WorldWideScience

Sample records for affecting clean coal

  1. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  2. Clean coal technologies market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  3. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  4. Wanted: Clean Coal Burning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China is intent on developing clean coal burning technology, an objective it can achieve through installing desulfurization facilities at coal-burning power plants that will control SO2 emissions and environmental pollution. According to kuo Yi, deputy director general of the Department of Science and Technology of the State Environmental Protection Agency, China is a major coal-buming country:

  5. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  6. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately

  7. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  8. Clean Coal Initiatives in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Availability of, and access to, coal is a crucial element of modern economies and it helps pave the way for human development. Accordingly, the thermal power sector and steel industries have been given a high priority in the national planning processes in India and a concerted focus on enhancing these sectors have resulted in significant gain in generation and availability of electricity and steel in the years since independence. To meet the need of huge demand of power coal is excavated. The process of excavation to the use of coal is potential enough to degrade the environment. Coal Mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities directly and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coal field in India have become derelict due to abandoned and active opencast and underground mines. The study is pursued to illustrate the facts which show the urgent need to clean coal mining in India.

  9. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  10. Recent Advances in Precombustion Coal Cleaning Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiao-HungChiang; DaxinHe

    1994-01-01

    The mineral matter in coal constitutes a major impediment to the direct use of coal in power plants.A concerted effort has been mounted to reduce the ash/sulfur contents in product coal to meet the ever more stringent environmental regulations.In recent years,significant advances have taken place in fine coal cleaning technologies.A review of recent developments in aveanced physical,chemical and biological processes for deep-cleaning of fine coal is presented.

  11. The NOXSO clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.B.; Woods, M.C.; Friedrich, J.J.; Browning, J.P. [NOXSO Corp., Bethel Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The NOXSO Clean Coal Project will consist of designing, constructing, and operating a commercial-scale flue-gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO Process. The process is a waste-free, dry, post-combustion flue-gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas from coal-fired boilers. The NOXSO plant will be constructed at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana and will treat all the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} when the boiler is fired with 3.4 weight percent sulfur, southern-Indiana coal. The NOXSO plant by-product will be elemental sulfur. The elemental sulfur will be shipped to Olin Corporation`s Charleston, Tennessee facility for additional processing. As part of the project, a liquid SO{sub 2} plant has been constructed at this facility to convert the sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The project utilizes a unique burn-in-oxygen process in which the elemental sulfur is oxidized to SO{sub 2} in a stream of compressed oxygen. The SO{sub 2} vapor will then be cooled and condensed. The burn-in-oxygen process is simpler and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. The liquid SO{sub 2} plant produces 99.99% pure SO{sub 2} for use at Olin`s facilities. The $82.8 million project is co-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology program. The DOE manages the project through the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC).

  12. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2009 is to provide an updated status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial-scale demonstrations of clean coal technologies (CCT). These demonstrations have been performed under the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Program Update 2009 provides: (1) a discussion of the role of clean coal technology demonstrations in improving the nation’s energy security and reliability, while protecting the environment using the nation’s most abundant energy resource—coal; (2) a summary of the funding and costs of the demonstrations; and (3) an overview of the technologies being demonstrated, along with fact sheets for projects that are active, recently completed, or recently discontinued.

  13. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains paper on the following topics: coal combustion/coal processing; advanced electric power generation systems; combined nitrogen oxide/sulfur dioxide control technologies; and emerging clean coal issues and environmental concerns. These paper have been cataloged separately elsewhere

  14. Clean Processing and Utilization of Coal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如清; 王海峰

    2006-01-01

    The dominant status of coal on the energy production and consumption structure of China will not be changed in the middle period of this century. To realize highly efficient utilization of coal, low pollution and low cost are great and impendent tasks. These difficult problems can be almost resolved through establishing large-scale pithead power stations using two-stage highly efficient dry coal-cleaning system before coal burning, which is a highly efficient, clean and economical strategy considering the current energy and environmental status of China. All these will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  15. Prospects for coal and clean coal technology in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This report examines the current energy outlook for the Philippines in regard not only to coal but also other energy resources. The history of the power sector, current state of play and future plans to meet the increasing energy demand from a growing population are discussed. There is also analysis of the trends for coal demand and production, imports and exports of coal and the types of coal-fired power stations that have been built. This includes examination of the legislation involving coal and the promotion of clean coal technologies.

  16. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  17. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  18. Challenges and opportunities for clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given of some presentations and discussions at the Sixth Clean Coal Technology Conference held in Reno, Nevada, 28 April - 1 May 1998. Accomplishments in 18 projects in the US DOE's Clean Coal Technology Programme were reported upon. The CCT Program has provided a portfolio of technologies to deal effectively with acid rain concerns but challenges remain in achieving ozone standards (an NOx control issue), fine particulate control of PM2.5 and CO2 emission reduction per the Kyoto Protocol in the absence of trading between developed and developing countries under a proposed Clean Development Mechanism and/or sequestration. 9 photos

  19. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  20. Economic Feasibility Of Clean Coal Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquín, Miguel; Clemente Jul, María del Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Reéent developments in the energy sector prove that we are wítnessing a shift in the place of commodities withm global economy. Coal as a source of heat and power has kept and is meant to keep its hegemony in Europe and the USA; this along with recent encouraged fight against global warming and the factual lower yield of coal teclmologies claims for the review of these and the development of lesspollutant processes per uñií of useful energy, so-called Clean Coal Technologies. This document pr...

  1. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  2. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Baruya [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Malaysia is a regular participant in world coal trade. Coal production is a modest 1 Mt/y but, as an importer, the country trades some 30 Mt/y. As one of ASEAN's most prosperous economies, the expected growth in electricity demand is inevitable. For many years the country has been dependent on gas-fired power, much of which is in the form of expensive single cycle gas turbines. However, coal-fired power has emerged as an important provider of power in a country desperate to improve its energy security. This report looks at how coal-fired power has developed, and examines the current technologies deployed in the country. It is the fourth in a series of reports by the lEA Clean Coal Centre on ASEAN countries, following Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Application of microorganisms in coal cleaning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure energy supply is one of the basic pre-requisites for a sound economic system, sustained standard and quality of life and eventually for the social well-being of each individual. For a progressive country like Pakistan, it is obligatory that all energy options must be pursued vigorously including coal utilization, which given the relatively large resources available, is considered to be one of the major options for the next few hundred years. Bioprocessing of coal in an emerging technology which has started to receive considerable research attention. Recent research activities involving coal cleaning, direct coal conversion, and indirect conversion of coal-derived materials have generated a plethora of facts regarding biochemistry, chemistry, and thermodynamic behavior of coal, in that its bioprocessing is on the verge of becoming and acceptable means to great coals. In this research report, investigations pertaining to the various aspects of coal bio processing, including desulfurization and depyritization are discussed. Bituminous coals varying in total sulfur contents of 3-6% were depyritized more than 90% by mesophilic acidophiles like Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thio oxidans and thermophilic Sulfolobus brierleyi. The archaebacterium, Sulfolobus brierleyi was found to desulfurize inorganic and organic sulfur components of the coal. Conditions were established under which it can remove more than 30% of the organic sulfur present in the coals. Heterotrophic microorganisms including oxenic and soil isolates were also employed for studying sulfurization. A soil isolate, Oil-2, was found to remove more than 70% dibenzothiophenic sulfur present in an oil-water emulsion (1:20 ratio). Pseudomonas putida and the bacterium oil-2 also remove 60-70% organic sulfur present in the shale-oil. Preliminary results indicate the presence of putatively known Kodama's pathway in the oil-2. The mass balance for sulfate indicated the possibility of the presence

  4. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  5. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world's most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market

  6. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  7. New stage of clean coal technology in Japan; Clean coal technology no aratana tenkai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Y. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The paper described the positioning and new development of clean coal technology. Coal is an important resource which supplies approximately 30% of the energy consumed in all the world. In the Asian/Pacific region, especially, a share of coal in energy is high, around 60% of the world, and it is indispensable to continue using coal which is abundantly reserved. Japan continues using coal as an important energy among petroleum substituting energies taking consideration of the global environment, and is making efforts for development and promotion of clean coal technology aiming at further reduction of environmental loads. Moreover, in the Asian region where petroleum depends greatly upon outside the region, it is extremely important for stabilization of Japan`s energy supply that coal producing countries in the region promote development/utilization of their coal resources. For this, it is a requirement for Japan to further a coal policy having an outlook of securing stable coal supply/demand in the Asian region. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  9. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  10. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P.

    2009-06-15

    Indonesia has become the largest exporter of steam coal in the world, but the long-term future of coal exports is being brought into question as domestic demand is projected to grow by a significant amount, from 40-50 Mt/y in 2007 to more than 100 Mt/y by 2013, and even higher beyond 2013. Exports reached 200-210 Mt in 2008, and is set to rise in the future. Import volumes are negligible, while indigenous production was estimated to be around 240-260 Mt in 2008. Illegal mining is being addressed and in the past could have accounted for at least 20 Mt/y of production, but obtaining reliable export and production figures as a result is therefore not straight forward. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. This fact coupled with robust GDP growth means there is more pressure on the state-controlled electricity industry to invest and build an adequate infrastructure to meet the rising demand for power. Part of this investment is being driven by government policy to build 10 GWe of coal-fired power by 2010 and a second tranche by 2013. However, the investment programme, commonly known as the 'crash programme' is more likely to be delayed by 2-3 years. Nevertheless, the likely 20-30 Mt/y or so of additional coal demand from the first tranche alone will put pressure on domestic coal producers to meet expanding demand both at home and abroad for low rank and exportable bituminous coals. This report covers four main topics, the Indonesian coal industry, the power generating sector and its use of clean coal technology, changes in coal demand and its impact on international trade, and finally a brief look at upgrading low rank coals within the country. 80 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  12. The Healy clean coal project: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.B.; McCrohan, D.V. [Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the US Department of Energy under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program is currently in construction. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the US Department of Energy. Construction is scheduled to be completed in August of 1997, with startup activity concluding in December of 1997. Demonstration, testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of NOx, SO{sub 2} and particulates from this 50 megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards. The project status, its participants, a description of the technology to be demonstrated, and the operational and performance goals of this project are presented.

  13. Adoption of clean coal technologies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is a major Indian energy resource. It is being utilized in conventional power stations now. Considerable coal resources are not located near load centers and therefore involve transport by rail. India is becoming more concerned with environmental matters and particularly with the health of its population. Clean coal electricity generation technologies are at the commercial demonstration stage in Europe and the USA in unit capacities appropriate to Indian needs. These technologies minimize environmental problems and promise 25% more efficiency. This competitive technology can be introduced to India in greenfield power stations, in repowering older power stations and in providing an enviable alternative for existing and new power stations presently depending on liquid or gas as fuel. (author)

  14. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  15. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  16. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis;

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning....... Chemical cleaning can be optimized with regard to electricity, heat and methanol use for the hydrothermal washing step, and could have environmental impact comparable to that of physical cleaning if the overall resource intensiveness of chemical cleaning is reduced by a factor 5 to 10, depending...

  17. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Completed Projects (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  18. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2003 (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2003-12-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The report addresses the roles of the programs, implementation, funding and costs, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  19. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  20. Clean coal technology deployment: From today into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papay, L.T.; Trocki, L.K.; McKinsey, R.R. [Bechtel Technology and Consulting, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s clean coal technology (CCT) program succeeded in developing more efficient, cleaner, coal-fired electricity options. The Department and its private partners succeeded in the demonstration of CCT -- a major feat that required more than a decade of commitment between them. As with many large-scale capital developments and changes, the market can shift dramatically over the course of the development process. The CCT program was undertaken in an era of unstable oil and gas prices, concern over acid rain, and guaranteed markets for power suppliers. Regulations, fuel prices, emergency of competing technologies, and institutional factors are all affecting the outlook for CCT deployment. The authors identify the major barriers to CCT deployment and then introduce some possible means to surmount the barriers.

  1. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  2. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program's fourth solicitation.

  3. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  4. An assessment of cleaning amenability of salt range coal through physical cleaning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative coal samples from the eastern salt range (Modern Engineering and Kishor coal mines, Pakistan) and the central salt range (Punjmin coal mine, Pakistan) were collected and examined for their chemical composition. The chemical characteristics indicate that the salt range coal belongs to sub-bituminous category. Washability analysis on selected coal samples (6.70 , 0.212 mm) using zinc chloride solution with a specific gravity from 1.3 to 1.7 were executed. The results classify the central salt range coal as easily washable while, the Eastern salt range coal as moderately difficult to wash. Jigging, shaking table and spiral techniques were applied to check the cleaning amenability of the salt range coal through these techniques. Among these techniques, shaking table revealed the most promising results for all the three coals. Punjmin coal showed the maximum rejection of ash of 55% and that of total sulphur of 74% with a recovery of 46%. (author)

  5. Cleaning of South African coal using a compound dry cleaning apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haibin; Luo Zhenfu; Zhao Yuemin; Wu Wanchang; Zhang Cuiyu; Dai Ningning

    2011-01-01

    The compound dry cleaning principle is briefly described. A beneficiation test on South African coal was conducted using a model compound dry cleaning apparatus. Excellent results were obtained and the optimum operating parameters were determined. They are: an amplitude of 3.0 ram, a motor frequency of 47.5 Hz, an air volume of 50%, a transverse angle of 7°, and a longitudinal angle of -2°. These conditions yield a clean coal containing 11% ash and a coal production of 75%. The organic efficiency, η, is 95.86%. These results show that the South African coal can be separated effectively by compound dry cleaning, which will popularize the compound dry cleaning method.

  6. METC Clean Coal Technology status -- 1995 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, L.K.

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is assisting the private sector by funding demonstration programs to validate that CCT technologies are a low-risk, environmentally attractive, cost-competitive option for utility and industrial users. Since 1987, DOE has awarded 45 CCT projects worth a total value of $7 billion (including more than $2.3 billion of DOE funding). Within the CCT Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is responsible for 17 advanced power generation systems and major industrial applications. METC is an active partner in advancement of these technologies via direct CCT funding and via close cooperation and coordination of internal and external research and development activities. By their nature, METC projects are typically 6-10 years in duration and, in some cases, very complex in nature. However, as a result of strong commercial partnerships, progress in the development and commercialization of major utility and industrial projects has, and will continue to occur. It is believed that advanced power generation systems and industrial applications are on the brink of commercial deployment. A status of METC CCT activities will be presented. Two projects have completed their operational phase, operations are underway at one project (two others are in the latter stages of construction/shakedown), four projects are in construction, six restructured. Also, present a snapshot of development activities that are an integral part of the advancement of these CCT initiatives will be presented.

  7. Clean coal technologies: Research, development, and demonstration program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, has structured an integrated program for research, development, and demonstration of clean coal technologies that will enable the nation to use its plentiful domestic coal resources while meeting environmental quality requirements. The program provides the basis for making coal a low-cost, environmentally sound energy choice for electric power generation and fuels production. These programs are briefly described.

  8. Physical Cleaning of Lakhra Coal by Dense Medium Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Ali Channa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using ?Dense Medium Separation? technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41%, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from -5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4% respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan

  9. DRY CLEANING OF COAL WITH AIR DENSE MEDIUM FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清如; 杨毅; 余智敏; 李建明

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental study of dry cleaning of coal with air dense medium fluidized bed. This technique opens up an efficient way of coal separation for vast areas in the country where water resources are in short supply or coals tend to slime seriously in wet process. Tests show that it can separate any kind of coal (6--50mm) efficiently. The probable error E, can reach 0.05--0.08. The separating density can be adjusted in the range of 1.0--2.0 g/cm3. This technique brings about enormous economic benifits.

  10. A clean coal: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report comments the evolution of coal demand which has doubled during the last 35 years for different reasons (increase of electricity production, development of China and India), but is still based on local production although coal international trade increased indeed quicker than coal demand. It notices that there is still a lot of coal available for the future, and that demand will keep on increasing. It outlines that coal will have to reduce its impacts on the environment, and presents the technologies which will allow this reduction. It also presents the technologies for CO2 capture and storage (CCS), and evokes its regulatory issues and its environmental impacts. Some research and development projects in CCS in different countries (Europe, Germany, United States, Australia) are presented. Finally, it stresses the importance of a global deployment of much less polluting technologies to limit greenhouse gas emissions

  11. Clean Coal Technologies - Accelerating Commerical and Policy Drivers for Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Coal is and will remain the world's most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel. Burning coal, however, can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide, Nox and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. Since the 1970s, various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies, with the result that costs have fallen and performance has improved. More recently, the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). This short report from the IEA Coal Industry Advisory Board (CIAB) presents industry's considered recommendations on how to accelerate the development and deployment of this important group of new technologies and to grasp their very signifi cant potential to reduce emissions from coal use. It identifies an urgent need to make progress with demonstration projects and prove the potential of CCS through government-industry partnerships. Its commercialisation depends upon a clear legal and regulatory framework,public acceptance and market-based financial incentives. For the latter, the CIAB favours cap-and-trade systems, price supports and mandatory feed-in tariffs, as well as inclusion of CCS in the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism to create demand in developing economies where coal use is growing most rapidly. This report offers a unique insight into the thinking of an industry that recognises both the threats and growing opportunities for coal in a carbon constrained world.

  12. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  13. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  14. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  15. Geophysics and clean development mechanisms (CDM) - Applications to coal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Chen-Brauchler, D.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Lambrecht, A.; Rüter, H.; Fischer, C.; Bing, K.

    2009-04-01

    The largest hard coal resources worldwide are found in the coal belt through Northern China and Inner Mongolia. Because of still existing technological problems and a steeply rising demand of coal in this region the most coal fires occur. Once established, coal fires are difficult to extinguish, destroy large amounts of coal and are major challenge to the environment. The Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" conducts field investigations, laboratory measurements and experiments as well as numerical modelling of coal fires in close co-operation with Chinese coal fire fighting departments. A special task within this project is to help the Chinese partners to develop methodologies and project designs to extinguish coal fires under the frame of the Kyoto protocol. In practise, this task requires a robust method to estimate the CO2 baseline of coal fires including fire detection and monitoring. In order to estimate the fire volume, fire propagation and the resulting CO2 exhaust gas volume, different types of geophysical measurements are necessary as near surface temperature and gas measurements, ground penetrating radar etc. Three different types of CO2 exhaust gas estimations from coal fires are discussed: the energy approach, the volume approach and the direct approach. The energy approach highly depends on accurate near surface and gas temperature plus the gas flux data. The volume approach is based on radar and near surface geomagnetic surveying and monitoring. The direct approach relies on the exact knowledge of gas fluxes and volumes. All approaches need reference data as regional to local weather data and petrological parameters of the burning coal. The approaches are evaluated for their use in CO2 baseline estimations and thus for clean development mechanisms.

  16. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  17. Prospects For Coal And Clean Coal Technologies In Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    The coal sector in Kazakhstan is said to have enough reserves to last over 100 years, but the forecasted reserves are expected to last several hundreds of years. This makes investing in the fuel and energy sector of the country an attractive option for many international and private organisations. The proven on-shore reserves will ensure extraction for over 30 years for oil and 75 years for gas. The future development of the domestic oil sector depends mainly on developing the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The coal sector, while not a top priority for the Kazakh government, puts the country among the world's top ten coal-rich countries. Kazakhstan contains Central Asia's largest recoverable coal reserves. In future, the development of the raw materials base will be achieved through enriching and improving the quality of the coal and the deep processing of coal to obtain fluid fuel and synthetic substances. Developing shale is also topical. The high concentration of methane in coal layers makes it possible to extract it and utilise it on a large scale. However, today the country's energy sector, which was largely established in the Soviet times, has reached its potential. Kazakhstan has about 18 GW of installed electricity capacity, of which about 80% is coal fired, most of it built before 1990. Being alert to the impending problems, the government is planning to undertake large-scale modernisation of the existing facilities and construct new ones during 2015-30. The project to modernise the national electricity grid aims to upgrade the power substations to ensure energy efficiency and security of operation. The project will result in installation of modern high-voltage equipment, automation and relay protection facilities, a dispatch control system, monitoring and data processing and energy management systems, automated electricity metering system, as well as a digital corporate telecommunication network.

  18. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruya, P. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    Vietnam's energy economy is largely served by traditional biofuels and oil products. Within the power generating sector, hydropower and gas-fired power dominate. However, Vietnam still maintains a 40 Mt/y coal industry, parts of which have recently undergone a long overdue programme of renovation and expansion. Vietnam has been a successful exporter of anthracite, with more than half of the country's production being shipped or barged to steel mills in Japan or power stations in southern China, as well as most other Far Eastern coal importers. The industry is due to take a different form. Opencast mining has recently accounted for around 60% of production but this mining method could be phased out as reserves become more difficult and costly to extract. A shift to underground mining is expected, with a greater emphasis on more modern and mechanised production techniques. Coal is located mainly in the coalfields in Quang Ninh in the north easternmost province of Vietnam. The lower rank reserves located within the Red River coalfields, close to the existing anthracite operations, may yield many more millions of tonnes of coal for exploitation. Underground coal gasification could possibly be exploited in the deeper reserves of the Red River Basin. While coal production could rapidly change in future years, the power generation sector is also transforming with the country's 12,000 MWe development programme for new coal-fired power capacity. The economy suffers from a threat of power shortages due to a lack of generating and transmission capacity, while inefficiencies blight both energy production and end-users. Delivering power to the regions of growth remains difficult as the economy and the demand for power outpaces power generation. While hydroelectric power is being pursued, coal is therefore becoming a growing factor in the future prosperity of the Vietnamese economy. 111 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Study on characteristics of pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing of cleaned coal logs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu; LIN Qun; TANG Jun; LIU Tong-cheng

    2006-01-01

    As special cylindrical briquettes of coal for long distance pipeline transportation and directly cleaned combustion the cleaned coal logs should possess two characteristics of transportation in pipeline and cleaned combustion. In order to make cleaned coal logs a rational technology for manufacturing, cleaned coal logs was designed and compound sulfur fixing binders with high effects of binding and sulfur-fixing was selected and combined. In addition, by means of characteristic experiments of strength, wear, waterproof and sulfur-fixing five different cleaned coal logs made with different compound sulfur fixing binders in different compaction conditions was tested and measured. Experimental results indicated that the manufacturing technology of cleaned coal logs was reasonable and the combination of compound sulfur fixing binders was scientific. Cleaned coal logs made up with the fourth group of coal mixture had high strength, good waterproof property, efficient sulfur-fixing, good characteristic of transportation, and achieved the performance requirement for pipeline transportation and sulfur fixing.

  20. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  1. Development of clean coal technologies in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M. [Electric Power Research Industry, Yokosuka (Japan). Central Research Inst.

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, we have to import almost of primary energy resources from all over the world. We depend on foreign countries for 96% of our primary energy supply. Following the two oil crises in the 1970s, Japan has diversified its energy resources through increased use of nuclear energy, natural gas and coal as well as the promotion of energy efficiency and conservation.

  2. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2001-04-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  3. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    2002-07-30

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results. Also includes Power Plant Improvement Initiative Projects.

  4. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    1999-03-01

    Annual report on the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program). The report address the role of the CCT Program, implementation, funding and costs, accomplishments, project descriptions, legislative history, program history, environmental aspects, and project contacts. The project descriptions describe the technology and provides a brief summary of the demonstration results.

  5. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  6. PFBC - Clean coal technology status and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 4 PFBC (Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion) plants in operation (Sweden, Spain, US, Japan), utilizing five of ABB's P200 PFBC modules, with a total of 53,000 hours on coal. Results show that the PFBC process and its main specific components do function as intended over the full load range. Environmental performance has been as expected or better (sulfur and NOx emissions). Some technical problems have been found and corrected, such as a high cycle fatigue of blades for the variable speed low pressure turbine; the shape and the material of the blades have been modified, and resonance frequencies avoided. Other PFBC projects (Japan) are presented. 3 tabs

  7. Physical cleaning of lakhra coal by dense medium separation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using 'Dense Medium Separation' technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine) coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41 %, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from-5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4 % respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan. (author)

  8. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.

  9. Separation of mercury in industrial processes of Polish hard steam coals cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wierzchowski Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal use is regarded as one of main sources of anthropogenic propagation of mercury in the environment. The coal cleaning is listed among methods of the mercury emission reduction. The article concerns the statistical assessment of mercury separation between coal cleaning products. Two industrial processes employed in the Polish coal preparation plants are analysed: coal cleaning in heavy media vessels and coal cleaning in jigs. It was found that the arithmetic mean mercury content in coarse and medium coal size fractions for clean coal from heavy media vessels, amounts 68.9 μg/kg, and most of the results lay below the mean value, while for rejects it amounts 95.5 μg/kg. It means that it is for around 25 μg/kg greater than in the clean coal. The arithmetic mean mercury content in raw coal smalls amounts around 118 mg/kg. The cleaning of smalls in jigs results in clean coal and steam coal blends characterized by mean mercury content 96.8 μg/kg and rejects with mean mercury content 184.5 μg/kg.

  10. Clean coal technology demonstration program: Program update 1996-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (known as the CCT Program) reached a significant milestone in 1996 with the completion of 20 of the 39 active projects. The CCT Program is responding to a need to demonstrate and deploy a portfolio of technologies that will assure the U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 297 billion tons could continue to supply the nation`s energy needs economically and in a manner that meets the nation`s environmental objectives. This portfolio of technologies includes environmental control devices that contributed to meeting the accords on transboundary air pollution recommended by the Special Envoys on Acid Rain in 1986. Operational, technical, environmental, and economic performance information and data are now flowing from highly efficient, low-emission, advanced power generation technologies that will enable coal to retain its prominent role into the next millennium. Further, advanced technologies are emerging that will enhance the competitive use of coal in the industrial sector, such as in steelmaking. Coal processing technologies will enable the entire coal resource base to be used while complying with environmental requirements. These technologies are producing products used by utilities and industrial processes. The capability to coproduce products, such as liquid and solid fuels, electricity, and chemicals, is being demonstrated at a commercial scale by projects in the CCT Program. In summary, this portfolio of technologies is satisfying the national need to maintain a multifuel energy mix in which coal is a key component because of its low-cost, availability, and abundant supply within the nation`s borders.

  11. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  12. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootten, J.M. [Peabody Holding Co., Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  13. International prospects for clean coal technologies (Focus on Asia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaspy, D.T. [Southern Energy, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to propose Asia as a focus market for commercialization of CCT`s; describe the principles for successful penetration of CCT`s in the international market; and summarize prospects for CCT`s in Asia and other international markets. The paper outlines the following: Southern Company`s clean coal commitment; acquisition of Consolidated Electric Power Asia (CEPA); the prospects for CCT`s internationally; requirements for CCT`s widespread commercialization; CEPA`s application of CCT`s; and gas turbine power plants as a perfect example of a commercialization driver.

  14. US Department of Energy first annual clean coal technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first public review of the US DOE/Industry co-funded program to demonstrate the commercial readiness of Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) was held at Cleveland, Ohio Sept. 22--24, 1992. The objectives were to provide electric utilities, independent power producers, and potential foreign users information on the DOE-supported CCT projects including status, results, and technology performance potential; to further understanding of the institutional, financial, and technical considerations in applying CCTs to Clean Air Act compliance strategies; to discuss to export market, financial and institutional assistance, and the roles of government and industry in pursuing exports of CCTs; and to facilitate meetings between domestic and international attendees to maximize export opportunities

  15. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  16. Analysis and Research of Factors Affecting Coal Mining with Plough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘过兵; 陈胜利

    2002-01-01

    Coal mining with ploughs is an ideal coal mining technology for thin a nd thinner coal seams. The existence conditions of coal seams are different for each other, which affects coal mining with ploughs to different degrees, and the application results are also different. The authors analyze the affecting factors by means of mathematical methods. The research is useful to the wide appli cation of ploughs.

  17. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  18. Applying environmental externalities to US Clean Coal Technologies for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin, including Indonesia, Thailand, and the Republic of China (ROC-Taiwan). The US Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies that can be applied domestically and abroad. These innovative US CCTs are expected to satisfy increasingly stringent environmental requirements while substantially improving power generation efficiencies. They should also provide distinct advantages over conventional pulverized coal-fired combustors. Finally, they are expected to be competitive with other energy options currently being considered in the region. This paper presents potential technology scenarios for Indonesia, Thailand, and the ROC-Taiwan and considers an environmental cost-benefit approach employing a newly developed method of applying environmental externalities. Results suggest that the economic benefits from increased emission control can indeed be quantified and used in cost-benefit comparisons, and that US CCTs can be very cost effective in reducing emissions

  19. Design Fuels Corporation (DFC)-Apache, Inc. coal reclamation system for the plant of the future for processing clean coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical washing processing and drying portion of the DFC process offers an efficient method for cleaning of pyritic sulfur bearing compounds which represents 25% sulfur reduction from original run-of-mine coal quality. This reduction can be augmented with the use of calcium and sodium based compounds to reduce the sulfur in many coals to produce compliance quality coal. The use of mechanical/physical methods for the removal of the pyritic material found in coal is used by the DFC process as a first step to the final application of a complete coal refuse clean-up technology based on site specific conditions of the parent coal. The paper discusses the use of the DFC process to remediate slurry ponds and tailings piles and to improve coal cleaning by gravity separation methods, flotation, hydrocyclones and spiral separators, dense media separation, water only cyclones, and oil/solvent agglomeration. A typical DFC Project is the Rosa Coal Reclamation Project which involves the development of a bituminous coal waste impoundment reclamation and washery system. The plant would be located adjacent to a coal fines pond or tailings pond and refuse pile or gob pile at a former coal strip mine in Oneonta, Alabama. Design Fuels would provide a development program by which coal waste at the Rosa Mine could be reclaimed, cleaned and sold profitably. This feedstock could be furnished from recovered coal for direct use in blast furnaces, or as feedstock for coke ovens at 250,000 tons per year at an attractive price on a 10-year contract basis. The site has an old coal washing facility on the property that will be dismantled. Some equipment salvage has been considered; and removal of the existing plant would be the responsibility of Design Fuels. The paper briefly discusses the market potential of the process

  20. Clean coal combustion: development of clean combustion technologies for residual fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel, M.F. [Electric Research Institute, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Most of the large quantities of heavy fuel oil (about 4% sulphur-content) produced in Mexican refineries are burned in power plants. More natural gas is being used, and it is estimated that by 2010, about one-third of Mexico's electricity will be produced from natural gas. As petroleum and gas reserves are depleted, power plants will consume more imported coal. To continue combustion of dirty fuels, advanced clean combustion technologies must be developed. Two feasibility projects were conducted over the period 1989-1995 on combustion of Mexican fuels in a bubbling fluidized combustor and in IGCC power plants. More recent feasibility studies for cogeneration plants in refineries are outlined. Solid fuels for IGCC and CFB are among the most important developments. Over the period 2004-2008, projects to study clean combustion of Mexican fuels will be conducted in the following areas: operational problems in IGCC plants, construction of an entrained flow gasifier for synthesis gas production and for feeding of heavy fuels and coal emulsions, and development of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models.

  1. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  2. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  3. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  4. Triboelectrostatic Separation-an Efficient Method of Producing Low Ash Clean Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新喜; 边炳鑫; 段超红; 熊建军

    2002-01-01

    At present, coal is mainly consumed as fuel. In fact, coal is also a kind of precious raw material in chemical industry on the premise that some harmful minerals should be removed from coal. The paper presents the results of the research on producing low ash (<2%) coal with triboelectrostatic separator used for producing high-grade active carbon. The test is conducted in bench-scale system, whose capacity is 30~100 kg/h. The results indicate that: 1) the ash content of clean coal increases with the increase of solid content of feedstock, on the contrary, the yield of clean coal is declining; 2) a high velocity may result in a good separation efficiency; 3) for the same solid content, the reunion caused by intermolecular force makes the separation efficiency drop down when the ultra-fine coal is separated; 4) the separation efficiency is improved with the increase of electric field intensity, but there is a good optimized match between the electric field intensity and yield of clean coal; 5) a low rank coal is easy-to-wash in triboelectrostatic separation process; 6) the yield of clean coal can be enhanced and the ash decreased through adapting optimized conditions according to various coals.

