WorldWideScience

Sample records for affected vector-borne diseases

  1. Vector borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo Fenech, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.

  2. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs......-agents for which the rate of introduction wasestimated to be very low, no further asse ssments were made. Due to the uncertainty related to someparameters used for the risk assessment or the instable or unpredictability disease situation in some ofthe source regions, it is recommended to update the assessment when...

  3. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay; Nair, Dilip

    2016-10-01

    Several mosquito-borne viral infections have recently emerged in North America; West Nile virus is the most common in the United States. Although West Nile virus generally causes a self-limited, flulike febrile illness, a serious neuroinvasive form may occur. Dengue is the most common vector-borne viral disease worldwide, and it has been a significant public health threat in the United States since 2009. Known as breakbone fever for its severe myalgias and arthralgias, dengue may cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. Chikungunya also causes flulike febrile illness and disabling arthralgias. Although meningoencephalitis may occur with chikungunya, bleeding is uncommon. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are similar to those of dengue, but milder. Zika virus increases the risk of fetal brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, if a pregnant woman is infected. Zika virus is spread through Aedes albopictus mosquito bites, is transmitted sexually, and may rarely spread nonsexually from person to person. Diagnosis of these vectorborne infections is clinical and serologic, and treatment is supportive. Other, well-established vector-borne diseases are also important. Ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne bacterial disease that presents as a nonspecific syndrome of fever, headache, malaise, and myalgias. It is diagnosed via blood smear testing, with confirmatory serology. Ehrlichiosis is treated with doxycycline. Rickettsial infections are transmitted by fleas, mites, and ticks, and severity ranges from mild to life threatening. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, the most significant rickettsial infection, is primarily a clinical diagnosis that presents as fever, headache, myalgias, petechial rash, and tick exposure. Doxycycline is effective for rickettsial infections if administered promptly. Vector avoidance strategies are critical to the prevention of all of these infections.

  4. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...... not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  5. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  6. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  7. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  8. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...

  9. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  10. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases - Incidence through Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector-borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and population of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector-borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, and leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fundamental role at primarily prevention and then treatment of vector-borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases. During a 4-year period, from 2009 to 2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analyzed for vector-borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis) in routine laboratory work. The analysis was done by serological tests - ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis, and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis, and blood smear for babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on average more then half of the samples

  11. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  12. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  13. Survey of spatial distribution of vector-borne disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs and disseminators of vector-borne diseases in urban areas. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to ascertain the health status and the vector-borne pathogens infecting dogs living in public areas with high levels of human movement in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil.

  14. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance.

  15. Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, S; Baneth, G

    2005-10-01

    In recent years, vector-borne parasitic and bacterial diseases have emerged or re-emerged in many geographical regions causing global health and economic problems that involve humans, livestock, companion animals and wild life. The ecology and epidemiology of vector-borne diseases are affected by the interrelations between three major factors comprising the pathogen, the host (human, animal or vector) and the environment. Important drivers for the emergence and spread of vector-borne parasites include habitat changes, alterations in water storage and irrigation habits, atmospheric and climate changes, immunosuppression by HIV, pollution, development of insecticide and drug resistance, globalization and the significant increase in international trade, tourism and travel. War and civil unrest, and governmental or global management failure are also major contributors to the spread of infectious diseases. The improvement of epidemic understanding and planning together with the development of new diagnostic molecular techniques in the last few decades have allowed researchers to better diagnose and trace pathogens, their origin and routes of infection, and to develop preventive public health and intervention programs. Health care workers, physicians, veterinarians and biosecurity officers should play a key role in future prevention of vector-borne diseases. A coordinated global approach for the prevention of vector-borne diseases should be implemented by international organizations and governmental agencies in collaboration with research institutions.

  16. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  17. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braks, M.; Medlock, J. M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Hjertqvist, M.; Perrin, Y.; Lancelot, R.; Duchyene, E.; Hendrickx, G.; Stroo, A.; Heyman, P.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 280 (2014), s. 280 ISSN 2296-2565 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : disease burden * emerging diseases * one health * surveillance * threat * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number R0 and risk maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836699

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the derivation of the basic reproduction number (R0) for vector-borne diseases, in the context of studying the effect of climate change on the risk of emergence diseases. Vector-borne diseases are transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by vectors,

  19. Major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abayneh, Takele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Shiferaw, Dessie; Szonyi, Barbara; Krontveit, Randi I; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2017-06-01

    five genera, four species of Glossina and 4 genera of biting flies were reported. Despite the evidence on presence of various vectors including ticks, flies, mosquitoes and midges, studies on vector-borne diseases in Ethiopia are surprisingly rare, especially considering risks related to climate change, which is likely to affect distribution of vectors. Thus better evidence on the current situation is urgently needed in order to prevent spread and to model future distribution scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, A. J.; Beard, C. B.; Eisen, R. J.; Barker, C. M.; Garofalo, J.; Hahn, M.; Hayden, M.; Ogden, N.; Schramm, P.

    2016-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are illnesses that are transmitted by vectors, which include mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. The seasonality, distribution, and prevalence of vector-borne diseases are influenced significantly by climate factors, primarily high and low temperature extremes and precipitation patterns. In this presentation we summarize key findings from Chapter 5 ("Vector-borne Diseases") of the recently published USGCRP Scientific Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States. Climate change is expected to alter geographic and seasonal distributions of vectors and vector-borne diseases, leading to earlier activity and northward range expansion of ticks capable of carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other pathogens, and influencing the distribution, abundance and prevalence of infection in mosquitoes that transmit West Nile virus and other pathogens. The emergence or reemergence of vector-borne pathogens is also likely.

  1. Vector-borne disease risk indexes in spatially structured populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Velázquez-Castro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are economic and physical limitations when applying prevention and control strategies for urban vector borne diseases. Consequently, there are increasing concerns and interest in designing efficient strategies and regulations that health agencies can follow in order to reduce the imminent impact of viruses like Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya. That includes fumigation, abatization, reducing the hatcheries, picking up trash, information campaigns. A basic question that arise when designing control strategies is about which and where these ones should focus. In other words, one would like to know whether preventing the contagion or decrease vector population, and in which area of the city, is more efficient. In this work, we propose risk indexes based on the idea of secondary cases from patch to patch. Thus, they take into account human mobility and indicate which patch has more chance to be a corridor for the spread of the disease and which is more vulnerable, i.e. more likely to have cases?. They can also indicate the neighborhood where hatchery control will reduce more the number of potential cases. In order to illustrate the usefulness of these indexes, we run a set of numerical simulations in a mathematical model that takes into account the urban mobility and the differences in population density among the areas of a city. If we label by i a particular neighborhood, the transmission risk index (TRi measures the potential secondary cases caused by a host in that neighborhood. The vector transmission risk index (VTRi measures the potential secondary cases caused by a vector. Finally, the vulnerability risk index (VRi measures the potential secondary cases in the neighborhood. Transmission indexes can be used to give geographical priority to some neighborhoods when applying prevention and control measures. On the other hand, the vulnerability index can be useful to implement monitoring campaigns or public health investment.

  2. Canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy: current situation and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Italy, dogs and cats are at risk of becoming infected by different vector-borne pathogens, including protozoa, bacteria, and helminths. Ticks, fleas, phlebotomine sand flies, and mosquitoes are recognized vectors of pathogens affecting cats and dogs, some of which (e.g., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, Dipylidium caninum, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Dirofilaria repens are of zoonotic concern. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of fleas as vectors of pathogens of zoonotic relevance (e.g., Rickettsia felis in this country. While some arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks and fleas are present in certain Italian regions throughout the year, others (e.g., phlebotomine sand flies are most active during the summer season. Accordingly, control strategies, such as those relying on the systematic use of acaricides and insecticides, should be planned on the basis of the ecology of both vectors and pathogens in different geographical areas in order to improve their effectiveness in reducing the risk of infection by vector-borne pathogens. This article reviews the current situation and perspectives of canine and feline vector-borne diseases in Italy.

  3. Vector-borne disease intelligence: Strategies to deal with disease burden and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta eBraks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases, whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens they transmit is vital to a risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face the phenomenon of an exponential rise in the number of possible surveillance targets and how to decide which are essential. Here, . we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of vector-borne diseases in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into 5 different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for vector-borne diseases entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure.

  4. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted...... of the future risk of outbreaks in the Nordic countries. DTU Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous risk assessment of potential spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. Mathematical models for selected vector borne diseases are continuously updated...

  5. Climate change and vector-borne diseases of public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H

    2017-10-16

    There has been much debate as to whether or not climate change will have, or has had, any significant effect on risk from vector-borne diseases. The debate on the former has focused on the degree to which occurrence and levels of risk of vector-borne diseases are determined by climate-dependent or independent factors, while the debate on the latter has focused on whether changes in disease incidence are due to climate at all, and/or are attributable to recent climate change. Here I review possible effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, methods used to predict these effects and the evidence to date of changes in vector-borne disease risks that can be attributed to recent climate change. Predictions have both over- and underestimated the effects of climate change. Mostly under-estimations of effects are due to a focus only on direct effects of climate on disease ecology while more distal effects on society's capacity to control and prevent vector-borne disease are ignored. There is increasing evidence for possible impacts of recent climate change on some vector-borne diseases but for the most part, observed data series are too short (or non-existent), and impacts of climate-independent factors too great, to confidently attribute changing risk to climate change. © Crown copyright 2017.

  6. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with implications for how diseases spread. Disease Control Elephantiasis caused by parasitic worms (top) affects more than ... inflammatory responses that lead to river blindness and elephantiasis. In an ironic twist, researchers are actually using ...

  7. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Das, Anirrudha; Qiu, Youliang; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-08-14

    Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR), to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya) and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible

  8. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  9. Spatial analysis of vector-borne infectious diseases and ecological indicators using GIS and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Liou, Y. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ecological and climate indicators play a vital role in defining patterns of human activities and behaviors, such as seasonal features, migration, winter-summer lifestyles, which in turn might be associated with vector-borne disease habitats and transmission risks. Remote sensing has been instrumental in deriving environmental variables and indicators. GIS is shown to be a powerful tool in spatiotemporal visualization and distribution of vector-borne diseases and for analysis of associations between environmental conditions and characteristics of vector-borne habitats. Vietnam is in the sub-tropical climate zone with high humidity and abundant precipitation, while the distribution of precipitation is uneven leading to frequently annual occurrence of drought and flood disasters. Moreover, urban heat island effect is significantly enhanced in urbanized areas in recent years. The increase in the frequency and magnitude of severity of weather extremes that are potentially linked to climate change and anthropogenic processes have highlighted the demand of research into health risk assessment and adaptive capacity. This research focuses on the analysis of physical features of environmental indicators and its association with vector-borne diseases as well as adaptive capacity. The study illustrates how remotely sensed data has been utilized in geohealth applications, surveillance, and health risk mapping. In addition, promising possibilities of allowing disease early-warning systems with citizen participation platform will be proposed. Keywords: Vector-borne diseases; environmental indicators; remote sensing; GIS; Vietnam.

  10. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted. We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even

  11. Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Purse, B.V.; Gilbert, M.; Van Dyck, H.

    2015-01-01

    Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional

  12. Vector-borne diseases and the basic reproduction number: a case study of African horse sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lord, C.C.; Woolhouse, M.E.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Mellor, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to determine factors important in the ability of a disease to invade or persist. We show how this number can be derived or estimated for vector-borne diseases with different complicating factors. African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted

  13. Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Padilla

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Persistent epidemic and endemic transmission of vector-borne diseases in urban and rural settings in Colombia was observed mainly in the case of malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Such transmission was focused and had variable intensity patterns. On the other hand, the conditions that have favored the emergence of new arboviruses persist.

  14. Control of vector-borne infectious diseases by human immunity against α-Gal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2016), s. 953-955 ISSN 1476-0584 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiota * probiotics * vaccine * α-Gal * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.555, year: 2016

  15. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  17. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Funk, Sebastian; Truscott, James E; Isham, Valerie; Lloyd, Alun L

    2015-03-01

    Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission--whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of "evolution-proof" interventions against vector-borne disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemink, Nienke; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Purse, Bethan V; Gilbert, Marius; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional habitat of vectors or hosts, and hence of the pathogen. Empirical-statistical methods do not explicitly incorporate biological mechanisms, whereas current mechanistic models are rarely spatially explicit; both methods ignore the way animals use the landscape (i.e. movement ecology). We argue that applying a functional concept for habitat, i.e. the resource-based habitat concept (RBHC), can solve these issues. The RBHC offers a framework to identify systematically the different ecological resources that are necessary for the completion of the transmission cycle and to relate these resources to (combinations of) landscape features and other environmental factors. The potential of the RBHC as a framework for identifying suitable habitats for vector-borne pathogens is explored and illustrated with the case of bluetongue virus, a midge-transmitted virus affecting ruminants. The concept facilitates the study of functional habitats of the interacting species (vectors as well as hosts) and provides new insight into spatial and temporal variation in transmission opportunities and exposure that ultimately determine disease risks. It may help to identify knowledge gaps and control options arising from changes in the spatial configuration of key resources across the landscape. The RBHC framework may act as a bridge between existing mechanistic and statistical modelling approaches. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  20. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  1. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrios, J.M.; Verstraeten, W.W.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J.; Farifteh, J.; Coppin, P.

    2012-01-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the

  2. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hildebrand, von A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems.

  3. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  4. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  5. Global climate change and vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming will have different effects on different diseases because of the complex and idiosynchratic interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens that influence transmission dynamics of each pathogen. Human activities, including urbanization, rapid global travel, and vector management, have profound effects on disease transmission that can operate on more rapid time scales than does global climate change. The general concern about global warming encouraging the spread of tropical diseases is legitimate, but the effects vary among diseases, and the ecological implications are difficult to predict.

  6. Arthropod Innate Immune Systems and Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, Richard H. G.; Contet, Alicia; Krueger, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases, including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue, and Zika, yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is the group of genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins ...

  7. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    that would increase distance between infectious and susceptible hosts. This can be done very efficiently on a regional scale if the incursion route is well specified. However as the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seems preferable...

  8. Best Practices for Preventing Vector-Borne Diseases in Dogs and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases constitute a diversified group of illnesses, which are caused by a multitude of pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, and sand flies. Proper management of these diseases is important from both human and veterinary medicine standpoints, given that many of these pathogens are transmissible to humans and dogs, which often live in close contact. In this review, we summarize the most important vector-borne diseases of dogs and humans and the best practices for their prevention. The control of these diseases would ultimately improve animal and human health and wellbeing, particularly in developing countries in the tropics, where the risk of these diseases is high and access to health care is poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model ...... results when index cases were in the vaccinated areas. However, given that the long-range spread of midge borne disease is still poorly quantified, more robust national vaccination schemes seem preferable....

  10. Venezuela and its rising vector-borne neglected diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hotez, Peter J.; Bas??ez, Mar?a-Gloria; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Grillet, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Poverty remains the overriding social determinant for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), but over the last several decades, we have also seen how political destabilization or even outright conflict can hasten economic declines and promote a substantial uptick in NTD incidence and prevalence [1]. Recent examples include the emergence of Ebola virus infection in West Africa [2], visceral leishmaniasis and other NTDs in East Africa [3, 4], and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East and ...

