection, which avoids the appearance of new sources of flavor-changing neutral currents to very good approximation. Finally, the new lepton sector provides a parametrically enhanced correction to the Higgs mass, such that the need for ultralight top partners is weakened considerably, linking the mass of the latter with the size of the neutrino masses.

  18. The CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project: Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  19. Location, cropping system, and genetic background influence carrot performance including top height and flavor in the CIOA (Carrot Improvement for Organic Agriculture) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. organic farmers surveyed listed improved seedling germination and Alternaria leaf blight resistance as top breeding priorities for field production of organic carrots. Nematode resistance is also very important for growers. Flavor was deemed the most important consumer trait to improve in carro...

  20. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. But due to the absence of the measurement of B-mesons and precise measurement of D-mesons, it is difficult to separate bottom and charm contributions experimentally in current non-photonic electron measurements for both spectra and elliptic flow v2. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a study on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. (author)