  5. Coal diesel combined-cycle project. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    One of the projects selected for funding is a project for the design, construction, and operation of a nominal 90 ton-per-day 14-megawatt electrical (MWe), diesel engine-based, combined-cycle demonstration plant using coal-water fuels (CWF). The project, named the Coal Diesel Combined-Cycle Project, is to be located at a power generation facility at Easton Utilities Commission`s Plant No. 2 in Easton, Talbot County, Maryland, and will use Cooper-Bessemer diesel engine technology. The integrated system performance to be demonstrated will involve all of the subsystems, including coal-cleaning and slurrying systems; a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, a dry flue gas scrubber, and a baghouse; two modified diesel engines; a heat recovery steam generation system; a steam cycle; and the required balance of plant systems. The base feedstock for the project is bituminous coal from Ohio. The purpose of this Comprehensive Report is to comply with Public Law 102-154, which directs the DOE to prepare a full and comprehensive report to Congress on each project selected for award under the CCT-V Program.

  6. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  7. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  8. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A, Part 1. Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report evaluates the state of the art and effectiveness of physical coal cleaning as a potential strategy for controlling SO/sub x/ emissions in coal fired power generation. Coal properties which are significantly altered by physical coal cleaning were determined. The effects of the changes in properties as they relate to pulverized coal firing, fluidized bed combustion and low Btu gasification for combined cycle powered generation were studied. Available coal washability data were integrated by computer with U.S. coal reserve data. Approximately 18% of the demonstrated coal reserve were matched with washability data. Integrated data appear in the Appendix. Current coal preparation practices were reviewed. Future trends were determined. Five process flow sheets representing increasing levels of cleaning sophistication were prepared. The clean product from each flow sheet will meet U.S. EPA New Source Performance Standards. Capital and operating costs for each case were estimated. Environmental control technology and environmental impact associated with current coal preparation and cleaning operations were assessed. Physical coal cleaning is widely practiced today. Where applicable it represents the least expensive method of coal sulfur reduction. Developmental physical and chemical coal cleaning processes were studied. The chemical methods have the advantage of being able to remove both pyritic sulfur and organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Further R and D efforts will be required before commercialization of these processes.

  9. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  10. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, Frank J; Schields, Gene L; Jha, Mehesh C; Moro, Nick

    1997-09-26

    The ash in six common bituminous coals, Taggart, Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Indiana VII, Sunnyside and Hiawatha, could be liberated by fine grinding to allow preparation of clean coal meeting premium fuel specifications (< 1- 2 lb/ MBtu ash and <0.6 lb/ MBtu sulfur) by laboratory and bench- scale column flotation or selective agglomeration. Over 2,100 tons of coal were cleaned in the PDU at feed rates between 2,500 and 6,000 lb/ h by Microcel™ column flotation and by selective agglomeration using recycled heptane as the bridging liquid. Parametric testing of each process and 72- hr productions runs were completed on each of the three test coals. The following results were achieved after optimization of the operating parameters: The primary objective was to develop the design base for commercial fine coal cleaning facilities for producing ultra- clean coals which can be converted into coal-water slurry premium fuel. The coal cleaning technologies to be developed were advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration, and the goal was to produce fuel meeting the following specifications.

  11. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  12. Damage and deterioration mechanism and curing technique of concrete structure in main coal cleaning plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Heng-lin; ZHAO Cheng-ming; SONG Lei; MA Ying; XU Chun-hua

    2009-01-01

    Concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants have been rebuilt and reinforced in the coal mines of the Shanghai Da-tun Energy Sources Co. Ltd., the first colliery of the Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd. and the Sanhejian mine of the Xuzhou Mining Group Co. Ltd. In these projects, the operating environment and reliability of concrete structures in the main plants of the three companies were investigated and the safety of the structures inspected. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made on the spe-cial natural, technological and mechanical environments around the structures. On the basis of these analyses, we discuss the long-term, combined actions of the harsh natural (corrosive gases, liquids and solids) and mechanical environments on concrete structures and further investigated the damage and deteriorating mechanisms and curing techniques of concrete structures in the main coal cleaning plants. Our study can provide a theoretical basis for ensuring the reliability of concrete structures in main coal cleaning plants.

  13. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  15. Regulating Greenhouse Gases from Coal Power Plants under the Clean Air Act

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Linn; Erin Mastrangelo; Dallas Burtraw

    2014-01-01

    The Clean Air Act has assumed the central role in US climate policy, directing the development of regulations governing greenhouse gas emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. This paper uses a model of power plant operation and efficiency investments to compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal plants. We empirically estimate the key model parameters from a data set of the operation of coal-fired generating units over 25 years...

  16. Research on Clean Coal Clean Coal Technology of Computer Automatic Control%计算机自动控制洁煤净煤技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣光

    2013-01-01

      在煤利用的过程中,会产生大量有害气体、粉尘等污染物,尤其是在发展中国家,这种污染十分严重。而在当今社会,人们的环保意识逐渐增强,国际上对于煤炭利用带来的环境问题给予了越来越多的关注。广大科技工作者针对洁煤净煤,降低污染方面技术的研究愈加深入,大量新型净化方法和应用技术应运而生。利用计算机自动控制技术,发展煤化工新技术,一方面能更有效地提高经济效益,另一方面能有效地达到洁煤、净煤的效果,保护环境。%  The coal in the use process, will produce a large number of harmful gas, dust and other pollutants, especially in developing countries, this kind of pollution is very serious. In today's society, the people environmental protection consciousness strengthens gradually, the international environment problems caused by coal use to pay more and more attention. Broad Scientists and technologists for clean coal clean coal, reducing pollution technology research more deeply, a new purification method and application technology of emerge as the times require. Use of computer automatic control technology, the development of coal chemical industry new technology, one can more effectively improve the economic benefit, on the other hand, can effectively achieve the clean coal, clean coal, protect environment

  17. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country's coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently

  18. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  19. Coal Cleaning Using Resonance Disintegration for Mercury and Sulfur Reduction Prior to Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2005-04-01

    Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

  20. Clean electricity through advanced coal technologies handbook of pollution prevention and cleaner production

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    Coal power is a major cause of air pollution and global warming and has resulted in the release of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides, which place communities at risk for long-term health problems. However, coal-fired power plants also currently fuel 41% of global electricity. Clean Electricity Through Advanced Coal Technologies discusses the environmental issues caused by coal power, such as air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and toxic solid wastes. This volume focuses on increasingly prevalent newer generation technologies with smaller environmental footprints than the existing c

  1. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  2. Comprehensive report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project will provide a full-scale demonstration of Micronized Coal Reburn (MCR) technology for the control of NOx on a wall-fired steam generator. This demonstration is expected to reduce NOx emissions by 50 to 60%. Micronized coal is coal that has been very finely pulverized (80% less than 325 mesh). This micronized coal, which may comprise up to 30% of the total fuel fired in the furnace, is fired high in the furnace in a fuel-rich reburn zone at a stoichiometry of 0.8. Above the reburn zone, overfire air is injected into the burnout zone at high velocity for good mixing to ensure complete combustion. Overall excess air is 15%. MCR technology reduces NOx emissions with minimal furnace modifications, and the improved burning characteristics of micronized coal enhance boiler performance

  3. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  4. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  5. The Clean Coal Program's contributions to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential contributions of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Program (CCP) to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (CAA90). Initially funded by Congress in 1985, the CCP is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies in a series of full- scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The CCP is expected to provide funding for more than $5 billion of projects during five rounds of competition, with at least half of the funding coming from the private sector. To date, 42 projects have been selected in the first 4 rounds of the CCP. The CAA and amendments form the basis for regulating emissions of air pollutants to protect health and the environment throughout the United States. Although the origin of the CAA can be traced back to 1955, many amendments passed since that time are testimony to the iterative process involved in the regulation of air pollution. Three key components of CAA90, the first major amendments to the CAA since 1977, include mitigation measures to reduce levels of (1) acid deposition, (2) toxic air pollutants, and (3) ambient concentrations of air pollutants. This paper focuses on the timeliness of clean coal technologies in contributing to these provisions of CAA90

  6. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  7. Cleaning and Dewatering Fine Coal using Hydrophobic Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kara E.

    2008-01-01

    A new processing technique, known as hydrophobic displacement, was explored as a means of simultaneously removing both mineral matter and surface moisture from coal in a single process. Previous thermodynamic analysis suggests that coal moisture will be spontaneously displaced by any oil with a contact angle greater than ninety degrees in water. Based on these results, six methods of hydrophobic displacement were evaluated: hand shaking, screening, air classification, centrifugation, filtra...

  8. Clean Coal Technology Program: Completing the mission. Comprehensive report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    With its roots in the acid rain debate of the 1980`s, the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially emphasized acid rain abatement technologies in its early phases. With the subsequent passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments and growing concern with global climate change, the emphasis of the Program shifted in the later rounds to highly efficient technologies. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the report. Chapter 2 provides a background of the CCT Program including the legislative history, the projects currently in the program, and the lessons that have been learned from the five rounds to date. Chapter 3 discusses the commercial potential of the technologies represented in the program and is based on a continuing series of interviews that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to solicit the views of senior management in those companies and organizations that will be making or affecting commercial decisions on the use of these technologies. Chapter 4 provides an accounting of the funds that have been appropriated for the CCT Program. Chapter 5 presents the options available for the Government to further assist in the commercial implementation of these technologies. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of these options with recommendations.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    a study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This document is the eighth quarterly report prepared in accordance with the project reporting requirements covering the period from July 1,1990 to September 30, 1990. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. The data from the basic research on coal surfaces, bench scale testing and proof-of-concept scale testing will be utilized to design a final conceptual flowsheet. The economics of the flowsheet will be determined to enable industry to assess the feasibility of incorporating the advanced fine coal cleaning technology into the production of clean coal for generating electricity. 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Pugmire, Ronald [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Smith, Philip [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sutherland, James [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Thornock, Jeremy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hunsacker, Isaac [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Li, Suhui [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Puntai, Naveen [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Reid, Charles [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Schurtz, Randy [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  11. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R ampersand D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications, (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at

  12. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  13. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  14. Geological and mining factors affecting spontaneous heating of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1986-04-01

    The authors define the phenomenon of spontaneous heating in underground coal mines as a combination of seam factor, geological factor and mining factor. These latter two factors are discussed in a practical manner from the early work of Fayol in 1879 through to the findings of modern day researchers. The paper assesses the significance of all relevant aspects affecting spontaneous heating of coal, and provides the basis for a better understanding of its complex causes. 7 figs., 24 refs.

  15. Element geochemistry and cleaning potential of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wenfeng; QIN; Yong; SONG; Dangyu; SANG; Shuxun; JIAN

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analyses of sulfur and 41 other elements in 8 channel samples of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi, China and 4 samples from the coal preparation plant of this mine, the distribution of the elements in the seam profile, their geochemical partitioning behavior during the coal cleaning and the genetic relationships between the both are studied. The conclusions are drawn as follows. The coal-forming environment was probably invaded by sea water during the post-stage of peatification, which results in the fact that the contents of As, Fe, S, etc. associated closely with sea water tend to increase toward the top of the seam, and that the kaolinite changes into illite and montmorillonite in the coal-sublayer near the roof. These elements studied are dominantly associated with kaolinite, pyrite, illite, montmorillonite, etc., of which the As, Pb, Mn, Cs, Co, Ni, etc. are mainly associated with sulfides, the Mo, V, Nb, Hf, REEs, Ta etc. mainly with kaolintie, the Mg, Al etc. mainly with epigenetic montmorillonite, and the Rb, Cr, Ba, Cu, K, Hg, etc. mainly with epigenetic illite. The physical coal cleaning is not only effective in the removal of ash and sulfur, but also in reducing the concentration of most major and trace elements. The elements Be, U, Sb, W, Br, Se, P, etc. are largely or partly organically bound showing a relatively low removability, while the removability of the other elements studied is more than 20%, of which the Mg, Mn, Hg, Fe, As, K, Al, Cs, and Cr associated mostly with the coarser or epigenetic minerals show a higher removability than that of ash. The distribution of the elements in the seam profile controls their partitioning behavior to a great degree during the coal cleaning processes.

  16. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  17. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  18. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  19. Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of clean coal and advanced nuclear technologies with implementation of energy conservation potential. The result shows that application of clean technologies gives energy security but not significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. When clean technologies apply with energy conservation a huge amount of CO2 can be reduced and also economically viable. Three scenarios including base case scenario have been developed to estimate the resource allocations and CO2 mitigation. The clean technologies with maximum savings potential shows 70% CO2 reduction in the year 2045.

  20. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment: Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  1. 7th clean coal technology conference. Proceedings, volume II, technical papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The theme of the conference was '21st century coal utilization: prospects for economic viability, global prosperity and a cleaner environment'. The papers discussed, combustion systems - how CCTs can meet the needs; gasification systems - how CCTs can meet the needs; and beyond 2010 - technology opportunities and R & D needs. They include: Wabash River, Polk Power Station IGCC project, Pinon Pine project, LPMEOH process, Healy clean coal project, Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 circulating fluidized bed combustion cycle demonstration project, and JEA large-scale CFB combustion demonstration project.

  2. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States); South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  3. Clean coal technology and acid rain compliance: An examination of alternative incentive proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Center for Regulatory Studies, Normal, IL (United States)); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rely primarily on the use of market incentives to stimulate least-cost compliance choices by electric utilities. Because of the potential risks associated with selecting Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) and the public-good nature of technology commercialization, electric utilities may be reluctant to adopt CCTs as part of their compliance strategies. This paper examines the nature of the risks and perceived impediments to adopting CCTs as a compliance option. It also discusses the incentives that regulatory policy makers could adopt to mitigate these barriers to CCT adoption. (VC)

  4. Optimization of a Multi Gravity Separator to produce clean coal from Turkish lignite fine coal tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk Ozgen; Ozkan Malkoc; Ceyda Dogancik; Eyup Sabah; Filiz Oruc Sapci [Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey). Department of Mining Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the beneficiation of two lignite tailings by Multi Gravity Separator (MGS) was investigated. The tailings samples from the Tuncbilek/Kutahya and Soma/Manisa regions have ash contents of 66.21% and 52.65%, respectively. Significant operational parameters of MGS such as solid ratio, drum speed, tilt angle, shaking amplitude, wash water rate, and feed rate were varied. Empirical equations for recovery and ash content were derived by a least squares method using Minitab 15. The equations, which are second-order response functions, were expressed as functions of the six operating parameters of MGS. The results showed that it is possible to produce a coal concentrate containing 22.83% ash with a recovery of 49.32% from Tuncbilek coal tailings, and a coal concentrate containing 22.89% ash with a recovery of 60.01% from Soma coal tailings. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  6. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  7. Environmental support to the clean coal technology program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Work during this period focused on the preparation for DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Proposed by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and selected by DOE in the fifth solicitation of the CCT Program, the project would be sited at one of the two units at Penelec`s Warren Station. The EFCC Project proposes to replace two existing boilers with a new {open_quotes}power island{close_quotes} consisting of a staged coal combustor, slag screen, heat exchanger, an indirectly fired gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator. Subsequently, Unit 2 would operate in combined-cycle mode using the new gas turbine and the existing steam turbine simultaneously. The gas turbine would generate 25 megawatts of electricity so that Unit 2 output would increase from the existing 48 megawatts generated by the steam turbine to a total of 73 megawatts. Operation of a conventional flue gas desulfurization dry scrubber as part of the EFCC technology is expected to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions by 90% per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, and NO{sub x} emissions are anticipated to be 60% less per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated because of the staged combustor. Because the EFCC technology would be more efficient, less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be emitted to the atmosphere per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.

  8. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

  9. The role of clean coal technologies in a deregulated rural utility market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.W. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The nation`s rural electric cooperatives own a high proportion of coal-fired generation, in excess of 80 percent of their generating capacity. As the electric utility industry moves toward a competitive electricity market, the generation mix for electric cooperatives is expected to change. Distributed generation will likely serve more customer loads than is now the case, and that will lead to an increase in gas-fired generation capacity. But, clean low-cost central station coal-fired capacity is expected to continue to be the primary source of power for growing rural electric cooperatives. Gasification combined cycle could be the lowest cost coal based generation option in this new competitive market if both capital cost and electricity production costs can be further reduced. This paper presents anticipated utility business scenarios for the deregulated future and identifies combined cycle power plant configurations that might prove most competitive.

  10. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies

  11. Clean coal technologies---An international seminar: Seminar evaluation and identification of potential CCT markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guziel, K.A.; Poch, L.A.; Gillette, J.L.; Buehring, W.A.

    1991-07-01

    The need for environmentally responsible electricity generation is a worldwide concern. Because coal is available throughout the world at a reasonable cost, current research is focusing on technologies that use coal with minimal environmental effects. The United States government is supporting research on clean coal technologies (CCTs) to be used for new capacity additions and for retrofits to existing capacity. To promote the worldwide adoption of US CCTs, the US Department of Energy, the US Agency for International Development, and the US Trade and Development Program sponsored a two-week seminar titled Clean Coal Technologies -- An International Seminar. Nineteen participants from seven countries were invited to this seminar, which was held at Argonne National Laboratory in June 1991. During the seminar, 11 US CCT vendors made presentations on their state-of-the-art and commercially available technologies. The presentations included technical, environmental, operational, and economic characteristics of CCTs. Information on financing and evaluating CCTs also was presented, and participants visited two CCT operating sites. The closing evaluation indicated that the seminar was a worthwhile experience for all participants and that it should be repeated. The participants said CCT could play a role in their existing and future electric capacity, but they agreed that more CCT demonstration projects were needed to confirm the reliability and performance of the technologies.

  12. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  13. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO2 emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NOx emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today's conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated

  14. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Project fact sheets 2000, status as of June 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program), a model of government and industry cooperation, responds to the Department of Energy's (DOE) mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable. The CCT Program represents an investment of over $5.2 billion in advanced coal-based technology, with industry and state governments providing an unprecedented 66 percent of the funding. With 26 of the 38 active projects having completed operations, the CCT Program has yielded clean coal technologies (CCTs) that are capable of meeting existing and emerging environmental regulations and competing in a deregulated electric power marketplace. The CCT Program is providing a portfolio of technologies that will assure that U.S. recoverable coal reserves of 274 billion tons can continue to supply the nation's energy needs economically and in an environmentally sound manner. As the nation embarks on a new millennium, many of the clean coal technologies have realized commercial application. Industry stands ready to respond to the energy and environmental demands of the 21st century, both domestically and internationally, For existing power plants, there are cost-effective environmental control devices to control sulfur dioxide (S02), nitrogen oxides (NO,), and particulate matter (PM). Also ready is a new generation of technologies that can produce electricity and other commodities, such as steam and synthetic gas, and provide efficiencies and environmental performance responsive to global climate change concerns. The CCT Program took a pollution prevention approach as well, demonstrating technologies that remove pollutants or their precursors from coal-based fuels before combustion. Finally, new technologies were introduced into the major coal-based industries, such as steel production, to enhance environmental performance. Thanks in part to the CCT Program, coal--abundant, secure, and economical

  15. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1991 (as of December 31, 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of large-scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The program takes the most promising advanced coal-based technologies and moves them into the commercial marketplace through demonstration. These demonstrations are on a scale large enough to generate all the data, from design, construction and operation, that are necessary for the private sector to judge commercial potential and make informed, confident decisions on commercial readiness. The CCT Program has been identified in the National Energy Strategy as major initiative supporting the strategy's overall goals to: increase efficiency of energy use; secure future energy supplies; enhance environmental quality; fortify foundations. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program when commercially available will enable coal to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. The goal of the program is to furnish the US and international energy marketplaces with a number of advanced, highly efficient, and environmentally acceptable coal-using technologies

  16. Comprehensive report to Congress: Proposals received in response to the Clean Coal Technology V Program Opportunity Notice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report is a comprehensive overview of all proposals received and the projects that were selected in response to the Program Opportunity Notice (PON) for the Clean Coal Technology V (CCT-V) Demonstration Projects (solicitation number DE-PS01-92FE62647). The Department of Energy (DOE) issued the solicitation on July 6, 1992. Through this PON, DOE solicited proposals to conduct cost-shared Clean Coal Technology (CCT) projects that advance significantly the efficiency and environmental performance of coal-using technologies and that are applicable to either new or existing facilities.

  17. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    In the coking process, the prevailing part of the alkalis contained in the coal charge goes to coke. The content of alkalis in coal (and also in coke) is determined mainly by the content of two elements: sodium and potasium. The presence of these elements in coal is connected with their occurrence in the mineral matter and moisture of coal. In the mineral matter and moisture of the coals used for the coke production determinable the content of sodium is 26.6 up to 62. per cent, whereas that of potassium is 37.1 up to 73.4 per cent of the total content of alkalis. Major carriers of alkalis are clay minerals. Occasionally alkalis are found in micas and feldspars. The fraction of alkalis contained in the moisture of the coal used for the production of coke in the total amount of alkalis contained there is 17.8 up to 62.0 per cent. The presence of sodium and potassium in the coal moisture is strictly connected with the presence of the chloride ions. The analysis of the water drained during process of the water-extracting from the flotoconcentrate showed that the Na to K mass ratio in the coal moisture is 20:1. Increased amount of the alkalis in the coal blends results in increased content of the alkalis in coke. This leads to the increase of the reactivity (CRI index), and to the decrease of strength (CSR index) determined with the Nippon Steel Co. method. W procesie koksowania przeważająca część zawartych we wsadzie węglowym alkaliów przechodzi do koksu. Zawartość alkaliów w węglu, a co za tym idzie i w koksie determinowana jest głównie zawartością dwóch pierwiastków: sodu i potasu. Obecność tych pierwiastków w węglu wiąże się z występowaniem ich w substancji mineralnej i wilgoci węgla. W substancji mineralnej oraz wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu, oznaczona zawartość sodu wynosi od 26.6 do 62.9%, a zawartość potasu od 37.1 do 73.4% alkaliów ogółem. Głównymi nośnikami alkaliów w substancji mineralnej są minera

  18. Insight conference reports : proceedings of the clean coal summit : business strategies, solutions and risk management in uncertain regulatory times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference was held to examine business options and risk management solutions in clean coal technologies. The conference was attended by coal industry representatives as well as members of both governmental and non-governmental agencies, who examined recent energy regulations and policies as well as a variety of issues related to sustainable energy development. Issues related to the attrition of Canada's older power plants were discussed and new coal gasification technologies were reviewed. The conference also addressed issues concerning public opinion and First Nations people. Conventional coal energy options were discussed along with advancements in emissions control technologies with particular reference to the role of clean coal science and technology. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Clean coal technology - Study on the pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the gasification conditions, the gasifier structure, the measuring system and the gasification rationale of a pilot project experiment of underground coal gasification (UCG) in the Liuzhuang Colliery, Tangshan, are illustrated. The technique of two-phase underground coal gasification is proposed. The detection of the moving speed and the length of the gasification working face is made using radon probing technology. An analysis of the experiment results indicates that the output of air gas is 3000 m3/h with a heating value of about 4.18 MJ/m3, while the output of water gas is 2000 m3/h with a heating value of over 11.00 MJ/m3, of which H2 content is above 40% with a maximum of 71.68%. The cyclical time of two-phase underground gasification is 16 h, with 8 h for each phase. This prolongs the time when the high-heating value gas is produced. The moving speed of the gasification working face in two alternative gasifiers is identified, i.e. 0.204 and 0.487 m/d, respectively. The success of the pilot project experiment of the underground gasification reveals the strides that have been made toward the commercialization of the UCG in China. It also further justifies the reasonability and feasibility of the new technology of long channel, big section, two-phase underground gasification. A conclusion is also drawn that the technology of the pilot project experiment can be popularized in old and discarded coal mines

  20. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Final report, October 10, 1994--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium is a group comprised of representatives from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, that was formed to pursue research in areas related to the treatment and processing of fine coal. Each member performed research in their respective areas of expertise and the report contained herein encompasses the results that were obtained for the three major tasks that the Consortium undertook from October, 1994 through March, 1997. In the first task, conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute, novel methods (both mechanical and chemical) for dewatering fine coal were examined. In the second task, the Center for Applied Energy Research examined novel approaches for destabilization of [highly stable] flotation froths. And in the third task, West Virginia University developed physical and mathematical models for fine coal spirals. The Final Report is written in three distinctive chapters, each reflecting the individual member`s task report. Recommendations for further research in those areas investigated, as well as new lines of pursuit, are suggested.

  1. Clean coal technology: commercial-scale demonstration of the liquid phase methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The report discusses the demonstration of Air Products and Chemical, Inc.`s Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH {trademark}) Process which is designed to convert synthesis gas derived from the gasification of coal into methanol for use as a chemical intermediate or as a low-sulfur dioxide and low-nitrogen oxides emitting alternative fuel. The project was selected for funding by the US Clean Coal Technology Program Round III in 1992. Construction of the Demonstration Project at Eastman Chemical Co`s Kingsport complex began in October 1995 and was completed in January 1997. Production rates of over 300 tons per day of methanol have been achieved and availability for the unit has exceeded 96% since startup. The LPMEOH{trademark} Process can enhance integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation by converting part of the syngas from the gasifier to methanol which can be solid or used as a peak-sharing fuel. 50 refs., 5 figs., 7 photos.

  2. Technology options for clean coal power generation with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Song; Bergins, Christian; Kikkawa, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Kawasaki, Terufumi

    2010-09-15

    The state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant today is about 20% more efficient than the average operating power plants, and can reduce emissions such as SO2, NOx, and mercury to ultra-low levels. Hitachi is developing a full portfolio of clean coal technologies aimed at further efficiency improvement, 90% CO2 reduction, and near-zero emissions, including 700 deg C ultrasupercritical boilers and turbines, post-combustion CO2 absorption, oxyfuel combustion, and IGCC with CCS. This paper discusses the development status, performance and economic impacts of these technologies with focus on post combustion absorption and oxyfuel combustion - two promising CO2 solutions for new and existing power plants.

  3. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  4. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-12

    This twelfth quarterly report describes work done during the twelfth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  5. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-01-01

    This seventeenth quarterly report describes work done during the seventeenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, submitting a manuscript and making and responding to one outside contact.

  6. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-11

    This fifteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fifteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  7. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-04-28

    This thirteenth quarterly report describes work done during the thirteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to a number of outside contacts.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of Ultra-clean Micronized Coal Oil Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Ming; Xu Jing

    2009-01-01

    Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the ultra-clean micronized coal oil water slurry (UCMCOWS) with Si-maPro and the environmental impact of UCMCOWS on its whole life cycle is also analyzed. The result shows that the consumption of energy and products are increasing along with the deepening of UCMCOWS processing, UCMCOWS making and combustion arc the two periods which have a bigger impact on eco-system and hu-man health. As a new substitute of fuel, UCMCOWS merits to be utilized more efficiently and reasonably.

  9. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  10. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  11. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts

  12. Nuclear and clean coal technology options for sustainable development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra -182320, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2010-07-15

    Due to the growing energy needs along with increasing concerns towards control of greenhouse gas emissions, most developing countries are under pressure to find alternative methods for energy conversion and policies to make these technologies economically viable. Most of the energy is produced from fossil fuel in India which is not a sustainable source of energy. In this paper Indian power sector has been examined by using MARKAL model for introduction of clean coal and advanced nuclear technologies with implementation of energy conservation potential. The result shows that application of clean technologies gives energy security but not significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. When clean technologies apply with energy conservation a huge amount of CO{sub 2} can be reduced and also economically viable. Three scenarios including base case scenario have been developed to estimate the resource allocations and CO{sub 2} mitigation. The clean technologies with maximum savings potential shows 70% CO{sub 2} reduction in the year 2045. (author)

  13. The relationship of fluidized bed technology to the U.S. Clean Coal Technology demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluidized Bed Combustion projects (both AFBCs and PFBCs) have a prominent role in the US DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. This program has the successful commercialization of these technologies as its primary objective and this is the basic criterion for government funding and participation in the development and demonstration of the technologies. Under the CCT program the US DOE is actively involved in the development and operation of three Fluidized Bed Technology projects, NUCLA, TIDD, and SPORN, and is in the negotiation stage on others, Dairyland, Nichols and Tallahassee. All of these projects, along with the operating information on fluidized beds in the industrial sector, will provide a basis for evaluating future utilization of Fluidized Bed Technology in the market place. Impacting upon further utilization will be the time-frame and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper presents the results of a study to ascertain the commercial readiness of Fluidized Bed Technology to meet the emissions and time-frame requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Specifically addressed are: Commercialization criteria/factors which candidate and/or existing CCTs must achieve in order to gain market acceptance. The status of Fluidized Bed Technology in achieving these commercialization criteria for market acceptance (industrial and utility) consistent with the time frame of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Recommendations of commercialization criteria for future fluidized bed CCT demonstration projects

  14. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial

  15. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  16. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  17. Research in cleaning water-walls of the TP-45 boiler with water during combustion of Angren brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrutdinov, R.Sh.; Shpakovich, E.Ya.; Guzenko, S.I.; Timofeev, A.P.; Perevezentsev, V.P.; Vasil' ev, V.V.

    1982-08-01

    With the growth of the electric power industry, great significance is placed on combustion of low-grade coals in large deposits with infavorable properties. Angren brown coal is an inexpensive low-grade fuel with 20-22% dry ash. During its combustion in steam generators with a radiant heat surface associated deposits are formed. Research on the problem of preventing slag formation on heating surfaces during the combustion of Angren brown coal is discussed. The use of water to clean these surfaces is also discussed.

  18. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction

  19. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now

  20. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis

  1. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  2. Sinopec offers HK$10m to clean up affected beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Sinopec has established a HK$10 million fund to assist green groups in cleaning up the millions of plastic pellets from a container ship that have been washed ashore on local beaches and fish farms. The 150 tons of polypropylene pellets were being shipped on board a freighter Yong Xin .lie 1 from Nansha Port to Shantou when signal l0 typhoon Vicente struck on ,luly 23. The pellets, in six containers, were blown into the sea. The pellets then washed onto the outlying islands of Hong Kong, stirring concerns over environmental damage to the ocean itself, as well as to marine life.

  3. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the objective of the project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and to test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to be developed based on (i) the charging characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel on-line tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech and (ii) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. During the past quarter, most of the personnel assigned to this project have been performing work elements associated with the engineering design (Task 3) of the TES process. This activity has been subdivided into three subtasks, i.e., Charger Tests (Subtask 3.1), Separator Tests (Subtask 3.2), and Final POC Design (Subtask 3.3). In Subtask 3.1, several different tribocharging devices have been constructed using materials of various work functions. They are currently being tested to establish the best materials to be used for designing and manufacturing the optimum tribochargers that can maximum charge differences between coal and mineral matter. In Subtask 3.2, bench-scale cleaning tests have been conducted to study the effects of the various operating and design parameters on the performance of the electrostatic separator. Two different TES units have been tested to date. One uses drum-type electrodes to separate charged particles, while the other uses plate-type electrodes for the separation. The test results showed that a major improvement in separation efficiency can be achieved by recycling the middlings back to the feed stream. It has also been established that the major source of inefficiency arises from the difficulty in separating ultrafine particles. Understanding the behavior of the ultrafine particles and finding

  5. The role of clean coal technologies in post-2000 power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial global market for advanced power systems is expected to develop early in the next century for both repowering and new capacity additions, Although natural gas-fueled systems, such as gas turbines, are expected to dominate in the 1990's, coal-fueled systems are expected to emerge in the 2000's as systems of choice for base-load capacity because of coal's lower expected cost. Stringent environmental regulations dictate that all advanced power systems must be clean, economical, and efficient in order to meet both the environmental and economic performance criteria of the future. Recognizing these needs, the DOE strategy is to carry out an effective RD ampersand D program, in partnership with the private sector, to demonstrate these technologies for commercial applications in the next century. These technologies are expected to capture a large portion of the future power generation market. The DOE: expects that, domestically, advanced power systems products will be selected on the basis of varying regional needs and the needs of individual utilities. A large international demand is also expected for the new products, especially in developing nations

  6. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, D.P. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  7. Recovery of reagent in a process for producing ultra clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.M. Steel; J.W. Patrick [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2003-07-01

    A technique for selectively separating approximately 65 wt% of the Si(IV) in coal has been developed. The technique first uses aqueous HF to react with aluminosilicates and quartz to form fluoride complexed Al and Si species in solution. Aluminium cations, in the form of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, are then added to the solution to complex fluoride as AlF{sub 2}{sup +} and hydrolyse the silicon fluoride species to silicon hydroxide, which precipitates as pure silica gel and is removed by filtration. The solution is then distilled to recover a water stream, a nitric acid stream and a solid residue. The water stream is used to pyrohydrolyse the solid residue at temperatures in excess of 500{sup o}C to liberate HF for recycling. To complete the circuit, the solid remaining after pyrohydrolysis is treated with the nitric acid stream to produce Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} for recycling. The application of this work is primarily as part of a process for producing ultra-clean coal. As it is a technique for the selective separation of Al and Si from aluminosilicates, it may have application in other areas of mineral processing. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial

  10. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical

  11. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine

  12. Valuation of clean energy investments: The case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Frank Ernest

    Today, coal-fired power plants produce about 55% of the electrical energy output in the U.S. Demand for electricity is expected to grow in future. Coal can and will continue to play a substantial role in the future global energy supply, despite its high emission of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO2 etc.) and low thermal energy conversion efficiency of about 37%. This is due to the fact that, it is inexpensive and global reserves are abundant. Furthermore, cost competitive and environmentally acceptable energy alternatives are lacking. New technologies could also make coal-fired plants more efficient and environmentally benign. One such technology is the Zero Emission Carbon (ZEC) power plant, which is currently being proposed by the ZECA Corporation. How much will such a technology cost? How competitive will it be in the electric energy market when used as a technology for mitigating CO2 emission? If there were regulatory mechanisms, such as carbon tax to regulate CO2 emission, what would be the minimum carbon tax that should be imposed? How will changes in energy policy affect the implementation of the ZEC technology? How will the cost of the ZEC technology be affected, if a switch from coal (high emission-intensive fuel) to natural gas (low emission-intensive fuel) were to be made? This work introduces a model that can be used to analyze and assess the economic value of a ZEC investment using valuation techniques employed in the electric energy industry such as revenue requirement (e.g. cost-of-service). The study concludes that the cost of service for ZEC technology will be about 95/MWh at the current baseline scenario of using fuel cell as the power generation system and coal as the primary fuel, and hence will not be competitive in the energy markets. For the technology to be competitive, fuel cell capital cost should be as low as 500/kW with a lifetime of 20 years or more, the cost of capital should be around 10%, and a carbon tax of 30/t of CO2 should be in place

  13. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  14. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1993-11-04

    This project is a major step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) can be produced from selected coals and that this premium fuel will be a cost-effective replacement for oil and natural gas now fueling some of the industrial and utility boilers in the United States. The replacement of oil and gas with CWF can only be realized if retrofit costs are kept to a minimum and retrofit boiler emissions meet national goals for clean air. These concerns establish the specifications for maximum ash and sulfur levels and combustion properties of the CWF. This cost-share contract is a 48-month program which started on September 30, 1992. This report discusses the technical progress made during the 4th quarter of the project from July 1 to September 30, 1993.