  11. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  12. Arthropod Innate Immune Systems and Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Richard H G; Contet, Alicia; Krueger, Kathryn

    2017-02-21

    Arthropods, especially ticks and mosquitoes, are the vectors for a number of parasitic and viral human diseases, including malaria, sleeping sickness, Dengue, and Zika, yet arthropods show tremendous individual variation in their capacity to transmit disease. A key factor in this capacity is the group of genetically encoded immune factors that counteract infection by the pathogen. Arthropod-specific pattern recognition receptors and protease cascades detect and respond to infection. Proteins such as antimicrobial peptides, thioester-containing proteins, and transglutaminases effect responses such as lysis, phagocytosis, melanization, and agglutination. Effector responses are initiated by damage signals such as reactive oxygen species signaling from epithelial cells and recognized by cell surface receptors on hemocytes. Antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by siRNA pathways but coupled with interferon-like signaling, antimicrobial peptides, and thioester-containing proteins. Molecular mechanisms of immunity are closely linked to related traits of longevity and fertility, and arthropods have the capacity for innate immunological memory. Advances in understanding vector immunity can be leveraged to develop novel control strategies for reducing the rate of transmission of both ancient and emerging threats to global health.

  13. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamical behavior of an epidemic model for a vector-borne disease with direct transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Liming; Li Xuezhi; Li Zhaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    An epidemic model of a vector-borne disease with direct transmission is investigated. The reproduction number (R 0 ) of the model is obtained. Rigorous qualitative analysis of the model reveals the presence of the phenomenon of backward bifurcation (where the stable disease-free equilibrium (DFE) coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the reproduction number of the disease is less than unity) in the standard incidence model. The phenomenon shows that the classical epidemiological requirement of having the reproduction number less than unity is no longer sufficient, although necessary, for effectively controlling the spread of some vector-borne diseases in a community. The backward bifurcation phenomenon can be removed by substituting the standard incidence with a bilinear mass action incidence. By using Lyapunov function theory and LaSalle invariance principle, it is shown that the unique endemic equilibrium for the model with a mass action incidence is globally stable if the reproduction number R mass is greater than one in feasible region. This suggests that the use of standard incidence in modelling some vector-borne diseases with direct transmission results in the presence of backward bifurcation. Numerical simulations analyze the effect of the direct transmission and the disease-induced death rate on dynamics of the disease transmission, and also verify our analyzed results.

  15. Challenges in predicting climate and environmental effects on vector-borne disease episystems in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, W J

    2010-03-15

    Vector-borne pathogens cause enormous suffering to humans and animals. Many are expanding their range into new areas. Dengue, West Nile and Chikungunya have recently caused substantial human epidemics. Arthropod-borne animal diseases like Bluetongue, Rift Valley fever and African horse sickness pose substantial threats to livestock economies around the world. Climate change can impact the vector-borne disease epidemiology. Changes in climate will influence arthropod vectors, their life cycles and life histories, resulting in changes in both vector and pathogen distribution and changes in the ability of arthropods to transmit pathogens. Climate can affect the way pathogens interact with both the arthropod vector and the human or animal host. Predicting and mitigating the effects of future changes in the environment like climate change on the complex arthropod-pathogen-host epidemiological cycle requires understanding of a variety of complex mechanisms from the molecular to the population level. Although there has been substantial progress on many fronts the challenges to effectively understand and mitigate the impact of potential changes in the environment on vector-borne pathogens are formidable and at an early stage of development. The challenges will be explored using several arthropod-borne pathogen systems as illustration, and potential avenues to meet the challenges will be presented.

  16. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular

  17. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne

  18. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  19. Natural Mosquito-Pathogen Hybrid IgG4 Antibodies in Vector Borne Diseases: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlin L. Londono-Renteria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. However, there is very little ongoing research or information available regarding IgG4 bi-specificity with regards to infectious disease, particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases such as malaria, filariasis or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings.

  20. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  1. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaf Anyamba

    Full Text Available We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  2. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  3. [Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany.

  4. The impact of global environmental change on vector-borne disease risk: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lowe, PhD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vector-borne diseases, such as dengue virus, Zika virus, and malaria, are highly sensitive to environmental changes, including variations in climate and land-surface characteristics. The emergence and spread of vector-borne diseases is also exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, such as deforestation, mining, urbanisation, and human mobility, which alter the natural habitats of vectors and increase vector–host interactions. Innovative epidemiological modelling tools can help to understand how environmental conditions interact with socioeconomic risk factors to predict the risk of disease transmission. In recent years, climate-health modelling has benefited from computational advances in fitting complex mathematical models; increasing availability of environmental, socioeconomic, and disease surveillance datasets; and improved ability to understand and model the climate system. Climate forecasts at seasonal time scales tend to improve in quality during El Niño-Southern Oscillation events in certain regions of the tropics. Thus, climate forecasts provide an opportunity to anticipate potential outbreaks of vector-borne diseases from several months to a year in advance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework to incorporate seasonal climate forecasts in predictive disease models to understand the future risk of vector-borne diseases, with a focus on dengue fever in Latin America. Methods: A Bayesian spatiotemporal model framework that quantifies the extent to which environmental and socioeconomic indicators can explain variations in disease risk was designed to disentangle the effects of climate from other risk factors using multi-source data and random effects, which account for unknown and unmeasured sources of spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual variation. The model was used to provide probabilistic predictions of monthly dengue incidence and the probability of exceeding outbreak thresholds, which were established in

  5. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians

  6. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  7. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  8. A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rocque, S; Balenghien, T; Halos, L; Dietze, K; Claes, F; Ferrari, G; Guberti, V; Slingenbergh, J

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to determine the part that international trade has played in the expansion of vector-borne diseases, because of the multitude of factors that affect the transformation of habitats and the interfaces between vectors and hosts. The introduction of pathogens through trade in live animals or products of animal origin, as well as the arrival of arthropod vectors, is probably quite frequent but the establishment of an efficient transmission system that develops into a disease outbreak remains the exception. In this paper, based on well-documented examples, the authors review the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of vector-borne diseases that may have been affected in their spread and change of distribution by international trade. In addition, they provide a detailed analysis of the risks associated with specific trade routes and recent expansions of vector populations. Finally, the authors highlight the importance, as well as the challenges, of preventive surveillance and regulation. The need for improved monitoring of vector populations and a readiness to face unpredictable epidemiological events are also emphasised, since this will require rapid reaction, not least in the regulatory context.

  9. Regulation of the Immune Response to α-Gal and Vector-borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; Pérez-Cruz, Magdiel; Valdés, James J; Mera, Isabel G Fernández de; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2015-10-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBD) challenge our understanding of emerging diseases. Recently, arthropod vectors have been involved in emerging anaphylactic diseases. In particular, the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody response to the carbohydrate Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-gal) following a tick bite was associated with allergies to red meat, cetuximab, and gelatin. By contrast, an anti-α-gal IgM antibody response was shown to protect against mosquito-borne malaria. Herein, we highlight the interplay between the gut microbiota, vectors, transmitted pathogens, and the regulation of the immune response as a model to understand the protective or allergic effect of α-gal. Establishing the source of α-gal in arthropod vectors and the immune response to vector bites and transmitted pathogens will be essential for diagnosing, treating, and ultimately preventing these emerging anaphylactic and other vector-borne diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Knowledge of vector-borne diseases (dengue, rickettsiosis and Chagas disease) in physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Caballero, César I; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Dzul-Tut, Irving; Balam-May, Ángel; Zavala-Castro, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The ecological conditions of Yucatan made it a suitable region for the acquisition of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. As the epidemiological burden of these diseases shows an alarming increase of severe cases, the early establishment of diagnosis and therapeutics by first-contact physicians is a critical step that is not being fulfilled due to several reasons, including poor knowledge. To determine the level of knowledge related to dengue, Chagas disease, and rickettsiosis among rural first-contact physicians of Yucatan. A survey was applied to 90 first-contact physicians from rural clinics of Yucatan, which included 32 items related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of dengue, rickettsiosis, and Chagas disease. Answers were analyzed by central tendency statistics. Differences were observed among every category, however; diagnosis and therapeutics showed the lower values. Globally, 62.5% of respondents showed moderate knowledge, 37.5% poor knowledge, and 0% adequate knowledge. Results suggest that a strong campaign for a continuous diffusion of knowledge regarding these diseases is needed. In regions with high prevalence of these kinds of diseases, like Yucatan, the impact of these results on the epidemiological burden of these diseases must be evaluated.

  11. The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, M

    2012-12-01

    There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  12. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predators indirectly control vector-borne disease: linking predator-prey and host-pathogen models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Borer, Elizabeth T; Hosseini, Parviez R

    2010-01-06

    Pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors are common in human populations, agricultural systems and natural communities. Transmission of these vector-borne pathogens depends on the population dynamics of the vector species as well as its interactions with other species within the community. In particular, predation may be sufficient to control pathogen prevalence indirectly via the vector. To examine the indirect effect of predators on vectored-pathogen dynamics, we developed a theoretical model that integrates predator-prey and host-pathogen theory. We used this model to determine whether predation can prevent pathogen persistence or alter the stability of host-pathogen dynamics. We found that, in the absence of predation, pathogen prevalence in the host increases with vector fecundity, whereas predation on the vector causes pathogen prevalence to decline, or even become extinct, with increasing vector fecundity. We also found that predation on a vector may drastically slow the initial spread of a pathogen. The predator can increase host abundance indirectly by reducing or eliminating infection in the host population. These results highlight the importance of studying interactions that, within the greater community, may alter our predictions when studying disease dynamics. From an applied perspective, these results also suggest situations where an introduced predator or the natural enemies of a vector may slow the rate of spread of an emerging vector-borne pathogen.

  14. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters......The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel....... In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high predictive power...

  15. Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical entomology are defined in order to establish a common language that facilitates collaboration between the two disciplines. Special focus is put on the different VBD contexts with respect to the current presence or absence of the disease, the pathogen and the vector in a given location. Depending on the context, whether a VBD is endemic or not, surveillance activities are required to assess disease burden or threat, respectively. Following a decision for action, surveillance activities continue to assess trends. PMID:21967706

  16. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  17. Surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Germany: trends and challenges in the view of disease emergence and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Andreas; Frank, Christina; Koch, Judith; Stark, Klaus

    2008-12-01

    The changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Contemporary surveillance systems have to adapt to these changes. We describe temporal trends and geographic origins of vector-borne diseases in Germany with regard to strengths of existing disease surveillance and to areas marked for improvement. We focused on hantavirus infection (endemic in Germany), chikungunya fever (recently emerging in Europe) and dengue fever (imported from tropical regions), representing important subgroups of vector-borne infections. Routine surveillance data on demographics, origin of infection and the date of reporting were analysed. From 2001 through 2007, 3,005 symptomatic hantavirus infections, and 85 cases of chikungunya fever were reported, similarly 1,048 cases of dengue fever in 2002 through 2007. The geographic origin of hantavirus infection was reported for 95.5% of all cases (dengue virus, 98.4%; chikungunya virus, 100%). Hantavirus infections were acquired in Germany in 97.6% of cases (n = 2800). In 2007, there was a marked increase of hantavirus cases, mainly in areas known to be endemic for hantavirus. In 2006, imported cases of chikungunya fever primarily returned from several islands of the Indian Ocean, while the majority of imported cases in 2007 came from India. The reported number of dengue fever cases have increased since 2004. Thailand contributed the largest proportion of cases (17-43% in individual years), followed by India, Brazil and Indonesia. Surveillance of notifiable vector-borne diseases in Germany is able to timely detect spatial and temporal changes of autochthonous an imported infections. Geographic and temporal data obtained by routine surveillance served as a basis for public health recommendations. In addition to surveillance of vector-borne infections in humans, nationwide monitoring programs and inventory techniques for emerging and reemerging vectors and for wildlife disease are warranted.

  18. Multi-disease data management system platform for vector-borne diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Eisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging information technologies present new opportunities to reduce the burden of malaria, dengue and other infectious diseases. For example, use of a data management system software package can help disease control programs to better manage and analyze their data, and thus enhances their ability to carry out continuous surveillance, monitor interventions and evaluate control program performance.We describe a novel multi-disease data management system platform (hereinafter referred to as the system with current capacity for dengue and malaria that supports data entry, storage and query. It also allows for production of maps and both standardized and customized reports. The system is comprised exclusively of software components that can be distributed without the user incurring licensing costs. It was designed to maximize the ability of the user to adapt the system to local conditions without involvement of software developers. Key points of system adaptability include 1 customizable functionality content by disease, 2 configurable roles and permissions, 3 customizable user interfaces and display labels and 4 configurable information trees including a geographical entity tree and a term tree. The system includes significant portions of functionality that is entirely or in large part re-used across diseases, which provides an economy of scope as new diseases downstream are added to the system at decreased cost.We have developed a system with great potential for aiding disease control programs in their task to reduce the burden of dengue and malaria, including the implementation of integrated vector management programs. Next steps include evaluations of operational implementations of the current system with capacity for dengue and malaria, and the inclusion in the system platform of other important vector-borne diseases.

  19. Medical Entomology: A Reemerging Field of Research to Better Understand Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Maureen; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Delaunay, Pascal; Charrel, Remi; Pradines, Bruno; Berger, Franck; Ranque, Stéphane; Bitam, Idir; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-08-15

    In the last decade, the Chikungunya and Zika virus outbreaks have turned public attention to the possibility of the expansion of vector-borne infectious diseases worldwide. Medical entomology is focused on the study of arthropods involved in human health. We review here some of the research approaches taken by the medical entomology team of the University Hospital Institute (UHI) Méditerranée Infection of Marseille, France, with the support of recent or representative studies. We propose our approaches to technical innovations in arthropod identification and the detection of microorganisms in arthropods, the use of arthropods as epidemiological or diagnostic tools, entomological investigations around clinical cases or within specific populations, and how we have developed experimental models to decipher the interactions between arthropods, microorganisms, and humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genetic shifting: a novel approach for controlling vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2014-06-01

    Rendering populations of vectors of diseases incapable of transmitting pathogens through genetic methods has long been a goal of vector geneticists. We outline a method to achieve this goal that does not involve the introduction of any new genetic variants to the target population. Rather we propose that shifting the frequencies of naturally occurring alleles that confer refractoriness to transmission can reduce transmission below a sustainable level. The program employs methods successfully used in plant and animal breeding. Because no artificially constructed genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are introduced into the environment, the method is minimally controversial. We use Aedes aegypti and dengue virus (DENV) for illustrative purposes but point out that the proposed program is generally applicable to vector-borne disease control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Bisanzio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.

  2. Risk based surveillance for vector-borne diseases in horses : combining multiple sources of evidence to improve decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faverjon, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases are a growing concern, especially for horse populations, which are at particular risk for disease spread. In general, horses travel widely and frequently and, despite the health and economic impacts of equine diseases, effective health regulations and biosecurity

  3. Distribution and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in California chipmunks (Tamias spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H Straub

    Full Text Available California, with 13 chipmunk (Tamias species, has more than any other state or country, occupying habitats ranging from chaparral to the high peaks of the Sierra Nevada. Chipmunks host zoonotic pathogens including Yersinia pestis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, relapsing fever (RF Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and spotted fever group (SFG Rickettsia species. Chipmunk species are often not differentiated by public health workers, yet different species utilize different ecological niches and may have intrinsically different capacities for maintaining vector-borne pathogens and infecting vectors. We surveyed over 700 individuals from nine species of chipmunks throughout California for exposure to and infection by Y. pestis, A. phagocytophilum, RF Borrelia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and SFG Rickettsia species. DNA of all five pathogens was found and all chipmunks except Merriam's chipmunk (T. merriami were PCR-positive for at least one of the pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was most common (40.0%, 2/5 in Sonoma chipmunks (T. sonomae from Marin county and B. burgdorferi most common (37.5%, 27/72 in redwood chipmunks (T. ochrogenys from Mendocino county. RF Borrelia spp. was detected in 2% (6/297 of redwood chipmunks in Mendocino county and 10% (1/10 of both least (T. minimus and lodgepole (T. speciosus chipmunks in the western Sierra. Exposure to SFG Rickettsia spp. was found in the Northern Coastal region (Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties and in the northern and western Sierra in several species of chipmunks. Y. pestis infection was found only in the western Sierra-in a yellow-pine (T. amoenus and a long-eared (T. quadrimaculatus chipmunk. Though more data are needed to thoroughly understand the roles that different chipmunk species play in disease transmission, our findings suggest that some chipmunk species may be more important to the maintenance of vector-borne diseases than others within each geographic area.

  4. Fleas, hosts and habitat: What can we predict about the spread of vector-borne zoonotic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases of humans and wildlife are experiencing resurgence across the globe. I examine the dynamics of flea borne diseases through a comparative analysis of flea literature and analyses of field data collected from three sites in New Mexico: The Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, the Sandia Mountains and the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP). My...

  5. Network-level reproduction number and extinction threshold for vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Scoglio, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    The basic reproduction number of deterministic models is an essential quantity to predict whether an epidemic will spread or not. Thresholds for disease extinction contribute crucial knowledge of disease control, elimination, and mitigation of infectious diseases. Relationships between basic reproduction numbers of two deterministic network-based ordinary differential equation vector-host models, and extinction thresholds of corresponding stochastic continuous-time Markov chain models are derived under some assumptions. Numerical simulation results for malaria and Rift Valley fever transmission on heterogeneous networks are in agreement with analytical results without any assumptions, reinforcing that the relationships may always exist and proposing a mathematical problem for proving existence of the relationships in general. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the basic reproduction number does not monotonically increase or decrease with the extinction threshold. Consistent trends of extinction probability observed through numerical simulations provide novel insights into mitigation strategies to increase the disease extinction probability. Research findings may improve understandings of thresholds for disease persistence in order to control vector-borne diseases.

  6. R0 for vector-borne diseases: impact of the assumption for the duration of the extrinsic incubation period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, Nienke; Cianci, Daniela; Reiter, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and notably the basic reproduction number R0 have become popular tools for the description of vector-borne disease dynamics. We compare two widely used methods to calculate the probability of a vector to survive the extrinsic incubation period. The two methods are based on

  7. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool

  8. Global trends in the production and use of DDT for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Henk; Manuweera, Gamini; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: DDT was among the initial persistent organic pollutants listed under the Stockholm Convention and continues to be used for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases in accordance with its provisions on acceptable purposes. Trends in the production and use of DDT were

  9. [Climate change - a pioneer for the expansion of canine vector-borne diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, F; Mencke, N

    2011-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases are one of the major contributors to the global burden of disease in humans and animals. Climate change is consistently held responsible for the spread of parasitic acarid and insect vectors such as ticks, fleas, sand flies and mosquitoes, and their transmitted pathogens (in the case of the dog the so-called canine vector-borne diseases [CVBD]). Currently, there is only insufficient data available to prove whether climate change is a major driving force for vector and disease expansion, but the evidence is growing. Other reasons, such as ecological, demographic and socio-economic factors, e.g. pet travel into and pet import from endemic areas, also play a role in this development. Apart from all the controversial discussion of the factors leading to vector and disease expansion, preventative measures should include dog owners' education as they are responsible for individual parasite protection as well as for the minimisation of adverse risk behaviour, e.g. regarding pet travel. Broad-spectrum vector control should be practised by using parasiticides that repel and kill blood feeders in order to minimize the risk of CVBD-pathogen transmission.

  10. How will climate change pathways and mitigation options alter incidence of vector-borne diseases? A framework for leishmaniasis in South and Meso-America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan V Purse

    Full Text Available The enormous global burden of vector-borne diseases disproportionately affects poor people in tropical, developing countries. Changes in vector-borne disease impacts are often linked to human modification of ecosystems as well as climate change. For tropical ecosystems, the health impacts of future environmental and developmental policy depend on how vector-borne disease risks trade off against other ecosystem services across heterogeneous landscapes. By linking future socio-economic and climate change pathways to dynamic land use models, this study is amongst the first to analyse and project impacts of both land use and climate change on continental-scale patterns in vector-borne diseases. Models were developed for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas-ecologically complex sand fly borne infections linked to tropical forests and diverse wild and domestic mammal hosts. Both diseases were hypothesised to increase with available interface habitat between forest and agricultural or domestic habitats and with mammal biodiversity. However, landscape edge metrics were not important as predictors of leishmaniasis. Models including mammal richness were similar in accuracy and predicted disease extent to models containing only climate and land use predictors. Overall, climatic factors explained 80% and land use factors only 20% of the variance in past disease patterns. Both diseases, but especially cutaneous leishmaniasis, were associated with low seasonality in temperature and precipitation. Since such seasonality increases under future climate change, particularly under strong climate forcing, both diseases were predicted to contract in geographical extent to 2050, with cutaneous leishmaniasis contracting by between 35% and 50%. Whilst visceral leishmaniasis contracted slightly more under strong than weak management for carbon, biodiversity and ecosystem services, future cutaneous leishmaniasis extent was relatively insensitive to future

  11. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases.

  12. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  13. Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

    2014-10-15

    Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more

  14. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address t...

  15. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and...

  16. Gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Wydeven, Adrian P.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6%) and anaplasma (47.7%), and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7%) and infected with heartworm (9.2%). Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris) exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001–2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.

  17. Gray Wolf Exposure to Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases in Wisconsin with Comparison to Domestic Dogs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio F Jara

    Full Text Available World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6% and anaplasma (47.7%, and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7% and infected with heartworm (9.2%. Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001-2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.

  18. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  19. Internet-based biosurveillance methods for vector-borne diseases: Are they novel public health tools or just novelties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, Simon; Althouse, Benjamin M; Forshey, Brett; Rutherford, George W; Jarman, Richard G

    2017-11-01

    Internet-based surveillance methods for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) using "big data" sources such as Google, Twitter, and internet newswire scraping have recently been developed, yet reviews on such "digital disease detection" methods have focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly in high-income regions. Here, we present a narrative review of the literature that has examined the performance of internet-based biosurveillance for diseases caused by vector-borne viruses, parasites, and other pathogens, including Zika, dengue, other arthropod-borne viruses, malaria, leishmaniasis, and Lyme disease across a range of settings, including low- and middle-income countries. The fundamental features, advantages, and drawbacks of each internet big data source are presented for those with varying familiarity of "digital epidemiology." We conclude with some of the challenges and future directions in using internet-based biosurveillance for the surveillance and control of VBD.

  20. Internet-based biosurveillance methods for vector-borne diseases: Are they novel public health tools or just novelties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pollett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based surveillance methods for vector-borne diseases (VBDs using "big data" sources such as Google, Twitter, and internet newswire scraping have recently been developed, yet reviews on such "digital disease detection" methods have focused on respiratory pathogens, particularly in high-income regions. Here, we present a narrative review of the literature that has examined the performance of internet-based biosurveillance for diseases caused by vector-borne viruses, parasites, and other pathogens, including Zika, dengue, other arthropod-borne viruses, malaria, leishmaniasis, and Lyme disease across a range of settings, including low- and middle-income countries. The fundamental features, advantages, and drawbacks of each internet big data source are presented for those with varying familiarity of "digital epidemiology." We conclude with some of the challenges and future directions in using internet-based biosurveillance for the surveillance and control of VBD.

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  2. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba; Hagström, Luciana; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Santana, Camila; Ribeiro, Marcelle; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Santalucia, Marcelo; Knox, Monique; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-09

    Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results. We investigated 841 triatomines with OM slides (1194 fresh, 1192 Giemsa-stained) plus conventional (cPCR, 841 assays) and quantitative PCR (qPCR, 1682 assays). Detections were considered unambiguous only when parasitologists unmistakably identified T. cruzi in Giemsa-stained slides. qPCR was >99% sensitive and specific, whereas cPCR was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance vector-borne disease surveillance systems when pathogen detection is imperfect.

  3. Zoonotic and vector borne agents causing disease in adult patients hospitalized due to fever of unknown origin in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the etiologic agents of fever of unknown origin among populations in agricultural communities and to assess the possible risk factors for zoonotic infections. Methods: Hospitalized patients with fever of unknown origin under physician care were asked to participate and provide blood samples for laboratory tests and screening for endemic diseases at the hospitals. Samples were stored at –80 °C until they were tested at Chulalongkorn University to identify additional pathogens. Results: We were able to identify the etiologic agents in 24.6% of the 463 enrolled patients. Zoonotic and vector borne agents were confirmed in 59 cases (12.7%. Dengue virus (7.3% was the most frequently detected disease followed by scrub typhus (3.2%. There were two cases of comorbidities of scrub typhus and dengue fever. The other six cases of zoonoses were leptospirosis, melioidosis, and Streptococcus suis infections. Patients with zoonotic/vector borne agents noticed rats in their houses and reported having contact with livestock feces more frequently than those patients without zoonotic/vector borne agents. Conclusions: Dengue virus and scrub typhus were mostly detected in the rainy season. During this specific season, clinicians should raise awareness of those diseases when any patients are admitted to the hospital with fever of an unidentified source.

  4. The ecological foundations of transmission potential and vector-borne disease in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDeau, Shannon L; Allan, Brian F; Leisnham, Paul T; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-07-01

    Urban transmission of arthropod-vectored disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding and managing transmission potential in urban landscapes requires integration of sociological and ecological processes that regulate vector population dynamics, feeding behavior, and vector-pathogen interactions in these unique ecosystems. Vectorial capacity is a key metric for generating predictive understanding about transmission potential in systems with obligate vector transmission. This review evaluates how urban conditions, specifically habitat suitability and local temperature regimes, and the heterogeneity of urban landscapes can influence the biologically-relevant parameters that define vectorial capacity: vector density, survivorship, biting rate, extrinsic incubation period, and vector competence.Urban landscapes represent unique mosaics of habitat. Incidence of vector-borne disease in urban host populations is rarely, if ever, evenly distributed across an urban area. The persistence and quality of vector habitat can vary significantly across socio-economic boundaries to influence vector species composition and abundance, often generating socio-economically distinct gradients of transmission potential across neighborhoods.Urban regions often experience unique temperature regimes, broadly termed urban heat islands (UHI). Arthropod vectors are ectothermic organisms and their growth, survival, and behavior are highly sensitive to environmental temperatures. Vector response to UHI conditions is dependent on regional temperature profiles relative to the vector's thermal performance range. In temperate climates UHI can facilitate increased vector development rates while having countervailing influence on survival and feeding behavior. Understanding how urban heat island (UHI) conditions alter thermal and moisture constraints across the vector life cycle to influence transmission processes is an important direction for both empirical and modeling research.There remain

  5. Advanced megaesophagus (Group III secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Rassi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique. The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

  6. Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassine, Thameur B; Amdouni, Jihane; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Sghaier, Soufien; Selimen, Imed B; Chandoul, Walid; Hamida, Khaled B; Hammami, Salah

    2017-03-31

    A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4.6%, while in the second group, it was 25.8% for WNV and 9.7% for BTV. Only serotype 1 was detected for BTV in the two groups. No evidence for circulation of RVF and EHD viruses was revealed. Results indicated that dromedaries can be infected with BTV and WNV, suggesting that this species might play a significant role in the epizootiology of these viral diseases in Tunisia and neighbouring countries.

  7. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    period e.g. a monthly temperature mean. Average monthly temperatures are likely to be suitable for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases. But mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread or limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions...... for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0......>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) should an infected vector or host be introduced to the area. The continuously updated risk assessment maps function as an early warning system allowing authorities and industry to increase awareness and preventive measures when R0 raises above the level of ‗no possible...

  8. Criteria for the prioritization of public health interventions for climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases in Quebec.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Hongoh

    Full Text Available Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential step in prioritizing efforts is to identify what considerations and concerns to take into account to guide decisions and thus set disease priorities. This study was designed to perform a comprehensive review of criteria for vector-borne disease prioritization, assess their applicability in a context of climate change with a diverse cross-section of stakeholders in order to produce a baseline list of considerations to use in this decision-making context. Differences in stakeholder choices were examined with regards to prioritization of these criteria for research, surveillance and disease prevention and control objectives. A preliminary list of criteria was identified following a review of the literature. Discussions with stakeholders were held to consolidate and validate this list of criteria and examine their effects on disease prioritization. After this validation phase, a total of 21 criteria were retained. A pilot vector-borne disease prioritization exercise was conducted using PROMETHEE to examine the effects of the retained criteria on prioritization in different intervention domains. Overall, concerns expressed by stakeholders for prioritization were well aligned with categories of criteria identified in previous prioritization studies. Weighting by category was consistent between stakeholders overall, though some significant differences were found between public health and non-public health stakeholders. From this exercise, a general model for climate-sensitive vector-borne disease prioritization has been developed that can be used as a starting point for further public health prioritization

  9. Criteria for the prioritization of public health interventions for climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Gosselin, Pierre; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Campagna, Céline; Samoura, Karim

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential step in prioritizing efforts is to identify what considerations and concerns to take into account to guide decisions and thus set disease priorities. This study was designed to perform a comprehensive review of criteria for vector-borne disease prioritization, assess their applicability in a context of climate change with a diverse cross-section of stakeholders in order to produce a baseline list of considerations to use in this decision-making context. Differences in stakeholder choices were examined with regards to prioritization of these criteria for research, surveillance and disease prevention and control objectives. A preliminary list of criteria was identified following a review of the literature. Discussions with stakeholders were held to consolidate and validate this list of criteria and examine their effects on disease prioritization. After this validation phase, a total of 21 criteria were retained. A pilot vector-borne disease prioritization exercise was conducted using PROMETHEE to examine the effects of the retained criteria on prioritization in different intervention domains. Overall, concerns expressed by stakeholders for prioritization were well aligned with categories of criteria identified in previous prioritization studies. Weighting by category was consistent between stakeholders overall, though some significant differences were found between public health and non-public health stakeholders. From this exercise, a general model for climate-sensitive vector-borne disease prioritization has been developed that can be used as a starting point for further public health prioritization exercises relating to

  10. Engaging scientists: An online survey exploring the experience of innovative biotechnological approaches to controlling vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëte, Christophe; Beisel, Uli; Reis Castro, Luísa; Césard, Nicolas; Reeves, R Guy

    2015-08-10

    Pioneering technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, synthetic biology or climate engineering) are often associated with potential new risks and uncertainties that can become sources of controversy. The communication of information during their development and open exchanges between stakeholders is generally considered a key issue in their acceptance. While the attitudes of the public to novel technologies have been widely considered there has been relatively little investigation of the perceptions and awareness of scientists working on human or animal diseases transmitted by arthropods. Consequently, we conducted a global survey on 1889 scientists working on aspects of vector-borne diseases, exploring, under the light of a variety of demographic and professional factors, their knowledge and awareness of an emerging biotechnology that has the potential to revolutionize the control of pest insect populations. Despite extensive media coverage of key developments (including releases of manipulated mosquitoes into human communities) this has in only one instance resulted in scientist awareness exceeding 50% on a national or regional scale. We document that awareness of pioneering releases significantly relied on private communication sources that were not equally accessible to scientists from countries with endemic vector-borne diseases (dengue and malaria). In addition, we provide quantitative analysis of the perceptions and knowledge of specific biotechnological approaches to controlling vector-borne disease, which are likely to impact the way in which scientists around the world engage in the debate about their value. Our results indicate that there is scope to strengthen already effective methods of communication, in addition to a strong demand by scientists (expressed by 79.9% of respondents) to develop new, creative modes of public engagement.