  15. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  16. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  17. Report to Congress: Expressions of interest in commercial clean coal technology projects in foreign countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report was prepared in response to the guidance provided by the Congress in the course of the Fiscal Year 1995 appropriations process for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). As described in detail below, DOE was directed to make the international dissemination of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) an integral part of its policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Congress directed DOE to solicit ``Statements of Interest`` in commercial projects employing CCTs in countries projected to have significant growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, DOE was asked to submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the information contained in the Statements of Interest, and that identifies the extent to which various types of Federal incentives would accelerate the commercial availability of these technologies in an international context. In response to DOE`s solicitation of 18 November 1994, 77 Statements of Interest were received from 33 companies, as well as five additional materials. The contents of these submittals, including the requested Federal incentives, the CCTs proposed, the possible host countries, and the environmental aspects of the Statements of Interest, are described and analyzed in the chapters that follow.

  18. Assessment of clean-coal strategies: The questionable merits of carbon capture-readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we investigate the value of capture-readiness by modeling the cost effectiveness of various alternative technological options and focusing on different clean-coal technology pathways. The modeling framework developed is based on stochastic net present value calculations. It allows for consideration of path-dependent and technology-specific risk combinations inherent in the input and output commodities that are relevant for operating the plant. We find that capture-readiness competes with alternative options of power plant replacements and that capture-readiness is not necessarily preferable from an economic perspective. - Highlights: ► An NPV model with technology- and path-dependent risk-adjusted discount rates is developed. ► The relative value of CCS retrofits compared to new power plants is examined. ► The projects, risk structure is important to consider while discounting cash flows. ► CCS retrofits are found to be less attractive compared to new-build power plants. ► The merit of capture-readiness is questionable due to competing other technologies

  19. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Environmental monitoring report, July--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    New York State Electric and Gas Corporation (NYSEG) has installed and is presently operating a high-efficiency flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to demonstrate innovative emissions control technology and comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The host facility for this demonstration project is NYSEG`s Milliken Station, in the Town of Lansing, New York. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate a retrofit of energy-efficient SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control systems with minimal impact on overall plant efficiency. The demonstration project has added a forced oxidation, formic acid-enhanced wet limestone FGD system, which is expected to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions by at least 90 percent. NYSEG also made combustion modifications to each boiler and plans to demonstrate selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology on unit 1, which will reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Goals of the proposed demonstration include up to 98 percent SO{sub 2} removal efficiency while burning high-sulfur coal, 30 percent NO{sub x} reductions through combustion modifications, additional NO{sub x} reductions using SNCR technology, production of marketable commercial-grade gypsum and calcium chloride by-products to minimize solid waste disposal, and zero wastewater discharge.

  20. Coal in a hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-05-01

    The editor of World Mining Equipment discusses the tangled position of the European coal industry, affected by concerns over acid rain and carbon dioxide emissions, and by subsidies. He outlines the debate in the UK about gas versus coal and about coal subsidies in Germany (which could affect mines in other European countries). The requirement to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to minimise the problem of acid rain will have a direct bearing on coal mining firms and equipment manufacturers so it is possible that the only future for the industry lies with clean coal technologies. Even here, there is no easy answer as it is not clear how developing nations will be able to pay for these more expensive clean coal systems. 2 photos.

  1. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning. PMID:24456468

  2. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  3. Combined Removal of Surface Moisture and Dust from Feed Coal for Coal Dry Cleaning with an Air-solid Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-hua; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Qing-ru

    2005-01-01

    A demonstration plant and a commercial plant employing coal dry cleaning technology with an air-solid fluidized bed were built in China. The operation practice of these two plants shows that the surface moisture and the fines or dust of feed coal must be well controlled as low as possible. For this purpose, a new process of combined removal of surface moisture and dust from feed coal using a vibrated fluidized bed dryer was investigated in a batch test apparatus and a pilot test system. A mathematical model on drying kinetics of coal surface moisture was developed and three empirical formulas of the model coefficient involving the main operating variables were determined based on the test results from the batch test apparatus. The mathematical model shows that the surface moisture retained in coal during drying decreases exponentially with drying time. According to this model, a new divisional heat supply mode, in which the inlet gas of higher temperature was introduced into the fore part of the dryer and the inlet gas of lower temperature into the rear part of the dryer, was employed in the pilot test system. The pilot tests show that 1) the new divisional heat supply mode is effective for lowering down the average temperature and reducing the total heat loss of the outlet gas off the dryer, 2) the moist coal of about 60 g/kg surface moisture contentcan be dried to about 10 g/kg, and simultaneously the fines (<1mm in diameter) adhering to the surface of coarse coal particles are completely washed off by the gas flow.

  4. A novel process for preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal by high pressure water jet comminution technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longlian Cui; Liqian An; Weili Gong; Hejin Jiang [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanics, Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2007-03-15

    A novel process for the preparation of ultra-clean micronized coal is presented in this paper. High pressure water jet mill replacing the ball mill is employed for coal comminution in the new preparation process, which is the essential difference from the traditional one. To compare the new preparation process with the traditional one, the comparison experiments were performed, with froth flotation tests of the fine particles ground by both mills using diesel oil and n-dodecane as collector, 2-octanol as frother, and sink-float separation tests using mixtures of carbon tetrachloride-benzene and carbon tetrachloride-bromoform as dense liquid. Different parameters including combustible recovery, ash content of the clean coal, separation efficiency, and energy consumption were investigated based on the two different preparation processes. The results show that the new preparation process has high combustible recovery, low ash content of the product, high separation efficiency, and low energy consumption compared with the traditional one. The comminution mechanism of high pressure water jet mill is introduced in this paper. The high pressure water jet comminution technique has great potential in coal pulverization, having the advantages of low energy consumption, low iron content, and low equipment wear. 35 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Coal cleaning: A viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: China is a dominant energy consumer in a global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China’s future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal pr...

  6. Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-07-01

    The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e., Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous US, they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

  7. Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e. Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous U.S., they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

  8. The implementation analysis of Panyi coal mine clean production%潘一矿清洁生产的实施分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆红

    2014-01-01

    该文以潘一矿清洁生产的实施为例,分析了潘一矿推行清洁生产审核的关键步骤和产生的经济、环境效益,促进潘一煤矿的可持续发展。%This text based on the implementation of Panyi coal mine clean production, Analysis of Panyi coal mine carry out key steps of clean production audit and the economic, environmental benefits, promote the sustainable development of Panyi coal mine.

  9. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 15, April--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1996-07-25

    Goal is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on 6 coals to optimize these processes, followed by design/construction/operation of a 2-t/hr PDU. During this quarter, parametric testing of the 30-in. Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn plant was completed and clean coal samples submitted for briquetting. A study of a novel hydrophobic dewatering process continued at Virginia Tech. Benefits of slurry PSD (particle size distribution) modification and pH adjustment were evaluated for the Taggart and Hiawatha coals; they were found to be small. Agglomeration bench-scale test results were positive, meeting product ash specifications. PDU Flotation Module operations continued; work was performed with Taggart coal to determine scaleup similitude between the 12-in. and 6-ft Microcel{trademark} columns. Construction of the PDU selective agglomeration module continued.

  10. Environmental issues affecting coal technology: a perspective on US trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, K.E.; Baruch, S.B. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1987-12-31

    The paper surveys several related trends that illustrate the dynamic equilibrium between US environmental concerns and electric power production from coal-fired power plants. It discusses these trends as evolutionary often dialectric processes over four time periods: the 1960s - an awakening; the 1970s - an expanded awareness; the 1980s - a time of transition and towards the 21st century. 44 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. New Source Review and coal plant efficiency gains: How new and forthcoming air regulations affect outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forthcoming carbon dioxide (CO2) regulations for existing power plants in the United States have heightened interest in thermal efficiency gains for coal-fired power plants. Plant modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger New Source Review (NSR), a Clean Air Act requirement to adopt of state-of-the-art pollution controls. This article explores whether existing coal plants would likely face additional pollution control requirements if they undertake modifications that trigger NSR. Despite emissions controls that are or will be installed under the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) and Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) or its replacement, 80% of coal units (76% of capacity) that are expected to remain in operation are not projected to meet the minimum NSR requirements for at least one pollutant: nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide. This is an important consideration for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state policymakers as they determine the extent to which CO2 regulation will rely on unit-by-unit thermal efficiency gains versus potential flexible compliance strategies such as averaging, trading, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. NSR would likely delay and add cost to thermal efficiency projects at a majority of coal units, including projects undertaken to comply with forthcoming CO2 regulation. - Highlights: • We explore the status of the U.S. coal-fired fleet relative to New Source Review (NSR) requirements. • Modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger NSR. • Thermal efficiency gains may also be an important strategy for forthcoming CO2 regulation. • 80% Of non-retiring coal-fired units are projected not to meet minimum NSR requirements. • NSR is an important consideration for the design of CO2 regulations for existing plants

  12. Low-carbon economy development trend and clean and effective utilization of coal%低碳经济与煤的清洁高效利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2011-01-01

    煤炭是中国的主要能源,实现低碳经济的关键是煤的清洁高效利用.提出煤炭洗选、煤制合成天然气和煤基多联产作为短、中、长期的对策建议.%Coal is the main source of energy in China, clean and effective utilization of coal determines the development trend of low-carbon economy. Provide coal washing, synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from coal, coalbased co-production respectively serving as short-term, mid-term,long-term developmental tasks.

  13. Preliminary discussion about clean and efficient utilization of coal%煤炭的清洁高效利用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊亚明

    2012-01-01

    煤炭的大量使用带来了环境污染、资源枯竭等问题,因此煤炭资源的清洁高效利用,将成为我国能源技术创新和能源结构调整的战略性选择。从煤炭消费带来的环境问题入手,通过综合分析的方法,从提高原煤入洗率、煤炭高效洁净燃烧技术、燃煤烟气净化、改变煤炭利用方式、加大煤炭提质和分质利用等方面,对煤炭高效清洁利用的措施进行探讨,旨在最大限度地控制燃煤烟气主要污染物的排放,达到促进煤炭清洁高效利用的目的。%The extensive use of coal brought environmental pollution, resource depletion and other issues, so the clean and efficient utilization of coal resources will become our strategic choice about the innovation of energy technology and the adjustment of energy structure. From the perspective about environmental problems caused by coal consumption, through the comprehensive analysis method, from the aspect of improving the washing rate of raw coal, high efficiency and clean combustion technology of coal, flue gas purification,change of coal utilization,increasing coal quality and dual using etc, the measures about efficient and clean use of coal is discussed, in order to maximize control of coal-fired flue gas emissions of major pollutants to achieve the goal of promoting clean and efficient utilization of coal.

  14. Coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region -- Clean, compliant, and available

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region produced over 340 million short tons of coal in 1997, approximately 30 percent of the nation`s total coal production. Coals from this region are shipped to 26 states in the western, midwest, southern, and eastern US and production is projected to increase to 415 million short tons by 2015; the projected increase will be utilized primarily for production of electric power. The coals are economically attractive because they can be produced by surface mining, and do not require costly beneficiation to be compliant with emission standards. The coals are compliant because their chemical composition was influenced by tectonic settings of the coal basins and provenance of the sediments entering the basins. Tectonics during the Paleocene also influenced rates of precipitation and depositional systems. These factors, in concert, controlled the amount, distribution, and levels of sulfur, ash, and trace elements of environmental concern in the region`s coals. The emphasis of this paper is on the chemistry of these thick, high-quality coals and the geologic controls that resulted in their accumulation.

  15. Coal-water fuel - a new type of clean energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrokhotov, V.I.; Zaidenvarg, V.E.; Trubetskoy, K.N.; Nekhoroshy, I.Kh.; Korochkin, G.N. [Ministry of Science and Technologies (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    An increased number of pipelines for coal transport are being used in the Russian Federation for environmental and cost reasons. Research has been performed both on the characteristics of the pipeline itself, and on the coal-water slurry it carriers. Improved preparation of the slurry leads to a better quality fuel for sale, and lower transport costs. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. 煤泥分选超净煤的药剂研究∗%Research on reagent for coal slime separation of ultra-clean coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婕; 付晓恒; 李珞铭; 杨磊; 潘悦怡; 舒元峰

    2016-01-01

    选取动力煤选煤厂煤泥为研究对象,利用傅里叶红外光谱(FTIR)仪和接触角测量仪对比了超细粉碎后的煤泥以及和乳化柴油作用后的煤泥的官能团和润湿性的变化,分析了在絮团浮选中乳化柴油的作用机理.在此基础上,研究了乳化柴油的种类和用量以及分散剂或起泡剂的添加对煤泥絮团分选超净煤的影响.试验结果表明,乳化柴油中的非离子型表面活性剂极性基与煤表面的含氧官能团发生氢键吸附,使煤表面含氧官能团含量减少,接触角增大,疏水性增强;1#乳化柴油的浮选效果优于2#乳化柴油;1#乳化药剂的最佳药剂用量为57.96 kg/t;在分选过程中添加分散剂后得到的超净煤灰分减小,产率也减小;添加起泡剂后分选效果优于单独使用乳化柴油的分选效果.%The authors took coal slime of steam coal preparation plant as object of study, used FTIR and contact angle goniometer to compare the changes of functional groups and wetta-bility of coal slime with or without adding the emulsified diesel oil after ultrafine grinding,ana-lyzed functional mechanism of emulsified diesel during flocculation flotation,and based upon the experiment,studied the influences of types,dosages of emulsified diesel and addition of disper-sant or frother on coal slime flocculation separating ultra-clean coal. The results showed that the hydrogen bonding adsorption occurred between the nonionic surfactant polar groups in emulsified diesel oil and the oxygen-containing functional groups on surface of coal,which leaded reducing on content of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of coal and increasing of the con-tact angle and wettability,therefore,the flotation results of 1 # emulsified diesel was better than the 2 # emulsified diesel,the optimum dosage of 1 # emulsified diesel was 57.96 kg/t,the ash of the ultra-clean coal with dispersants reduced during separation and

  17. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NOx emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NOx removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  18. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    OpenAIRE

    Belošević Srđan V.; Tomanović Ivan D.; Crnomarković Nenad Đ.; Milićević Aleksandar R.; Tucaković Dragan R.

    2016-01-01

    Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by c...

  19. COAL CLEANING VIA LIQUID-FLUIDIZED CLASSIFICAITON (LFBC) WITH SELECTIVE SOLVENT SWELLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Calo

    2000-12-01

    The concept of coal beneficiation due to particle segregation in water-fluidized beds, and its improvement via selective solvent-swelling of organic material-rich coal particles, was investigated in this study. Particle size distributions and their behavior were determined using image analysis techniques, and beneficiation effects were explored via measurements of the ash content of segregated particle samples collected from different height locations in a 5 cm diameter liquid-fluidized bed column (LFBC). Both acetone and phenol were found to be effective swelling agents for both Kentucky No.9 and Illinois No.6 coals, considerably increasing mean particle diameters, and shifting particle size distributions to larger sizes. Acetone was a somewhat more effective swelling solvent than phenol. The use of phenol was investigated, however, to demonstrate that low cost, waste solvents can be effective as well. For unswollen coal particles, the trend of increasing particle size from top to bottom in the LFBC was observed in all cases. Since the organic matter in the coal tends to concentrate in the smaller particles, the larger particles are typically denser. Consequently, the LFBC naturally tends to separate coal particles according to mineral matter content, both due to density and size. The data for small (40-100 {micro}m), solvent-swollen particles clearly showed improved beneficiation with respect to segregation in the water-fluidized bed than was achieved with the corresponding unswollen particles. This size range is quite similar to that used in pulverized coal combustion. The original process concept was amply demonstrated in this project. Additional work remains to be done, however, in order to develop this concept into a full-scale process.

  20. Prospect of Coal Based IGCC to Meet the Clean Energy Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamruzzaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a country is nearly proportional to the average per person energy consumption rate, which is very low in our country. However, the rate of average energy consumption is increasing day by day throughout the world. With increasing the production of energy, the problem of environment pollution from the power generation sources and energy efficiency becomes more imperative. Coal is the major source of primary energy of the world, however, the energy efficiency of coal based power plant is low, and also it significantly polluted the environment. Therefore, to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution from coal based power plant is an important issue to discuss. In this paper, the primary reserves of energy throughout the world are discussed. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC is a latest technology used to improve the performance of coal based power plant. The process of IGCC and the present condition of IGCC throughout the world is discussed. Finally the advantages of IGCC and necessity of moving towards IGCC from convention coal based power plant is discussed in terms of cost, efficiency and environmental issues.

  1. 9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax... INSPECTION § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways. (a) Any livestock found on ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be...

  2. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  3. U.S. Near-Zero Emissions Program: CCS - Clean Coal R&D, FutureGen, & Demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Der, Victor [Department of Energy (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper a projection of the CO{sub 2} emissions in the United States is shown; the technical challenges in the capture and sequestration of the CO{sub 2}; what is understood by carbon sequestration; the three elements of the capture and CO{sub 2} storage that are: capture, transport, and storage; the FutureGen project; plants of coal combustion with sequestration, and at the end an initiative for the generation with clean coal is presented. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se muestra una proyeccion de las emisiones de CO{sub 2} en los Estados Unidos; los retos tecnicos en la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}; que entendemos por secuestro de carbono; los tres elementos de la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son captura, transporte y almacenamiento; el proyecto FutureGen; plantas de combustion de carbon con secuestro, y al final se presenta una iniciativa para la generacion con carbon limpio.

  4. Lead markets for clean coal technologies: A case study for China, Germany, Japan and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Horbach, Jens; Chen, Qian; Rennings, Klaus; Vögele, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high CO2 emission intensity of fossil and especially coal fired energy production, these energy carriers will play an important role during the coming decades. The case study identifies the main technological trajectories concerning more efficient fossil fuel combustion and explores the potentials for lead markets for these technologies in China, Germany, Japan and the USA taking into account the different regulation schemes in these countries. We concentrate on technologies that ...

  5. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  6. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  7. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  8. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  9. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  10. Biofilm matrix composition affects the susceptibility of food associated staphylococci to cleaning and disinfection agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eFagerlund

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition or benzalkonium chloride efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2, and S. saprophyticus (2. The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of benzalkonium chloride both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five benzalkonium chloride susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding benzalkonium chloride efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of benzalkonium chloride than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or

  11. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  12. GEOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFUR IN COALS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES%煤中硫的地质特征和洁净煤技术的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周诚林

    1999-01-01

    The abundance of sulfur in coal is largely controlled by sedimentary environments during coal formation.It depends on whether the parent materials of coal were ever influenced by seawater during the history of coal formation and the intensity of seawater influence.The sulfur content in coal is important to effective coal utilization because coal combustion causes release of a substantial amount of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere and ensuing environmentally hazardous caid rain.Therefore,the distribution of sulfur and its geologic characteristcs are important indicators in evaluating coal quality and in solving related environmental problems.The clean coal technologies are developed for effective utilization of coal resources with a minimum impact on the environment.Such technologies include procombustion techniques(physical,chemical,and microbial coal cleaning),flue gas desulfurization,sorbent injection,and various coal combustion technologies(fluidized-bed combustion,integrated gasification combined cycle,etc.)%煤中硫的含量大都由煤层的沉积环境控制,并取决于成煤物质是否曾受过海水影响及其受海水影响的程度.煤中硫的含量对于煤的有效利用甚为重要.这主要是因为燃煤时有相当量的二氧化硫释放到大气中造成对环境有害的酸雨.因此,煤层中硫的分布和地质特征是评估煤的品质及解决有关环境问题的一个重要参数.洁净煤技术是为了有效解决能源需求并减少用煤对环境的影响而发展起来的.它包括煤燃烧前的洁净方法(物理、化学和微生物的煤洁净法)、烟气脱硫、吸附剂喷撒和各种煤燃烧技术(流化床、气化联合循环等).

  13. Clean Power Generation Techniques for Coal-fired Power Plants%火电厂燃煤清洁发电技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜胜; 肖家荣; 王涛; 黄娜

    2016-01-01

    从雾霾出发,分析了当前燃煤电厂所处的环保困境和已经取得的治理成就,展望了未来的严峻形势,重点推介了几种电厂燃煤清洁发电技术上的应对之道。%Environmental problems such as haze induced by coal-fired power plants and its current governance situation and progress are introduced .Then, several clean power generation techniques that could be adopted in coal-fired power plants are presented .

  14. 我国煤炭高效洁净利用新技术%New Technology of Coal High Efficient and Cleaning Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金华

    2012-01-01

    The high efficient and clean utilization of coal is the effective access to realize the energy saving and emission reduction.Based on the circumstances,the paper introduced the technical principle,innovations,technical advantage and promotion conditions of the three new technologies of the coal high efficient and clean utilization,including the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology,the coal water mixture preparation and new technology application and the dry flue gas cleaning technology of the active coke.In combination with the present actual conditions,the development orientation of the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology as pointed would be finally to set up the high efficient pulverized coal industrial boiler technology system with the deep systematic study on the clean pulverized coal preparation technology,the pulverized coal logistic and distribution technology,the pulverized coal boiler combustion and cleaning technology as well as the commercialized operation mode.The gasification coal water mixture prepared with the mine water and the long distance pipeline transportation would be the development orientation of the gasification coal water mixture.The dry flue gas cleaning technology of active coke would be suitable applied to the zone lacking of water resources and the development direction in the near future would be to improve the performances of the active coke,to reduce the technique cost,to improve the de-nitre capacity,to simplify the technique procedure and to have the removing and regeneration completed in a device.%煤炭的高效洁净利用是实现节能减排的有效途径,基于此,对我国目前煤炭高效洁净利用3项新技术(高效煤粉工业锅炉技术、水煤浆制备和应用新技术、活性焦干法烟气净化技术)的技术原理、创新点、技术优点及推广情况进行了介绍。结合当前实际,指出高效煤粉工业锅炉技术的发展方向是通过对

  15. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This project will be the first North American demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) System in its application for flue gas desulfurization. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency as well as the cost effectiveness of the GSA system. GSA is a novel concept for flue gas desulfurization developed by F.L. Smidth miljo (FLS miljo). The GSA system is distinguished in the European market by its low capital cost, high SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and low operating cost. The specific technical objectives of the GSA demonstration project are to: effectively demonstrate SO{sub 2} removal in excess of 90% using high sulfur US coal. Optimize recycle and design parameters to increase efficiencies of lime reagent utilization and SO{sub 2} removal. Compare removal efficiency and cost with existing Spray Dryer/Electrostatic Precipitator technology.

  16. IGCC repowering project clean coal II project public design report. Annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) is participating in a $270 million coal gasification combined cycle repowering project that was designed to provide a nominal 60 MW of electricity to City, Water, Light and Power (CWL&P) in Springfield, Illinois. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system consists of CE`s air-blown entrained flow two-stage gasifier; an advanced hot gas cleanup system; a combustion turbine adapted to use low-BTU gas; and all necessary coal handling equipment, The project is currently completing the second budget period of five. The major activities to date are: (1) Establishment of a design, cost, and schedule for the project; (2) Establishment of financial commitments; (3) Acquire design and modeling data; (4) Establishment of an approved for design (AFD) engineering package; (5) Development of a detailed cost estimate; (6) Resolution of project business issues; (7) CWL&P renewal and replacement activities; and (8) Application for environmental air permits. A Project Management Plan was generated, The conceptual design of the plant was completed and a cost and schedule baseline for the project was established in Budget Period One. This information was used to establish AFD Process Flow Diagrams, Piping and Instrument Diagrams, Equipment Data Sheets, material take offs, site modification plans and other information necessary to develop a plus or minus 20% cost estimate. Environmental permitting activities were accomplished, including the Air Permit Application, completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, and the draft Environmental Monitoring Plan. At the end of 1992 the DOE requested that Duke Engineering and Services Inc., (DESI) be used to complete the balance of plant cost estimate. DESI was retained to do this work, DESI completed the material take off estimate and included operations, maintenance, and startup in the estimate.

  17. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David

    2010-01-01

    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  18. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Task 6 -- Selective agglomeration laboratory research and engineering development for premium fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-06-27

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and benchscale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report represents the findings of Subtask 6.5 Selective Agglomeration Bench-Scale Testing and Process Scale-up. During this work, six project coals, namely Winifrede, Elkhorn No. 3, Sunnyside, Taggart, Indiana VII, and Hiawatha were processed in a 25 lb/hr continuous selective agglomeration bench-scale test unit.

  19. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.P. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  20. Re-use of clean coal technology by-products in construction of low permeability liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.E.; Butalia, T.S.; Whitlatch, E.E.; Mitsch, W.

    2000-12-01

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10{sup -7} cm/sec (3 x 10{sup -9} ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio's non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Construction FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorus retention giving rise to the potential use of these materials as a liners for wastewater treatment wetlands. While plant growth was observed to be less vigorous for FGD lined wetland mesocosms compared to the control, the above and below ground biomass were not significantly different. Cost estimates for FGD liners compared favourably with clay liners for varying haul distances.

  1. Integration of in-situ CO2-oxy coal gasification with advanced power generating systems performing in a chemical looping approach of clean combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integration of CO2/O2 based UCG, CLC and CCS for clean coal utilization. • Incorporation of CLC system reduces the ASU load of the power plant. • Use of CO enriched UCG gas in Ni based CLC reduces the difficulty of heat balance. • Coupling of the proposed UCG with IGCC and IGST for the efficient power generation. • Demonstration of reduced CCS energy penalty in the advanced coupled system. - Abstract: Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a clean coal technology to utilize deep coal resources effectively. In-situ CO2-oxy coal gasification may eliminate the operational difficulty of the steam gasification process and utilize CO2 (greenhouse gas) effectively. Furthermore, it is necessary to convert the clean gasified energy from the UCG into clean combustion energy for an end-use. In order to achieve efficient clean power production, the present work investigates the thermodynamic feasibility of integration of CO2 based UCG with power generating systems operating in a chemical looping combustion (CLC) of product gas. The use of CO enriched syngas from O2/CO2 based UCG reduces the difficulty of the heat balance between a fuel reactor and an air reactor in a nickel oxygen-carrier based CLC system. Thermodynamic analyses have been made for various routes of power generation systems such as subcritical, supercritical and ultra-supercritical boiler based steam turbines and gas turbines for the UCG integrated system. It is shown, based on mass and energy balance analysis, that the integration of CO2 based UCG with the CLC system reduces the energy penalty of carbon capture and storage (CCS) significantly. A net thermal efficiency of 29.42% is estimated for the CCS incorporated system, which operates in a subcritical condition based steam turbine power plant. Furthermore, it is found that the efficiency of the proposed steam turbine system increases to 35.40% for an ultra-supercritical operating condition. The effect of operating temperature of the

  2. Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang

    1996-03-01

    The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

  3. The contemporary coal industry: dancing to faster music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R. [World Coal Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    Within a framework that supports sustainable development, the issues of changing coal markets, environmental policy and climate change, and the positive marketing of coal as a solution to energy demand are discussed. Changes affect both domestic and international markets, and each subset of the market is different. In Europe, coal consumption is declining in contrast with expanding Asian energy markets. Clean coal technologies improve efficiency and make coal more acceptable. The greatest reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be realized within the least efficient areas of coal consumption, in particular the domestic markets in Asia, eastern Europe, and Africa.

  4. Factors affecting the microwave coking of coals and the implications on microwave cavity design

    OpenAIRE

    Binner, Eleanor; Medeira-Munoyerro, Maria; Huddle, Thomas; Kingman, S. W.; Dodds, Chris; Dimitrakis, G.; Robinson, John P.; Lester, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper assessed how processing conditions and feedstock affect the quality of the coke produced during microwave coke making. The aim was to gather information that would support the development of an optimised microwave coke making oven. Experiments were carried out in a non-optimised 2450 MHz cylindrical cavity. The effect of treatment time (15–120 min), power input (750 W–4.5 kW) and overall power input (1700–27,200 kWh/t) on a range of coals (semi-bituminous–an...

  5. 清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存%Clean coal technology and CO2 geological storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 马丽

    2014-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of coal and speed up clean,efficiency and low carbonization of coal industry,provide that the tra-ditional coal conversion technologies should be replaced by efficient and clean technologies.Investigate the clean coal technologies and CO2 geological storage technologies,especially the technologies of CO2 storage in saline formation.The way stores large quantities of CO2 safely and stably.The method also solves the problems of CO2 emissions due to China̓s energy structure.%中国能源资源特点决定现在以煤为主的消费结构,但煤炭在消费过程中存在高污染和低效率的问题,因此为提高资源利用率,煤炭行业面临结构调整。煤炭行业的清洁化、高效化、低碳化将是产业发展方向,煤炭高效洁净转化将取代传统的转化技术,如何解决煤炭利用过程中产生的CO2是清洁煤技术面临的新问题。通过研究清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存技术,特别是深部盐水层封存技术,为煤炭利用中产生的CO2排放提供了一种大规模、安全、稳定的存储方式,从而解决目前中国能源结构造成的CO2排放问题。

  6. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly technical progress report 11, April--June, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1995-07-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design, and construction of a 2-t/hr process development unit (PDU). The PDU will then be operated to generate 200 tons of each of three project coals, by each process. During Quarter 11 (April--June, 1995), work continued on the Subtask 3.2 in-plant testing of the Microcel{trademark} flotation column at the Lady Dunn Preparation Plant with the installation and calibration of a refurbished 30-inch diameter column. The evaluation of toxic trace element data for column flotation samples continued, with preliminary analysis indicating that reasonably good mass balances were achieved for most elements, and that significant reductions in the concentration of many elements were observed from raw coal, to flotation feed, to flotation product samples. Significant progress was made on Subtask 6.5 selective agglomeration bench-scale testing. Data from this work indicates that project ash specifications can be met for all coals evaluated, and that the bulk of the bridging liquid (heptane) can be removed from the product for recycle to the process. The detailed design of the 2 t/hr selective agglomeration module progressed this quarter with the completion of several revisions of both the process flow, and the process piping and instrument diagrams. Procurement of coal for PDU operation began with the purchase of 800 tons of Taggart coal. Construction of the 2 t/hr PDU continued through this reporting quarter and is currently approximately 60% complete.