  11. Priorities and needs for research on urban interventions targeting vector-borne diseases: rapid review of scoping and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Mukamana, Olive; Carabali, Mabel; Osorio, Lyda; Fournet, Florence; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Turchi Marteli, Celina; Contreras, Adolfo; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-12-01

    This paper highlights the critical importance of evidence on vector-borne diseases (VBD) prevention and control interventions in urban settings when assessing current and future needs, with a view to setting policy priorities that promote inclusive and equitable urban health services. Research should produce knowledge about policies and interventions that are intended to control and prevent VBDs at the population level and to reduce inequities. Such interventions include policy, program, and resource distribution approaches that address the social determinants of health and exert influence at organizational and system levels.

  12. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  13. Reflections on the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, transgenic mosquitoes and the prospect for controlling malaria and other vector borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2003-09-01

    The completion of the Anopheles gambiae Giles genome sequencing project is a milestone toward developing more effective strategies in reducing the impact of malaria and other vector borne diseases. The successes in developing transgenic approaches using mosquitoes have provided another essential new tool for further progress in basic vector genetics and the goal of disease control. The use of transgenic approaches to develop refractory mosquitoes is also possible. The ability to use genome sequence to identify genes, and transgenic approaches to construct refractory mosquitoes, has provided the opportunity that with the future development of an appropriate genetic drive system, refractory transgenes can be released into vector populations leading to nontransmitting mosquitoes. An. gambiae populations incapable of transmitting malaria. This compelling strategy will be very difficult to achieve and will require a broad substantial research program for success. The fundamental information that is required on genome structure, gene function and environmental effects on genetic expression are largely unknown. The ability to predict gene effects on phenotype is rudimentary, particularly in natural populations. As a result, the release of a refractory transgene into natural mosquito populations is imprecise and there is little ability to predict unintended consequences. The new genetic tools at hand provide opportunities to address an array of important issues, many of which can have immediate impact on the effectiveness of a host of strategies to control vector borne disease. Transgenic release approaches represent only one strategy that should be pursued. A balanced research program is required.

  14. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  15. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    for predicting permanent establishment of presently exotic diseases, mean temperatures may not predict the true potential for local spread and limited outbreaks resulting from accidental introductions in years with temporary periods of warm weather. DTU-Veterinary Institute is developing a system for continuous...... a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely......Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...

  16. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit; Græsbøll, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected...... surveillance to these limited periods of potential risk, thus dramatically reducing the number of samples collected and analysed. The risk estimated from the R0 modelling may be combined with the risk of introduction from neighbouring countries and trading partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance......Modelling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...

  17. Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thameur B. Hassine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV, bluetongue virus (BTV, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV. In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4.6%, while in the second group, it was 25.8% for WNV and 9.7% for BTV. Only serotype 1 was detected for BTV in the two groups. No evidence for circulation of RVF and EHD viruses was revealed. Results indicated that dromedaries can be infected with BTV and WNV, suggesting that this species might play a significant role in the epizootiology of these viral diseases in Tunisia and neighbouring countries.

  18. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trape, J.F.

    2005-04-01

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  19. Cross-sectional survey of health management and prevalence of vector-borne diseases, endoparasites and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslake, R J; Hill, K E; Sjölander, K; Hii, S F; Prattley, D; Acke, E

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners. Blood samples were collected from 237 dogs and screened for the canine vector-borne diseases using point-of-care qualitative ELISA assays. Anaplasma spp. positive samples were screened by PCR and sequenced for species identification. Rectal faecal samples were collected from 204 dogs for faecal flotation and immunofluorescent antibody tests were performed for Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. on a subset of 93 faecal samples. The skin and coat of 221 dogs were examined for presence of ectoparasites. The D. immitis antigen was detected in 46.8% (111/237) of dogs. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 8.4% (20/237); A. platys was confirmed by PCR. Prevalence of hookworm was 92.6% (185/205) and Giardia was 29.0% (27/93). Ectoparasites were detected on 210/221 (95.0%) of dogs examined and 228/242 dogs (94.2%) had previously never received any preventative medication. There was a very high prevalence of D. immitis, hookworm and external parasites in Samoan dogs, and prophylactic medication is rarely administered. This is the first report confirming A. platys in Samoa and the South Pacific islands. The public health implications of poor management of the dogs should be considered and investigated further. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Vector-Borne Disease Prevention during the Emergence of a New Arbovirus: Implications for the Control of Chikungunya Virus in French Guiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Fritzell

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, French Guiana has been affected by major dengue fever outbreaks. Although this arbovirus has been a focus of many awareness campaigns, very little information is available about beliefs, attitudes and behaviors regarding vector-borne diseases among the population of French Guiana. During the first outbreak of the chikungunya virus, a quantitative survey was conducted among high school students to study experiences, practices and perceptions related to mosquito-borne diseases and to identify socio-demographic, cognitive and environmental factors that could be associated with the engagement in protective behaviors.A cross-sectional survey was administered in May 2014, with a total of 1462 students interviewed. Classrooms were randomly selected using a two-stage selection procedure with cluster samples. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA associated with a hierarchical cluster analysis and with an ordinal logistic regression was performed. Chikungunya was less understood and perceived as a more dreadful disease than dengue fever. The analysis identified three groups of individual protection levels against mosquito-borne diseases: "low" (30%, "moderate" (42% and "high" (28%". Protective health behaviors were found to be performed more frequently among students who were female, had a parent with a higher educational status, lived in an individual house, and had a better understanding of the disease.This study allowed us to estimate the level of protective practices against vector-borne diseases among students after the emergence of a new arbovirus. These results revealed that the adoption of protective behaviors is a multi-factorial process that depends on both sociocultural and cognitive factors. These findings may help public health authorities to strengthen communication and outreach strategies, thereby increasing the adoption of protective health behaviors, particularly in high-risk populations.

  1. Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n = 29) or three (n = 4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

  2. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

  3. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated

  4. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  5. Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Alyson; Dhingra, Radhika; Chang, Howard H; Bisanzio, Donal; Liu, Yang; Remais, Justin V

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions.

  6. Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Lorenz

    Full Text Available Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions.

  7. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-15

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  8. Mapping of courses on vector biology and vector-borne diseases systems: time for a worldwide effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jérôme; Lazzari, Claudio; Insausti, Teresita; Launois, Pascal; Fouque, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Major emergency efforts are being mounted for each vector-borne disease epidemiological crisis anew, while knowledge about the biology of arthropods vectors is dwindling slowly but continuously, as is the number of field entomologists. The discrepancy between the rates of production of knowledge and its use and need for solving crises is widening, in particular due to the highly differing time spans of the two concurrent processes. A worldwide web based search using multiple key words and search engines of onsite and online courses in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and German concerned with the biology of vectors identified over 140 courses. They are geographically and thematically scattered, the vast majority of them are on-site, with very few courses using the latest massive open online course (MOOC) powerfulness. Over two third of them is given in English and Western Africa is particularity poorly represented. The taxonomic groups covered are highly unbalanced towards mosquitoes. A worldwide unique portal to guide students of all grades and levels of expertise, in particular those in remote locations, is badly needed. This is the objective a new activity supported by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). PMID:27759770

  9. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-04-05

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E.; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K.; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J.; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E.; Naumova, Elena N.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Ready, Paul D.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10–15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector–pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

  11. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  12. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-05

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate and Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience Under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Kruczkiewicz, A.; Lessel, J.; Jensen, K.; Thomson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities, ministries of health and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above.

  14. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  15. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: when is insecticide resistance a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rivero

    Full Text Available Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. If this effect is sufficiently large, the impact of insecticide resistance on disease management may not be as detrimental as previously thought. In other instances, however, insecticide resistance may have the opposite effect, increasing the insect's vectorial capacity, which may lead to a dramatic increase in the transmission of the disease and even to a higher prevalence than in the absence of insecticides. Either way-and there may be no simple generality-the consequence of the evolution of insecticide resistance for disease ecology deserves additional attention.

  16. Social exclusion modifies climate and deforestation impacts on a vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Cohen, Justin M; Pascual, Mercedes; Wilson, Mark L

    2008-02-06

    The emergence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) has been associated with changes in the relationship between people and forests, leading to the view that forest ecosystems increase infection risk and subsequent proposal that deforestation could reduce re-emergence of this disease. We analyzed county-level incidence rates of ACL in Costa Rica (1996-2000) as a function of social and environmental variables relevant to transmission ecology with statistical models that incorporate breakpoints. Once social marginality was taken into account, the effect of living close to a forest on infection risk was small, and diminished exponentially above a breakpoint. Forest cover was associated with the modulation of temporal effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) at small spatial scales, revealing an additional complex interplay of environmental forces and disease patterns. Social factors, which previously have not been evaluated rigorously together with environmental and climatic factors, appear to play a critical role that may ultimately determine disease risk.

  17. [Health care reform, decentralization, prevention and control of vector-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmunis, G A; Dias, J C

    2000-01-01

    Economic policies are changing Latin American health programs, particularly promoting decentralization. Numerous difficulties thus arise for the control of endemic diseases, since such activities traditionally depend on vertical, and centralized structures. Theoretical arguments in favor of decentralization notwithstanding, no such tradition exists at the county level. The lack of program expertise at peripheral levels, intensive staff turnover, and even corruption are additional difficulties. Hence, the simple bureaucratic transfer of activities from the Federal to county level is often irresponsible. The loss of priority for control of endemic diseases in Latin America may mean the inexorable extinction of traditional control services. Malaria, dengue fever, and Chagas disease programs are examples of the loss of expertise and effectiveness in Latin America. A better strategy for responsible decentralization is required. In particular, a shared transition involving all governmental levels is desirable to effectively modernize programs. Maintenance of regional reference centers to ensure supervision, surveillance, and training is suggested.

  18. Impact of Global Climate on Rift Valley Fever and other Vector-borne Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linthicum, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Rift Valley fever is a viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Since the virus was first isolated in Kenya in 1930 it has caused significant impact to animal and human health and national economies, and it is of concern to the international agricultural and public health community. In this presentation we will describe the (1) ecology of disease transmission as it relates to climate, (2) the impact of climate and other environmental conditions on outbreaks, (3) the ability to use global climate information to predict outbreaks, (4) effective response activities, and (4) the potential to mitigate globalization.

  19. Genetic shifting: a novel approach for controlling vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Jeffrey R.; Tabachnick, Walter J.

    2014-01-01

    Rendering populations of vectors of diseases incapable of transmitting pathogens through genetic methods has long been a goal of vector geneticists. We outline a method to achieve this goal that does not involve introduction of any new genetic variants to the target population. Rather we propose that shifting the frequencies of naturally occurring alleles that confer refractoriness to transmission can reduce transmission below a sustainable level. The program employs methods successfully used...

  20. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  1. Climate Change and Spatiotemporal Distributions of Vector-Borne Diseases in Nepal--A Systematic Synthesis of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs, namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change.A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on climate change and the spatiotemporal distribution of VBDs in Nepal from the published literature until December 2014 following providing items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines.We found 12 studies that analysed the trend of climatic data and are relevant for the study of VBDs, 38 studies that dealt with the spatial and temporal distribution of disease vectors and disease transmission. Among 38 studies, only eight studies assessed the association of VBDs with climatic variables. Our review highlights a pronounced warming in the mountains and an expansion of autochthonous cases of VBDs to non-endemic areas including mountain regions (i.e., at least 2,000 m above sea level. Furthermore, significant relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors are found in short-term studies.Taking into account the weak health care systems and difficult geographic terrain of Nepal, increasing trade and movements of people, a lack of vector control interventions, observed relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors and the establishment of relevant disease vectors already at least 2,000 m above sea level, we conclude that climate change can intensify the risk of VBD epidemics in the mountain regions of Nepal if other non-climatic drivers of VBDs remain constant.

  2. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

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    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  3. The role of the ratio of vector and host densities in the evolution of transmission modes in vector-borne diseases. The example of sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M

    2012-11-07

    Pathogens may use different routes of transmission to maximize their spread among host populations. Theoretical and empirical work conducted on directly transmitted diseases suggest that horizontal (i.e., through host contacts) and vertical (i.e., from mother to offspring) transmission modes trade off, on the ground that highly virulent pathogens, which produce larger parasite loads, are more efficiently transmitted horizontally, and that less virulent pathogens, which impair host fitness less significantly, are better transmitted vertically. Other factors than virulence such as host density could also select for different transmission modes, but they have barely been studied. In vector-borne diseases, pathogen transmission rate is strongly affected by host-vector relative densities and by processes of saturation in contacts between hosts and vectors. The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by triatomine bugs to several vertebrate hosts is responsible for Chagas' disease in Latin America. It is also widespread in sylvatic cycles in the southeastern U.S. in which it typically induces no mortality costs to its customary hosts. Besides classical transmission via vector bites, alternative ways to generate infections in hosts such as vertical and oral transmission (via the consumption of vectors by hosts) have been reported in these cycles. The two major T. cruzi strains occurring in the U.S. seem to exhibit differential efficiencies at vertical and classical horizontal transmissions. We investigated whether the vector-host ratio affects the outcome of the competition between the two parasite strains using an epidemiological two-strain model considering all possible transmission routes for sylvatic T. cruzi. We were able to show that the vector-host ratio influences the evolution of transmission modes providing that oral transmission is included in the model as a possible transmission mode, that oral and classical transmissions saturate at different vector

  4. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in blood and splenic samples from dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movilla, Rebeca; Altet, Laura; Serrano, Lorena; Tabar, María-Dolores; Roura, Xavier

    2017-03-13

    The spleen is a highly perfused organ involved in the immunological control and elimination of vector-borne pathogens (VBP), which could have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. This study aimed to evaluate certain VBP in samples from dogs with splenic lesions. Seventy-seven EDTA-blood and 64 splenic tissue samples were collected from 78 dogs with splenic disease in a Mediterranean area. Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. were targeted using PCR assays. Sixty EDTA-blood samples from dogs without evidence of splenic lesions were included as a control group. More than half (51.56%) of the biopsies (33/64) were consistent with benign lesions and 48.43% (31/64) with malignancy, mostly hemangiosarcoma (25/31). PCR yielded positive results in 13 dogs with spleen alterations (16.67%), for Babesia canis (n = 3), Babesia gibsoni (n = 2), hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (n = 2), Rickettsia massiliae (n = 1) and "Babesia vulpes" (n = 1), in blood; and for B. canis, B. gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and L. infantum (n = 1 each), in spleen. Two control dogs (3.3%) were positive for B. gibsoni and H. canis (n = 1 each). Benign lesions were detected in the 61.54% of infected dogs (8/13); the remaining 38.46% were diagnosed with malignancies (5/13). Infection was significantly associated to the presence of splenic disease (P = 0.013). There was no difference in the prevalence of infection between dogs with benign and malignant splenic lesions (P = 0.69); however B. canis was more prevalent in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (P = 0.006). VBP infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. The immunological role of the spleen could predispose to alterations of this organ in infected dogs. Interestingly, all dogs with B. canis infection were diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma in the present survey. As previously

  5. Multi-agent systems in epidemiology: a first step for computational biology in the study of vector-borne disease transmission

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    Guégan Jean-François

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational biology is often associated with genetic or genomic studies only. However, thanks to the increase of computational resources, computational models are appreciated as useful tools in many other scientific fields. Such modeling systems are particularly relevant for the study of complex systems, like the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases. So far, mathematical models remain the main tool for the epidemiological and ecological analysis of infectious diseases, with SIR models could be seen as an implicit standard in epidemiology. Unfortunately, these models are based on differential equations and, therefore, can become very rapidly unmanageable due to the too many parameters which need to be taken into consideration. For instance, in the case of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases in wildlife many different potential host species could be involved in the life-cycle of disease transmission, and SIR models might not be the most suitable tool to truly capture the overall disease circulation within that environment. This limitation underlines the necessity to develop a standard spatial model that can cope with the transmission of disease in realistic ecosystems. Results Computational biology may prove to be flexible enough to take into account the natural complexity observed in both natural and man-made ecosystems. In this paper, we propose a new computational model to study the transmission of infectious diseases in a spatially explicit context. We developed a multi-agent system model for vector-borne disease transmission in a realistic spatial environment. Conclusion Here we describe in detail the general behavior of this model that we hope will become a standard reference for the study of vector-borne disease transmission in wildlife. To conclude, we show how this simple model could be easily adapted and modified to be used as a common framework for further research developments in this field.

  6. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

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    Nathan Christopher Nieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural

  7. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Desmond H; Wilkerson, Richard C; Birney, Ian; Harrison, Stanley; Christensen, Jamie; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2010-02-18

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  8. Evaluation of a continuous indicator for syndromic surveillance through simulation. application to vector borne disease emergence detection in cattle using milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Madouasse

    Full Text Available Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of

  9. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  10. VECTOR BORNE TRANSMISSIBLE ZOONOSES IN MONTENEGRO

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    Gordana Mijovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne transmissible zoonoses are becoming more and more important in the group of emerging and re-emerging infections. We present the characteristics and actuality of this group of infectious diseases in Montenegro for the period 1998 - 2011. In examinations, standard epidemiological, clinical, serological, pathohistological diagnostic methods are employed. Natural conditions in Montenegro make it an important endemic area for more vector borne transmissible zoonoses. The changes of ecological characteristics, the vectors and infective agents, present the accidence for expansion and increasing importance of these infections in national pathology. According to the fact that it is an international port of nautical, continental and air traffic, Montenegro has responsibility for control and management of diseases belonging to the group of the travel and tropical diseases.

  11. Use of Google Earth to strengthen public health capacity and facilitate management of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

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    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Lira-Zumbardo, Victor; Najera-Vazquez, Rosario; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Calderon-Martinez, Joaquin; Dominguez-Galera, Marco; Mis-Avila, Pedro; Morris, Natashia; Coleman, Michael; Moore, Chester G; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Novel, inexpensive solutions are needed for improved management of vector-borne and other diseases in resource-poor environments. Emerging free software providing access to satellite imagery and simple editing tools (e.g. Google Earth) complement existing geographic information system (GIS) software and provide new opportunities for: (i) strengthening overall public health capacity through development of information for city infrastructures; and (ii) display of public health data directly on an image of the physical environment. We used freely accessible satellite imagery and a set of feature-making tools included in the software (allowing for production of polygons, lines and points) to generate information for city infrastructure and to display disease data in a dengue decision support system (DDSS) framework. Two cities in Mexico (Chetumal and Merida) were used to demonstrate that a basic representation of city infrastructure useful as a spatial backbone in a DDSS can be rapidly developed at minimal cost. Data layers generated included labelled polygons representing city blocks, lines representing streets, and points showing the locations of schools and health clinics. City blocks were colour-coded to show presence of dengue cases. The data layers were successfully imported in a format known as shapefile into a GIS software. The combination of Google Earth and free GIS software (e.g. HealthMapper, developed by WHO, and SIGEpi, developed by PAHO) has tremendous potential to strengthen overall public health capacity and facilitate decision support system approaches to prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in resource-poor environments.

  12. Zoonotic aspects of vector-borne infections.

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    Failloux, A-B; Moutailler, S

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are principally zoonotic diseases transmitted to humans by animals. Pathogens such as bacteria, parasites and viruses are primarily maintained within an enzootic cycle between populations of non-human primates or other mammals and largely non-anthropophilic vectors. This 'wild' cycle sometimes spills over in the form of occasional infections of humans and domestic animals. Lifestyle changes, incursions by humans into natural habitats and changes in agropastoral practices create opportunities that make the borders between wildlife and humans more permeable. Some vector-borne diseases have dispensed with the need for amplification in wild or domestic animals and they can now be directly transmitted to humans. This applies to some viruses (dengue and chikungunya) that have caused major epidemics. Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have reduced their transmission cycle to the minimum, with humans acting as reservoir, amplifier and disseminator. The design of control strategies for vector-borne diseases should be guided by research into emergence mechanisms in order to understand how a wild cycle can produce a pathogen that goes on to cause devastating urban epidemics.

  13. Emerging vector-borne diseases and environmental change : The rise of Lyme borreliosis in Western-Europe

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    Huitema, Tim

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the last decade several infectious diseases started to emerge in Western-Europe. At the same time numerous environmental factors were changing. One of the diseases that apparently emerged is Lyme borreliosis (LB). This thesis aims to incre

  14. Use of Remote Sensing Surveillance to Monitor Environmental Parameters Associated with Mosquito Abundance and Vector-borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis persists as a major cause of clinical morbidity and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development in various parts of the world including Egypt. In Egypt, filariasis has been endemic since time immemorial. Early epidemiologic studies identified Culex pipiens L. as the main vector of the disease and also showed that the geographic distribution of the disease is highly focal and concentrated in lower Egypt. Between 1950 and 1965, a large scale filariasis control program was carried out by the Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMOH) in the endemic areas. Control efforts led to a steady decrease of the disease in areas of the country previously identified as endemic. However, spot surveys conducted in various parts of the Nile Delta during the 1970's and 1980's revealed that the downward trend of the disease had stopped and that the prevalence and intensity of microfilaraemia had increased.

  15. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

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    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  16. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Henk; Hii, Jeffrey; Soares, Agnes; Mnzava, Abraham; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Dash, Aditya P; Ejov, Mikhail; Tan, Soo Hian; Matthews, Graham; Yadav, Rajpal S; Zaim, Morteza

    2011-05-14

    It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  17. Global warming and the possible globalization of vector-borne diseases: a call for increased awareness and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Emmanuel O; Nok, Andrew J; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels play a role in upsetting a previously more balanced and harmonious ecosystem. Climate change-a significant variation in the usual pattern of Earth's average weather conditions is a product of this ecosystem imbalance, and the rise in the Earth's average temperature (global warming) is a prominent evidence. There is a correlation between global warming and the ease of transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, with global health in focus, we herein opine a stepping-up of research activities regarding global warming and infectious diseases globally.

  18. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different

  19. RNA Interference: A Promising Tool in the Control of Important Vector Born Diseases Zika, Dengue Fever, and Malaria

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    Jalil Nejati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: RNA interference is a process, in which a molecule of double-stranded RNA prevents the expression of a particular gene and leads to its silencing. Application of this technology in the control of disease-carrying insects is rising in agriculture and medical sciences. Also, its application in control of insect-borne diseases could be considered as a new, important, and effective approach. In this article, it was attempted to study the mechanisms of RNA interference, routs of its delivery to insects, as well as its application in genetic control of disease vector insects. Methods: In this study, 71 indexed articles in databases, such as Pubmed, SID, Scopus, Science direct, and Google scholar, were used. Results: dsRNA could be delivered to insect body through three routes of oral, injection, and Impregnation. The mechanism of dsRNA entrance into the cells has considerable effect on the success and applicability of this technique. Identification of host-parasite relationship in the insect body is one of the important applications of RNAi in medical entomology. Conclusion: Although, there is a considerable number of researches on RNAi in the agricultural pests field, studies on insect vectors of human diseases have been mostly in-vivo. However, application of RNAi is suggested as a new, safe and applicable approach, alone or along with other methods. Certainly, further researches in this field can pave the way for enforcement measures in the control of disease vectors, especially Zika, dengue fever, and malaria in the not so distant future.

  20. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa.

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    Ramirez, Bernadette

    2017-12-12

    Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems. Through the years, great strides have been taken towards combatting vector-borne diseases (VBDs), most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes, which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs. However, with environmental changes, including climate change, the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant, in terms of VBD-related hazards, vulnerabilities and exposure. While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change, there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area, and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change. One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area. The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases. From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa. This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects. Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities, policy makers, public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social, environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e. the nature of the hazard, vulnerabilities, exposure), and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and reduce the

  1. Ehrlichiosis: A Vector-Borne Disease of Animals and Humans. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Volume 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    petechial fever . Vet. Rec. 84:149-150. 25. Stephenson, E. If., A. D. King, R. B. Moeiller, J. C. W~illiam , C. J. Holland, and M. Ristic. 1989...internationally. The same group joined a national eff’ort to decipher another mysterious disease known as Potomac horse fever (PHF). They used the same...an Ehrlichiosis-like syndrome, confusable, but distinct from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (without ; rash) were diagnosed and strongly associated

  2. Climate change and the emergence of vector-borne diseases in Europe: case study of dengue fever.

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    Bouzid, Maha; Colón-González, Felipe J; Lung, Tobias; Lake, Iain R; Hunter, Paul R

    2014-08-22

    Dengue fever is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Dengue transmission is critically dependent on climatic factors and there is much concern as to whether climate change would spread the disease to areas currently unaffected. The occurrence of autochthonous infections in Croatia and France in 2010 has raised concerns about a potential re-emergence of dengue in Europe. The objective of this study is to estimate dengue risk in Europe under climate change scenarios. We used a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) to estimate dengue fever risk as a function of climatic variables (maximum temperature, minimum temperature, precipitation, humidity) and socioeconomic factors (population density, urbanisation, GDP per capita and population size), under contemporary conditions (1985-2007) in Mexico. We then used our model estimates to project dengue incidence under baseline conditions (1961-1990) and three climate change scenarios: short-term 2011-2040, medium-term 2041-2070 and long-term 2071-2100 across Europe. The model was used to calculate average number of yearly dengue cases at a spatial resolution of 10 × 10 km grid covering all land surface of the currently 27 EU member states. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to model dengue fever risk in Europe in terms of disease occurrence rather than mosquito presence. The results were presented using Geographical Information System (GIS) and allowed identification of areas at high risk. Dengue fever hot spots were clustered around the coastal areas of the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas and the Po Valley in northern Italy. This risk assessment study is likely to be a valuable tool assisting effective and targeted adaptation responses to reduce the likely increased burden of dengue fever in a warmer world.

  3. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  4. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  5. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  6. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    Monitor i ng in f ectio n s in v ect o rs su c h as m osquit o es, s a nd fl i es, tsetse fl i es, a nd ticks to i denti f y hu m a n path o gens m a y s e r v e as a n ear l y w arn i ng det e ction system t o dir e ct loc a l g o v er n ment dise a se pr e v en t i v e m easu r e s . One major hurdle i n de t ection is the abi l i t y to scre e n l arge n u mbers of v e c t ors for h uman patho g ens w i thout t h e u s e of ge n o t y pe - s p ecific m o lecu l ar tec h nique s . N e x t genera t ion s equ e nc i ng (NG S ) pr o v i des a n unbi a sed p latfo r m capab l e of identi f y i ng k n o w n a n d unk n o w n p ath o ge n s circula t ing w i thin a v e ctor p opul a tion, but utili z ing t h is te c h nolo g y i s tim e - con s u ming a n d cos t l y for v ecto r -b o rne disease su r v e illan c e pr o gra m s. T o addr e s s this w e d e v e lop e d cos t -eff e ct i v e Ilumina(r) R NA- S eq l i bra r y p r epara t ion m e thodol o gies i n con j u n ction w i t h an automa t ed c ompu t at i onal a n a l y sis pipel i n e to ch a racter i ze t h e microbial popula t ions c ircula t i n g in Cu l e x m o squit o e s (Cul e x qui n quef a s c iatu s , C ul e x quinq u efasc i atus / pip i ens co m pl e x h y bri d s, and C u l e x ta r salis ) t hroug h out Californ i a. W e assembled 2 0 n o vel a n d w e l l -do c ume n ted a r b o v i ruses repres e nting mem b e rs of B u n y a v ir i da e , F l a v i virid a e, If a virida e , Meson i v i rida e , Nid o v iri d ae, O rtho m y x o virid a e, Pa r v o v iri d ae, Re o virid a e, R h a b d o v i rid a e, T y m o v iri d ae, a s w ell as s e v e r al u n assi g n e d v irus e s . In addit i o n, w e m app e d mRNA s pecies to d i vergent s peci e s of t r y panos o ma a nd pl a s modium eu k a r yotic parasit e s and cha r a c terized t he p r oka r yot i c microb i al c o mposit i on to i d enti f y bacteri a l tran s c r ipts der i v ed from wolba c hia, clo s tridi u m, m y c oplas m a, fusoba c

  7. Continental-scale, data-driven predictive assessment of eliminating the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis, in sub-Saharan Africa by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Edwin; Singh, Brajendra K; Mayala, Benjamin K; Smith, Morgan E; Hampton, Scott; Nabrzyski, Jaroslaw

    2017-09-27

    There are growing demands for predicting the prospects of achieving the global elimination of neglected tropical diseases as a result of the institution of large-scale nation-wide intervention programs by the WHO-set target year of 2020. Such predictions will be uncertain due to the impacts that spatial heterogeneity and scaling effects will have on parasite transmission processes, which will introduce significant aggregation errors into any attempt aiming to predict the outcomes of interventions at the broader spatial levels relevant to policy making. We describe a modeling platform that addresses this problem of upscaling from local settings to facilitate predictions at regional levels by the discovery and use of locality-specific transmission models, and we illustrate the utility of using this approach to evaluate the prospects for eliminating the vector-borne disease, lymphatic filariasis (LF), in sub-Saharan Africa by the WHO target year of 2020 using currently applied or newly proposed intervention strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show how a computational platform that couples site-specific data discovery with model fitting and calibration can allow both learning of local LF transmission models and simulations of the impact of interventions that take a fuller account of the fine-scale heterogeneous transmission of this parasitic disease within endemic countries. We highlight how such a spatially hierarchical modeling tool that incorporates actual data regarding the roll-out of national drug treatment programs and spatial variability in infection patterns into the modeling process can produce more realistic predictions of timelines to LF elimination at coarse spatial scales, ranging from district to country to continental levels. Our results show that when locally applicable extinction thresholds are used, only three countries are likely to meet the goal of LF elimination by 2020 using currently applied mass drug treatments, and that switching to more

  8. Potential impact of climate change on emerging vector-borne and other infections in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Matthew

    2017-12-05

    Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. The most important routes of transmission of climate sensitive diseases are by arthropod (insect and tick) vectors, in water and in food. Given the sensitivity of many diseases to climate, it is very likely that at least some will respond to future climate change. In the case of vector-borne diseases this response will include spread to new areas. Several vector-borne diseases have emerged in Europe in recent years; these include vivax malaria, West Nile fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya fever, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. The vectors of these diseases are mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks. The UK has endemic mosquito species capable of transmitting malaria and probably other pathogens, and ticks that transmit Lyme disease. The UK is also threatened by invasive mosquito species known to be able to transmit West Nile, dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and sand flies that spread leishmaniasis. Warmer temperatures in the future will increase the suitability of the UK's climate for these invasive species, and increase the risk that they may spread disease. While much attention is on invasive species, it is important to recognize the threat presented by native species too. Proposed actions to reduce the future impact of emerging vector-borne diseases in the UK include insect control activity at points of entry of vehicles and certain goods, wider surveillance for mosquitoes and sand flies, research into the threat posed by native species, increased awareness of the medical profession of the threat posed by specific diseases, regular risk assessments, and increased preparedness for the occurrence of a disease emergency.