  8. Experimental Analyses of the Major Parameters Affecting the Intensity of Outbursts of Coal and Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in mining depth and production, the intensity and frequency of outburst of coal and gas have a tendency to increase. Estimating the intensity of outbursts of coal and gas plays an important role because of its relation with the risk value. In this paper, we described the semiquantitative relations between major parameters and intensity of outburst based on physical experiments. The results showed increment of geostress simulated by horizontal load (from 1.4, 2.4, 3.2, to 3.4 MPa or vertical load (from 2, 3, 3.6, to 4 MPa improved the relative intensity rate (3.763–7.403% and 1.273–7.99%; the increment of porosity (from 1.57, 2.51, 3, to 3.6% improved the relative intensity rate from 3.8 to 13.8%; the increment of gas pressure (from 0, 0.5, 0.65, 0.72, 1, to 1.5 Mpa induced the relative intensity rate to decrease from 38.22 to 0%; the increment of water content (from 0, 2, 4, to 8% caused the relative intensity rate to drop from 5.425 to 0.5%. Furthermore, sensitivity and range analysis evaluates coupled factors affecting the relative intensity. In addition, the distinction with initiation of outburst of coal and gas affected by these parameters is discussed by the relative threshold of gas content rate.

  9. Consideration of clean coal energy strategy in China%中国清洁煤炭能源战略思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈清如

    2012-01-01

    根据中国能源资源的国情,阐述煤炭能源的高效清洁利用仍然是我国能源研究领域的重中之重。以矿物加工工程和化学工程学科为基础,论述我国清洁煤炭能源的特点以及煤炭的加工和转化技术,指出高效煤炭加工利用的新技术、新工艺必须纳入新能源规划的考虑范围之内。传统的煤加工与煤转化理论和技术面临着严峻的挑战。煤基多联产是符合我国国情的煤炭清洁高效利用新技术系统,是最经济有效的方法。建设大型坑口电站是当前资源配置最优化、最经济、最洁净能源的战略。二段干法选煤的灰分〈8%,硫分〈5%,该技术既可用于新建电厂也适用于老厂改造。%The clean and efficient utilization of coal energy remains the most important in energy research field,as is determined by the energy resources conditions of China.The new energy plan is dominated by novel process and technology designed for clean and efficient utilization of coal.As the traditional theory and technology of coal processing and coal conversion are confronted with serious challenges,coal-based poly-production represents the new technical system of the efficient and clean use of coal,which applies to China's conditions.It follows that the construction of the pithead power plant forms the optimized,most cost-effective and cleanest energy strategy.The two-stage dry separation capable of ash of less than 8% and sulfur of less than 5% is suited to newly built power plants and to upgrading the old ones.

  10. Clean Coal: myth or reality? At the heart of the energy-climate equation, capturing and storing CO2 - Proceedings of the 2007 Le Havre's international meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document comprises the French and English versions of the executive summary of the RIH 2007 meetings, followed by the available presentations (slides). Content: - Symposium Opening: Government and the Coal Issue; 1 - First Session - Energy, Climate, Coal: - Scenarios for energy technologies and CO2 emissions: Energy outlooks, CO2 emissions, Technologies (Kamel BENNACEUR); - The global situation of coal: The situation of the international steam coal market, Change in this market, Total's position in this business, Major challenges for the future (Ablaziz ESSEID); - Coal markets: availability, competitiveness, and growing maturity (Stephane LEMOINE); - Coal in the geopolitics of greenhouse gases (Henri PREVOT); - Questions; 2 - Second Session - Coal Economy: - Opportunities and challenges for coal in the European energy mix: the Commission's energy package: The European situation, The European energy mix, The role of EURACOAL (Thorsten DIERCKS); - The development of a coal bed in Lucenay-les-Aix and Cossaye in the Massif Central (Francois JACLOT); - The Russian view of coal's place in the energy mix (Dominique FACHE); - Coal, a key to development in Niger (Pierre-Jean COULON); - The energy and environmental efficiency of coal-fired power plants associated with heating networks (Renaud CAPRIS); - The Valorca project: efficient and immediate use of coal, and strong outlooks for the future (Jean-Pascal TRANIE); - Questions; 3 - Third and Forth Sessions - Clean Power Plants: - CO2 capture systems (Pierre LE THIEZ); - CO2 geological capture and storage in the Lacq basin (Luc de MARLIAVE); - Clean coal: Air Liquide technology developments and industrial solutions (Nicolas PERRIN); - Clean combustion and CO2 (Philippe PAELINCK); - CO2 capture by freezing/defrosting at low temperatures (Denis CLODIC); - Questions; - Using the experience of a large corporation (ENDESA), to develop clean energy: coal (Laurent THABUSSOT); - Pathways to reduce CO2 emissions

  11. Fine Clean Coal Dewatering Remould to NO.2 Surrly Treatment of Jining Coal Preparation Plant%济宁二号煤矿选煤厂末精煤脱水改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏松

    2013-01-01

    该文主要讨论了物料性质对脱水作业的影响及WL1400离心脱水机和VC56离心脱水机的优缺点,介绍了济宁二号煤矿选煤厂末精煤脱水的改造情况。%Mainly discussed material property effect to dewatering process,discussed the merits and demerits of WL1400 centrifuge and VC56 centrifuge, introduced the situation of fine clean dewatering remould to NO.2 Surrly Treatment of Jining Coal Preparation Plant.

  12. Proceedings of the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-26

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar held at Terrigal, Australia in November, 1996. Keynote addresses, three sessions for discussions, and presentations by members economies are included. `Future investment requirements for coal in the APEC region,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC region coal chain,` `International commercial financier`s perspective on coal,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment issues affecting the uptake of clean coal technology (CCT),` `Role of multilateral development banks in financing CCT to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,` and `Strategies for addressing regional coal issues` were presented as keynote addresses. In the sessions, investment issues facing coal power development, financing coal and investment, and investment strategies for CCT were discussed. 58 refs., 42 figs., 40 tabs.

  13. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  14. The false promises of coal exploitation: How mining affects herdsmen well-being in the grassland ecosystems of Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The grasslands of Inner Mongolia are not only the source of the necessary resources for the survival and development of herdsmen, but also represent a significant green ecological barrier in North China. Coal-mining production is important in maintaining GDP growth in Inner Mongolia. However, over-exploitation has created serious problems, such as pollution of the environment and significant decreases in grassland ecosystem services, in addition to impacting the well-being of herdsmen and other humans. Based on questionnaires survey performed among 864 herdsmen addressing the relationship between coal exploitation in grasslands and human well-being in Xilinguole League in Inner Mongolia, we found that (1) coal resource exploitation in these grasslands does not benefit the herdsmen by increasing their income; (2) the rapid development of this resource has not obviously materially improved the life of the herdsmen; and (3) these activities have increased the risks that herdsman will have to endure in the future. Overall, coal resource exploitation in grasslands has more negative than positive effects on the well-being of herdsmen. We propose the conservation of coal resources and improvement of ecological compensation should be carried out without blindly pursuing economic growth, instead of focusing on economic development and structural adjustments. - Highlights: • Evaluation of the human well-being of the Xilinguole grassland, Inner Mongolia, China. • Impact of mining affects herdsmen well-being in grassland ecosystem. • Quantity of questionnaires survey. • Addressing the relationship between coal exploitation in grasslands and human well-being

  15. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

  16. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative clean liquid fuel. Interim report, October 1978-November 15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooher, J. P.

    1979-11-15

    The rheological and combustion properties of coal/water/oil mixtures have been investigated. In addition the use of alkaline additives to remove the sulfur oxide gases has been studied. Results on stability and pumpability indicate that mixtures of 50% by weight of coal and stoichiometric concentrations of alkaline absorbents are pumpable. Correlation between viscometer data and pumping data follows a power law behavior for these mixtures. Thermal efficiencies are about the same as for pure oil. Combustion efficiencies are approximately 97%. It is possible to remove in a small scale combustion from 50 to 80% of the sulfur dioxide gases.

  17. Self-cleaning in an estuarine area formerly affected by 226Ra anthropogenic enhancements. Numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model of the Odiel-Tinto estuary (Spain) has been developed to study the self-cleaning process that was evidenced from 226Ra measurements in water and sediments collected in the period 1999-2002, after direct releases from a fertilizer complex ceased (in 1998). The hydrodynamic model is first calibrated, and standard tidal analysis is carried out to calculate tidal constants required by the dispersion code to determine instantaneous water currents and elevations over the estuary. In this way, long-term simulations may be carried out. The dispersion code includes advective/diffusive transport of radionuclides plus exchanges with bottom sediments described through a kinetic approach. The dispersion model is first tested by comparing computed and measured 226Ra concentrations over the estuary resulting after releases in the Odiel and Tinto rivers. Next, it is applied to simulate the self-cleaning process of the estuary. The time evolution of radium concentrations in bed sediments is in generally good agreement with observations. The computed sediment halving time of the estuary is 510 days, which also is in good agreement with that estimated from measurements

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.

  19. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; FABIANOVA, E

    1997-01-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic a...

  20. Evaluation of the effect of coal cleaning of fugitive elements. Part II. Analytical methods. Final report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, R.E.; Price, A.A.; Ford, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains the analytical and test methods which were used routinely at Bituminous Coal Research, Inc. during the project. The procedures contained herein should aid coal industry laboratories and others, including commercial laboratories, who might be required to determine trace elements in coal. Some of the procedures have been presented in previous BCR reports; however, this report includes additional procedures which are described in greater detail. Also presented are many as the more basic coal methods which have been in use at BCR for many years, or which have been adapted or refined from other standard reference sources for coal and water. The basis for choosing specific analytical procedures for trace elements in coal is somewhat complex. At BCR, atomic absorption was selected as the basic method in the development of these procedures. The choice was based on sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, practicability, and economy. Whenever possible, the methods developed had to be both adequate and amenable for use by coal industry laboratories by virtue of relative simplicity and cost. This is not to imply that the methods described are simple or inexpensive; however, atomic abosrption techniques do meet these criteria in relation to more complex and costly methods such as neutron activation, mass spectrometry, and x-ray fluorescence, some of which require highly specialized personnel as well as access to sophisticated nuclear and computational facilities. Many of the analytical procedures for trace elements in coal have been developed or adapted specifically for the BCR studies. Their presentation is the principal purpose of this report.

  1. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.-H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. All required documents associated with project planning were completed and submitted to DOE for approval during the second quarter of this project. Approval of the project work plan is still pending at this time subject to additional review by DOE of requested modifications to the statement of work. Accomplishments during this reporting period include the set-up of an apparatus for assessing tribocharger performance, continued construction of the bench-scale (1 kg/hr) triboelectrostatic separator and initial development of a fundamental model for predicting the motion of charged particles in a non-uniform electrostatic field.

  2. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix A (Part 2). Coal preparation and cleaning assessment study appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    This report presents the results of integrating coal washability and coal reserves data obtained from the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Two computer programs were developed to match the appropriate entries in each data set and then merge the data into the form presented in this report. Approximately 18% of the total demonstrated coal reserves were matched with washability data. However, about 35% of the reserves that account for 80% of current production were successfully matched. Each computer printout specifies the location and size of the reserve, and then describes the coal with data on selected physical and chemical characteristics. Washability data are presented for three crush sizes (1.5 in., /sup 3///sub 8/ in., and 14 mesh) and several specific gravities. In each case, the percent recovery, Btu/lb, percent ash, percent sulfur, lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, and reserves available at 1.2 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu are given. The sources of the original data and the methods used in the integration are discussed briefly.

  3. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  4. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  5. Public meetings for views and comments on the conduct of the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Solicitation---Cheyenne, Wyoming, October 30, 1991 and Louisville, Kentucky, November 12, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two public meetings were convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) in October and November 1991 in order to obtain views, comments, and recommendations with regard to the forthcoming Clean Coal Technology V solicitation. In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided on the background to the CCT solicitation and the public meetings, and how the meetings were conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at teach of the meetings, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. The report also includes a compilation of the written comments that were received. Finally, an appendix contains attendee registration data and transcripts for opening and closing plenary sessions. (VC)

  6. A high capacity manganese-based sorbent for regenerative high temperature desulfurization with direct sulfur production conceptual process application to coal gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, W.J.W.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2003-12-15

    A high capacity, monolith or particle shaped, regenerable sorbent has been developed for the desulfurization of a dry type coal gas. It consists of crystalline MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a small amount of disperse MnO, and an amorphous Mn-Al-O phase. Elemental sulfur is the only observed regeneration product during regeneration with SO{sub 2}. The sorbent can be used in the temperature range between 673 and 1273 K but the optimum capacity is utilized between 1100 and 1200 K. For regeneration with SO{sub 2} the regeneration temperature should be > 873 K to avoid sulfate formation. The sulfur uptake capacity is high and amounts up to 20 wt.% S and the sorbent performance appears to be stable during at least 110 sulfiding and regeneration cycles at 1123 K. For temperatures above 1100 K thermodynamic calculations are in accordance with the observed (solid) phases after sulfiding and regeneration, indicating the predictive potential for high temperatures. The performance of the surface sites that play an important role during desulfurization can, however, not be predicted. The regenerative removal of H{sub 2}S, COS, HCl and HF can possibly take place simultaneously with the same sorbent. A new conceptual process configuration for high temperature coal gas cleaning and sorbent regeneration is proposed. Compared to other processes, less heat exchange equipment is required and no Claus unit is necessary to convert the regeneration product to sulfur.

  7. Re-generation of hydrofluoric acid and selective separation of Si(IV) in a process for producing ultra-clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steel, Karen M.; Patrick, John W. [Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2004-11-25

    A technique for selectively separating approximately 65 wt.% of the Si(IV) in coal has been developed. The technique first uses aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) to react with aluminosilicates and quartz to form fluoride complexed Al and Si species in solution. Aluminium cations, in the form of Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, are then added to the solution to complex fluoride as AlF{sub 2+} and hydrolyse the silicon fluoride species to silicon hydroxide, which precipitates as a gel and is removed by filtration. The solution is then distilled to recover a water stream, a nitric acid stream and a solid residue. The water stream is used to pyrohydrolyse the solid residue at temperatures in excess of 500C to liberate HF for recycling. To complete the circuit, the solid remaining after pyrohydrolysis is treated with the nitric acid stream to produce Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} for recycling. The technique satisfies the objective of not requiring on-going purchase of chemicals. The application of this work is primarily as part of a process for producing ultra-clean coal. As it is a technique for the selective separation of Al and Si from aluminosilicates, it may have application in other areas of mineral processing.

  8. Airborne arsenic and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites during boiler cleaning operations in a Slovak coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, J W; Hicks, J B; Fabianova, E

    1997-08-01

    Little information is available on the relationship between occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic in coal fly ash and urinary excretion of arsenic metabolites. This study ws undertaken in a coal-fired power plant in Slovakia during a routine maintenance outage. Arsenic was measured in the breathing zone of workers during 5 consecutive workdays, and urine samples were obtained for analysis of arsenic metabolites--inorganic arsenic (Asi), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)--prior to the start of each shift. Results from a small number of cascade impactor air samples indicated that approximately 90% of total particle mass and arsenic was present in particle size fractions >/= 3.5 micron. The 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) mean arsenic air concentration was 48.3 microg/m3 (range 0.17-375.2) and the mean sum of urinary arsenic (SigmaAs) metabolites was 16.9 microg As/g creatinine (range 2.6-50.8). For an 8-hr TWA of 10 microg/m3 arsenic from coal fly ash, the predicted mean concentration of the SigmaAs urinary metabolites was 13.2 microg As/G creatinine [95% confidence interval (CI), 10.1-16.3). Comparisons with previously published studies of exposure to arsenic trioxide vapors and dusts in copper smelters suggest that bioavailability of arsenic from airborne coal fly ash (as indicated by urinary excretion) is about one-third that seen in smelters and similar settings. Arsenic compound characteristics, matrix composition, and particle size distribution probably play major roles in determining actual uptake of airborne arsenic. PMID:9347899

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-21

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  11. Physical Parameters Affecting the Emanation of RADON-222 from Coal Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Terence Patrick

    The Rn-222 emanation coefficients for coal ash and parameters which affected them were measured. Samples of ash from both stoker fired and pulverized coal fired boilers were obtained. The stoker ash samples were mechanically separated into size fractions. The pulverized samples were too fine for mechanical sizing and were categorized qualitatively according to origin. Bulk density of the stoker fractions was measured and ranged from .488 to .944 g-cm('-3), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Bulk density of the pulverized ash ranged from 1.254 to 1.520 g-cm('-3). Specific gravity of the stoker fractions ranged from 2.017 to 2.390 g-cm('-3), also increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Specific gravity of the pulverized ash ranged from 2.357 to 2.588 g-cm(' -3). Ra-226 content of the samples was determined by gamma spectrometric analysis of the 352-KeV gamma of Pb -214 and the 609-KeV gamma of Bi-214 from sealed samples of ash. Ra-226 concentrations in the stoker fractions ranged from 11.82 to 16.77 dpm-g('-1), increasing as a function of decreasing particle size. Ra-226 concentrations in the pulverized ash ranged from 6.44 to 7.59 dpm-g(' -1). Scintillation cells were constructed out of commonly available materials and a commercial preparation of ZnS(Ag) scintillator. Emanation chambers which allowed for moderately large sample masses were constructed. The procedure used to measure emanation coefficients was shown to be insensitive to ingrowth time at greater than 3 days ingrowth and relatively insensitive to variations in sample porosity. Emanation coefficients of the stoker fractions were measured at moisture contents of 0, 1.0, 10, 20, and 40 percent by weight. Within each size fraction the emanation coefficient increased as a function of moisture content, ranging from 9.58 x 10('-4) to 4.13 x 10('-2) between 0 and 20 percent moisture, respectively. Emanation coefficients also increased as a function of decreasing particle size

  12. Environmental injustice and air pollution in coal affected communities, Hunter Valley, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Nick; Freeman, Sonia; Connor, Linda; Albrecht, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    The authors describe environmental injustice from air pollution in the Upper Hunter, Australia, and analyse the inaction of state authorities in addressing residents' health concerns. Obstacles blocking a public-requested health study and air monitoring include: the interdependence of state government and corporations in reaping the economic benefits of coal production; lack of political will, regulatory inertia and procedural injustice; and study design and measurement issues. We analyse mining- and coal-related air pollution in a contested socio-political arena, where residents, civil society and local government groups struggle with corporations and state government over the burden of imposed health risk caused by air pollution.

  13. Influence of flue gas cleaning system on characteristics of PM2.5 emission from coal-fired power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ao Wang; Qiang Song; Gongming Tu; Hui Wang; Yong Yue; Qiang Yao

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of precipitators and wet flue gas desulfurization equipment on charac-teristics of PM2.5 emission from coal-fired power stations. We measured size distribution and removal efficiencies, including hybrid electrostatic precipitator/bag filters (ESP/BAGs) which have rarely been studied. A bimodal distribution of particle concentrations was observed at the inlet of each precipitator. After the precipitators, particle concentrations were significantly reduced. Although a bimodal distribution was still observed, all peak positions shifted to the smaller end. The removal efficiencies of hybrid ESP/BAGs reached 99%for PM2.5, which is considerably higher than those for other types of precipitators. In particular, the influence of hybrid ESP/BAG operating conditions on the performance of dust removal was explored. The efficiency of hybrid ESP/BAGs decreased by 1.9%when the first electrostatic field was shut down. The concentrations and distributions of particulate matter were also measured in three coal-fired power plants before and after desulfurization devices. The results showed diverse removal efficiencies for different desulfurization towers. The reason for the difference requires further research. We estimated the influence of removal technology for particulate matter on total emissions in China. Substituting ESPs with hybrid ESP/BAGs could reduce the total emissions to 104.3 thousand tons, with 47.48 thousand tons of PM2.5.

  14. Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

    2013-12-01

    experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

  15. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  16. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  17. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  18. Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

  19. China's post-coal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  20. Coal and public perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) clean coal outreach efforts are described. The reason why clean coal technology outreach must be an integral part of coal's future is discussed. It is important that we understand the significance of these advances in coal utilization not just in terms of of hardware but in terms of public perception. Four basic premises in the use of coal are presented. These are: (1) that coal is fundamentally important to this nation's future; (2) that, despite premise number 1, coal's future is by no means assured and that for the last 10 years, coal has been losing ground; (3) that coal's future hinges on the public understanding of the benefits of the public's acceptance of advanced clean coal technology; and (4) hat public acceptance of clean coal technology is not going to be achieved through a nationwide advertising program run by the Federal government or even by the private sector. It is going to be gained at the grassroots level one community at a time, one plant at a time, and one referendum at a time. The Federal government has neither the resources, the staff, nor the mandate to lead the charge in those debates. What is important is that the private sector step up to the plate as individual companies and an individual citizens working one-one-one at the community level, one customer, one civic club, and one town meeting at a time

  1. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may a ffect proffitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years...

  2. 澳大利亚和印尼煤炭税负增加对我国煤炭市场的影响%Australia and lndonesia's Coal Taxation Increased Affected to China Coal Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金刚; 王玥葳; 李清亮; 奇宝

    2012-01-01

    分析了澳大利亚、印度尼西亚计划提高本国煤炭企业税负对我国煤炭价格的影响。认为近期市场形势低迷,煤价尚有一定下跌空间,两国增加的税负将会由出口企业主要承担,对我国煤炭市场价格影响有限。%The paper analyzed that Australia and Indonesia proposed to increase the taxation on their coal enterprises affected to Coal Prices in China. The paper held that the recent market situation is in depression and there is a certain dropping space of the coal price. The coal taxation increased by Australia and Indonesia could be mainly borne by the coal export com- panies and would be limitedly affected to the coal market prices in China.

  3. Performance of water-based foams affected by chemical inhibitors to retard spontaneous combustion of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; Huang Fujun; Fu Yue

    2016-01-01

    The micelle generating process of the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution with the addition of chemical inhibitors was elucidated using phase separation model, and the descending order of the capacity for the selected chemical inhibitors to reduce the critical micelle concentrations of the solution are MgCl2, CaCl2, NH4HCO3 and NH4Cl. The data to quantitatively describe the foam decay process, including foaming ratio, foam life and decay behaviors, was obtained by pressure measuring system. The results indicate that chemical inhibitors can improve the solution foamability. The capacity of the inhibitors to enhance the solution foamability is sorted as NH4Cl, NH4HCO3, MgCl2 and CaCl2 which can distinctly improve the foam stability as well. The capacity of the inhibitors to enhance the SDS foam stability can be arranged as MgCl2, NH4Cl, NH4HCO3 and CaCl2. It is observed that the gravity drainage plays a leading role in the increase of proportion of diffusion drainage. The oxidation dynamic parameters of the coal samples trea-ted by inhibition foams were investigated using thermal analysis technique, and their synergistic effects on inhibiting coal oxidation were explored.

  4. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Walker, Harold [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2005-07-15

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from January 3, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to investigate the long-term use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners for ponds and wetlands. The objective of the research program was to establish long-term field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD byproducts generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small-scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, mediumscale wetland experiments, and monitoring of a full-scale FGD-lined pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications especially in the design of daily covers and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches, and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small-scale laboratory tests and monitoring of the full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds. Actual long-term permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. The FGD wetland experiments indicated no significant differences in phosphorus retention between the clay and FGD

  5. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report: First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, long-term testing of the LNB + AOFA configuration continued and no parametric testing was performed. Further full-load optimization of the LNB + AOFA system began on March 30, 1993. Following completion of this optimization, comprehensive testing in this configuration will be performed including diagnostic, performance, verification, long-term, and chemical emissions testing. These tests are scheduled to start in May 1993 and continue through August 1993. Preliminary engineering and procurement are progressing on the Advanced Low NOx Digital Controls scope addition to the wall-fired project. The primary activities during this quarter include (1) refinement of the input/output lists, (2) procurement of the distributed digital control system, (3) configuration training, and (4) revision of schedule to accommodate project approval cycle and change in unit outage dates.

  7. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  8. Selenium and other trace elements in aquatic insects in coal mine-affected streams in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, M.; Crosley, R. [Environmental Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    We determined levels of Se, As, Cd, Pb, and Zn in aquatic insects at coal mine-impacted and reference sites in streams in the Rocky Mountain foothills of west central Alberta from 2001-2003. Selenium levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies but not in mayflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels were greater at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in caddisflies and stoneflies but not in mayflies. Zn levels were higher at coal mine-impacted sites than at reference sites in all three groups of insects. At coal mine-impacted sites, Se levels in mayflies and caddisflies were greater than those in stoneflies while at reference sites mayflies contained greater concentrations of Se than either caddisflies or stoneflies. Arsenic levels in mayflies were greater than those in caddisflies at reference and coal mine-impacted sites and were greater than those in stoneflies at reference sites. At both types of sites Cd differed amongst insect taxa in the order of mayflies < caddisflies < stoneflies. The same was true of Zn at coal mine-affected sites. At reference sites, stoneflies had greater concentrations of Zn than both mayflies and caddisflies. At both types of sites, Pb levels were greater in mayflies and caddisflies than they were in stoneflies. Of the five trace elements considered in this study, only Se was sufficiently elevated in aquatic invertebrates to be of potential concern for consumers such as fish and aquatic birds. Such was the case at both coal mine-impacted and reference sites.

  9. Task 1.13 -- Data collection and database development for clean coal technology by-product characteristics and management practices. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-08-01

    Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion and coal gasification is the focus of this task by the Energy and Environmental Research Center. The primary goal of this task is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on CCT (Clean Coal Technology) by-products to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Supporting objectives are (1) to fully utilize information from previous DOE projects, (2) to coordinate with industry and other research groups, (3) to focus on by-products from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification, and (4) to provide information relevant to the EPA evaluation criteria for the Phase 2 decision.

  10. Sumpor u ugljenu (Sulphur in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2004-12-01

    utilisation of coals with low sulphur concentrations (typically < 1 wt %, the removal of cleaning prior to utilisation. The methods for the removal of sulphur from coal can be divided into: physical, chemical and microbiological. The mineral sulphur components can be removed or reduced by commercial methods of coal washing, flotation and agglomeration. A number of chemical desulphurization for the removal of, both, pyritic and organic sulphur have been advocated. The chemical desulphurization methods however, have two major drawbacks. Namely, they are often expensive and they destroy the caking properties of coal. Certain microorganisms have been used to consume or convert selectively most of the pyritic sulphur as well as some of the organic sulphur in coal. The process is also cheaper than chemical desulphurization and does not affect the caking properties of coking coal.

  11. A new power station with clean combustion of coal residues financed by the Commission wins an international prize. Una nueva central electrica de combustion limpia de residuos de carbon financiada por la Comision gana un premio internacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy, Energy Technology Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Between 1987 and 1989 10,55 million ecus were given by the European Commission's Demonstration Programme for the construction of the Emile Huchet power station using circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The power station was constructed jointly by Charbonnages de France, COREAL, Stein Industrie and Lurgi. An important feature was its ability to burn coal preparation wastes cleanly. Despite burning poor quality fuel its emissions are well below the maximum standards. Other stations of this type are now planned in France.

  12. Research report of FY 1997 on the environmentally acceptable coal utilization system feasibility survey. Clean coal technology model project seminar held in Thailand; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Tai ni okeru clean coal technology model jigyo seminar no kaisai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    To reduce SOx with coal utilization, the desulfurization seminar diffusing the demonstration project of simplified desulfurizer introduction was held at the site in Thailand. The purpose is to reduce the environmental pollutants and contribute to the effective utilization of energy with coal utilization in Thailand. Invitation letters were sent to users of coal and heavy oil boilers through the Department of Factories, Ministry of Industry, Thailand, to call participation in the seminar. Inspection of the desulfurizer introduced in the factory of Thai Union Paper Public was included in the seminar for diffusing the project. The inspection site is in the demonstration project site of simplified desulfurizer introduction. There were a lot of participants from Thai users and from Japan. The seminar included the presentations from NEDO, JETRO, FTI, and MOSTE, introduction of general technology for processes of ENAA desulfurizer, introduction of demonstration unit plan by IHI, and introduction of operation of demonstration unit by TUP. 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Release of alkali salts and coal volatiles affecting internal components in fluidized bed combustion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias del Campo, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the potential advantages of atmospheric fluidized bed systems, experience has proved that, under certain environments and operating conditions, a given material employed for internal components could lead to catastrophic events. In this study, an attempt is made to establish material selection and operational criteria that optimize performance and availability based on theoretical considerations of the bed hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and combustion process. The theoretical results may indicate that, for high-volatile coals with particle diameters (dc of 1-3 mm and sand particle size (ds of 0.674 mm, a considerable proportion of alkali chlorides may be transferred into the freeboard region of fluidized bed combustors as vapor phase, at bed temperatures (Tb < 840 °C, excess air (XSA ≤ 20 %, static bed height (Hs ≤ 0.2 m and fluidizing velocity (Uo < 1 m/s. Under these operating conditions, a high alkali deposition may be expected to occur in heat exchange tubes located above the bed. Conversely, when the combustors operate at Tb > 890 °C and XSA > 30 %, a high oxidation rate of the in-bed tubes may be present. Nevertheless, for these higher Tb values and XSA < 10 %, corrosion attack of metallic components, via sulfidation, would occur since the excessive gas-phase combustion within the bed induced a local oxygen depletion.

    A pesar de las ventajas potenciales de los sistemas atmosféricos de lecho fluidizado, la experiencia ha demostrado que, bajo ciertas atmósferas y condiciones de operación, un material que se emplea como componente interno podría experimentar una falla y conducir a eventos catastróficos. En este estudio, se intenta establecer un criterio tanto operativo como de selección del material que permita optimizar su disponibilidad y funcionalidad basados en consideraciones teóricas de la hidrodinámica del lecho, la termodin

  14. 工作面采高对O形圈分布规律的影响研究%Study on Coal Mining Height of Coal Mining Face Affected to O Ring Distribution Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小亚; 许家林; 吴仁伦; 刘彦林

    2012-01-01

    In order to rationally layout the gas high level drainage gateway and study the O ring distribution law, taking the K8205 coal mining face in No. 3 Mine in Yangquan Mining Area as the project background, the discrete element numerical simulation method was ap- plied to study the coal mining height of coal mining affected to the variation formation of the O ring. The simulation results showed that un- der the certain key stratum structure condition of the overburden strata, the width of the O ring would be increased with the coal mining height increased. The height of the O ring was lowly affected by the coal mining height. When the coal height varied within a certain range, the height of the O ring would be below the key stratum of the overburden strata. When the coal mining height was increased, the rotary angle of the first rotary rock block in the liner beam structure would be increased, thus the bending section length of the liner beam would be increased and the width of the O ring would be increased. Based on the study results, an optimized plan of the strike high level gas drainage gateway under the different seam mining height was provided.%为合理布置瓦斯高位抽放巷而研究O形圈分布规律,以阳泉三矿K82O5工作面为工程背景,采用离散元数值模拟方法研究了工作面采高对O形圈变化形态的影响。模拟结果表明:在一定的覆岩关键层结构条件下,O形圈的宽度随煤层采高增加而增大;O形圈的高度受煤层采高的影响很小,采高在一定范围内变化时O形圈高度均止于覆岩主关键层下;采高增加时砌体梁结构中第1个回转岩块的回转角度增大,从而使砌体梁弯曲段长度增长,O形圈宽度增大。基于该研究结果,提出了不同煤层采高条件下走向高抽巷布置优化方案。

  15. 煤焦油喹啉不溶物压滤脱除和超净沥青制备%Pressure Filtration Removal of QI and Preparation of Ultra-clean Pitch from Coal Tar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳杰; 王永刚; 任浩华; 马伟光; 陈航; 郭相坤; 许德平

    2011-01-01

    以高温煤焦油为原料,在自制小型压滤装置上脱除喹啉不溶物(QI),并对滤后煤焦油进行超临界流体萃取分馏制备超净沥青.结果表明,当滤布孔径1250目、温度125℃、压力0.5MPa时,煤焦油中的QI质量分数可降低到0.037%.对压滤后的焦油进行超临界萃取,所制沥青的QI和甲苯不溶物质量分数分别达到0.10%和20.31%,可满足制备高性能炭素材料前驱体的要求.%Quinoline insolubles (QI) of high temperature coal tar sampled from a coking plant of Shanxi province was removed by a self-made pressure filtration device. Ultra-clean pitch was prepared from the filtered coal tar by utilizing supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation (SFEF). Results indicated that the QI content of the filtered coal tar decreased to 0.037% at the conditions of 1 250 mesh filter cloth, 125℃ and 0.5MPa. And the QI and toluene insoluble (TI) level of ultra-clean pitch from SFEF reached 0.1% and 20.31%, which indicated that the pitch could be used as a premium precursor for high-performance carbon material, especially the needle-coke.