  9. Rapid Identification of Vector-Borne Flaviviruses by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Eastern, and Siberian subtypes [9]. Several tick-borne flaviviruses can also cause hemorrhagic disease. Important examples of these viruses include...assay. Identical base compositions within a column are the same color. Unique base compositions are shown with white backgrounds. (For interpretation...States, 1999e2005. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2008;8:733e40. [18] Hofstadler SA, Sampath R, Blyn LB, Eshoo MW, Hall TA, Jiang Y, et al. TIGER : the

  10. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  11. [The influence of weather conditions on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases by the example of West Nile fever in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A E

    2006-01-01

    Climate changes must influence the incidence of vector-borne infections, but their effects cannot be revealed due to lack of long-term observations. The impact of short-term weather changes may be used as a model. In Russia the biggest numbers of clinical cases of mosquito-borne West Nile infection were registered in 1999 in Volgograd and Astrakhan regions. The analysis of climatic dataset since 1900 shows that 1999 was the hottest year in Volgograd in the 20th century due to a very mild winter (December-March) and a rather hot summer (June-September). The author of the article puts forward a hypothesis that high winter temperatures favored the survival of over-wintering mosquito vectors, and high summer temperature facilitated the growth of the virus in the mosquitoes, as well as propagation of the mosquitoes themselves. The author assumes that conventional threshold temperatures for "beneficial for WNF conditions" in Russia are > or = 3 degrees C in winter, and > or = 22 degrees C in summer. These conditions coincided only in 1948 and 1999. In Astrakhan the "beneficial for WNF conditions" were registered in 30 out of 147 years of observation, and in 12 years between 1964 and 2003. This is not surprising that Astrakhan region is endemic for WNF in accordance with clinical and epidemiological data collected since the sixties. These findings give some hints on the WNF predisposing factors, as well as possibility of weather surveillance and prediction of WNF outbreaks in temperate climatic zones such as Southern Russia.

  12. Borrelia miyamotoi, Other Vector-Borne Agents in Cat Blood and Ticks in Eastern Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Avery B; Rucinsky, Renee; Gaff, Holly D; Brinkerhoff, R Jory

    2017-12-01

    We collected blood and tick samples in eastern Maryland to quantify vector-borne pathogen exposure and infection in healthy cats and to assess occupational disease risk to veterinary professionals and others who regularly interact with household pets. Thirty-six percent of healthy cats parasitized by ticks at time of examination (9/25) were exposed to, and 14% of bloods (7/49) tested PCR-positive for, at least one vector-borne pathogen including several bloods and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently recognized tick-borne zoonotic bacterium. There was no indication that high tick burdens were associated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. Our results underscore the potential importance of cats to human vector-borne disease risk.

  13. A Multi-Host Agent-Based Model for a Zoonotic, Vector-Borne Disease. A Case Study on Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alderton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new agent-based model (ABM for investigating T. b. rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT disease dynamics, produced to aid a greater understanding of disease transmission, and essential for development of appropriate mitigation strategies.The ABM was developed to model rHAT incidence at a fine spatial scale along a 75 km transect in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The method offers a complementary approach to traditional compartmentalised modelling techniques, permitting incorporation of fine scale demographic data such as ethnicity, age and gender into the simulation.Through identification of possible spatial, demographic and behavioural characteristics which may have differing implications for rHAT risk in the region, the ABM produced output that could not be readily generated by other techniques. On average there were 1.99 (S.E. 0.245 human infections and 1.83 (S.E. 0.183 cattle infections per 6 month period. The model output identified that the approximate incidence rate (per 1000 person-years was lower amongst cattle owning households (0.079, S.E. 0.017, than those without cattle (0.134, S.E. 0.017. Immigrant tribes (e.g. Bemba I.R. = 0.353, S.E.0.155 and school-age children (e.g. 5-10 year old I.R. = 0.239, S.E. 0.041 were the most at-risk for acquiring infection. These findings have the potential to aid the targeting of future mitigation strategies.ABMs provide an alternative way of thinking about HAT and NTDs more generally, offering a solution to the investigation of local-scale questions, and which generate results that can be easily disseminated to those affected. The ABM can be used as a tool for scenario testing at an appropriate spatial scale to allow the design of logistically feasible mitigation strategies suggested by model output. This is of particular importance where resources are limited and management strategies are often pushed to the local scale.

  14. Assessing the consequences of an incursion of a vector-borne disease. II. Spread of bluetongue in Scotland and impact of vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Szmaragd

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, which has spread across Europe over the past decade. The disease arrived in south-east England in 2007, raising the possibility that it could pose a risk to the valuable Scottish livestock industry. As part of an assessment of the economic consequences of a bluetongue virus incursion into Scotland commissioned by Scottish Government, we investigated a defined set of feasible incursion scenarios under different vaccination strategies. Our epidemiological simulations, based on expert knowledge, highlighted that infection will rarely spread in Scotland after the initial incursion and will be efficiently controlled by vaccination. Keywords: Epidemiology, modelling, disease control

  15. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardulyn, P.; Goffredo, M.; Conte, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Meiswinkel, R.; Balenghien, T.; Sghaier, S.; Lohr, Y.; Gilbert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean

  16. Support for research towards understanding the population health vulnerabilities to vector-borne diseases: increasing resilience under climate change conditions in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernadette Ramirez

    2017-01-01

    Background:Diseases transmitted to humans by vectors account for 17% of all infectious diseases and remain significant public health problems.Through the years,great strides have been taken towards combatting vectorborne diseases (VBDs),most notably through large scale and coordinated control programmes,which have contributed to the decline of the global mortality attributed to VBDs.However,with environmental changes,including climate change,the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant,in terms of VBD-related hazards,vulnerabilities and exposure.While there is growing awareness on the vulnerability of the African continent to VBDs in the context of climate change,there is still a paucity of research being undertaken in this area,and impeding the formulation of evidence-based health policy change.Main body:One way in which the gap in knowledge and evidence can be filled is for donor institutions to support research in this area.The collaboration between the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Centre for Research and Development (IDRC) builds on more than 10 years of partnership in research capacity-building in the field of tropical diseases.From this partnership was born yet another research initiative on VBDs and the impact of climate change in the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa.This paper lists the projects supported under this research initiative and provides a brief on some of the policy and good practice recommendations emerging from the ongoing implementation of the research projects.Conclusion:Data generated from the research initiative are expected to be uptaken by stakeholders (including communities,policy makers,public health practitioners and other relevant partners) to contribute to a better understanding of the impacts of social,environmental and climate change on VBDs(i.e.the nature of the hazard,vulnerabilities,exposure),and improve the ability of African countries to adapt to and

  17. Aquatic Insect from Iran for Possible Use of Biological Control of Main Vector-Borne Disease of Malaria and Water Indicator of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Saeidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iran has a wide variety of zoogeographical regions and different seasons. Here are some important mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes normally live in waters. Its aquatic insect fauna is highly unexplored. To being resolved this faunal gap, a variety of literature records from previous century in different parts of Iran was reviewed. In some southern and southeastern foci in Iran, Malaria is still a main endemic disease which is unstable with two seasonal spring and autumn peaks even though Iran is lunching Malaria elimination. This review article showed the wide variety of aquatic insects throughout the country. Researchers can discuss water pollutant and its quality by using aquatic insect fauna as well as biological control for vectors. Types of aquatic in­sects and macroinvertebrates sampling can be useful for water quality monitoring as indicators. Looking at aquatic insects’ life in water could be one of the most cost-effective and the easiest method to assess the water contaminations by different pollutants and will provide a guideline for scientific communities and environmental agencies for decision making.

  18. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Goffredo, Maria; Conte, Annamaria; Hendrickx, Guy; Meiswinkel, Rudolf; Balenghien, Thomas; Sghaier, Soufien; Lohr, Youssef; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-05-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean Europe during the last two decades is a consequence of the recent colonization of the region by Culicoides imicola and linked to climate change. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the northward spread of BT, we tested the hypothesis of a recent colonization of Italy by C. imicola, by obtaining samples from more than 60 localities across Italy, Corsica, Southern France, and Northern Africa (the hypothesized source point for the recent invasion of C. imicola), and by genotyping them with 10 newly identified microsatellite loci. The patterns of genetic variation within and among the sampled populations were characterized and used in a rigorous approximate Bayesian computation framework to compare three competing historical hypotheses related to the arrival and establishment of C. imicola in Italy. The hypothesis of an ancient presence of the insect vector was strongly favoured by this analysis, with an associated P ≥ 99%, suggesting that causes other than the northward range expansion of C. imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The accuracy of the National Equine Database in relation to vector-borne disease risk modelling of horses in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C A; Lo Iacono, G; Gubbins, S; Wood, J L N; Newton, J R

    2013-05-01

    The National Equine Database (NED) contains information on the size and distribution of the horse population, but the data quality remains unknown. These data could assist with surveillance, research and contingency planning for equine infectious disease outbreaks. 1) To assess the extent of obsolete and missing data from NED, 2) evaluate the extent of spatial separation between horse and owner location and 3) identify relationships between spatial separation and land use. Two questionnaires were used to assess data accuracy in NED utilising local authority passport inspections and distribution of questionnaires to 11,000 horse owners. A subset of 1010 questionnaires was used to assess horse-owner geographic separation. During 2005-2010, 17,048 passports were checked through local authority inspections. Of these, 1558 passports (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7-9.5%) were noncompliant, with 963 (5.6%; 95% CI 5.3-6.0%) containing inaccurate information and 595 (3.5%; 95% CI 3.2-3.8%) classified as missing. Of 1382 questionnaires completed by horse owners, 380 passports were obsolete (27.5%; 95% CI 25.2-29.9%), with 162 (11.7%; 95% CI 10.0-13.4%) being retained for deceased horses and 218 (15.8%; 95% CI 13.9-17.7%) having incorrect ownership details. Fifty-three per cent (95% CI 49.9-56.1%) of owners kept their horse(s) at home and 92% (95% CI 90.3-93.7%) of horses resided within 10 km of their owners. Data from a small sample survey suggest the majority of data on NED are accurate but a proportion of inaccuracies exist that may cause delay in locating horses and contacting owners during a disease outbreak. The probability that horses are located in the same postcode sector as the owner's home address is larger in rural areas. Appropriate adjustment for population size, horse-owner spatial separation and land usage would facilitate meaningful use of the national horse population derived from NED for risk modelling of incursions of equine diseases into Great

  20. PCR evaluation of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs with pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabar, M-D; Movilla, R; Serrano, L; Altet, L; Francino, O; Roura, X

    2018-04-01

    To investigate evidence for selected vector-borne pathogen infections in dogs with pericardial effusion living in a Mediterranean area in which several canine vector-borne diseases are endemic. Archived EDTA blood (n=68) and pericardial fluid samples (n=58) from dogs with pericardial effusion (n=68) were included. Dogs without pericardial effusion examined for other reasons were included as controls (n=60). Pericardial effusion was classified as neoplastic in 40 dogs, idiopathic in 23 dogs and of unknown aetiology in 5 dogs. Real-time PCR was performed for Leishmania infantum, Ehrlichia/Anaplasma species, Hepatozoon canis, Babesia species, Rickettsia species and Bartonella species, and sequencing of PCR products from positive samples was used to confirm species specificity. Vector-borne pathogens were found in 18 dogs: 16 of 68 dogs with pericardial effusion (23·5%) and two of 60 control dogs (3·3%). Positive dogs demonstrated DNA of Leishmania infantum (n=7), Anaplasma platys (n=2, one dog coinfected with Leishmania infantum), Babesia canis (n=5), Babesia gibsoni (n=3) and Hepatozoon canis (n=2). Vector-borne pathogens were more commonly detected among dogs with pericardial effusion than controls (P=0·001). There was no relationship between aetiology of the pericardial effusion and evidence of vector-borne pathogens (P=0·932). Vector-borne pathogens are often detected in dogs with pericardial effusion and require further investigation, especially in dogs with idiopathic pericardial effusion. PCR can provide additional information about the potential role of vector-borne pathogens in dogs with pericardial effusion living in endemic areas. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  2. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria

  3. Broad patterns in domestic vector-borne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission dynamics: synanthropic animals and vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer K; Bartsch, Sarah M; Lee, Bruce Y; Dobson, Andrew P

    2015-10-22

    Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the most important neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Latin America, infecting an estimated 5.7 million people in the 21 countries where it is endemic. It is one of the NTDs targeted for control and elimination by the 2020 London Declaration goals, with the first goal being to interrupt intra-domiciliary vector-borne T. cruzi transmission. A key question in domestic T. cruzi transmission is the role that synanthropic animals play in T. cruzi transmission to humans. Here, we ask, (1) do synanthropic animals need to be targeted in Chagas disease prevention policies?, and (2) how does the presence of animals affect the efficacy of vector control? We developed a simple mathematical model to simulate domestic vector-borne T. cruzi transmission and to specifically examine the interaction between the presence of synanthropic animals and effects of vector control. We used the model to explore how the interactions between triatomine bugs, humans and animals impact the number and proportion of T. cruzi-infected bugs and humans. We then examined how T. cruzi dynamics change when control measures targeting vector abundance are introduced into the system. We found that the presence of synanthropic animals slows the speed of T. cruzi transmission to humans, and increases the sensitivity of T. cruzi transmission dynamics to vector control measures at comparable triatomine carrying capacities. However, T. cruzi transmission is amplified when triatomine carrying capacity increases with the abundance of syntathoropic hosts. Our results suggest that in domestic T. cruzi transmission scenarios where no vector control measures are in place, a reduction in synanthropic animals may slow T. cruzi transmission to humans, but it would not completely eliminate transmission. To reach the 2020 goal of interrupting intra-domiciliary T. cruzi transmission, it is critical to target vector populations. Additionally, where vector control measures

  4. Vector-Borne Infections in Tornado-Displaced and Owner-Relinquished Dogs in Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne W; Little, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of infection with vector-borne agents in a cross-section of dogs from Oklahoma, where canine vector-borne diseases are common, blood samples were evaluated through serology and molecular analysis. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii" were detected in 10.5% (11/105), 74.3% (78/105), 58.1% (61/105), and 55.2% (58/105) of dogs, respectively. Presence of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. DNA was identified in 13.1% (8/61) of shelter dogs but not in any pet dogs (0/44). DNA of "R. amblyommii" was confirmed by sequencing, constituting the first report of this agent in a naturally infected dog. Antigen of Dirofilaria immitis was detected in 10.5% (11/105) and 16.2% (17/105) of samples before and after heat treatment, respectively. In total, 87.6% (92/105) of the dogs had evidence of infection with at least one vector-borne disease agent, confirming high risk of exposure to multiple vector-borne disease agents, several of which are zoonotic.