  16. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  17. Clean fuel technology for world energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjay, Sunjay

    2010-09-15

    Clean fuel technology is the integral part of geoengineering and green engineering with a view to global warming mitigation. Optimal utilization of natural resources coal and integration of coal & associated fuels with hydrocarbon exploration and development activities is pertinent task before geoscientist with evergreen energy vision with a view to energy security & sustainable development. Value added technologies Coal gasification,underground coal gasification & surface coal gasification converts solid coal into a gas that can be used for power generation, chemical production, as well as the option of being converted into liquid fuels.

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey for a data book on new energy technology development. Waste power generation, solar energy utilization. geothermal power generation, clean energy vehicles, coal liquefaction/gasification, and traverse themes; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (haikibutsu hatsuden, taiyonetsu riyo, chinetsu hatsuden, clean energy jidosha, sekitan ekika gas ka oyobi odanteki theme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper collected and arranged data on new energy technology. As to the waste power generation, in terms of general waste, 161 places have power generation facilities, 657,000 kW in output, as of the end of FY 1996. Out of them, 100 facilities (scale of output: 555,000 kW) are selling power. In terms of industrial waste, 53 places (209,000 kW) have power generation facilities. The output will be 2 million kW in FY 2000. In relation to the solar energy utilization, the number of solar systems introduced in FY 1996 is 25,000, that of water heating appliances produced in FY 1996 is 170,000. Geothermal power of 494,000 kW and 37,000 kW was introduced for electric power industry use and private use, respectively. Clean energy vehicles have not been so much spread, but the hybrid car was put on sale in 1997. Concerning the coal liquefaction, the R and D were made at a pilot plant of NEDOL process, and operation started in 1997. As to the coal gasification, investigational study and element study on the demonstration plant are being conducted in FY 1997 and 1998, making use of the research results obtained from the existing pilot plant of coal gasification combined power generation

  20. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion: an alternative clean coal technology. La combustion en lecho fluido a presion, una alternativa de uso limpio del carbon en desarollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencomo Perez-Zamora, V.; Menendez Perez, J.A.E. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-11-01

    The primary aim of thistechnology is to reduce emissions of sulphur and nitrous oxides. Pilot plant tests have achieved a sulphur fixing rate of over 95%. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion also has advantages with regard to the emission of contaminants. Halogens, fluorine and chlorine, which in conventional combustion methods are released in the gases, to a large degree remain in the ash as do trace elements, such as arsenic, which usually vapourise at high temperatures in pulverised coal combustors. This technology also has a high output of between 38 and 40% net according to the type of coal used. 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  2. Energizing America with coal. Proceedings of the 88th regular meeting of The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics discussed at the meeting include: American coal technology; electric supply and demand; opportunities in power generation; the Clean Coal Technology Program; coal mining; the coal market; total quality management in the mining industry; mining productivity; mine rescue performance evaluation; and data on coal production. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. General Evaluation of Clean Coal-fired Power Generating System with Gray System Correlation Model%用灰色系统关联模式综合评价洁净燃煤发电系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄飞

    2001-01-01

    在综合洁净燃煤发电系统影响因素的基础上,用灰色系统关联模式进行讨论和分析,以排除人为的主观任意性,可取得满意的结果。该结果与其它文献综合评判结果完全一致。%Presents the general evaluation of clean coal-fired power generating system with gray system correlation model with the effect of various factors taken into consideration, and the satisfactory results achieved without the effect of human factor in full agreement with those contained in other literatures.

  4. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  5. Spin-mapping of Coal Structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belford, R. L.; Clarkson, R. B.

    1989-12-01

    The broad goals of this project are to determine by nondestructive magnetic resonance methods chemical and physical structural characteristics of organic parts of native and treated coals. In this project period, we have begun to explore a technique which promises to enable us to follow to course of coal cleaning processes with microscopic spatial resolution. For the past five years, our laboratory has worked on extensions of the EPR technique as applied to coal to address these analytical problems. In this report we (1) describe the world's first nuclear magnetic resonance imaging results from an Illinois {number sign}6 coal and (2) transmit a manuscript describing how organic sulfur affect the very-high-frequency EPR spectra of coals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that has found wide medical application as a means of visualizing the interior of human bodies. We have used MRI techniques to study the diffusion of an organic solvent (DMSO) into the pores of Illinois {number sign}6 coal. Proton MRI images reveal that this solvent at room temperature does not penetrate approximately 30% of the coal volume. Regions of the coal that exclude solvent could be related to inertinite and mineral components. A multi-technique imaging program is contemplated.

  6. Study on occurrence of sulfur in different group components of Xinyu clean coking coal%新峪焦精煤中硫在族组分间的赋存规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志宏; 张豪非; 戴冬瑾; 赵翠翠; 张丽芳

    2014-01-01

    This paper illustrates the occurrence and distribution of sulfur in coal from the perspective of composition and structure of the coal body.With the organic sulfur-rich Xinyu clean coking coal as the sample, and the method of separating all group components from coal through extraction and stripping process as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ) and gas chromatogrpa hy/masss pectrometer ( GC/MS) analysis techniques, the content of inorganic sulfur and organic slu fur of diffre ent forms in raw cola and various group components isstudied andt he occurrence of organic sulfur in organic matter of coal is carefully observed.The results show the distribution of inorganic sulfur is mainly dependent upon its particle siez and density in coal and has less relationship wti h the structure of group components of coal.Thiophene sulfur ist he major form fo o rganic sufl ur either in raw cola or group components.The ext ernal envri onment of molecules dominated by conjugated structure can derc ease the elector n binding energy of ogr anic sulfur in conjugated structru e, whiel incrae se that of us lfur in aliphatic structure.Th e distribution of organic sulfuri n coal si balanc ed as a whole and will not be signifiac ntly infleu nced by ts rucut ral differne ces of group components. Howve er, the occurrence of organic sulfur compounds is assocai ted with the structure of group components, showing relatively small difference.And there is only one type of small molce ule orag nic sulfur compounds in light component, with small abundance.%为从煤的本体组成结构方面来阐述煤中硫的赋存与分布规律,以高含有机硫的新峪焦精煤为对象,采用萃取反萃取的煤全组分分离方法和XPS、GC/MS等分析技术,对原煤和各族组分中的不同形态无机硫和有机硫含量进行了研究,重点考察了有机硫在煤有机质本体中的赋存规律。结果表明,无机硫的分布主要依赖于其自身在煤主体中

  7. 12th international conference on coal science. Coal - contributing to sustainable world development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The theme of the conference was: coal - contributing to sustainable world. Papers dealt with combustion, coal cleaning, surface analysis, coal sustainability and research, metallurgical coke, structural studies, ash utilization, SEM analysis, liquefaction, pulverized coal injection, power plant emissions, analytical techniques, gasification, thermal analysis, weathering, self-heating and dust explosion, low rank coal gasification, geochemistry and trace elements, petrographic studies, CO{sub 2} mitigation, low rank coal pyrolysis, gas sorption, pyrolysis, synthesis gas, low rank coal drying, biomass pyrolysis, gas cleaning, underground gasification, activated carbon, pyrolysis and char reactivity, gasification model studies, agglomerated and slurry fuels, co-pyrolysis, and tar products and effluents. The poster papers are also included. The papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Clean Coal Centre Coal Abstracts database.

  8. Pressurised fluidised bed combustion: an alternative for the clean use of coal. La combustion en lecho fluido a presion, una alternativa de uso limpio del carbon en desarrollo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beucom O Perez-Zamora, V.; Menendez Perez, J.A.E. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-11-01

    Atmospheric fluidised bed combustion is an alternative worthy of consideration. It is a solution which maintains or even increases output slightly and, in the circulating fluidised bed variety, has the advantage of being able to burn an inconsistent quality of coal with a high sulphur content. The most important question is to what output this method can be developed whilst remaining competitive with other systems. There is a tendency to assume that atmospheric fluidised bed combustors can be developed up to 250 MW and that more powerful installations for electricity generation use systems with a higher output. In any case, this is no more than a general and preliminary observation. Its validity will be proved by the technical and economic results achieved with high output systems and by the availability of coal of the required mix of quality and price. 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from waste coal flyash for tailored application in bio-refining and process water cleaning: An innovative approach towards a cleaner circular economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to assess if Finnish coal flyash (CFA) waste could be used to synthesize zeolites. The world produces 750 million tonnes of CFA annually which is also the largest quantity waste produced. This figure will only increase as India, China, South America and Africa charges ahead with industrialization. The global recycle rate is 15% annually. Finland produces about 750,000 tonnes of CFA per year. It is also estimated that millions of tonnes of CFA is backfilled...

  10. Coal 99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO2 and NOx, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO2-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NOx-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NOx- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NOx-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong demand for electrical power in the Asian

  11. Flocculation, hydrophobic agglomeration and filtration of ultrafine coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhimin

    In coal preparation plant circuits, fine coal particles are aggregated either by oil agglomeration or by flocculation. In a new hydrophobic agglomeration process, recently developed hydrophobic latices are utilized. While the selectivity of such aggregation processes determines the beneficiation results, the degree of aggregation has a strong effect on fine coal filtration. The aim of this research was to study the fundamentals and analyze the common grounds for these processes, including the potential effect of the coal surface properties. The selective flocculation tests, in which three types of coal, which differed widely in surface wettability, and three additives (hydrophobic latices, a semi-hydrophobic flocculant and a typical hydrophilic polyelectrolyte) were utilized, showed that coal wettability plays a very important role in selective flocculation. The abstraction of a hydrophobic latex on coal and silica revealed that the latex had a much higher affinity towards hydrophobic coal than to hydrophilic mineral matter. As a result, the UBC-1 hydrophobic latex flocculated only hydrophobic coal particles while the polyelectrolyte (PAM) flocculated all the tested coal samples and minerals, showing no selectivity in the fine coal beneficiation. The oil agglomeration was tested using kerosene emulsified with various surfactants (e.g. cationic, anionic and non-ionic). Surfactants enhance not only oil emulsification, hence reducing oil consumption (down to 0.25--0.5%), but also entirely change the electrokinetic properties of the droplets and affect the interaction energy between oil droplets and coal particles. Consequently, the results found in the course of the experimental work strongly indicate that even oxidized coals can be agglomerated if cationic surfactants are used to emulsify the oil. Oil agglomeration of the Ford-4 ultrafine coal showed that even at extremely low oil consumption (0.25 to 0.5%), a clean coal product with an ash content around 5% at over

  12. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  13. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Evaluation of gas reburning and low-NO sub x burners on a wall-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report briefly describes the Gas Reburning and Low-NO{sub x} Burners technology which is a low-cost technology that can be applied in both retrofit and new applications. This demonstration will be conducted on a utility boiler in Colorado at Cherokee Station {number sign}3; however, the technology is applicable to industrial boilers and other combustion systems. Although this technology is primarily a NO{sub x} reduction technology, some reductions in other emissions will take place. Since 15--20% of the coal is replaced with natural gas, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced commensurately. Also the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of natural gas compared to coal reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. The formation of NO{sub x} is controlled by several factors: (1) the amount of nitrogen that is chemically bound in the fuel; (2) the flame temperature; (3) the residence time that combustion products remain at very high temperatures; and (4) the amount of excess oxygen available, especially at the hottest parts of the flame. Decreasing any of these parameters, tends to reduce NO{sub x} formation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. The Magnetic Beneficiation of Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Male, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetic demineralization of coal can produce a fuel containing lower leveIs of sulphur and ash forming minerals. The ability of the magnetic separation technique to process material over a wide range of particle sizes (I-1000 µm) and to operate on either liquid or gaseous feed enables a number of possible coal processing applications. These range from dry desulphurization of power station pulverized fuel to the cleaning of solvent refined coals. This article reviews work on the developme...

  15. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  16. Clean coal technology III (CCT III): 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Technical progress report, October 1, 1990--December 31, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This project will be the first North American demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) System in its application for flue gas desulfurization. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency as well as the cost effectiveness of the GSA system. GSA is a novel concept for flue gas desulfurization developed by F.L. Smidth miljo (FLS miljo). The GSA system is distinguished in the European market by its low capital cost, high SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and low operating cost. The specific technical objectives of the GSA demonstration project are to: effectively demonstrate SO{sub 2} removal in excess of 90% using high sulfur US coal. Optimize recycle and design parameters to increase efficiencies of lime reagent utilization and SO{sub 2} removal. Compare removal efficiency and cost with existing Spray Dryer/Electrostatic Precipitator technology.

  17. Oxidative desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, S.; Lacount, R.B.; Warzinski, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    Both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal can be removed by a variety of oxidation techniques, including treatment with NO/sub x/, peroxygen compounds, air in the presence of specific organic media, or air and water at elevated temperature and pressure. The most promising method involves contacting an aqueous slurry of coal with air at pressures up to 1000 psi and temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C. Coals from different geographic areas of the US have been treated with air and water in this way, resulting in removal of more than 90% of pyritic sulfur and up to 40% of organic sulfur as sulfuric acid, which is separated from the desulfurized coal by filtration. Fuel value losses are usually less than 10%. Costs for processing coal by this procedure will be somewhere between the less efficient, less thorough and less costly physical coal cleaning methods and the more thorough but much more costly coal conversion techniques. Oxidative desulfurization potentially can upgrade up to 40% of the bituminous coal in the US to environmentally acceptable boiler fuel and can bring most of the rest of the bituminous coals at least close to acceptability with relatively little loss in total fuel value.

  18. Study on Coal and Rock Maceral Composition Affected to Methane Adsorption Capacity%煤岩显微组成对甲烷吸附能力的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振涛; 姚艳斌; 周鸿璞; 白小虎

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the coal maceral composition affected to the methane adsorption, the systematic tests were conducted on coal quality, coal and rock maceral composition and methane isothermal adsorption relationship of 49 coal samples from 11 coalfields in Qaidam Basin, Ordos Basin, Qinshui Basin, and other basins. The results showed that the methane adsorption capacity of the low and medium ranking coal would be increased with the vitrinite content increased and the adsorption capacity of the high ranking coal would be decreased with the vitrinite content increased. The inertinite content would have a high influence to the coal methane adsorption capacity. The methane adsorption capacity of high ranking coal would be increased with the inertinite content increased and the methane adsorption capacity of the low and medium ranking coal would be firstly increased with the inertinite content increased and then decreased in tenden- cy. When the fusinite content in low and medium ranking coal was lower, the semifusinite content in the low and medium ranking coal would be higher and the coal adsorption capacity would be stronger. The coal adsorption capacity of low ranking coal and the exinite would be in a negative correlation.%为分析煤岩显微组分对甲烷吸附作用的影响,对我国柴达木、鄂尔多斯和沁水等盆地的11个煤田49个煤样的煤质、煤岩显微组分和甲烷等温吸附关系进行了系统试验。结果表明:低、中煤阶煤的甲烷吸附能力随镜质组含量的增加而增加,而高煤阶煤的吸附能力则随之增加而降低。惰质组含量对煤吸附甲烷能力的影响较大,高煤阶煤的甲烷吸附能力随惰质组含量的增加而增加,而低、中煤阶煤的甲烷吸附能力则随之增加呈先增加后降低的趋势。低、中煤阶煤中的丝质体含量越低、半丝质体含量越高,煤的吸附能力越强。低煤阶煤吸附甲烷的能力与壳质组呈负相关关系。

  19. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  20. Mercury concentration in coal - unraveling the puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toole-O`Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Surveys COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1} for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/10{sup 12} Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting `cleaned` mercury values are very close to mercury in `as-shipped` coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction factor for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-cleaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for cleanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Modes of occurrence and cleaning potential of hazardous trace elements in Huanglong coal%黄陇煤中微量有害元素的赋存与洗选洁净潜势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    么秋香; 杜美利; 王水利; 刘静; 杨建利; 上海涛

    2012-01-01

    The abundance of hazardous trace elements in coal collected at main active mines in Huan-glong Jurassic Period coal field were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and chemical method. Correlation and symbiotic relationship between hazardous trace elements, parameters of proximate analysis, and total sulfur was examined by correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Analysis results snow that the abundance of F, Mn, Sr, Ba, Se, P and Cl are markedly higher than average values of Chinese coals, and the abundance of U, Cr, Cu, V and Zn gets close to the average values. Cl, F and Se show organic affinity and Cr, Mn, Gu, V, Zn, Sr, P, Ba and U show inorganic affinity. Se, Cl and F mainly occur in bound-organic. Cr, V, Cu, Sr and Zn are mainly associated with clay minerals. Mn, U and Hg may possibly be existed in pyrite or phosphate minerals. Ba is significantly correlated with barite. Inorganic bound elements have some cleaning potential, but organic bound elements have been enriched by washing.%采用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱和化学分析法对黄陇煤田侏罗纪煤中多种微量有害元素进行了分析,探讨了其在煤中的富集特征.运用相关分析和聚类分析法研究了煤中微量有害元素与工业分析参数、全硫,以及微量有害元素间的相关性和共生组合关系.研究发现:F,Mn,Sr,Ba,Se,P,Cl含量较全国水平明显偏高,U,Cr,Cu,V,Zn等元素含量与全国水平相当.Cl,F,Se具有较强的有机亲和力,Cr,Mn,Cu,V,Zn,Sr,P,Ba,U为亲无机元素.Se,Cl,F主要以有机态存在.Cr,V,Cu,Sr,Zn吸附于粘土矿物.Mn,U,Hg赋存于黄铁矿或磷酸盐矿物中.Ba以重晶石形态存在.洗选可以减弱以无机态赋存元素的环境影响,但对以有机态赋存元素起反作用.

  2. KCCC: Coke and Coal Chemical Business Opens up Growth Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Kailuan Clean Coal Co., Ltd. (KCCC, SH: 600997) is located in Kailuan, Hebei province. Its main business includes the mining of coal and accompanying resources, the dressing and processing of raw coal, the sales of coal products and the production and sales ofcoking products.

  3. Keeping Warm Without Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Heat-pump technology offers a clean heating alternative to coal With no air conditioning or indoor heating, families in southeast Beijing’s Fangzhuang neighbor-hood still enjoy refreshing warm air all year round. The secret is in the pump technology. Heat pumps cool the homes in summer and warm them in winter just like a central air-conditioning system.

  4. Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress: Implications for methane production and acid gas sequestration into coal seams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaojun; Bustin, R. Marc; Chikatamarla, Laxmi

    2007-10-01

    Sequestration of CO2 and H2S into deep unminable coal seams is an attractive option to reduce their emission into atmosphere and at the same time displace preadsorbed CH4 which is a clean energy resource. High coal seam permeability is required for efficient and practical sequestration of CO2 and H2S and recovery of CH4. However, adsorption of CO2 and H2S into coals induces strong swelling of the coal matrix (volumetric strain) and thus reduces significantly coal permeability by narrowing and even closing fracture apertures. Our experimental data on three western Canadian coals show that the adsorption-induced volumetric strain is approximately linearly proportional to the volume of adsorbed gas, and for the same gas, different coals have very similar volumetric strain coefficient. Impacts of adsorption-induced swelling on stress and permeability around wellbores were analytically investigated using our developed stress and permeability models. Our model results indicate that adsorption-induced volumetric strain has significant controls on stress and permeability of producing and sequestrating coal seams and consequently the potential of acid gas sequestration. Coal seams may undergo >10 times enhancement of permeability around CH4-producing wellbores due to a reduction in effective stress as a result of coal shrinking caused by methane desorption accompanying a reduction in reservoir pressure. Injection of H2S and CO2 on the other hand results in strong sorption-induced swelling and a marked increase in effective stress which in turn leads to a reduction of coal seam permeability of up to several orders of magnitude. Injection of mixtures of N2 and CO2 such as found in flue gas results in weaker swelling, the amount of which varies with gas composition, and provides the greatest opportunity of sequestering CO2 and secondary recovery of CH4 for most coals. Because of the marked swelling of coal in the presence of H2S, even minor amounts of H2S result in a marked

  5. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 8, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    As we reported in the Technical Progress Report No. 7, there are surges of electric current in the charging loop during triboelectrification of all particles. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system was developed to monitor and record the current pattern. There is no known report on such charge-discharge surges in the literature. The mechanism for it is yet to be understood. The on-line computerized electric current measurement also leads to an observation of charging effects as a function of particle feeding rate. It is shown that feed rate greatly alters particle charge. Such an effect is mostly overlooked by researchers and it could have a important role in process design where the feed rate would be maximized. The initial results for coal and mineral particles demonstrated that the average charge was lower when the feed rate was increased. Further investigation is scheduled to identify potential controlling factors, eg, the solid volume fraction and particle number density could be important process factors. The study of charging velocity and particle size was continued. It was found that particle charge was linearly dependent on the charging velocity for all samples investigated. However, the slope of this linear dependence varied for particles having different diameters. In addition, the charge-velocity relationships were dependent on feeding rates. Hence, the data discussed below include these interrelationships.

  6. The Charfuel coal refining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patented Charfuel coal refining process employs fluidized hydrocracking to produce char and liquid products from virtually all types of volatile-containing coals, including low rank coal and lignite. It is not gasification or liquefaction which require the addition of expensive oxygen or hydrogen or the use of extreme heat or pressure. It is not the German pyrolysis process that merely 'cooks' the coal, producing coke and tar-like liquids. Rather, the Charfuel coal refining process involves thermal hydrocracking which results in the rearrangement of hydrogen within the coal molecule to produce a slate of co-products. In the Charfuel process, pulverized coal is rapidly heated in a reducing atmosphere in the presence of internally generated process hydrogen. This hydrogen rearrangement allows refinement of various ranks of coals to produce a pipeline transportable, slurry-type, environmentally clean boiler fuel and a slate of value-added traditional fuel and chemical feedstock co-products. Using coal and oxygen as the only feedstocks, the Charfuel hydrocracking technology economically removes much of the fuel nitrogen, sulfur, and potential air toxics (such as chlorine, mercury, beryllium, etc.) from the coal, resulting in a high heating value, clean burning fuel which can increase power plant efficiency while reducing operating costs. The paper describes the process, its thermal efficiency, its use in power plants, its pipeline transport, co-products, environmental and energy benefits, and economics

  7. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY PRICE RATIO OF COKING COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶树人; 王永君

    1994-01-01

    If assortment price parity of Clean coling coal and its quallty price difference is nonreasortable, it doesn't guide in improving the qualiry metaljurgical eoking coal and may be influence the economic benefit of metallurgical enterprises. This paper propose the principles and mathematic model for determination assortment parity of ciean cokingcoal and its quality difference of ash content in clean coking coa in order to urge wasberies into producing superior clean coking coal which is under condition of consideration both intorest waskcries and interest metallurgical industry. It canbe used as a method in theory to make price stra,iegics under condition of socialism maket economic for washeries of clean coking coal

  8. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs

  9. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Re-Use of Clean Coal Technology By-Products in the Construction of Low Permeability Liners. Final report, 10/1/1996 - 3/31/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, William E. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Butalia, Tarunjit S. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Whitlach, Jr., E. Earl [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Mitsch, William [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2000-12-31

    This final project report presents the results of a research program conducted at The Ohio State University from October 1, 1996 to March 31, 2000 to investigate the use of stabilized flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials in the construction of low permeability liners. The objective of the research program was to establish field-verified time-dependent relationships for the performance of liners constructed from stabilized FGD by-products generated in Ohio. The project objective was accomplished with a coordinated program of testing and analyzing small scale laboratory specimens under controlled conditions, medium-scale wetland mesocosms, and a full-scale pond facility. Although the specific uses directly addressed by this report include liners for surface impoundments, the results presented in this study are also useful in other applications including design of daily cover and liners for landfills, seepage cutoff walls and trenches and for nutrient retention and pollution mitigation wetlands. The small scale laboratory tests, medium scale mesocosm wetland experiments, and construction and monitoring of a full-scale FGD lined facility (capacity of one million gallons) shows that stabilized FGD materials can be used as low permeability liners in the construction of water and manure holding ponds, and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Actual permeability coefficients in the range of 10-7 cm/sec (3 x 10-9 ft/sec) can be obtained in the field by properly compacting lime and fly ash enriched stabilized FGD materials. Leachate from the FGD material meets Ohio’s non-toxic criteria for coal combustion by-products, and for most potential contaminants the national primary and secondary drinking water standards are also met. The low permeability non-toxic FGD material investigated in this study poses very minimal risks, if any, for groundwater contamination. Constructed FGD-lined wetlands offer the opportunity for increased phosphorous

  11. Mild coal extraction for the production of anode coke from Blue Gem coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney J. Andrews; Terry Rantell; David Jacques; James C. Hower; J. Steven Gardner; Mike Amick [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-09-15

    The quality and availability of petroleum coke used in the manufacture of carbon anodes for aluminum production is a growing concern to the industry. Coke quality and yields have progressively declined as changes in refinery practice and the move towards processing an increasing proportion of heavier sour crudes have affected coke properties, resulting in an increase in the metal impurities and sulfur content of the coke. An alternative supply of anode coke is required to supplement or eventually replace calcined petroleum coke. The significant domestic reserves of coal could represent a viable carbon resource for anode production, provided defined coke specifications can be met and at a cost that is economically viable. The principal objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of producing anode grade coke by the UKCAER process for the mild solvent extraction of coal. Blue Gem coal from Eastern Kentucky was dissolved in a high boiling point solvent, the mineral matter and unreacted products removed by filtration, and the clean coal liquid converted to coke. The performance of the coal in solvent extraction was compared to a very reactive coal from Western Kentucky. A simple solvent-extraction screening test was established to assess potential candidate materials and process variables without the need for prolonged and complex routines. The coals were assessed in more detail to determine the optimum process conditions by conducting larger scale extraction tests to yield sufficient material for conversion to coke. The green cokes were calcined and the products characterized. The composition and structure of the calcined cokes were compared to typical petroleum coke and assessed for their use in the fabrication of carbon anodes. 21 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  13. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    fiber optic sensors uses sol-gel derived porous silica materials doped with nanometer particles of noble metals in the form of fiber or coating for sensing trace H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3} and HCl in gas samples at for applications ambient temperature. The third classes of fiber optic sensors use sol-gel derived semiconductor metal oxide coating on the surface of silica optical fiber as transducers for selectively sensing H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and CO at high temperature. In addition, optical fiber temperature sensors use the fluorescence signal of rare-earth metal ions doped porous silica optical fiber or the optical absorption signal of thermochromic metal oxide materials coated on the surface of silica optical fibers have also been developed for monitoring gas temperature of corrosive gas. Based on the results obtained from this project, the principle of fiber optic sensor techniques for monitoring matrix gas components as well as trace components of coal gasification derived syngas has been established. Prototype sensors for sensing trace ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in gasification derived syngas have been built up in our laboratory and have been tested using gas samples with matrix gas composition similar to that of gasification derived fuel gas. Test results illustrated the feasibility of these sensors for applications in IGCC processes.

  14. REE Geochemistry of Moderate- and High- Sulfur Coals from North Shanxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文峰; 秦勇; 宋党育; 傅雪海

    2003-01-01

    Contents of the rare-earth elements ( REE ) in two coal seams from North Shanxi Province, China, were determined using the instrumental neutron activation method. Based on the REE distribution patterns, and correlation analysis and cluster analysis, the main conclusions were drawn as follows. The REE contents are controlled mainly by the coal-forming environments, but might be affected by acidic solution leaching after peat sedimentation. The REE distribution patterns should be nearly the same in the sublayers of the same coal seam, and the occurrence of abnormal patterns might indicate the geological effect during post-sedimentation.The REE in coals are present mainly in the inorganic phase, and might be derived mainly from terrigenous detrital minerals. Some harmful elements, such as V, P, Mo, Cr, Cu, Mo, Th and Cd, might have cleaning potential during processing and dressing by washing because they are associated with REE.

  15. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  16. Coal-fired electricity, environmental regulation, and domestic coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade it appears that utilities will have to effectively separate their power generation business from other regulated functions. Tighter restrictions of sulfur emissions will take effect in 2000 but, as of 1996 only 30 percent of US coal-fired electrical generating capacity had flue-gas scrubbers. New emission standards would likely accelerate the shift to low sulfur coal as the competitive pressures of power markets will restrict capital for investment. If power plants do not retrofit with scrubbers, then based on 1995 coal transactions data for Northern Appalachia, Central Appalachia, and the Illinois Basin, there is the equivalent of 216 million tons of annual shipments from these areas that will have to be replaced by low sulfur coal or be covered by emission permits. In the aggregate only 23 percent of the coal shipped in 1995 from these areas was shipped to power plants equipped with flue-gas scrubber systems. The purpose of this paper is to show the extent of the geographical shift in future coal production that could occur as the regulations are enforced. The paper initially discusses the deregulation of the electrical utility industry and the provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Current composition and historical changes of markets for the four major coal-producing regions--Northern Appalachian, Central Appalachian, Illinois Basin, and Power River Basin--are examined. Data on sulfur content of the coal received at power plants from each of the four major coal-producing regions are presented and used to infer the quality of coal likely to be produced in the immediate future. For each market, volumes of coal used by power plants having flue-gas scrubbers are estimated. Based on these estimates and available low sulfur supplies in each market, the volumes of produced coal are calculated that will not meet the new Clean Air Act standards and will likely not be used in scrubber equipped power

  17. Comparison of coal separation characteristics based on different separating approaches in dry coal beneficiation flowsheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-feng; ZHAO Yue-min; HE Ya-qun; LUO Zhen-fu; DUAN Chen-long

    2015-01-01

    The separation characteristic of raw coal from Luoyang mining area, China, was investigated by applying a dry coal beneficiation flowsheet with the dense medium gas-solid fluidized bed as main separating equipment. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the dense medium gas-solid fluidized bed can provide uniform distribution and stable fluctuation of bed densities at various heights. Two types of different separating approaches were compared using the dry coal beneficiation flowsheet. Compared with obtaining cleaning coal in the first stage of the flowsheet, a higher yield of the cleaning coal and better separation efficiency can be achieved when discharging gangue in the first stage. Finally, the results indicate that 64.86% pure cleaning coal with an ash content of 11.77% and 13.53% middlings were obtained, and 21.61% gangue was removed in two successive separation stages with the probable errors of 0.05 and 0.07 g/cm3, respectively.

  18. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  19. Coal gasification and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, D.; Towler, B.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, with topics chosen to aid the process engineer who is interested in a complete, coal-to-products system. It provides a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes. The first topic describes the nature and availability of coal. Next, the fundamentals of gasification are described, followed by a description of gasification technologies and gas cleaning processes. The conversion of syngas to electricity, fuels and chemicals is then discussed. Finally, process economics are covered. Emphasis is given to the selection of gasification technology based on the type of coal fed to the gasifier and desired end product: E.g., lower temperature gasifiers produce substantial quantities of methane, which is undesirable in an ammonia synthesis feed. This book also reviews gasification kinetics which is informed by recent papers and process design studies by the US Department of Energy and other groups. Approaches coal gasification and related technologies from a process engineering point of view, providing a perspective for engineers and scientists who analyze and improve components of coal conversion processes - Describes the fundamentals of gasification, gasification technologies, and gas cleaning processes - Emphasizes the importance of the coal types fed to the gasifier and desired end products - Covers gasification kinetics.

  20. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vol.9. No.1. Third APEC Coal Flow Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Third APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Coal Flow Seminar was held featuring regional investment strategies for coal, power infrastructure, and technology transfer in Terrigal, Australia in 26-28, November, 1996. This publication introduces the summary and the papers presented for the keynote speeches and the panels of this seminar. For the keynote speeches, `Investment requirements for steaming coal supplies in APEC member economies,` `Barriers to investment across the APEC regional coal chain,` `The role of advanced coal technologies in greenhouse gas abatement and financing its development and uptake,` `Investment in clean coal power plants,` and `Role of multilateral development banks in financing clean coal technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission` were presented. In addition, summary and papers describing individual situations of APEC member economies are introduced. 59 refs., 42 figs., 37 tabs.

  2. Dry Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Lindsey; Weller, Chanae

    2010-01-01

    Despite its name, commercial dry cleaning is not actually a “dry” process. Clothes are immersed in a solvent, most commonly perchlorethylene (perc), instead of in water. Perc or other similar solvents are effective in the removal of oil and grease-based stains without damaging or shrinking sensitive fabrics, unlike a regular detergents and fabric softeners.

  3. Adsorption and desorption on coals for CO2 sequestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zuo-tang; FU Zhen-kun; ZHANG Ban-gan; WANG Guo-xiong; RUDOLPH Victor; HUO Li-wen

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide, methane and other gases on coals has been investigated experimentally using representative Zhongliangshan coals. Gas adsorption is one of the major concerns for both CO2 sequestration and methane recovery processes. The experiments were carried out using both single and multi-component mixtures at 25 ℃ and 30 ℃ with the highest pressure of 12 MPa. The coal was under moisture equilibrated conditions. This provides experimental data from which a predictive assessment of CO2 sequestration and/or methane recovery can be conducted. The results show that for pure gasses the CH4 adsorption capacity is higher than the N2 adsorption capacity but lower than the CO2 adsorption capacity. Injection of CO2 or other gases into the coal significantly affects CH4 desorption. This allows the enhancement of CH4 recovery from the coals, thus supplying more clean energy while sequestering significant amounts of CO2 thereby reducing the greenhouse effect from human beings.

  4. Coal a strategic choice for Italian future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article highlights how the anomalies of the Italian electric power generation park, unbalanced on natural gas, leading to higher generation costs and problems of supply safety. The most rational solution to remedy this situation is the realization of an adequate number of large clean coal technologies of coal-fired power plants type

  5. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  6. The Development of Power Technologies for Low-Grade Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.

    Beneficiation of Indian coal and operation of power plants with imported coal will improve the efficiency of power generation to some extent but they will not satisfy overall future requirements of pollution control and conservation of energy. Therefore, there is a need to adopt new clean coal technologies.

  7. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  8. -0.5mm煤粉对空气重介质流化床流化特性的影响%-0.5 mm Fine Coal Affected to Fluidized Features of Air Heave Medium Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付芝杰; 赵跃民; 骆振福; 段晨龙; 杨旭亮; 董良; 李强

    2013-01-01

    为研究-0.5 mm煤粉在空气重介质流化床中的分布规律与影响效果,采用煤粉含量分布标准差、煤粉灰分分布标准差以及在稳定区间内的压降波动标准差3个指标分析了煤粉在分选流化床中的流化质量及分选性能.结果表明:-0.5 mm煤粉对流化质量有显著影响,少量-0.5 mm煤粉能促进形成密度均匀稳定的分选流化床,过多煤粉含量对流化床密度稳定不利,试验条件下最佳的-0.5 mm含量为6%;同时揭示了-0.5 mm煤粉在流化床中的分布规律,为空气重介质流化床的分选稳定控制提供了依据.%In order to study the distribution law and influence effect of the -0. 5 mm fine coal on the air heave medium fluidized bed, a fine coal content distribution standard difference, an ash content distribution standard difference of the fine coal and a pressure fluctuation standard difference within the stabilized sections were applied to analyze the fluidized quality and separation performances of -0. 5 mm fine coal on the separation fluidized bed.The results showed that -0. 5 mm fine coal would obviously affect to the fluidized quality, small amount -0. 5 mm fine coal could promote and form an uniform and stable density separation fluidized bed,more -0. 5 mm fine coal content would not favorable to the density stability of the fluidized bed and the optimal initial content of -0. 5 mm fine coal would be 6% under the test condition.Meanwhile the distribution law of -0. 5 mm fine coal on the fluidized bed was revealed to provide the basis to the separation stable control of the air heave medium fluidized bed.

  9. Trace elements in coal. Environmental and health significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits, coal mines, and coal- burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal- burning power plants in Europe and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic coal combustion in developing countries where millions of people suffer from fluorosis and thousands from arsenism. Better knowledge of coal quality characteristics may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal may help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  10. Clean energy from waste and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of any new technology has traditionally been a controversial subject due to high expectations shared by proponents and results which many times fall short of these expectations. Solid and liquid waste management has been seen both success and failure in the implementation of new technology. For example, promises to commercially produce liquid or gaseous fuels and/or chemicals from municipal solid waste (MSW) or refuse derived fuel (RDF) have so far been unfulfilled after several attempts at demonstrating various technologies

  11. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  12. Feasibility of zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for clean energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. W. Thornton; D. Dubbeldam; M. S. Liu; B. P. Ladewig; A. J. Hill; M. R. Hill

    2012-01-01

    Gas separation technologies for carbon-free hydrogen and clean gaseous fuel production must efficiently perform the following separations: (1) H2/CO2 (and H2/N2) for pre-combustion coal gasification, (2) CO2/N2 for post-combustion of coal, (3) CO2/CH4 for natural gas sweetening and biofuel purificat

  13. Experimental study on the variation law of coal temperature during excavation in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Shan PAN; Lian-Man XU; Zhong-Hua LI; Guo-Zhen LI

    2013-01-01

    By testing the temperature of the coal and the stress of the working surface,we got the variation law of coal temperature and coal stress during the excavation.The result shows that the activities of mining affect the coal temperature,the fluctuation of coal temperature and the coal stress is synchronous.During the smooth change of crustal stress,the coal temperature basically keeps unchanged,when the dynamic phenomenon appears,the coal temperature changes,as well the coal stress.Therefore,we can use the online coal temperature monitoring system to test the coal temperature of the working surface continuously,and it can provide basic information for forecasting coal mine power disaster before it happens.

  14. Clean Energy—The Ultimate Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Major economies in the world have raised various proposals to reduce carbon emissions by applying clean energies in a bid to tackle climate change. As a major consumer of coal, China is facing mounting pressure, and experts are wrangling about which clean energy should come first on the government agenda. To get a closer look at the current situation in China, Beijing Review reporter Liu Yunyun sat down with Zhou Dadi, Director General Emeritus of the Energy Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, who shared his insights on clean energy. Edited excerpts follow:

  15. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  16. Flash pyrolysis of coal, coal maceral, and coal-derived pyrite with on-line characterization of volatile sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lake, M.A.; Griffin, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    A Pyroprobe flash pyrolysis-gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector was used to study volatile sulfur compounds produced during the thermal decomposition of Illinois coal, coal macerals and coal-derived pyrite. Maximum evolution of volatile organic sulfur compounds from all coal samples occurred at a temperature of approximately 700??C. At this temperature, the evolution of thiophene, its alkyl isomers, and short-chain dialkyl sulfide compounds relative to the evolution of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene compounds was greater from coal high in organic sulfur than from coal low in organic sulfur. The variation in the evolution of sulfur compounds observed for three separate coal macerals (exinite, vitrinite, and inertinite) was similar to that observed for whole coal samples. However, the variation trend for the macerals was much more pronounced. Decomposition of coal-derived pyrite with the evolution of elemental sulfur was detected at a temperature greater than 700??C. The results of this study indicated that the gas chromotographic profile of the volatile sulfur compounds produced during flash pyrolysis of coals and coal macerals varied as a function of the amount of organic sulfur that occurred in the samples. Characterization of these volatile sulfur compounds provides a better understanding of the behavior of sulfur in coal during the thermolysis process, which could be incorporated in the design for coal cleaning using flash pyrolysis techniques. ?? 1988.

  17. Coal and the environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment has aroused greater concern recently in many countries. China ranks as the world's highest in coal consumption, although the energy consumption per capita accounts for only one third of the global average. Yet, the Chinese government has determined to pay more attention to environmental control in the development of the economy and the energy industry. They hope to develop sincere cooperation with various countries in the world on the basis of equality and mutual benefit in the development of clean coal technologies using coal in a more effective, clean and inexpensive way, thus eventually improving the environment in China and the world. This paper reviews some of these efforts

  18. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  19. LIBS Analysis for Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Romero, Carlos; De Saro, Robert

    Coal is a non-uniform material with large inherent variability in composition, and other important properties, such as calorific value and ash fusion temperature. This quality variability is very important when coal is used as fuel in steam generators, since it affects boiler operation and control, maintenance and availability, and the extent and treatment of environmental pollution associated with coal combustion. On-line/in situ monitoring of coal before is fed into a boiler is a necessity. A very few analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis are available commercially with enough speed and sophistication of data collection for continuous coal monitoring. However, there is still a need for a better on-line/in situ technique that has higher selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision, and that is safer and has a lower installation and operating costs than the other options. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is ideal for coal monitoring in boiler applications as it need no sample preparation, it is accurate and precise it is fast, and it can detect all of the elements of concern to the coal-fired boiler industry. LIBS data can also be adapted with advanced data processing techniques to provide real-time information required by boiler operators nowadays. This chapter summarizes development of LIBS for on-line/in situ coal applications in utility boilers.

  20. 吸附作用对煤体瓦斯渗透规律的影响%Adsorption Role Affected to Gas Permeable Law of Coal Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴教锟; 牟景珊; 隆清明

    2012-01-01

    运用自制的瓦斯渗透率测试装置,从吸附压力、吸附压差、吸附温度3方面研究了吸附作用对含瓦斯煤体中瓦斯渗透率的影响,同时试验模拟得出了瓦斯抽采渗透率的变化规律。结果表明:同一煤样随着吸附压力的增大,吸附量的增加,渗透率降低。相同吸附压力下,随着吸附温度的升高,渗透率降低。煤层抽采瓦斯以后压力下降,渗透率提高,与模拟试验得出的规律一致。%A self developed gas permeability test device was applied to study the adsorption role affected to the gas permeability of the gas seam from the adsorption pressure, adsorption pressure difference and adsorption temperature, meanwhile, simulated and analyzed the var-iation law of the permeability with gas drainage. The results showed that the adsorption value of the same coal samples would increase and the permeability would reduce with the adsorption pressure increased. Under the same adsorption pressure, with the adsorption tempera-ture increased, the permeability would reduce. After the seam gas drained, the gas pressure would reduce, the permeability improved, it was the same to the experiment law.

  1. Crossing point temperature of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Xuyao; Deming Wang; James A. Milke; Xiaoxing Zhong

    2011-01-01

    A further understanding of the self-heating of coal was obtained by investigating the crossing point temperature (CPT) of different ranks of coal. The tests were carried out using a self-designed experimental system for coal self-heating. 50 g (±0.01 g) of coal particles ranging from 0.18 mm to 0.38 mm in size were put into a pure copper reaction vessel attached to the center of a temperature programmed enclosure. The temperature program increased the temperature at a rate of 0.8 ℃/min. Dry air was permitted to flow into the coal reaction vessel at different rates. The surrounding temperature and the coal temperature were monitored by a temperature logger. The results indicate that CPT is affected by coal rank, moisture, sulfur,and the experimental conditions. Higher ranked coals show higher CPT values. A high moisture content causes a delay phenomenon during the self-heating of the coal. Drying at 40 ℃ decreases the effects of moisture. The reactivity of sulfur components in the coal is low under dry and low-temperature conditions.These components form a film that covers the coal surface and slightly inhibits the self-heating of the coal.The flow rate of dry air, and the heating rate of the surroundings, also affect the self-heating of the coal. The most appropriate experimental conditions for coal samples of a given weight and particle size were determined through contrastive analysis. Based on this analysis we propose that CPTs be determined under the same, or nearly the same conditions, for evaluation of the spontaneous combustion of coal.

  2. Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

    1993-12-31

    Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

  3. Coal Beneficiation Technology for Coking & Non-Coking Coal Meant For Steel and Thermal Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Gohil Priyank; Nikita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    There are 21 coking coal washeries in production both in private and public sectors. Production of clean coal in these washeries during 1989-90 was 12 million tonne and it is expected to go up to 37 million, tonne during 2015-16. Planning Commission has taken the decision that non-coking coal meant for Thermal Power Plants situated far away from feeding coalfield, should be beneficiated. Coal Washing is a process of separation mainly based on difference in Specific Gravity of Coal and associa...

  4. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  5. Carbon Dioxide Sorption Capacities of Coal Gasification Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kempka; T. Fernandez-Steeger; Li, D.; Schulten, M.; Schlüter, R; B. M. Krooss

    2011-01-01

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three ...

  6. Coal availability: issues in assessing US coal reserves and resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcombe, R J

    1981-05-01

    There are a number of important uncertainties about the economic significance of US coal resources. These uncertainties can be categorized as affecting: the physical size and location of coal resources and reserves; the regional and local variation in coal quality; and the legal and economic availability of coal resources. A more precise understanding of coal availability is important. Richard Schmidt has suggested that consumer undertainty about reserve magnitude and availability may be exploited by producers in setting contract prices, and it has been suggested that errors in assessing the geological and legal recoverability of coal resources may affect coal prices more significantly than variability in estimates of production and distribution costs. Further, misconceptions about coal availability are more likely to cause underestimates then overestimates of future prices. The objectives of this paper are: to discuss some methods used in modeling the nation's coal reserves; and to identify some of the problems involved. The issue of coal availability is addressed in an effort to suggest the need for a systematic approach to the problem.

  7. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  8. Coal: Energy for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  9. Seaborne coal trades - major growth trends set to continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    A collection of short articles reviews the coal trade world-wide, over the last decade and discusses imports and exports of coking coal and steam coal during 1990. The coal exports industry for major exporting countries is reviewed with reference to recent reports and forecasts. Energy needs for the EEC, Eastern Europe and other major countries are discussed. A short item describes the development in Indonesia of a new ultra clean steam coal called Envirocoal. Bulk terminals, existing and planned, in the Netherlands are described. A publication by SERIS giving information on world coal producers is briefly reviewed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 photos.

  10. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  11. Coal crushes gas; Kull knuser gass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Claude R.

    2006-07-01

    With today's prices on natural gas, coal is a cheaper alternative. Coal power with CO{sub 2} handling is slightly more expensive than natural gas power without cleaning. Coal power has become a relevant alternative again among European countries, partly because many countries have large coal deposits, but also because of a high gas price and the reduced reliability of supply from Russia demonstrated by the Ukrainian gas shutdown the winter of 2005/2006. Three ways of CO{sub 2} handling are briefly presented, and several ongoing projects for CO{sub 2} capture and storage are mentioned (ml)

  12. Affect on Boiler Economy and Stability by Blended Coal Combustion of Biomass Boiler%生物质锅炉混煤掺烧对锅炉经济性及稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志前; 宋杰; 宋景慧

    2015-01-01

    Based on biomass direct combustion power generation technology,field industrial environment experiment was conducted by taking coal as main additive for studying affect on boiler economy and stability by burning different varieties and variable proportion coals of biomass direct combustion boiler,so as to determine varieties of blending combustion coal and reasonable proportion. Research results indicate that relative to direct combustion biomass,it is able to improve boiler heating efficiency and reduce heat loss by burning blending coal. Experiment indicates that with blending combustion propor-tion of 20% calorific value coal,boiler heating efficiency improves 2.34% over than that of direct combustion biomass. Af-ter burning blending coal,boiler on-load capability and combustion condition improves with increase of proportion of blend-ing coal,and then it is able to keep stable combustion and improve utilization efficiency of biomass.%基于生物质直燃发电技术,以煤作为主要添加剂进行现场工业环境试验,研究生物质直燃锅炉掺烧不同品种、不同比例煤后对锅炉经济性及稳定性的影响,以确定掺烧煤的品种和合理比例。研究结果表明:相对于纯燃生物质,掺烧煤可以提高锅炉热效率,降低锅炉热损失。试验表明,在20%热值烟煤掺烧比例下锅炉热效率比纯燃生物质提高2.34%。在掺烧煤后,锅炉带负荷能力、燃烧状况都随掺煤比例的提高而提高,进而可以进一步稳定燃烧,提高生物质的利用效率。

  13. 水对煤样的力学特性及声电特征影响分析%Analysis on Water Affected to Mechanical Property and Acoustic-Electricity Characteristics of Coal Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈荣喜; 杨胜利; 邓晓谦; 班擎宇; 邱黎明

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain water affected to the mechanics features and acoustic-electricity features of the coal sample,a tensile experi-ment was conducted on the dry coal sample and saturated coal sample.The variation differences between the stress strain and acoustic-e-lectric signal of the dry and saturated coal samples during the tensile process were compared and analyzed. The study showed that during the tensile process,the coal sample had experienced a stress liner increasing,plastic increasing and tensile fracturing stages and the elec-tromagnetic radiation and acoustic emission signal were basic synchronous correspondence to the deformation fracturing of the coal sample. At the initial loading period,the acoustic and electric signal was low and when a plastic deformation or a fracturing deformation occurred, the acoustic-eclectic signal was rapidly increased to the peak.Water could make the tensile strength of the coal sample reduced by 31.5%and could make the tensile stress increased by 101.1%.Water could reduce the strength and increase the plasticity of coal sample to make the acoustic-electric signal attenuation.The monitoring,measurement and analysis on acoustic-electric signal variation amplitude of the coal sample could evaluate the influence degree of mechanical property and acoustic-electricity characteristics of water to coal sample.%为得到水对煤样力学性质及声电特征的影响规律,对干燥煤样和饱和煤样进行了拉伸试验,比较分析了拉伸过程中干燥、饱和煤样的应力-应变和声电信号的变化差异。研究表明:拉伸过程中,煤样经历了应变线性增长、塑性增长和拉伸破裂3个阶段,电磁辐射及声发射信号与煤样变形破裂基本同步对应,加载初期,声电信号较小,当发生塑性变形或破裂变形时,声电信号迅速增长至峰值;水使煤样的抗拉强度降低31.5%,使拉应变增长101.1%,即水对煤样具有降低强度、增加

  14. The prospects of hard and brown coal in Poland and in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Majchrzak, Henryk; Mokrzycki, Eugeniusz; Uliasz-Bochenczyk, Alicja

    2010-09-15

    Poland possess significant reserves of hard and brown coal and is an important producer of these fuels, for that reason coal has a dominant position in Polish energy balance. The government document describing energy policy of Poland up to the year 2030 treats Polish coal as an stabilizer of national energy safety. The progress in clean coal technologies development is a key element to determine the role of Polish coal both in Polish and EU economy. The possibilities of prospective use of coal pointing at the main direction of clean technology development has also been discussed in the paper.

  15. Progress in Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide primary energy consumption is entering an era of pluralism and high quality under the influence of rapid economic development, increasing energy shortage and strict environmental policies. Although renewable energy technology is developing rapidly, fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are still the dominant energy sources in the world. As a country rich in coal but short ofoil and gas, China's oil imports have soared in the past few years. Government, research organizations and enterprises in China are paying more and more attention to the processes of converting coal into clean liquid fuels. Direct and indirect coal liquefaction technologies are compared in this paper based on China's current energy status and technological progress not only in China itself but also in the world.

  16. Assessment of corn and banana leaves as potential standardized substrates for leaf decomposition in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling is a method of coal mining that buries Central Appalachian headwater streams. A 2007 federal court ruling highlighted the need for measurement of both ecosystem structure and function when assessing streams for mitigaton. Rapid functional as...

  17. Progress of the technique of coal microwave desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuxiang Tao; Ning Xu; Maohua Xie; Longfei Tang

    2014-01-01

    With the advantages of its fast speed, effective and moderate controllable conditions, desulfurization of coal by microwave has become research focus in the field of clean coal technology. Coal is a homogeneous mixture which consists of various components with different dielectric properties, so their abilities to absorb microwaves are different, and the sulfur-containing components are better absorbers of microwave, which makes them can be selectively heated and reacted under microwave irradiation. There still remain controversies on the principle of microwave desulfurization at present, thermal effects or non-thermal effects. The point of thermal effects of microwave is mainly base on its characters of rapidly and selectly heating. While, in view of non-thermal effect, direct interactions between the microwave electromagnetic field and sulfur containing components are proposed. It is a fundamental problem to determine the dielectric properties of coal and the sulfur-containing components to reveal the interaction of microwave and sulfur-containing compounds. However, the test of dielectric property of coal is affected by many factors, which makes it difficult to measure dielectric properties accurately. In order to achieve better desulfurization effect, the researchers employ methods of adding chemical additives such as acid, alkali, oxidant, reductant, or changing the reaction atmosphere, or combining with other methods such as magnetic separation, ultrasonic and microorganism. Researchers in this field have also put forward several processes, and have obtained a number of patents. Obscurity of microwave desulfurization mechanism, uncertainties in qualitative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing functional groups in coal, and the lack of special microwave equipment have limited further development of microwave desulfurization technology.

  18. Natural radioactivity in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of information from open literature on the occurrence of natural radioactive nuclides in coal. Special attention is given to the distribution of these nuclides on the different streams leaving coal-fired plants in relation to combustion technology and flue-gas cleaning. Different calculations of resulting doses to orifical group as well as collective dose commitment are compiled. The conclusion to be made is that coal in general contains less natural activity than ordinary soil and rock. The doses caused by modern plants are indeed very small and it is possible that the use of coal results in a certain, though insignificant, reduction of doses, calculated as collective dose commitment through the Suess-effect. Combustion of coal releases CO2 free of carbon-14 into the atmosphere, which results in a somewhat lower activity of carbon-14 in living organisms. People, who live in the vicinity of a large coalfired plant and eat locally produced food, could get a dose of about 10-6 Sv/year, due to the occurence of antural radioactive nuclides in coals. This is approximately the same dose that is caused by some hours exposure to a typical concentration of radon daughters in the air in Swedish homes. Estimates of this kind are very inaccurate. In the literatur values have been found from 10-7 to above 10-4 Sv/year, depending on the assumptions made by the various authors. The radiation in dwellings, today, in Sweden have been estimated to give 7 times 10-3 Sv per year and person. The conclusion to be made from this literature review, is that modern coaltechnology will only give a neglible increase in doses. This is in accordance with conclusion made in recent years. (author)

  19. Health impacts of coal and coal use: Possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Orem, W.; Castranova, V.; Tatu, C.A.; Belkin, H.E.; Zheng, B.; Lerch, H.E.; Maharaj, S.V.; Bates, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Coal will be a dominant energy source in both developed and developing countries for at least the first half of the 21st century. Environmental problems associated with coal, before mining, during mining, in storage, during combustion, and postcombustion waste products are well known and are being addressed by ongoing research. The connection between potential environmental problems with human health is a fairly new field and requires the cooperation of both the geoscience and medical disciplines. Three research programs that illustrate this collaboration are described and used to present a range of human health problems that are potentially caused by coal. Domestic combustion of coal in China has, in some cases, severely affected human health. Both on a local and regional scale, human health has been adversely affected by coals containing arsenic, fluorine, selenium, and possibly, mercury. Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an irreversible kidney disease of unknown origin, has been related to the proximity of Pliocene lignite deposits. The working hypothesis is that groundwater is leaching toxic organic compounds as it passes through the lignites and that these organics are then ingested by the local population contributing to this health problem. Human disease associated with coal mining mainly results from inhalation of particulate matter during the mining process. The disease is Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis characterized by coal dust-induced lesions in the gas exchange regions of the lung; the coal worker's "black lung disease". ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  1. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  3. Survey and evaluation of current and potential coal beneficiation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. P.N.; Peterson, G. R.

    1979-03-01

    Coal beneficiation is a generic term used for processes that prepare run-of-mine coal for specific end uses. It is also referred to as coal preparation or coal cleaning and is a means of reducing the sulfur and the ash contents of coal. Information is presented regarding current and potential coal beneficiation processes. Several of the processes reviewed, though not yet commercial, are at various stages of experimental development. Process descriptions are provided for these processes commensurate with the extent of information and time available to perform the evaluation of these processes. Conceptual process designs, preliminary cost estimates, and economic evaluations are provided for the more advanced (from a process development hierarchy viewpoint) processes based on production levels of 1500 and 15,000 tons/day (maf) of cleaned product coal. Economic evaluations of the coal preparation plants are conducted for several project financing schemes and at 12 and 15% annual after-tax rates of return on equity capital. A 9% annual interest rate is used on the debt fraction of the plant capital. Cleaned product coal prices are determined using the discounted cash flow procedure. The study is intended to provide information on publicly known coal beneficiation processes and to indicate the relative costs of various coal beneficiation processes. Because of severe timeconstraints, several potential coal beneficiation processes are not evaluated in great detail. It is recommended that an additional study be conducted to complement this study and to more fully appreciate the potentially significant role of coal beneficiation in the clean burning of coal.

  4. Synfuels from coal - an environmentally sound approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.N. (Sasol Technology Ltd (South Africa))

    1991-01-01

    The Sasol oil from coal process is a two stage process in which indirect liquefaction is used to convert coal to synthesis gas which is then reacted in a second stage to produce hydrocarbon liquids. The process has been used for over 35 years, and has been advanced and modernized to provide almost the same degree of environmental friendliness as some of the new clean coal technologies. A further advantage of the production of transport fuels from coal is that all sulphur is removed prior to processing and the product petrol and diesel fuels are fully sulphur free. Sasol has now diversified into added value products, and today's coal refineries co-produce power, steam, fuel and chemicals from coal. 2 tabs.

  5. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The PROJECT proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in-town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

  6. Coal gasification: A multiple talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreurs, H.

    1996-12-31

    Coal Gasification is on a pressurized route to commercial application. Ground breaking was performed by the Cool Water, Tennessee Eastman and UBE plants. Now several technical and commercial demonstrations are underway not only to show the readiness of the technology for commercial application. Another goal is further developed to reduce costs and to rise efficiency. The main feature of coal gasification is that it transforms a difficult-to-handle fuel into an easy-to-handle one. Through a high efficient gas-turbine cycle-power production becomes easy, efficient and clean. Between gasification and power production several more or less difficult hurdles have to be taken. In the past several studies and R and D work have been performed by Novem as by others to get insight in these steps. Goals were to develop easier, more efficient and less costly performance of the total combination for power production. This paper will give an overview of these studies and developments to be expected. Subjects will be fuel diversification, gas treating and the combination of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle with several cycle and production of chemical products. As a conclusion a guide will be given on the way to a clean, efficient and commercial acceptable application of coal gasification. A relation to other emerging technologies for power production with coal will be presented.

  7. An Analysis of Safety Efficiency of Coal Enterprises in China and Factors Affecting%中国煤炭企业安全效率及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田涛; 秦跃平

    2012-01-01

    为准确评价中国煤炭企业安全效率,基于数据包络分析(DEA),对2009年中国煤炭企业100强中的30家企业的安全整体效率(TE)、纯技术效率(PTE)和规模效率(SE)进行实证分析;在此基础上,运用Tobit模型探讨影响煤炭企业安全TE的因素.研究结果显示,煤炭企业安全投入、整体科研能力与安全效率成正相关;厂商规模、劳动生产率与安全效率成显著正相关.基于此,从4个方面给出提高煤炭企业安全效率的建议.%In order to evaluate the safety efficiency of coal enterprises in China accurately, based on DEA, an empirical analysis was made on technical efficiency ( TE ) , pure technical efficiency ( PTE ) and scale efficiency(SE) of 30 of Chinese top 100 coal enterprises in 2009. Furthermore, Tobit model was employed to investigate the factors affecting the overall safety efficiency of coal enterprises. The results indicate that there exists a positive correlation between safety investment of coal enterprises as well as overall scientific research capacity and their safety efficiency, and that there is a significant and positive correlation between plants scale,labor productivity and their safety efficiency. Based on this, recommendations on improving safety efficiency were put forward.

  8. Low grade coal upgrading: application of liquids from coal (LFC) technology to low grade coals in the Pacific Rim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.C.; Horne, D.A.; Nickell, R.; van Hoften, S. [Anatech Applications, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Liquids From Coal (LFC) process was originally tried on low-rank subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin, USA. This process produced a clean solid fuel, and a petroleum substitute. Transport costs were greatly reduced, and the products complied with the US Clean Air Act amendments. The advantages shown in the subsequent demonstration programme of this light gasification technology led to its consideration for use in the Pacific Rim coal trade. A number of coals from the Pacific Rim countries were evaluated. The most extensive to date has been the testing of Indonesian coals. Indonesia has large coal reserves and will become an important exporter in future. It also has a rapidly growing stock of coal fired power plants. LFC processing was found to be useful for processing coal to meet Japanese, Taiwanese and Hong Kong specifications. An LFC refinery in South Sumatra or Kalimantan could be economic. A solid fuel could be exported, the evolved gas used for process heating, and electric power sold to the Indonesian grid. 4 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIVERSITY COAL MASS STRUCTURE AND LITHOTYPE OF COAL IN MULTI-COAL SEAM MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴基文; 赵志根; 陈资平

    1999-01-01

    Through site observation and indoor measurements in XieJiaji No.2 Coal Mine in Huainen and Luling Coal Mine in Huaibei, it is discovered that the fragmentation degree are different in different coal seams in same mining district and even in sublevels of the same coal seam, the coal mass structures exist much difference. By analyzing the relationship between the constitution of coal matters and the epigenesis breakage of coal. This paper points out that the internal factor which causes the diversity of the coal mass structure comes from the diversity in the contents of telocollinite and desmocollinite in the vitrinite. The contenet of desmocollinite is higher than that of telocollinite in intact coal seam (sublevel) but the former is less than the later in breaking sublevel, the diversity of constituent content more affects the epigenetic fragmentation degree of coal seam. The content of desrnocollinite proves lower than that of telocollinite in the broken coal seam. The new understanding has directing, and reference for the study of coal petrology, coal mine gas geology and coal methane.

  10. Evaluating impacts of Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that by the year 2000, US SO2 emissions must be reduced by 10 million tons. This requirement will have significant impact on coal-fired electric utilities. As a result, most utilities are currently evaluating numerous compliance options, including buying allowances, coal cleaning/blending/switching, and flue gas scrubbing. Moreover, each utility must address its own unique circumstances with regard to competition, efficiency, capital expenditures, reliability, etc. and many utilities may choose a combination of compliance options to simultaneously satisfy their environmental, performance, and financial objectives. The Coal Quality Expert, which is being developed under a clean coal technology project funded by US DOE and EPRI, will predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using higher-quality coals and provides an assessment of the merits of various post-combustion control technologies for specific utility applications. This paper presents background on how utilities evaluate their compliance options, and it describes how the Coal Quality Expert could be used for such evaluations in the future to assure that each utility can select the best combination of coal specifications and emission control technologies to meet its compliance objectives

  11. Revegetation Plan for Areas of the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve Affected by Decommissioning of Buildings and Infrastructure and Debris Clean-up Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Durham, Robin E.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office is working to remove a number of facilities on the Fitzner Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), which is part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Decommissioning and removal of buildings and debris on ALE will leave bare soils and excavated areas that need to be revegetated to prevent erosion and weed invasion. Four main areas within ALE are affected by these activities (DOE 2009;DOE/EA-1660F): 1) facilities along the ridgeline of Rattlesnake Mountain, 2) the former Nike missile base and ALE HQ laboratory buildings, 3) the aquatic research laboratory at Rattlesnake Springs area, and 4) a number of small sites across ALE where various types of debris remain from previous uses. This revegetation plan addresses the revegetation and restoration of those land areas disturbed by decommissioning and removal of buildings, facilities and associated infrastructure or debris removal. The primary objective of the revegetation efforts on ALE is to establish native vegetation at each of the sites that will enhance and accelerate the recovery of the native plant community that naturally persists at that location. Revegetation is intended to meet the direction specified by the Environmental Assessment (DOE 2009; DOE/EA-1660F) and by Stipulation C.7 of the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for the Rattlesnake Mountain Combined Community Communication Facility and InfrastructureCleanup on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve, Hanford Site, Richland Washington(DOE 2009; Appendix B). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CPRC) and in consultation with the tribes and DOE-RL developed a site-specific strategy for each of the revegetation units identified within this document. The strategy and implementation approach for each revegetation unit identifies an appropriate native species mix and outlines the necessary site preparation activities

  12. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  14. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110359 Feng Lijuan(Graduate School,Southwest Petroleum University,Chengdu 610500,China);Guo Dali Experimental Study on the Stress Sensitivity of Coal and Its Impact on the Filtration of the Fracturing Fluid(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(2),2010,p.14-17,4 illus.,5 tables,9 refs.)Key words:coal seam,stressIn the paper,the relationship between the stress and permeability in the coal r

  16. Coal 99; Kol 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparre, C.

    2000-07-01

    in equipment for burning pellets instead of coal. In Linkoeping waste of rubber is mixed with coal. Also Soederenergi AB has rebuilt their three coal boilers and replaced 100 % of the coal by peat and wood fuels. Coal is a reserve fuel. Several co-generation plants like Linkoeping, Norrkoeping, Uppsala and Oerebro use both coal and forest fuels. The use of coal is then concentrated to the electricity production. The average price of steam coal imported in Sweden in 1998 was 370 SEK/ton or the same as in 1997. For the world, the average import price fell about 6 USD/ton to 32 USD/ton. The price fall was concentrated to the 4th quarter. The prices have continued to fall during 1999 as a result of the crisis in Asia but are now stabilising as a result of increasing oil prices. All Swedish plants meet their emission limits of dust, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, given by county administrations or concession boards. The co-generation plants have all some sort of SO{sub 2}-removal system. Mostly used is the wet-dry method. The biggest co-generation plant, in Vaesteraas, has recently invested in a catalytic NO{sub x}-cleaning system type SCR, which is reducing the emission level 80-90 %. Most other plants are using low NO{sub x}- burners or injection systems type SNCR, based on ammonium or urea, which are reducing the emissions 50-70 %. A positive effect of the recently introduced NO{sub x}-duties is a 60 % reduction compared to some years ago, when the duties were introduced. World hard coal production was about 3 700 tons in 1998, a minor decrease compared to 1997. The trade, however, has increased about 3 % to 520 mill tons. The coal demand in the OECD-countries has increased about 1,7 % yearly during the last ten years. The coal share of the energy supply is about 20% in the OECD-countries and 27% in the whole world. Several sources estimate a continuing growth during the next 20 years in spite of an increasing use of natural gas and nuclear power. The reason is a strong

  17. Conceptual flow sheets development for coal conversion plant coal handling-preparation and ash/slag removal operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This report presents 14 conceptual flow sheets and major equipment lists for coal handling and preparation operations that could be required for future, commercial coal conversion plants. These flow sheets are based on converting 50,000 tons per day of clean coal representative of the Pittsburgh and Kentucky No. 9 coal seams. Flow sheets were used by Union Carbide Corporation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in a survey of coal handling/preparation equipment requirements for future coal conversion plants. Operations covered in this report include run-of-mine coal breaking, coarse coal cleaning, fine coal cleaning, live storage and blending, fine crushing (crushing to top sizes ranging from 1/4-inch to 20 mesh), drying, and grinding (70 percent minus 200 mesh). Two conceptual flow sheets and major equipment lists are also presented for handling ash or granulated slag and other solid wastes produced by nine leading coal conversion processes. These flow sheets provide for solid wastes transport to an environmentally acceptable disposal site as either dry solids or as a water slurry.