  5. A PCR survey of vector-borne pathogens in different dog populations from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huanping; Sevinc, Ferda; Ceylan, Onur; Sevinc, Mutlu; Ince, Ege; Gao, Yang; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Liu, Mingming; Efstratiou, Artemis; Wang, Guanbo; Cao, Shinuo; Zhou, Mo; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Ringo, Aaron Edmond; Zheng, Weiqing; Xuan, Xuenan

    2017-09-26

    In the present study, a total of 192 blood samples were collected from pet dogs, kennel dogs and shepherd dogs in Konya district, Turkey, and tested by specific PCR for the presence of vector-borne pathogens. Several pathogens were identified, most of which can cause substantial morbidity in dogs. PCR results revealed that 54 (28.1%) dogs were infected with one or more pathogens. Positive results were obtained for Babesia spp. in 4 dogs (2.1%), Hepatozoon spp. in 8 dogs (4.2%) and Mycoplasma spp. in 46 dogs (24%). Three dogs (1.6%) were infected with two or three pathogens. The sequence analysis of the positive DNA samples revealed the presence of Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Hepatozoon sp. MF, Mycoplasma haemocanis and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys were not detected. Regardless of ownership status, vector-borne diseases were common in these dog populations. There was significant difference of pathogen prevalence among the different dog populations. Mycoplasma spp. was more frequent in the kennel dogs (31.9%) than in the pet (21.4%) and shepherd dogs (13.8%). Additionally, the frequency of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. was higher in the shepherd dogs which account for three quarters and half of the total number of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp., respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mycoplasma infection in dogs in Turkey. The results of the present study provide a foundation for understanding the epidemiology of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs), and for strategies to control these diseases in Turkey.

  6. Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Broadly, species of arthropods infesting livestock are grouped into flies (biting and non-biting, fleas, lice (biting and sucking, ticks (soft and hard, and mites (burrowing, non-burrowing, and follicular. Among which, biting and non-biting flies and ticks are the potent vectors for many bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and protozoan diseases. Vectors of livestock are having economic significance on three points (1 direct losses from their bite and annoyance, worries, and psychological disturbances produced during the act of biting and feeding, (2 diseases they transmit, and (3 expenditure incurred for their control. Flies such as Culicoides spp. and Musca spp. and various species of hard ticks play important role in disease transmission in addition to their direct effects. For control of vectors, recent concept of integrated pest management (IPM provides the best solution and also addresses the problems related to acaricide resistance and environmental protection from hazardous chemicals. However, to successfully implement the concept of IPM, for each vector species, estimation of two monitory benchmarks, i.e., economic injury level (EIL and economic threshold level (ETL is essential prerequisite. For many vector species and under several circumstances, estimation of EIL and ETL appears to be difficult. Under such scenario, although may not be exact, an approximate estimate can be accrued by taking into account several criteria such as percent prevalence of vectors in a geographical area, percent losses produced, total livestock population, and current prices of livestock products such as milk, meat, and wool. Method for approximate estimation is first time described and elaborated in the present review article.

  7. Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narladkar, B. W.

    2018-01-01

    Broadly, species of arthropods infesting livestock are grouped into flies (biting and non-biting), fleas, lice (biting and sucking), ticks (soft and hard), and mites (burrowing, non-burrowing, and follicular). Among which, biting and non-biting flies and ticks are the potent vectors for many bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and protozoan diseases. Vectors of livestock are having economic significance on three points (1) direct losses from their bite and annoyance, worries, and psychological disturbances produced during the act of biting and feeding, (2) diseases they transmit, and (3) expenditure incurred for their control. Flies such as Culicoides spp. and Musca spp. and various species of hard ticks play important role in disease transmission in addition to their direct effects. For control of vectors, recent concept of integrated pest management (IPM) provides the best solution and also addresses the problems related to acaricide resistance and environmental protection from hazardous chemicals. However, to successfully implement the concept of IPM, for each vector species, estimation of two monitory benchmarks, i.e., economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold level (ETL) is essential prerequisite. For many vector species and under several circumstances, estimation of EIL and ETL appears to be difficult. Under such scenario, although may not be exact, an approximate estimate can be accrued by taking into account several criteria such as percent prevalence of vectors in a geographical area, percent losses produced, total livestock population, and current prices of livestock products such as milk, meat, and wool. Method for approximate estimation is first time described and elaborated in the present review article. PMID:29657396

  8. La reforma del sector salud, descentralización, prevención y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores Health system, decentralization, and the control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Schmunis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Con las nuevas macropolíticas mundiales, la salud en América Latina ha sufrido importante transición en direción a la decentralización, sin compatibilizar la salud pública con la lógica de las economías de mercado. Con esto, el control decentralizado de las enfermedades endémicas presenta dificultades políticas y operativas. Aunque la decentralización se justifica por los presupuestos teóricos, no hay tradición de este control en los niveles municipales, lo que dificulta la simple o burocrática transferencia de encargos para estos niveles. La falta de expertise, el turn-over político y la corrupción son dificultades adicionales, conllevando a una extinción de varias instituiciones y programas. La falta de efectividad en el enfrentamiento del dengue, de la malaria y de la enfermedad de Chagas son algunos ejemplos. Requierese una modernización con responsabilidad, con una transición compartida entre los niveles y garantizada por acciones continuadas. Sugierese mantener estructuras regionales para referencia, consolidación epidemiológica, normatización, capacitación y supervisión, incluso con reserva técnica para acciones finalísticas supletivas.Economic policies are changing Latin American health programs, particularly promoting decentralization. Numerous difficulties thus arise for the control of endemic diseases, since such activities traditionally depend on vertical, and centralized structures. Theoretical arguments in favor of decentralization notwithstanding, no such tradition exists at the county level. The lack of program expertise at peripheral levels, intensive staff turnover, and even corruption are additional difficulties. Hence, the simple bureaucratic transfer of activities from the Federal to county level is often irresponsible. The loss of priority for control of endemic diseases in Latin America may mean the inexorable extinction of traditional control services. Malaria, dengue fever, and Chagas disease

  9. An antivector vaccine protects against a lethal vector-borne pathogen.

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    Milan Labuda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  10. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98%) had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%). Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%), E. canis in two (4%), and H. canis in one (2%) out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%), November (27%), December (20%), February (13%) and March (9%). Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50%) out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9%) included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co-infected with L. infantum

  11. Canine babesiosis in northern Portugal and molecular characterization of vector-borne co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado João

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protozoa and bacteria transmitted by arthropods, including ticks and phlebotomine sand flies, may cause a wide range of canine vector-borne diseases. Dogs can be simultaneously or sequentially infected with multiple pathogens. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli is known to occur in Portugal. This study assessed, by means of blood smear examination, PCR and DNA nucleotide sequencing, the presence of Babesia spp. and co-infecting agents Leishmania, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia and Hepatozoon in 45 dogs from northern Portugal clinically suspected of babesiosis. Results Forty-four dogs (98% had infection with B. canis canis and one with B. canis vogeli. Co-infections were detected in nine animals (20%. Eight dogs were found infected with two vector-borne agents: six with B. canis canis and Leishmania infantum; one with B. canis canis and Ehrlichia canis; and one with B. canis canis and Hepatozoon canis. Another dog was infected with three vector-borne pathogens: B. canis vogeli, E. canis and L. infantum. Overall, L. infantum was found in seven (16%, E. canis in two (4%, and H. canis in one (2% out of the 45 dogs with babesiosis. Almost 90% of the 45 cases of canine babesiosis were diagnosed in the colder months of October (18%, November (27%, December (20%, February (13% and March (9%. Co-infections were detected in February, March, April, May, October and November. Twenty-two (50% out of 44 dogs infected with B. canis were found infested by ticks including Dermacentor spp., Ixodes spp. and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Mortality (9% included two co-infected dogs that died spontaneously and two with single infections that were euthanized. Conclusions Babesia canis canis is the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in northern Portugal. A higher sensitivity of Babesia spp. detection was obtained with PCR assays, compared to the observation of blood smears. Twenty percent of the dogs were co

  12. Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-borne Diseases ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Damming, irrigation and other forms of water management are also creating new habitats ... adaptation, particularly to improve the resilience of vulnerable populations. ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.

  13. Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitková, Barbora; Hrazdilová, Kristýna; D'Amico, Gianluca; Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Suchentrunk, Franz; Forejtek, Pavel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Votýpka, Jan; Hulva, Pavel; Modrý, David

    2017-04-14

    Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans. Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplifications revealed 70% of jackals to be positive for Hepatozoon, 12.5% positive for piroplasms, and one individual positive for Leishmania infantum. Phylogenetic analyses of partial 18S rDNA sequences invariably placed sequenced isolates of Hepatozoon into the H. canis clade. For piroplasms, both the 18S and cox1 sequences obtained confirmed the presence of Babesia canis and "Theileria annae" in 5 and 2 individuals, respectively, providing the first records of these two piroplasmids in Eurasian golden jackals. A single animal from Dolj County (Romania) was PCR-positive for L. infantum, as confirmed also by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S. Apparently, expanding populations of jackals can play a significant role in spreading and maintaining new Babesia canis foci in Central Europe. The role of jackals in the epidemiology of "Theileria annae" and H. canis is probably similar to that of red foxes and should be taken into account in further research on these parasites. Also the presence of L. infantum deserves attention. Our study confirms that once established, the populations of Eurasian golden jackals constitute natural reservoirs for many canine vector-borne diseases, analogous to the role of the coyotes in North America.

  14. Ocular dirofilariasis: Ophthalmic implication of climate change on vector-borne parasites

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    Joseph D. Boss, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: With increasing global temperatures, ocular dirofilariasis is being introduced in more northern climates and should be included in the differential diagnosis in areas previously isolated from these vector-borne parasites.

  15. The Re-Emergence and Emergence of Vector-Borne Rickettsioses in Taiwan

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    Nicholas T. Minahan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rickettsial diseases, particularly vector-borne rickettsioses (VBR, have a long history in Taiwan, with studies on scrub typhus and murine typhus dating back over a century. The climatic and geographic diversity of Taiwan’s main island and its offshore islands provide many ecological niches for the diversification and maintenance of rickettsiae alike. In recent decades, scrub typhus has re-emerged as the most prevalent type of rickettsiosis in Taiwan, particularly in eastern Taiwan and its offshore islands. While murine typhus has also re-emerged on Taiwan’s western coast, it remains neglected. Perhaps more alarming than the re-emergence of these rickettsioses is the emergence of newly described VBR. The first case of human infection with Rickettsia felis was confirmed in 2005, and undetermined spotted fever group rickettsioses have recently been detected. Taiwan is at a unique advantage in terms of detecting and characterizing VBR, as it has universal health coverage and a national communicable disease surveillance system; however, these systems have not been fully utilized for this purpose. Here, we review the existing knowledge on the eco-epidemiology of VBR in Taiwan and recommend future courses of action.

  16. Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among captive Neotropical primates in a Brazilian zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Knox, Monique Britto; Reis, Filipe; Hagström, Luciana; Cuba, César A Cuba; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2016-01-26

    Neotropical primates are important sylvatic hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Infection is often subclinical, but severe disease has been described in both free-ranging and captive primates. Panstrongylus megistus, a major T. cruzi vector, was found infesting a small-primate unit at Brasília zoo (ZooB), Brazil. ZooB lies close to a gallery-forest patch where T. cruzi circulates naturally. Here, we combine parasitological and molecular methods to investigate a focus of T. cruzi infection involving triatomine bugs and Neotropical primates at a zoo located in the Brazilian Savannah. We assessed T. cruzi infection in vectors using optical microscopy (n = 34) and nested PCR (n = 50). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to examine blood samples from 26 primates and necropsy samples from two primates that died during the study. We determined parasite lineages in five vectors and two primates by comparing glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6pi) gene sequences. Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 44 vectors and 17 primates (six genera and eight species); one Mico chrysoleucus and one Saguinus niger had high parasitaemias. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected in three primates born to qPCR-negative mothers at ZooB and in the two dead specimens. One Callithrix geoffroyi became qPCR-positive over a two-year follow-up. All G6pi sequences matched T. cruzi lineage TcI. Our findings strongly suggest vector-borne T. cruzi transmission within a small-primate unit at ZooB - with vectors, and perhaps also parasites, presumably coming from nearby gallery forest. Periodic checks for vectors and parasites would help eliminate T. cruzi transmission foci in captive-animal facilities. This should be of special importance for captive-breeding programs involving endangered mammals, and would reduce the risk of accidental T. cruzi transmission to keepers and veterinarians.

  17. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

  18. Neglected vector-borne zoonoses in Europe: Into the wild.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomassone, Laura; Berriatua, Eduardo; De Sousa, Rita; Duscher, Gerhard Georg; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Silaghi, Cornelia; Sprong, Hein; Zintl, Annetta

    2018-01-01

    Wild vertebrates are involved in the transmission cycles of numerous pathogens. Additionally, they can affect the abundance of arthropod vectors. Urbanization, landscape and climate changes, and the adaptation of vectors and wildlife to human habitats represent complex and evolving scenarios, which

  19. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Lima, Clara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Colella, Vito; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico

    2017-06-20

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. However, no data are currently available regarding canine and feline VBDs in Qatar and limited information is available from other Persian Gulf countries. Blood samples from 98 client-owned animals (i.e. 64 dogs and 34 cats) living in Doha (Qatar) were collected and the presence of genomic DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Ehrlichia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time-PCR (rt-PCR) and sequence analysis. Of the 64 dogs, 12 (18.8%) were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 7.8% with Mycoplasma spp., 4.7% with Babesia vogeli, 3.1% with Ehrlichia canis, and 1.6% with Anaplasma platys, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis, each). One of the 12 dogs was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis. Of the 34 cats, seven (20.6%) animals were infected with at least one pathogen (i.e. 5.9% were positive for Mycoplasma spp., and 2.9% for Babesia felis, B. vogeli, E. canis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" and Mycoplasma haemofelis, each). No dogs or cats were positive for Dirofilaria spp. or Rickettsia spp. Although the sample sizes of dogs and cats herein analysed was moderately small, data from this study report the occurrence of A. platys, B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, E. canis, H. canis and Mycoplasma spp. in domestic dogs and of B. felis, B. vogeli, "Candidatus M. haemominutum", E. canis and M. haemofelis in domestic cats from Qatar. Further investigations along with prophylactic measures are strongly recommended in order to reduce the risk of dogs and cats acquiring VBDs in Qatar.

  20. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p Croatia. Some of these VBPs are zoonotic and represent a potential risk to public health.