  18. Transition to Clean Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Hanley, Douglas; Kerr,William Robert

    2014-01-01

    We develop a microeconomic model of endogenous growth where clean and dirty technologies compete in production and innovation-in the sense that research can be directed to either clean or dirty technologies. If dirty technologies are more advanced to start with, the potential transition to clean technology can be difficult both because clean research must climb several steps to catch up with dirty technology and because this gap discourages research effort directed towards clean technologies....

  19. Sixth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A conference was held on coal preparation, utilization and environmental control. Topics included: combustion of fuel slurries; combustor performance; desulfurization chemically and by biodegradation; coal cleaning; pollution control of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides; particulate control; and flue gas desulfurization. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS).

  20. 煤价变动对火电厂发电运行成本的影响%Changes Affect the Cost of Thermal Power Generation Coal Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵艳丽

    2014-01-01

    对当前我国火力发电厂发电运行成本不断上涨的原因进行了阐述,分析了煤炭价格的变化对火电厂发电运行成本的影响,提出了火力发电厂应对煤价变动的一些参考策略,希望能为广大火电厂的节能减排、利益最大化提供一些参考。%The reasons for the current operating costs of thermal power generation rising are described, analyzed the impact of changes in the price of coal fire power plant operating costs, proposed changes in the price of coal power plant deal with some reference strategy, hoping to for the majority of thermal power plant of energy conservation, to provide some reference to maximize benefits.

  1. Further studies of the effects of oxidation on the surface properties of coal and coal pyrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this research was to investigate the oxidation behavior of coal and coal pyrite and to correlate the changes in the surface properties induced by oxidation, along with the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these organic and inorganic materials, with the behavior in physical coal cleaning processes. This provide more fundamental knowledge for understanding the way in which different factors interact in a medium as heterogeneous as coal. Fourteen coal samples of different ranks ranging from high to medium sulfur content were studied by dry oxidation tests at different temperatures and humidities, and by wet oxidation tests using different oxidizing agents. The concentration of surface oxygen functional groups was determined by ion-exchange methods. The changes in the coal composition with oxidation were analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The wettability of as-received and oxidized coal and coal pyrite samples was assessed by film flotation tests. The electrokinetic behavior of different coals and coal pyrite samples was studied by electrokinetic tests using electrophoresis. Possible oxidation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the changes on the coal surface induced by different oxidation treatments.

  2. Coalbed methane: Clean energy for the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.-J.; Johnston, S.; Boyer, C.; Lambert, S.W.; Bustos, O.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Wray, A.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has the potential to emerge as a significant clean energy resource. It also has the potential to replace other diminishing hydrocarbon reserves. The latest developments in technologies and methodologies are playing a key role in harnessing this unconventional resource. Some of these developments include adaptations of existing technologies used in conventional oil and gas generations, while others include new applications designed specifically to address coal's unique properties. Completion techniques have been developed that cause less damage to the production mechanisms of coal seams, such as those occurring during cementing operations. Stimulation fluids have also been engineered specifically to enhance CBM production. Deep coal deposits that remain inaccessible by conventional mining operations offer CBM development opportunities.

  3. Factors affecting employee motivation in cleaning services

    OpenAIRE

    Bùi, Dung; Wangmo, Nawang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis project is to examine influences of Training, Responsibility, Inter-personal Relationship and Teamwork towards employee motivation. The research was carried out at two different SOL’s client’s premises to provide an overview of the operation and current working status which employees have been experiencing. The researchers reviewed both theoretical and practical sources for finding solutions to the problems. The theoretical background comprises of basic introd...

  4. Interactions between coking coals and plastics during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sakurovs [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2003-10-01

    Blends of three Australian coking coals and polypropylene, polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile and polyphenylene sulfide were prepared and the extent to which the blends fused on heating was monitored using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis in order to identify interactions between them that could affect their fluidity. Different plastics had different effects. Polystyrene strongly reduced the fluidity of all of the coals, confirming previous findings. Polypropylene did not affect the fluidity of the two coking coals of lower rank. Polyphenylene sulfide reduced the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the solidification temperature of the coals, and polyacrylonitrile appeared to increase the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the softening temperature of the coals. The very different effects different plastics have on coal fluidity show that the interaction between plastics and coals must be carefully examined before plastics are added to coking coal blends. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Microwave Pretreatment of Coal Prior to Magnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, D. A.; Rowson, N. A.

    1995-01-01

    New methods to reduce the total sulphur content of coals are being developed since the introduction of legislation requiring cuts in sulphur emissions to the atmosphere. It is known that weakly paramagnetic pyrite (FeS2) particles are difficult to remove from clean coal by standard magnetic separation techniques. Data is presented here comparing standard magnetic separation tests to results achieved when the coal is subjected to a caustic microwave leach pretreatment, prior to conventional dr...

  6. Challenges to increased use of coal combustion products in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jiabin

    2010-01-01

    Electricity accounts for much of the primary energy used in China, and more thanthree-quarter of the total electricity is generated by coal combustion. Coal burningcombined with flue gas cleaning system generates large quantity of coal combustionproducts (CCPs), which has caused significant environmental and economic burden tothe economy, ecology and society. Of great importance are thus different applicationswhich contribute to the increased use of CCPs. This thesis looks at an overview ofCC...

  7. Coal technology program progress report for November 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    This report, the 28th of a series, is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal as a source of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion process development, materials engineering, alkali metal vapor topping cycles, a Critical Components Test Facility, engineering and support studies, environmental assessment studies, and coal-fueled MIUS.

  8. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  9. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  10. Clean coal technologies. The capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2} - Panorama 2008; Les technologies du charbon propre. Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    There is no longer any doubt about the connection between carbon dioxide emissions of human origin and global warming. Nearly 40% of world CO{sub 2} emissions are generated by the electricity production sector, in which the combustion of coal - developing at a roaring pace, especially in China - accounts for a good proportion of the total. At a time when the reduction of greenhouse gases has become an international priority, this growth is a problem. Unless CO{sub 2} capture and storage technologies are implemented, it will be very difficult to contain global warming.

  11. The Role of Coal Mine Regulation in Regional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hangtian; NAKAJIMA Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high mortality rates and low productivity in coal mining, China began regulating coal mines in the 1990s, which has reshaped its coal economy. We empirically investigate the relationship between coal mine regulation and economic growth in China. Using two difference-in-difference approaches to compare the pre- and post-regulation periods, as well as regions with and without rich coal endowment, we find that regulation positively affects regional economy. This result is furt...

  12. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  13. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  14. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111830 Cai Hou’an(State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safety Mining,China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin The Discovery of Thrust Nappe Structure in Zhangwu-Heishan Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance for Coal-Searching(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(5),2010,p.1-6,5 illus.,31 refs.)Key words:coalfield prediction,nappe structure,Liaoning Province Zhangwu-Heishan area in west Liaoning Province is an important perspective area for alternative resources in the periphery of Fuxin Basin.Based on r

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>20122522 Guo Dongxin ( School of Energy Resource,China University of Geosciences,Bei-jing 100083,China );Tang Shuheng Sequence Strata and the Coal Accumulation of Wunite Coafield,Inner Mongolia ( Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155 / P,39 ( 6 ), 2011,p.1-5,5illus.,16refs. ) Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Inner Mongolia Based on the study of the stratigraphy sequence of the Bayanhua Formation of Lower Cretaceous in Wunite coafield ,

  16. Efficient use of low rank coal. Current status of low rank coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sihyun; Kim, Sangdo; Choi, Hokyung; Chun, Donghyuk; Rhim, Younjun; Yoo, Jiho; Lim, Jeongwhan [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Clean Coal Center

    2013-07-01

    Despite vast reserves, low rank coals are not used as a main fuel in industry because their high moisture content, potential spontaneous combustion in transportation and storage, and the low thermal efficiency during the combustion in conventional power plants. With a view to secure and strengthen low rank coal's position as high available energy source, in recent years many attempts have been made to develop technologies for an energy-efficient upgrading process. This paper reviews these technologies mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture, stabilization for decrease self-heating characteristics and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal. Drying technologies consist of both evaporate and non-evaporative types. There are also highly advanced coal cleaning technologies that produce ash-free coal. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash and other pollutants. Korea's activity for the drying and stabilization technologies will be introduced in this paper and the utilization of dried low rank coal also introduced.

  17. [Coal fineness effect on primary particulate matter features during pulverized coal combustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jian-yi; Li, Ding-kai

    2007-09-01

    Three kinds of coal differed from fineness were burned in a laboratory-scale drop tube furnace for combustion test, and an 8-stage Andersen particle impactor was employed for sampling the primary particulate matter (PM), in order to study coal fineness effect on primary PM features during pulverized coal combustion. It has been shown that the finer the coal was, the finer the PM produced. PM, emission amount augmented with coal fineness decreased, and the amount of PM10 increased from 13 mg/g to 21 mg/g respectively generated by coarse coal and fine coal. The amount of PM2.5 increased from 2 mg/g to 8 mg/g at the same condition. Constituents and content in bulk ash varied little after three different fineness coal combustion, while the appearance of grading PM differed visibly. The value of R(EE) increased while the coal fineness deceased. The volatility of trace elements which were investigated was Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu > Ni in turn. The concentration of poisonous trace elements was higher which generated from fine coal combustion. The volatilization capacity was influenced little by coal fineness, but the volatilization extent was influenced differently by coal fineness. Fine coal combustion affects worse environment than coarse coal does. PMID:17990536

  18. Synthesis Conditions of Humic Acid Series Dispersant Affected to Viscosity of Coal Water Mixture%腐植酸系分散剂合成条件及对水煤浆黏度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光华; 刘龙; 韩文静; 赵方; 李俊国

    2012-01-01

    Taking humic acid as a raw material, acrylic acid as graft polymerization monomer and potassium persulfate as an initiator, the solution polymerization was applied to prepare humic acid-acrylic acid graft copolymer and to detect and measure the viscosity of the coal water mixture, fluidity and stability affected by the graft copolymer. With the orthogonal experiment, the synthesis optimized conditions of the humic acid-acrylic acid graft copolymer were obtained. The mass ratio of acrylic acid and humic acid was 0. 35 : 1.00, the initiator dosage was 5%, the reaction temperature was 75 ℃, the reaction keeping time as 2 h and the humic acid-acrylic acid graft copolymer would have excellent dispersing performances to the coal water mixture with Binchang coal in shaanxi. When the dosage of the dispersant was 0. 12% , the apparent viscosity of the coal water mixture was 956 mPa · s.%采用腐植酸为原料,丙烯酸为接枝共聚单体,过硫酸钾为引发剂,采用溶液聚合法制备腐植酸-丙烯酸接枝共聚物,并检测其对水煤浆黏度、流动性、稳定性的影响。通过正交实验,得出了腐植酸-丙烯酸接枝共聚物的合成优化条件:丙烯酸与腐植酸质量比为0.35∶1.00,引发剂用量5%,反应温度75℃,保温时间2 h,腐植酸-丙烯酸接枝共聚物对陕西彬长煤水煤浆具有良好的分散性能,当分散剂用量为0.12%时,水煤浆的表观黏度为956 mPa.s。

  19. Characterization of Coal Porosity for Naturally Tectonically Stressed Coals in Huaibei Coal Field, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment of coalbed methane (CBM and the outburst of gas in a coal mine are closely related to the nanopore structure of coal. The evolutionary characteristics of 12 coal nanopore structures under different natural deformational mechanisms (brittle and ductile deformation are studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The results indicate that there are mainly submicropores (2~5 nm and supermicropores (4 m2/g, with pore sizes <5 nm in ductile deformed coal. The nanopore structure (<100 nm and its distribution could be affected by macromolecular structure in two ways. Interconversion will occur among the different size nanopores especially in ductile deformed coal.

  20. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  1. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  2. A Strategy for Coal Bed Methane and Coal Mine Methane Development and Utilization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program

    2007-01-01

    China is short of clean energy, particularly conventional natural gas. The proven per capital natural gas reserve is only 1/12th of the world average. However, China has large coal bed methane (CBM) resources with development potential which can be recovered from surface boreholes independent of mining and in advance of mining, and also captured as a part of underground coal mining operati...

  3. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132555 Bao Yuan(School of Resources and Geosciences,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Wei Chongtao Simulation of Geological Evolution History of the Upper Permian Coal Seam No.8in Shuigonghe Syncline,Zhina Coalfield,Guizhou Province(Coal Geology&Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,40(6),2012,p.13-16,23,1illus.,1table,17refs.)

  4. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDROPHOBIC AGGLOMERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF EASY DEGRADATION COAL FINES IN WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力; 陈鹏

    1997-01-01

    The separation of ultrafine coal from three Chinese coal samples of easy degradation coal fines in water has been investigated by the application of a hydrophobic agglomeration process. In addition to yielding clean coal with high recovery, this process requires significantly less oil concentration for agglomeration (less than 0.4% in oil-water weight ratio) and produces stabler agglomerates than general oil agglomeration process, the cost of the oil would no longer be an important consideration for its commercial application. Neutral diesel oil was used to make oleophilic coal particles agglomerated with good rejection of clay minerals under little oil consumption and certain agitation speed at 2000 r/min. An important advantage of this process compared with other cleaning fine coal methods is that it can extremely reduce or eliminate the effects of coal degradation and some clay minerals on coal preparation.

  5. New progress in the processing and efficient utilization of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yuemin; Liu Jiongtian; Wei Xianyong; Luo Zhenfu; Chen Qingru; Song Shulei

    2011-01-01

    Coal accounts for about 70% of the primary energy sources in China.The environmental pollution and resources waste involved with coal processing and utilization are serious.It is therefore urgent to develop highly-efficient coal resources utilization theory and methods with low-carbon discharge.Based on our long-term basic research and technology development,the progress in beneficiation,cleaning,and transformation of coal,which includes dense phase fluidized bed dry beneficiation,deep screening of wet fine coal,micro-bubble flotation column separation,molecular coal chemistry,and transformation and separation of coal and its derivatives into value-added chemicals under mild conditions,is discussed.

  6. Coal gasification. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and assessment of coal gasification technology. Combined-cycle gas turbine power plants are reviewed. References also discuss dry-feed gasification, gas turbine interface, coal gasification pilot plants, underground coal gasification, gasification with nuclear heat, and molten bath processes. Clean-coal based electric power generation and environmental issues are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  8. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainman, B. [U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses her thoughts on prospects for an energy policy from this Congress. She doesn`t believe the country will see any big sweeping energy policy acts or even utility deregulation in the next two years. Education on the issues is necessary. The author discusses the impacts for clean coal technologies and recommends continued aggressive work on deployment.

  9. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxclair, E.J. [Destec Energy, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Stultz, J. [PSI Energy, Inc., West Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  10. A review of state-of-the-art processing operations in coal preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noble Aaron; Luttrell Gerald H.

    2015-01-01

    Coal preparation is an integral part of the coal commodity supply chain. This stage of post-mining, pre-utilization beneficiation uses low-cost separation technologies to remove unwanted mineral matter and moisture which hinder the value of the coal product. Coal preparation plants typically employ several parallel circuits of cleaning and dewatering operations, with each circuit designed to optimally treat a specific size range of coal. Recent innovations in coal preparation have increased the efficiency and capac-ity of individual unit operations while reinforcing the standard parallel cleaning approach. This article, which describes the historical influences and state-of-the-art design for the various coal preparation unit operations, is organized to distinguish between coarse/intermediate coal cleaning and fine/ultrafine coal cleaning. Size reduction, screening, classification, cleaning, dewatering, waste disposal unit operations are particularly highlighted, with a special focus on the U.S. design philosophy. Notable differences between the U.S. and international operations are described as appropriate.

  11. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Aurimas Ralys; Valdemar Prokopovič; Vytautas Striška

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitati...

  14. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  15. Natural radionuclide of Po210 in the edible seafood affected by coal-fired power plant industry in Kapar coastal area of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Che Abd Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Po210 can be accumulated in various environmental materials, including marine organisms, and contributes to the dose of natural radiation in seafood. The concentration of this radionuclide in the marine environment can be influenced by the operation of a coal burning power plant but existing studies regarding this issue are not well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the Po210 concentration level in marine organisms from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia which is very near to a coal burning power plant station and to assess its impact on seafood consumers. Methods Concentration of Po210 was determined in the edible muscle of seafood and water from the coastal area of Kapar, Malaysia using radiochemical separation and the Alpha Spectrometry technique. Results The activities of Po210 in the dissolved phase of water samples ranged between 0.51 ± 0.21 and 0.71 ± 0.24 mBql-1 whereas the particulate phase registered a range of 50.34 ± 11.40 to 72.07 ± 21.20 Bqkg-1. The ranges of Po210 activities in the organism samples were 4.4 ± 0.12 to 6.4 ± 0.95 Bqkg-1 dry wt in fish (Arius maculatus, 45.7 ± 0.86 to 54.4 ± 1.58 Bqkg-1 dry wt in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and 104.3 ± 3.44 to 293.8 ± 10.04 Bqkg-1 dry wt in cockle (Anadara granosa. The variation of Po210 in organisms is dependent on the mode of their life style, ambient water concentration and seasonal changes. The concentration factors calculated for fish and molluscs were higher than the recommended values by the IAEA. An assessment of daily intake and received dose due to the consumption of seafood was also carried out and found to be 2083.85 mBqday-1person-1 and 249.30 μSvyr-1 respectively. These values are comparatively higher than reported values in other countries. Moreover, the transformation of Po210 in the human body was calculated and revealed that a considerable amount of Po210 can be absorbed in the internal organs. The

  16. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  17. COAL DRY BENEFICIATION TECHNOLOGY IN CHINA: THE STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru Chen; Lubin Wei

    2003-01-01

    In China, coal is the major source of energy and its leading role in energy consumption would not change in the next 50 years. Coal preparation is the essential component of Clean Coal Technology. In China more than two-thirds of available coal reserves are in arid areas, which results in the unfeasibility with conventional wet processing for coal preparation. The uniqueness of dry coal beneficiation technology with air-dense medium fluidized bed is discussed in this paper and a detailed survey of the current status of theoretical study, commercial application and development of the new technology is given in this paper.

  18. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  19. The Status quo and outlook of Chinese coal geology and exploration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Cheng, A.G.; Cao, D.Y. [China National Administration of Coal Geology, Beijing (China)

    2008-06-15

    Coal is China's dominant energy resource. Coal geological exploration is the basis of sustainable development of coal industry. Since the late 1990s, the advances in Chinese coal geology and exploration techniques have been shown in the following aspects. (1) The basic research of coal geology has changed from traditional geological studies to earth system science; (2) Breakthroughs have been achieved in integrated exploration techniques for coal resources; (3) Evaluation of coal and coalbed methane resources provides important basis for macropolicy making for China's coal industry and construction of large coal bases; (4) Significant advances have been made in using information technology in coal geological exploration and 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology. For the present and a period of time in the future, major tasks of Chinese coal geological technology are as follows: (1) solving resources replacement problem in eastern China and geological problems of deep mining; (2) solving problem of integrated coal exploration of complex regions in energy bases of central China, and resources problems induced by coal exploitation; (3) making efforts to enhance the level of geological research and resources evaluation of coal-accumulation basins in western China; (4) strengthening geological research of clean coal technologies; (5) strengthening geological research of the problems in modern coal mining and safe production; (6) promoting information technology in coal resources and major geological investigations.

  20. The Status Quo and Outlook of Chinese Coal Geology and Exploration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shuishi; CHENG Aiguo; CAO Daiyong

    2008-01-01

    Coal is China's dominant energy resource. Coal geological exploration is the basis of sustainable development of coal industry. Since the late 1990s, the advances in Chinese coal geology and exploration techniques have been shown in the following aspects. (1) The basic research of coal geology has changed from traditional geological studies to earth system science; (2) Breakthroughs have been achieved in integrated exploration techniques for coal resources; (3) Evaluation of coal and coalbed methane resources provides important basis for macropolicy making for China's coal industry and construction of large coal bases; (4) Significant advances have been made in using information technology in coal geological exploration and 3S (GPS, GIS, RS) technology. For the present and a period of time in the future, major tasks of Chinese coal geological technology are as follows: (1) solving resources replacement problem in eastern China and geological problems of deep mining; (2) solving problem of integrated coal exploration of complex regions in energy bases of central China, and resources problems induced by coal exploitation; (3) making efforts to enhance the level of geological research and resources evaluation of coal-accumulation basins in western China; (4) strengthening geological research of clean coal technologies; (5) strengthening geological research of the problems in modern coal mining and safe production; (6) promoting information technology in coal resources and major geological investigations.

  1. Reactivity of North Bohemian coals in coprocessing of coal/oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebor, G.; Cerny, J.; Maxa, D.; Blazek, J. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Sykorova, I. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Autoclave experiments with North Bohemian coal were done in order to evaluate their reactivity in coprocessing with petroleum vacuum residue, Selected coals were comprehensively characterized by using a number of analytical methods. While the coals were of similar geological origin, some of their characteristics differed largely from one coal to another. Despite the differences in physical and chemical structure, the coals provided very similar yields of desired reaction products. The yields of a heavy non- distillable fraction and/or an insoluble solid residue were, under experimental conditions, largely affected by retrogressive reactions (coking). The insoluble solid fractions were examined microscopically under polarized light.

  2. Microstructural blending of coal to enhance flowability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Chakra, H.; Tuezuen, U. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering

    2000-09-11

    Coal-fired power stations for electricity generation are well known to suffer from chronic problems in coal handling and flow affecting the operation of pulverisation mills and combustors. The economic impact of coal handling facilities can be significant, resulting in total shutdown of the power generating plant in some extreme cases. In coal-fired power generation, optimal operation of the combustors requires the ash content of pulverised coal not exceed 20%. Excessive ash content would result in lower calorific value. Therefore, the overall profitability of the market coal tends to be strongly effected by the ash content of the raw coal. However, the flowability of coal tends to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the constituent particles, as well as the presence of high fines fraction. The experimental work described in this paper aims to illustrate how flowability can be enhanced by optimising particle size distribution and particle surface moisture in blends of raw and washed coals. The results of the flowability tests obtained with ''microstructurally'' blended samples indicate that to ensure flowability in process vessels, it is necessary to blend according to important microstructural criteria as well as minimising ash content. Microstructural blending is not included in current industrial practice, which only blends washed and raw coals to produce high calorific value and low ash content. The work presented here establishes methodology for microstructural blending to enhance bulk flowability. (orig.)

  3. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  4. Hard coal; Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Kai van de; Sitte, Andreas-Peter [Gesamtverband Steinkohle e.V. (GVSt), Herne (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    International the coal market in 2014 was the first time in a long time in a period of stagnation. In Germany, the coal consumption decreased even significantly, mainly due to the decrease in power generation. Here the national energy transition has now been noticable affected negative for coal use. The political guidances can expect a further significant downward movement for the future. In the present phase-out process of the German hard coal industry with still three active mines there was in 2014 no decommissioning. But the next is at the end of 2015, and the plans for the time after mining have been continued. [German] International war der Markt fuer Steinkohle 2014 erstmals seit langem wieder von einer Stagnation gekennzeichnet. In Deutschland ging der Steinkohlenverbrauch sogar deutlich zurueck, vor allem wegen des Rueckgangs in der Stromerzeugung. Hier hat sich die nationale Energiewende nun spuerbar und fuer die Steinkohlennutzung negativ ausgewirkt. Die politischen Weichenstellungen lassen fuer die Zukunft eine weitere erhebliche Abwaertsbewegung erwarten. Bei dem im Auslaufprozess befindlichen deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau mit noch drei aktiven Bergwerken gab es 2014 keine Stilllegung. Doch die naechste steht zum Jahresende 2015 an, und die Planungen fuer die Zeit nach dem Bergbau sind fortgefuehrt worden.

  5. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  6. Analysis on the Test for First Set of Ultra-clean Emission Coal-fired Unit in Guangdong Province%广东省首台超洁净排放燃煤机组现场测试分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德波; 曾庭华; 廖永进; 刘亚明; 冯永新; 余岳溪

    2016-01-01

    Performance tests on flue gas desulfurization (FGD)system,wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP)system and se-lective catalytic reduction (SCR)system of No.1 unit of Guangzhou Huarun thermal power limited company after its ultra-clean emission transform are conducted ,test method for each system is introduced and test data is analyzed.It is concluded that desulfurization efficiency of the FGD system is above 99%,SO2 emission load of the chimney is below 35 mg/m3 ,de-dusting efficiency of WESP system is 89.09%,dust emission load of the chimney is below 5 mg/m3 ,denitrification rate of the SCR system reaches above 90% and NOx emission load is below 50 mg/m3 .Each system can satisfy requirement for ul-tra-clean emission.%对广州华润热电有限公司1号机组超洁净排放改造后的烟气脱硫(flue gas desulfurization,FGD)系统、湿式静电除尘器(wet electrostatic precipitator,WESP)和选择性催化还原(selective catalytic reduction,SCR)系统进行了性能考核试验,介绍了各系统的试验方法,对试验数据进行了分析。得出结论:FGD 系统的脱硫效率达99%以上,烟囱SO2排放量在35 mg/m3以下;WESP 的除尘效率为89.09%,烟囱粉尘排放量在5 mg/m3以下;SCR系统的脱硝率达到90%以上,NOx 排放量在50 mg/m3以下。各系统均满足超洁净排放的要求。

  7. An Empirical Analysis of the Factors That Affect the Capital Structure of Listed Companies of Coal Industry%煤炭行业上市公司资本结构影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 韩丽红

    2012-01-01

    With 29 listed companies of coal industry in Shanghai and Shenzhen as samples, by adopting factor analysis and multiple linear regression, this paper carries out an empirical analysis to the factors that affect listed companies" capital structure of coal industry. The result shows that the influence of asset liquidity, growth and prof- itability on capital structure is rather remarkable and the influence of enterprise scale, non - debt tax shield and collateral value of assets on the capital structure of listed eompanied is not so remarkable. In addition, there exists positive relation between its growth, non - debt tax shield , collateral value of asset and the listed companies" asset structure. And the rest variables shows negative relationship.%以沪深两市29家煤炭行业上市公司为研究样本,采用因子分析和多元回归方法对煤炭行业上市公司资本结构的影响因素进行了实证研究,分析结果显示:资产流动性、成长性和盈利能力对资本结构的影响比较显著,企业规模、非债务税盾以及资产担保价值对上市公司资本结构的影响并不显著。并且成长性、非债务税盾、资产担保价值与公司的资本结构成正相关关系,其余变量则呈负相关关系。

  8. Advanced coal-using community systems. Task 1A. Technology characteristics. Volume 1. Fuel- and energy-production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, N.P.; Malik, N.J.; Gamze, M.G.; Wetterstrom, D.; Diskant, W.; Malfitani, L.

    1979-03-01

    This report is presented in 2 volumes. It contains descriptions of engineering characterizations and equipment used in coal processing, fuel and energy distribution, storage, and end-use utilization. Volume 1 contains 4 chapters dealing with: coal conversion processes (high- and low-Btu gas from coal and coal-to-liquid fuels); coal cleaning and direct combustion (pretreating, direct combustion, and stack gas cleaning); electricity production (compression-ignition engines, turbines, combined-cycle, fuel cells, alternative Rankine cycles, Stirling cycles, and closed Brayton cycles); and thermal generating processes (steam plants, direct-contact steam-heated hot water systems, thermal liquid plants, absorption chillers, and centrifugal chillers). (DMC)

  9. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report for the period July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from July 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995. The ACCP Demonstration Project is a US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Project. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the cola is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal.

  10. Systematic analysis of impact factors and level of coal miners’ safety behavior

    OpenAIRE

    He Gang; Qiao Guo-tong; Li Tian-bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper indicates that coal miners’ unsafe behavior is the major internal reason causing coal mine accidents. Factors affecting coal miners’ unsafe behavior were identified. The relatively entire system of coal miners’ safety behavior was built accordingly. Coal miners’ unsafe behavior system was analyzed quantitatively. Path and divergence of impact factors within the system were explained in detail. Management decision can be formulated to advance management level in coal mine industry....

  11. Coal conversion. 1978 technical report. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Division of Fossil Fuel Processing - US Department of Energy is conducting a research, development and demonstration program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for those derived from oil and natural gas. These substitute fuels include crude oil, fuel oil and distillates; chemical feedstocks; pipeline quality and fuel gas; and other products such as char that may be useful in energy production.

  12. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  13. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  14. Infrared steam laser cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Pascal; Lang, Florian; Mosbacher, Mario; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Steam Laser Cleaning with a pulsed infrared laser source is investigated. The infrared light is tuned to the absorption maximum of water (λ = 2.94 µm, 10 ns), whereas the substrates used are transparent (glass, silicon). Thus a thin liquid water layer condensed on top of the contaminated substrate is rapidly heated. The pressure generated during the subsequent phase explosion generates a cleaning force which exceeds the adhesion of the particles. We examine the cleaning threshold in single sh...

  15. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  16. 4-MCHM sorption to and desorption from granular activated carbon and raw coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, T Scott; Sarver, Emily A; McNair, Harold M; Rezaee, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) is a saturated higher alicyclic primary alcohol that is used in the froth flotation process for cleaning coal. In early 2014, a large spill of crude chemical (containing primarily 4-MCHM) to the Elk River near Charleston, WV contaminated the local water supply. Carbon filters at the affected water treatment facility quickly became saturated, and the contaminated water was distributed to nearby homes and businesses. Sorption of 4-MCHM to granular activated carbon (GAC) was studied in the laboratory using head space (HS) analysis via gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Sorption to raw coal was also investigated, since this material may be of interest as a sorbent in the case of an on-site spill. As expected, sorption to both materials increased with decreased particle size and with increased exposure time; although exposure time proved to be much more important in the case of GAC than for coal. Under similar conditions, GAC sorbed more 4-MCHM than raw coal (e.g., 84.9 vs. 63.1 mg/g, respectively, for 20 × 30 mesh particles exposed to 860 mg/L 4-MCHM solution for 24 h). Desorption from both materials was additionally evaluated. Interestingly, desorption of 4-MCHM on a mass per mass basis was also higher for GAC than for raw coal. Overall, results indicated that GAC readily sorbs 4-MCHM but can also readily release a portion of the chemical, whereas coal sorbs somewhat less 4-MCHM but holds it tightly. PMID:27219291

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  18. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  19. Factors Influencing the Performance of Coal Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unsia HABIB

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous supply of energy resources is essential for the development of any nation. The economic and social life of any nation depends enormously on the energy resources. Over the past few years the energy crisis is becoming a major issue in developing countries as Pakistan. Oil, Natural gas and hydro are the three major energy resources of the Pakistan. These conventional energy resources were being exploited in the past leading to an issue of energy crisis in the country. Replacing expensive imported energy resources with coal briquettes made from indigenous coal reserves can provide fuel for the local residential and commercial markets. Coal briquettes formation is a process to convert coal powder into a specific shape with the help of a binder. An external force is applied to the coal binder mixture to make a firm body of desired shape. The briquettes formed this way will not disintegrate under normal conditions of transportation and use. Coal briquettes are preferred over raw coal because they are a smokeless, strong and low emissive fuel that can be used in numerous domestic and commercial applications. The performance of coal briquettes formed is dependent largely upon its thermal properties and the mechanical strength. Nowadays an environmentally safe briquettes formation process is also included in the performance criteria of coal briquettes. The mechanical strength of coal briquettes affects its storage and transportation to the intended market. The studies on coal briquettes show that coal briquettes quality depends on many factors like the type of binder, quantity of binder, grade of coal, moisture level, coal particle size and its distribution etc. These factors along with some of the factors as time of compaction, compaction temperature, and compaction pressure and moisture level are discussed in this paper to evaluate the performance of briquetting technology in future.

  20. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  1. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  2. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the

  3. Coal, the metamorphoses of an industry. The new geopolitics of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal consumption is growing up so fast and coal reserves are so abundant that coal might overtake petroleum in the future. The worldwide environment will not gain anything in this evolution except if 'clean coal' technologies make a significant jump. What is the driving force of this coal development? The pitfall encountered by nuclear energy and the rise of natural gas prices have been favorable conditions for the development of coal but they cannot hide the worldwide metamorphosis of coal industry. From China, undisputed world leader, to the USA, without omitting India, Russia and the big exporting countries (Australia, Indonesia, South Africa, Colombia), a new map is drawing up. In all these countries, coal companies are concentrating and internationalizing, open new strip mines and new commercial paths. The understanding of this metamorphosis has become one of the keys of the energy prospective and geopolitics of the 21. century. Content: 1 - entering the 21. century with the energy source of the 19. century?; 2 - consumption growth: new trends; 3 - the USA: the Saudi Arabia of coal; 4 - the unexpected rebirth of coal in Russia; 5 - China, world leader of coal industry; 6 - India and south-east Asia are entering the race; 7 - the rise of exporting industries; 8 - international markets and competitive dynamics of industries; 9 - advantage and drawbacks of coal during the coming decades; 10 - will clean coal technologies be ready on time?; 11 - technical appendix. (J.S.)

  4. Proceedings, 88th regular meeting, The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. [USA - Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnie, D.G. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The convention theme was: energizing America with coal. 12 papers were presented with the following titles: American coal and coal technology - energy to drive a world evolution; electric supply and demand in the US - the next 10 years; growth opportunities in electric generation in the 1990s; US Clean Coal Technology Program insuring coal's future as a utility through technology development; mining survival in parts per billion; organization, activities and issues with particular emphasis on coal; Lignite Coal Council update; developments in technology and markets for Wyoming coal; total involvement teams - going beyond participation; total quality management - is it for the mining industry; and productivity gainsharing. A summary of coal production data for 1990 and 1991 and a list of the RMCMI members and their addresses are included.

  5. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated ...

  6. Coal industry annual 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  7. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  8. Developments in technology and markets for Wyoming coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal industry is making changes in Wyoming. Larger, more efficient equipment allowed Wyoming mines to produce 194 million tons of coal in 1991 and position itself to produce even more if the utilities that have to meet the demands of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) decide to use the vast low sulfur coal deposits of Wyoming to meet the new standards. Wyoming leads the nation in production of coal. The mines in Wyoming are committed to being the best source of low cost, low sulfur coal in the world. With support from the state and reasonable regulations at the state an federal level, Wyoming will continue to be the nation's leader in coal

  9. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  10. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  11. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  12. 燃煤电厂现有烟气净化系统协同脱汞的效率分析%Efficiency analysis about synergic mercury removal technology for existing flue-gas cleaning devices of coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晨曦

    2015-01-01

    讨论了煤炭燃烧中汞的状态变化,分析了燃煤电厂现有烟气净化系统对汞的协同脱除效率;认为ESP能够脱除烟气中几乎全部颗粒态汞及部分氧化态汞和单质态汞,WFGD能够脱除80%以上的氧化态汞,WESP能够脱除烟气中残留的大部分颗粒态汞和氧化态汞,且能够脱除部分单质态汞,SCR能够把40%以上的单质态汞转化为氧化态汞,从而促进ESP、WFGD和WESP的脱汞效率。经过SCR+ESP+WFGD+WESP的协同脱除后,烟气中的大部分汞将会被脱除,汞的排放浓度将大大低于国家要求的0.03 mg/m3的排放标准,同时大大降低了烟气中汞污染物的脱除费用。%It discusses the state changes of the combustion of coal mercury,analyzed the efficiency of synergic removaling mercury through the Existing Flue-gas Cleaning Devices of Coal-fired power plant; believe that ESP can remove almost al of the particles in the flue gas and partial oxidation of mercury and elemental mercu-ry mercury, WFGD can remove more than 80% of oxidized mercury, WESP able to remove most of the particu-late bound mercury and oxidized mercury remaining in the flue gas, and WESP is capable of removing part of the elemental mercury, SCR can converte more than 40% of the be elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, thereby it can promote mercury removal efficiency by ESP, WFGD and WESP. After cooperative removaling through SCR+ESP+WFGD+WESP, most of the mercury in the flue gas wil be removed, the concentration of mercury emissions wil be significantly lower than national emission standards required by 0. 03 mg/m3 , while it can greatly reduce the cost for mercury removaling of flue gas.

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140318Chen Xinwei(Reserves Evaluation Center of Xinjiang,Urumqi 830000,China);Li Shaohu Analysis on Sequence Stratigraphy Based on Jurassic Outcrop in Kuqa-Bai Coalfield(Xinjiang Geology,ISSN1000-8845,CN65-1092/P,32(1),2013,p.77-82,2illus.,12refs.,with English abstract)Key words:sequence stratigraphy,coal accumulation regularity,Xinjiang

  14. An effect of smoking on pulmonary function of underground coal miners in zenica coal mines

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sivić

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective descriptive controlled study are to determine a prevalence of smokers in coal mines in Zenica and demonstrate how smoking and respirable coal dust affect pulmonary functions. A group of 75 randomly chosen coal miners and 96 randomly chosen metal workers participated in the research. Each examinee had a physical examination, lungs x-ray and spirometric analysis of lungs functions. Forced expiratoryvolume in a second (FEV1) including a ratio of forced expirato...

  15. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  16. Flotation process diagnostics and modelling by coal grain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofori, P; O' Brien, G.; Firth, B.; Jenkins, B. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    In coal flotation, particles of different components of the coal such as maceral groups and mineral matter and their associations have different hydrophobicities and therefore different flotation responses. By using a new coal grain analysis method for characterising individual grains, more detailed flotation performance analysis and modelling approaches have been developed. The method involves the use of microscopic imaging techniques to obtain estimates of size, compositional and density information on individual grains of fine coal. The density and composition partitioning of coal processed through different flotation systems provides an avenue to pinpoint the actual cause of poor process performance so that corrective action may be initiated. The information on grain size, density and composition is being used as input data to develop more detailed flotation process models to provide better predictions of process performance for both mechanical and column flotation devices. A number of approaches may be taken to flotation modelling such as the probability approach and the kinetic model approach or a combination of the two. In the work reported here, a simple probability approach has been taken, which will be further refined in due course. The use of grain data to map the responses of different types of coal grains through various fine coal cleaning processes provided a more advanced diagnostic capability for fine coal cleaning circuits. This enabled flotation performance curves analogous to partition curves for density separators to be produced for flotation devices.

  17. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  18. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  19. Fuzzy prediction and experimental verification of road surface cleaning rate by pure waterjets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning parameters affecting cleaning rate using pure waterjets to clean road surface was researched. A mathematical model for predicting cleaning rate was established using fuzzy mathematical method. A fuzzy rule base characterizing the relationship between input and output parameters was built through experiments. The prediction of cleaning rate was achieved under the condition of given input parameters by rule-based fuzzy reasoning. The prediction results were analyzed through experimental verification.

  20. Determinants of coal mine labor productivity change. [1950 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. G.; Stevenson, W. L.

    1979-11-01

    Coal mine labor productivity (tons per miner-shift) has been falling yearly since 1970. The decline in labor productivity since 1970 has implications for the coal industry's labor demand, cost of production, and injuries and could hinder the ability of the industry to meet the coal output goals of the National Energy Plan. The purpose of this research study was to identify and measure the causes of labor productivity decline. Concise answers are given to three questions: Why is coal mine labor productivity important. What are the causes of labor productivity decline in deep and surface coal mines. What are the implications of these findings for future coal mine labor productivity. Coal mine labor productivity is important for three reasons: (1) it affects the cost of coal production, (2) it affects coal industry labor demand, and (3) it affects injuries and injury rates in coal mining. Labor productivity is the link between output levels and employment requirements. The period of declining productivity coincides with major changes in the coal industry's environment: (1) change from a largely unregulated industry to a highly regulated industry (the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969; implementation of many state surface mine reclamation laws, etc.) and (2) change from a declining, marginal profits industry to a growing, profitable industry (increasing coal prices and demand in the 1970s). A major conclusion of the study is that a portion of the high labor productivity of the 1960s was possible because some of the costs of coal mining - worker injuries, black lung disability, and environmental damage - were not being paid for by the coal industry and coal consumers. Once these costs were forced internally on the mine operators by legislation, productivity fell and the cost of production increased.

  1. Coal sulfur-premium models for SO2 allowance valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clean Air Capital Markets, an investment bank structuring SO2 Allowance transactions, has designed two allowance value models. The first forecasts an equilibrium allowance value based on coal supply and demand. The second estimates the sulfur premium of all reported coal deliveries to utilities. Both models demonstrate that the fundamental allowance value is approximately double current spot market prices for small volumes of off-system allowances

  2. An Entrapment Model of Water Flow on Fine Coal Flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶有俊; 路迈西; 王卓雅; 刘文礼; 赵跃民

    2004-01-01

    Effect of entrapment of water flow on fine coal flotation was studied. The relation between constant of water flotation rate and flotation time was investigated and the water recycling model determined. The entrapment model of water flow about the relation between the recovery of fine particle and that of water in concentration was established. Finally, the equation about ash in fine clean coal at any time was derived by introducing a de-ashing coefficient.

  3. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled

  4. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  5. Should coal replace coal? Options for the Irish electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Diffney, Seán; Malaguzzi Valeri, Laura; Walsh, Darragh

    2012-01-01

    The Moneypoint coal plant is nearing the end of its useful life and will need to be replaced. For Moneypoint’s replacement, we consider different types of baseload technologies: coal plants with and without carbon capture, combined-cycle gas plants and a nuclear plant. This paper compares how the different types of plant are likely to affect the net costs of the Single Electricity Market under a number of fossil fuel and carbon price scenarios and highlights their effects on short-run prices,...

  6. Amenability to dry processing of high ash thermal coal using a pneumatic table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dey Shobhana; Gangadhar B.; Gopalkrishna S.J.

    2015-01-01

    High ash thermal coal from India was used to conduct the dry processing of fine coal using a pneumatic table to evolve a techno-economically novel technique. The fine as-received sample having 55.2%ash was subjected to washability studies at variant densities from 1.4 to 2.2 to assess the amenability to separa-tion. The experiments were conducted using a central composite design for assessing the interactive effects of the variable parameters of a pneumatic table on the product yield and ash content. The perfor-mance of the pneumatic table was analyzed in terms of clean coal yield, recovery of combustibles, separation efficiency (Esp) and useful heat value of clean coal. The combustibles of clean coal obtained through a single stage operation at 35% and 38.7% ash were 40% and 63% respectively. However, the two stage processing was more effective in reducing the ash content in the clean coal. The rougher con-centrate generated at higher ash level was subsequently processed in different conditions at 35% ash level, and 58%combustibles could be recovered. Hence, two stage processing increases the combustibles by 18 units and the useful heat value of clean coal increases from 1190 kcal/kg to 3750 kcal/kg.

  7. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was

  8. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DESULFURIZATION OF ZHONG LIANG SHAN HIGH SULFUR COAL BY FLOTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜志伟; 黄波; 曹炅

    1994-01-01

    Emission of large amount of SO2 from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious envjsonmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of bigh sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desuifurtzation with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shah was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sultur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0. 84%, with 72.22% recovery ofcombustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurlzatlon Efficiency Index Eofor comprehensive evaluation of dcsuifurlzation process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters.

  10. Refining the art of coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.

    1993-10-01

    SGI International's Liquids from coal (LFC) Process converts low-rank coals into condensable hydrocarbons, or coal-derived liquid (CDL), a solid product, called process-derived fuels (PDF), non-condensable gases and pyrolysis water. This paper describes the process, which consists of three basic steps (drying, pyrolysis, and finishing or conditioning), the process control system and the characteristics of and markets for the two main coproducts, CDF and PDF. It also describes, the technical feasibility study that SGT International carries out when it wants to determine the applicability of the LFC Process to a particular sub-bituminous or lignite coal. The paper discusses the economics of coal upgrading in general and of the LFC Process in particular. A 1000 short ton-per-day demonstration plant has been completed at the Buckskin Mine in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. The cost of construction (which was completed in late Spring 1992) and the first two years of operation are being partly funded through the USDOE's Clean Coal Technology Program. 9 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

  12. UK signed an agreement with China on near zero emissions coal-fired electricity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On Dec. 22, Environment Secretary Margaret Beckett welcomed a UK/China landmark agreement on the development of clean coal technology with carbon dioxide capture and storage, which aims to reduce significantly the climate change impact from coal-fired electricity generation.

  13. Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-12-31

    With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

  14. Manufacturing of ashless coal by using solvent de-ashing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang-Do Kim; Kwang-Jae Woo; Soon-Kwan Jeong; Young-Jun Rhim; Si-Huyn Lee [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Clean Energy Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Maintenance of a high oil value has an influence to energy crisis and national security in South Korea which does not have energy resources. The coals which have characterized by the abundant reserves and the inexpensive price can be said to be the alternative energy source. Hyper-coal process, which has been developed in Japan since 1999, is a new effective process to produce a clean coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. When coal is extracted with organic solvent, only the organic portion of coal is dissolved in the solvents. That is possible to apply the low rank coal. This study was performed to produce ashless coal by using the solvent de-ashing technology. The experiment was conducted in the batch(or semi-batch) type reactor with two solvents such as NMP(N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone) and 1-MN(1-methylnaphthalene) and various coals such as Kideko coal, Roto South coal and Sunhwa coal at 200-400{sup o}C. As a result of the test, extraction yield of coals was more than 60% on daf. Ash concentration which contains the extracted coal was 0.11-1.0wt%. The heat value was increased from 5,400 kcal/kg to 7,920 kcal/kg in the Roto South coal. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Distribution Characteristics of Sulfur and the Main Harmful Trace Elements in China's Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shuheng; SUN Shenglin; QIN Yong; JIANG Yaofa; WANG Wenfeng

    2008-01-01

    To promote the rational development and use of clean coal resources in China, data on the regional and age distribution of sulfur, arsenic and other harmful elements in Chinese coal was broadly collected, tested for content, and analyzed. Coal in northwestern China is characterized by low to extremely low levels of sulfur; the coal of the Taiyuan Formation in northern China mainly has high-sulfur content; that of the Shanxi Formation is mainly characterized by low sulfur coal; and the Late Permian coal in southern China has overall higher sulfur content; other regions have low sulfur coal. The average content of harmful trace elements in the bulk of China's coal is similar to the corresponding content in the coal of the North America and the rest of the world, whereas the content of various elements (Hg, Sb and Se) is different in magnitude to the corresponding percentage in the crust. The average content of the elements Cr, Se, Co, Be, U, Br in Late Permian coal in S China ranks first in the country whereas the average content of Hg and Ci in the coals of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian age in N China are the highest. The average content of Mn in Early and Middle Jurassic coal is higher in NW China. The high content of harmful elements in some coal should cause particular concern both in the development and utilization of coal.

  16. Feasibility analysis and policy recommendations for the development of the coal based SNG industry in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on China's basic national energy conditions of “abundant coal and scarce gas reserve”, the development of the coal based SNG industry is considered to be an effective way to solve the conflict between the supply and demand of natural gas and an important direction in the clean use of coal. Xinjiang is rich in coal resources and is listed by the central government as one of the main bases of the coal based SNG industry. Nearly 70% of the coal based SNG projects are being conducted in Xinjiang, with the goal to take advantage of the lower coal price in Xinjiang to promote the development of the coal based SNG industry. However, the coal based SNG industry is subject to the constraints of pollution, immature technology, poor economic returns, water resources and many other factors. Therefore, the development of the coal based SNG industry should be limited to industrial demonstration. Taking into account China's energy security and environmental governance, once the technology matures, the development prospect of the coal based SNG industry is broad. - Highlights: • Booming in the coal based SNG is not oriented to market, but investment-driven. • Coal based SNG is restricted by pollution, technology, economic and water resources. • The positioning of coal based SNG industry should be industrial demonstration. • The immature technique is the biggest obstacle

  17. Coals for COREX{reg_sign}: New possibilities for the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, H.; Flickenschild, J. [Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The difficulty of bringing the emissions released from the coking plants into compliance with ever more stringent environmental regulations will lead to a reduction of coking plant capacity; therefore, there is an increased discrepancy between coke demand and coke supply. Hence, coke-based ironmaking is expected to become more expensive to operate. Coal producers worldwide have a strong interest in pursuing all possibilities to save and extend the utilization of coal in the steel industry. A proven possibility to this end is provided by the COREX{reg_sign} process. The commercially effective and environmentally friendly COREX{reg_sign} process is a smelting reduction process which produces hot metal by direct use of lump coal while the conventional blast furnace requires coke as a primary fuel. Coke can be made from metallurgical grade coking coals only. As the coking requirement of coals is not a prerequisite for the COREX{reg_sign} process, a wide spectrum of coals is made accessible for the ironmaking industry. As a by-product, the COREX{reg_sign} technology produces a very clean gas of medium calorific value which can be used with high efficiency in combined cycle power plants or as a reducing gas in downstream direct reduction plant. The paper describes the increasing importance of the COREX process in iron making, requirements for coals used in the process, by-products, and environmental benefits.

  18. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  19. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  20. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-12-31

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  1. Commercialization of coal-fired diesel engines for cogeneration and non-utility power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, K.; Benedek, K.R.; Itse, D.; Parkinson, J.; Kimberley, J.; Balles, E.N.; Benson, C.E.; Smith, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this METC project is to established practical, durable components compatible with clean coal slurry fuel and capable of low emissions. The components will be integrated into a coal power system for a 100-hr proof-of-concept test. The goal of this program is to advance the stationary coal-fueled diesel engine to the next plateau of technological readiness, and thus provide the springboard to commercialization.

  2. Measurement and Control of Coal Pipe Temperature of Coal Mills of PF Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamoy Chatterjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Power plant boiler had no arrangement of measure the coal pipe temperature in a continuous basis, though it is an important parameter for any coal fired large boiler. As pulverized coal flows through the long coal-pipe by the help of flow of hot air as a carrier, coal pipe temperature is only the measurement of the coal flow through the pipe to boiler. Low temperature indicates improper flow of pulverized coal through the pipe. So due to no continuous measurement of these parameters we can’t know about the flow profile of coal through pulveriser outlet pipes. Sometimes the pipe got choked and we were not aware of that for a long time. That caused our equipment loss i.e. we had to stop the pulveriser for a long time for de-choking the large size coal pipe. And indirectly it caused loss of power generation and also affected the economical figure of our power house. So to overcome that kind of losses we have to measure the coal pipe temperature in regular basis.

  3. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  4. Overview of SOFC Anode Interactions with Coal Gas Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. A. Marina; L. R. Pederson; R. Gemmen; K. Gerdes; H. Finklea; I. B. Celik

    2010-03-01

    An overview of the results of SOFC anode interactions with phosphorus, arsenic, selenium, sulfur, antimony, and hydrogen chloride as single contaminants or in combinations is discussed. Tests were performed using both anode- and electrolyte-supported cells in synthetic and actual coal gas for periods greater than 1000 hours. Post-test analyses were performed to identify reaction products formed and their distribution, and compared to phases expected from thermochemical modeling. The ultimate purpose of this work is to establish maximum permissible concentrations for impurities in coal gas, to aid in the selection of appropriate coal gas clean-up technologies.

  5. Coal seam methane distribution and its significance in Pingdingshan mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭德勇; 周心权; 沈少川; 张晓萍

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed at the coal seam group E and F in Pingdingshan mining area has been completed. This study is on the relationship of the coal-seam methane reserve to coal thickness, coal rank, coal seam depth, surrounding rock and geological structure and other factors. The study indicates that different geological factor plays different role in controlling the law of coal-seam methane reserve. The coal-seam methane rich area, which was formed because of various factors and comprehensive effect, is the coal and methane outburst-prone area, and also the key area for coal-bed methane recovery. Among all factors, coal seam depth and geological structure is more important factor in affecting coal-seam methane content in Pingdingshan mining area.

  6. The European Coal Market: Will Coal Survive the EC's Energy and Climate Policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    reserves of fossil fuels. Coal contributes to the economic activity and employment in the region. The EU mining industry employs 260,000 workers (direct jobs) and the turnover of the whole coal industry is estimated at Euros 25 billion a year. Coal prices, despite their rising trend in the past few years, are much lower than competing fuels: half the price of natural gas imported in Europe. As coal ensures safe, reliable, affordable and sustainable energy for all, it will be very much needed in the years to come. However, coal is proscribed in a CO2-free environment. Its combustion in thermal power plants - its main outlet in Europe - emits twice as much CO2 as gas plants. Although a lot of R and D work is done to capture CO2 emissions from coal plants and store it, no zero emission commercial plants have yet started operation. Several CCS projects have been delayed, or even cancelled, in the past few years due to regulatory uncertainties, a lack of funding and public opposition to CO2 storage. The current European economic crisis and the large sovereign debts have also reduced public funding in CCS projects. The future of coal in Europe is therefore very uncertain. Will CCS development allows it to remain a fuel of choice, given large available reserves at low prices, compared with competing energy sources? Or will coal disappear from the European energy mix? How fast will the decline in European coal production be? This report looks at these issues and highlights some facts, trends and regulation that may affect the supply and demand of coal in the future. The analysis concentrates on steam coal used to generate electricity, since the power generation sector is by far the largest user of coal in Europe. The first part of this report looks at the European coal market region-wide. Chapter 1 describes the EU coal market in the global context. Chapter 2 analyses the significance of the European coal mining industry and its future after the end of state aid. Chapter 3 looks

  7. Who is affected more by air pollution - sick or healthy? Some evidence from a health survey of schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Northern Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yogev-Baggio, T.; Bibi, H.; Dubnov, J.; Or-Hen, K.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A. [University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Natural Resources & Environmental Management

    2010-03-15

    A cohort of 1181 schoolchildren, residing near a major coal-fired power plant in the Hadera district of Israel, were subdivided into three health status groups: (a) healthy children, (b) children experiencing chest symptoms, and (c) children with asthma or spastic bronchitis. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs) were performed twice (in 1996 and 1999) and analyzed in conjunction with air pollution estimates at the children's places of residence and several potential confounders - height, age, gender, parental education, passive smoking, housing density, length of residence in the study area and proximity to the main road. A significant negative association was found between changes in PFT results and individual exposure estimates to air pollution, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of children and their living conditions. A sensitivity analysis revealed a decrease in the Forced Expiratory Volume during the First Second (FEV1) of about 19.6% for children with chest symptoms, 11.8% for healthy children, and approximately 7.9% for children diagnosed with asthma. Results of a sensitivity test for the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) were found to be similar. Exposure to air pollution appeared to have had the greatest effect on children with chest symptoms. This phenomenon may be explained by the fact that this untreated symptomatic group might experience the most severe insult on their respiratory system as a result of exposure to ambient air pollution, which is reflected by a considerable reduction in their FEV1 and FVC. Since asthmatic children have lower baseline and slower growth rates, their PFT change may be affected less by exposure to air pollution, reflecting a well known relationship between pulmonary function change and height growth, according to which age-specific height is very similar for preadolescent children, but shifts upward with age during the growth spurt.

  8. Advanced systems for producing superclean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop several advanced separation processes for producing superclean coal containing 0.4--2.0% ash and very little pyritic sulfur. Three physical and physico-chemical processes were studied: microbubble flotation, selective hydrophobic coagulation, and electrochemical coal cleaning. Information has been collected from bench-scale experiments in order to determine the basic mechanisms of all three processes. Additionally, because microbubble flotation has already been proven on a bench scale, preliminary scale-up models have been developed for this process. A fundamental study of the electrochemistry of coal pyrite has also been conducted in conjunction with this scale-up effort in order to provide information useful for improving sulfur rejection. The effects of additives (NaCl and kerosene) were also investigated. 94 refs., 167 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Controlling air toxics through advanced coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straszheim, W.E.; Buttermore, W.H.; Pollard, J.L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This project involves the assessment of advanced coal preparation methods for removing trace elements from coal to reduce the potential for air toxic emissions upon combustion. Scanning electron microscopy-based automated image analysis (SEM-AIA) and advanced washability analyses are being applied with state-of-the-art analytical procedures to predict the removal of elements of concern by advanced column flotation and to confirm the effectiveness of preparation on the quality of quantity of clean coal produced. Specific objectives are to maintain an acceptable recovery of combustible product, while improving the rejection of mineral-associated trace elements. Current work has focused on determining conditions for controlling column flotation system across its operating range and on selection and analysis of samples for determining trace element cleanability.

  10. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  11. 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology; Dai 6 kai sekitan riyo gijutsu kaigi koenshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The paper compiled the papers presented in the 6th Conference on Coal Utilization Technology held in September 1996. With relation to the fluidized bed boiler, reported were Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant and Development of pressurized internally circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Regarding the coal reformation, Development of advanced coal cleaning process, Coal preparation and coal cleaning in the dry process, etc. Concerning the combustion technology, Study of the O2/CO2 combustion technology, Development of pressurized coal partial combustor, etc. About the CWM, Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology, Technique of CWM distribution system, etc. Relating to the coal ash, Engineering characteristics of the improved soil by deep mixing method using coal ash, Employment of fluidized bed ash as a basecourse material, On-site verification trials using fly ash for reclamation behind bulkheads, Water permeabilities of pulverized fuel ash, Separation of unburned carbon from coal fly ash through froth flotation, Practical use technology of coal ash (POZ-O-TEC), etc

  12. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting a research and development program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal to synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels and for improved direct combustion of coal. These fuels must be storable and suitable for power generation, transportation, and residential and industrial uses. ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of ERDA's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly

  14. Characterization of the coal resources of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, L.S. [CSIR, Auckland (New Zealand). Division of Mining Technology

    2005-02-01

    Estimates for South Africa's coal recoverable reserves made in 1999 range from nine to 59 billion tons; latest estimates by the Minerals Bureau suggest that 33 billion tons is a more likely figure. As much as 70% of that coal is located in the Waterberg, Witbank, and Highveld coalfields, as well as lesser amounts in the Ermelo, Free State and Springbok Flats coalfields. However, the Witbank and Highveld coalfields are approaching exhaustion (estimated 9 billion tons of recoverable coal remaining in each), while the coal quality or mining conditions in the Waterberg, Free State and Springbok Flats coalfields are significant barriers to immediate, conventional exploitation. New extraction technologies, technologies exploiting the energy content of the coal in situ, as well as suitable uses and markets for low-grade, high-ash coal are required before the country can utilize its admittedly vast coal resources. Major challenges for exploiting some Limpopo province coalfields are severe water shortages, insufficiently developed infrastructure, fragile environments and poor roof conditions due to the depth and complex geology. In the Central Basin (Witbank, Highveld and Ermelo coalfields) technical innovations for thin seam extraction, economic mining of both pillar coal and intrusion-fragmented resource blocks and the utilization of lower-grade coals are required. The success of the fluidized bed combustion technology is necessary to utilize the low-grade coals of the Free State and Molteno coalfields. Clean coal technologies, coal cost and quality, environmental considerations, sustainable development, the growth of the South African economy and Government's regulation of the electricity industry are the main challenges to the continued use of coal as South Africa's primary energy source.

  15. Development of zero conditioning procedure for coal reverse flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Patil; J.S. Laskowski [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

    2008-04-15

    The zero conditioning method was developed to facilitate the flotation of gangue minerals in the reverse coal flotation process. Batch and continuous methods were developed to maintain the zero conditioning principle during reverse flotation. Batch zero conditioning was achieved by adding the required amount of DTAB in one step, as soon as the air was introduced into the system. The continuous zero conditioning method involves uninterrupted addition of DTAB through a specially built sparger in the form of aerosol during the flotation experiment. This produces active bubbles that carry collector. The addition of DTAB in the form of aerosol during reverse flotation proved to be better in reducing the ash of a sub-bituminous (LS-26) coal from 34.7% to 22.9% with a froth product (gangue) yield of 36.8% without any depressant. In the presence of coal depressant (dextrin, 0.5 kg/t), the ash content of LS-26 coal was reduced from 34.7% to 16.5% at a clean coal yield of 55%, whereas the conventional (forward) flotation with fuel oil provided a clean coal containing 16.5% ash with only 29.2% yield. These results prove that flotation of gangue minerals is very much improved by maintaining zero conditioning time conditions in a coal reverse flotation process.

  16. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1989-09-01

    The broad goals of this project are to determine by nondestructive means -- magnetic resonance techniques -- aspects of chemical and physical structures of organic parts of native and treated coals. We also hope to use related methods to follow the course of certain coal cleaning processes with microscopic spatial resolution. Specific goals include: the nondestructive determination of atomic and molecular structure of sulfur-containing organic species in coal both in its natural state and at various stages during desulfurization; determination of interatomic distances, numbers, and orientations in individual macerals with differing sulfur content by pulsed EPR microscopy; development of nondestructive high-resolution microscopic images of internal structure in coal, including chemical information on the location and distribution of sulfur-containing compounds; determination of sulfur compound chemical structure from highly localized regions in a whole coal sample; by means of the techniques used to accomplish the above goals, to measure the effects of various coal cleaning methods on the molecular forms and spatial distribution of organic sulfur, and on internal structural characteristics like pore size and maceral density; following by these microscopic methods the rate and extent of solvent intrusion into the pores and matrix of whole coals and separated macerals. The work carried out this year mainly addressed goals 1, 2, 3, and 6. 24 refs., 18 figs.

  17. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions)

  18. Air toxic emissions from the combustion of coal: Identifying and quantifying hazardous air pollutants from US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This report addresses the key air toxic emissions likely to emanate from continued and expanded use of domestic coal. It identifies and quantifies those trace elements specified in the US 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, by tabulating selected characterization data on various source coals by region, state, and rank. On the basis of measurements by various researchers, this report also identifies those organic compounds likely to be derived from the coal combustion process (although their formation is highly dependent on specific boiler configurations and operating conditions).

  19. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, O.K.; Levasseur, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of advanced coal-cleaning technologies aimed at expanding the use of the nation`s vast coal reserves in an environmentally and economically acceptable manner. Because of the lack of practical experience with deeply beneficiated coal-based fuels, PETC has contracted Combustion Engineering, Inc. to perform a multi-year project on `Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.` The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels (BCs) influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs.

  20. Assessment of shrinkage-swelling influences in coal seams using rank-dependent physical coal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, Huseyin Onur [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gumrah, Fevzi [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)]|[Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)

    2009-01-07

    Characterization of coal reservoirs and determination of in-situ physical coal properties related to transport mechanism are complicated due to having lack of standard procedures in the literature. By considering these difficulties, a new approach has been developed proposing the usage of relationships between coal rank and physical coal properties. In this study, effects of shrinkage and swelling (SS) on total methane recovery at CO{sub 2} breakthrough (TMRB), which includes ten-year primary methane recovery and succeeding enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery up to CO{sub 2} breakthrough, and CO{sub 2} sequestration have been investigated by using rank-dependent coal properties. In addition to coal rank, different coal reservoir types, molar compositions of injected fluid, and parameters within the extended Palmer and Mansoori (P and M) permeability model were considered. As a result of this study, shrinkage and swelling lead to an increase in TMRB. Moreover, swelling increased CO{sub 2} breakthrough time and decreased displacement ratio and CO{sub 2} storage for all ranks of coal. Low-rank coals are affected more negatively than high-rank coals by swelling. Furthermore, it was realized that dry coal reservoirs are more influenced by swelling than others and saturated wet coals are more suitable for eliminating the negative effects of CO{sub 2} injection. In addition, it was understood that it is possible to reduce swelling effect of CO{sub 2} on cleat permeability by mixing it with N{sub 2} before injection. However, an economical optimization is required for the selection of proper gas mixture. Finally, it is concluded from sensitivity analysis that elastic modulus is the most important parameter, except the initial cleat porosity, controlling SS in the extended P and M model by highly affecting TMRB. (author)