  1. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Zakhour, Christine M; Gadhoke, Preety; Gaeta, Jessie M

    2016-07-01

    In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014. Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0-37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0-10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0-16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV

  2. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluijs, Mirjam Tineke Willemijn; de Smit, Abraham J; Moormann, Rob J M

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from dam to fetus, or horizontal via direct contract. For several BTV-serotypes, vertical (transplacental) transmission has been described, resulting in severe congenital malformations. Transplacental transmission had been mainly associated with live vaccine strains. Yet, the European BTV-8 strain demonstrated a high incidence of transplacental transmission in natural circumstances. The relevance of transplacental transmission for the epizootiology is considered limited, especially in enzootic areas. However, transplacental transmission can have a substantial economic impact due to the loss of progeny. Inactivated vaccines have demonstrated to prevent transplacental transmission. Vector-free horizontal transmission has also been demonstrated. Since direct horizontal transmission requires close contact of animals, it is considered only relevant for within-farm spreading of BTV. The genetic determinants which enable vector-free transmission are present in virus strains circulating in the field. More research into the genetic changes which enable vector-free transmission is essential to better evaluate the risks associated with outbreaks of new BTV serotypes and to design more appropriate control measures.

  3. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.

  4. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  5. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Zoonotic intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in Italian shelter and kennel dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Di Cesare, Angela; Simonato, Giulia; Cassini, Rudi; Merola, Carmine; Diakou, Anastasia; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the presence of zoonotic parasites and vector-borne pathogens in dogs housed in kennels and shelters from four sites of Italy. A total of 150 adoptable dogs was examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular methods. Overall 129 dogs (86%) were positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-eight (32%) were positive for one infection, while 81 (54%) for more than one pathogen. The most common zoonotic helminths recorded were hookworms, roundworms and Capillaria aerophila, followed by mosquito-borne Dirofilaria spp. and Dipylidium caninum. One hundred and thirteen (77.9%), 6 (4.1%) and 2 (1.4%) dogs were positive for Rickettsia spp., Leishmania infantum and Anaplasma spp., respectively. The results show that dogs living in rescue facilities from the studied areas may be infected by many zoonotic internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, and that control measures should be implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical and molecular investigation of a canine distemper outbreak and vector-borne infections in a group of rescue dogs imported from Hungary to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Grimm, Felix; Beatrice, Laura; Riond, Barbara; Bley, Tim; Jordi, Rolf; Dennler, Matthias; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-07-16

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen of dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. In Switzerland, distemper in domestic dogs is rarely reported. In recent years, the import of dogs from Eastern Europe to Switzerland has steadily increased. In the present study, we describe a distemper outbreak in 15 rescue dogs that were imported from Hungary to Switzerland by an animal welfare organisation. The data on vaccination and medical history were recorded (14 dogs), and the samples were collected to investigate CDV and vector-borne infections (13 dogs) and canine parvovirus infection (12 dogs). The dogs were monitored for six months. One dog was euthanised directly after import. Thirteen dogs showed clinical signs after arrival, i.e., diarrhoea (57 %), coughing (43 %) and nasal and/or ocular discharge (21 %); radiographic findings that were compatible with bronchopneumonia were present in four dogs. CDV infection was diagnosed in 11 dogs (85 %); 10 dogs (91 %) tested PCR-positive in conjunctival swabs. Vector-borne infections (Babesia spp., Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis) were found in 4 dogs (31 %). Three dogs were hospitalized, and six dogs received ambulatory therapy for up to two months until recovery. None of the dogs developed neurological disease. CDV shedding was detected for a period of up to four months. Because dogs were put under strict quarantine until CDV shedding ceased, CDV did not spread to any other dogs. The CDV isolates showed 99 % sequence identity in the HA gene among each other and belonged to the Arctic-like lineage of CDV. The present study highlights the imminent risks of spreading contagious viral and vector-borne infections through the non-selective import of sick dogs and dogs with incomplete vaccination from Eastern Europe. CDV shedding was detected for several months after the cessation of clinical signs, which emphasised the roles of asymptomatic carriers in CDV epidemiology. A long-term follow-up using sensitive PCR and

  8. Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Brouwer, A; Ramnial, V; Kelly, L; Kosmider, R; Fooks, A R; Snary, E L

    2010-02-01

    Expert opinion was elicited to undertake a qualitative risk assessment to estimate the current and future risks to the European Union (EU) from five vector-borne viruses listed by the World Organization for Animal Health. It was predicted that climate change will increase the risk of incursions of African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) into the EU from other parts of the world, with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) being less affected. Currently the predicted risks of incursion were lowest for RVFV and highest for ASFV. Risks of incursion were considered for six routes of entry (namely vectors, livestock, meat products, wildlife, pets and people). Climate change was predicted to increase the risk of incursion from entry of vectors for all five viruses to some degree, the strongest effects being predicted for AHSV, CCHFV and WNV. This work will facilitate identification of appropriate risk management options in relation to adaptations to climate change.

  9. Integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Hartemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km. Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R(0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R(0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R(0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases.

  10. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  11. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.

  12. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of vector-borne agents in feral cats and first report of Babesia gibsoni in cats on St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick John; Köster, Liza; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jilei; Huang, Ke; Branford, Gillian Carmichael; Marchi, Silvia; Vandenplas, Michel; Wang, Chengming

    2017-11-13

    As there is little data on vector-borne diseases of cats in the Caribbean region and even around the world, we tested feral cats from St Kitts by PCR to detect infections with Babesia, Ehrlichia and spotted fever group Rickettsia (SFGR) and surveyed them for antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii and Ehrlichia canis. Whole blood was collected from apparently healthy feral cats during spay/ neuter campaigns on St Kitts in 2011 (N = 68) and 2014 (N = 52). Sera from the 52 cats from 2014 were used to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and Rickettsia rickettsii using indirect fluorescent antibody tests and DNA extracted from whole blood of a total of 119 cats (68 from 2011, and 51 from 2014) was used for PCRs for Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. We could not amplify DNA of SFG Rickettsia in any of the samples but found DNA of E. canis in 5% (6/119), Babesia vogeli in 13% (15/119), Babesia gibsoni in 4% (5/119), mixed infections with B. gibsoni and B. vogeli in 3% (3/119), and a poorly characterized Babesia sp. in 1% (1/119). Overall, 10% of the 52 cats we tested by IFA for E. canis were positive while 42% we tested by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) for R. rickettsii antigens were positive. Our study provides the first evidence that cats can be infected with B. gibsoni and also indicates that cats in the Caribbean may be commonly exposed to other vector-borne agents including SFGR, E. canis and B. vogeli. Animal health workers should be alerted to the possibility of clinical infections in their patients while public health workers should be alerted to the possibility that zoonotic SFGR are likely circulating in the region.

  14. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  15. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Diakou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90% was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3% cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7% for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53 multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24% and Dipylidium caninum (2%, while a high number of examined animals (58.8% had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2% and Leishmania infantum (6.1%. DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  16. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  17. Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases: An Economic Impact Analysis of Malaria in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Wu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-parametric econometric model is used to study the relationship between malaria cases and climatic factors in 25 African countries. Results show that a marginal change in temperature and precipitation levels would lead to a significant change in the number of malaria cases for most countries by the end of the century. Consistent with the existing biophysical malaria model results, the projected effects of climate change are mixed. Our model projects that some countries will see an increase in malaria cases but others will see a decrease. We estimate projected malaria inpatient and outpatient treatment costs as a proportion of annual 2000 health expenditures per 1,000 people. We found that even under minimal climate change scenario, some countries may see their inpatient treatment cost of malaria increase more than 20%.

  18. Operational Mosquito and Vector-Borne Diseases Surveillance at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    of Biological Diversity , Columbus, OH, or the - cies and tested for arboviruses. Pools ranged from 1-25 mosquitoes depending on submission numbers...Rickettsia felis (Rickett- - phonaptera: Pulicidae) in the Philippines . J Ento- mol Sci. 2012;47:95-96. Mosquito surveillance data from Incirlik Air Base...Taylor SJ, Durden LA, Foley EH, Reeves WK. The bat tick Carios azteci (Acari: Argasidae) from Be- lize, with an endosymbiotic Coxiellaceae. Speleo

  19. Transmission scenarios of major vector-borne diseases in Colombia, 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Julio César; Lizarazo, Fredy Eberto; Murillo, Olga Lucía; Mendigaña, Fernando Antonio; Pachón, Edwin; Vera, Mauricio Javier

    2017-03-29

    Introducción. Las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores representan más de 17 % de todas las enfermedades infecciosas y causan anualmente un millón de defunciones a nivel mundial. En Colombia, la malaria, el dengue, la enfermedad de Chagas y las leishmaniasis son condiciones endemoepidémicas persistentes.Objetivo. Determinar el comportamiento epidemiológico de las enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia entre 1990 y 2016.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo del comportamiento epidemiológico de las principales enfermedades transmitidas por vectores en zonas urbanas y rurales de Colombia entre 1990 y 2016, con la información proveniente de fuentes oficiales secundarias.Resultados. En el periodo estudiado se registraron 5'360.134 casos de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, de los cuales 54,7 % fueron de malaria y 24,9 % de dengue. Estos casos concentraron el 80 % de la carga acumulada de casos de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. Las medianas de las tasas de incidencia fueron 1.371 y 188 por 100.00 habitantes para malaria y dengue, respectivamente. Además, los casos de chikungunya fueron 774.831 desde su introducción en el 2014 y, los de Zika, 117.674 desde su aparición en 2015. En las zonas rurales predominaron las enfermedades parasitarias transmitidas por vectores como la malaria, las leishmaniasis y la enfermedad de Chagas. A nivel urbano, predominaron el dengue, el chikungunya y el Zika.Conclusiones. La transmisión en Colombia de estas enfermedades es persistente en las zonas urbanas y en las rurales, y de tipo endemoepidémico en los casos de malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis y enfermedad de Chagas. Dicha transmisión se ha dado de manera focalizada y con patrones variables de intensidad. Asimismo, se mantienen las condiciones que han favorecido la transmisión emergente de nuevas arbovirosis.

  20. Microclimatic temperatures increase the potential for vector-borne disease transmission in the Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure; Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    We quantified the difference between the meteorological temperature recorded by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) weather stations and the actual microclimatic temperatures at two or three different heights at six potential insect habitats. We then compared the impact of the hourly temper...

  1. Characterization and Detection of Vector-borne Diseases in Endemic Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-18

    Achee NL, Gould F, Perkins TA, Reiner RC, Jr., Morrison AC, et al . 2015. A critical assessment of vector control for dengue prevention. PLoS Negl Trop...Beier JC, Perkins PV, Onyango F, et al . 1988 . Identification of malaria species by ELISA in sporozoite and oocyst infected Anopheles from western...for the detection of low-level parasitemias of a single malaria parasite species, Demas et al . demonstrated that alternative gene targets may be more

  2. Strain improvement of fungal insecticides for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weiguo; Azimzadeh, Philippe; St Leger, Raymond J

    2012-06-01

    Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling insect pests. However, few have been successfully commercialized due to low virulence and sensitivity to abiotic stresses that produce inconsistent results in field applications. These limitations are inherent in most naturally occurring biological control agents but development of recombinant DNA techniques has made it possible to significantly improve the insecticidal efficacy of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions, including UV. These advances have been achieved by combining new knowledge derived from basic studies of the molecular biology of these pathogens, technical developments that enable very precise regulation of gene expression, and genes encoding insecticidal proteins from other organisms, particularly spiders and scorpions. Recent coverage of genomes is helping determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. In future, such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies and host ranges to be used for different ecosystems, and that will avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance. With increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides, these new types of biological insecticides offer a range of environmental-friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of the Immune Response to alpha-Gal and Vector-borne Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Mateos-Hernández, L.; Pérez-Cruz, M.; Valdés, James J.; Fernández de Mera, I.G.; Villar, M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2015), s. 470-476 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : red meat allergy * host defenses * tick bites Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.295, year: 2015

  4. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-21

    extracted from the USDA Production, Supply, and Distribution Online (PSD) electronic database (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/) for the focal regions...Precipitation Climatology Project [31] (Table 1). Various publicly-available databases were surveyed to develop maps of outbreak locations of dengue, Rift...rates of leaf photosynthesis and severely reduced the development of floral buds thus reducing yields [33]. Direct losses from the drought approached $10

  5. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Sumner, T.; Enøe, Claes

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptio...... sensitivity to the level of vaccine uptake and has lower variability compared with a kernel-based model. However, a model using a transmission kernel requires less detailed data and is often faster....

  6. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology.

  7. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pcanis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pcanis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  9. Temporal and spatial scaling of the genetic structure of a vector-borne plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2014-02-01

    The ecology of plant pathogens of perennial crops is affected by the long-lived nature of their immobile hosts. In addition, changes to the genetic structure of pathogen populations may affect disease epidemiology and management practices; examples include local adaptation of more fit genotypes or introduction of novel genotypes from geographically distant areas via human movement of infected plant material or insect vectors. We studied the genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa populations causing disease in sweet orange plants in Brazil at multiple scales using fast-evolving molecular markers (simple-sequence DNA repeats). Results show that populations of X. fastidiosa were regionally isolated, and that isolation was maintained for populations analyzed a decade apart from each other. However, despite such geographic isolation, local populations present in year 2000 were largely replaced by novel genotypes in 2009 but not as a result of migration. At a smaller spatial scale (individual trees), results suggest that isolates within plants originated from a shared common ancestor. In summary, new insights on the ecology of this economically important plant pathogen were obtained by sampling populations at different spatial scales and two different time points.

  10. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near Tłuszcz (N 52°24'56.78″, E 21°30'37.55″) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Lachhman Das; Sumbria, Deepak; Mandhotra, Ajay; Bal, M S; Kaur, Paramjit

    2016-12-01

    There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53- 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7-17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0-1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1-2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45-26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49-22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

  12. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian...

  13. Lyme Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not known to transmit Lyme disease include Lone star ticks ( Amblyomma americanum ), the American dog tick ( Dermacentor ... of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  14. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  15. Emerging Vector borne zoonoses: eco-­epidemiology and public health implications in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C Dhiman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from Western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non- endemic areas of JE like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs and human beings (like BSL4 which has been established in NIV, Pune, awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic and mapping of disease specific vulnerable areas, mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario, are needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in south East Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  16. Eurasian golden jackal as host of canine vector-borne protists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; D'Amico, G.; Duscher, G. G.; Suchentrunk, F.; Forejtek, P.; Gherman, C.M.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Daskalaki, A.A.; Mihalca, A. D.; Votýpka, Jan; Hulva, P.; Modrý, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, APR 14 (2017), č. článku 183. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eurasian golden jackal * Babesia * Hepatozoon * Theileria annae * Leishmania Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  17. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  18. Prevalence of Selected Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Agents in Dogs and Cats on the Pine Ridge Reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valeria Scorza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites and vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota were determined. Fecal samples (84 dogs, 9 cats were examined by centrifugal floatation and by immunofluorescence assay (FA for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR was performed on Giardia [beta-giardin (bg, triose phosphate isomerase (tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase genes (gdh] and Cryptosporidium [heat shock protein-70 gene (hsp] FA positive samples. Cat sera (n = 32 were tested for antibodies against Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and FIV, and antigens of FeLV and Dirofilaria immitis. Dog sera (n = 82 were tested for antibodies against T. gondii, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and D. immitis antigen. Blood samples (92 dogs, 39 cats were assessed by PCR for amplification of DNA of Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., haemoplasmas, and Babesia spp. (dogs only. The most significant results were Giardia spp. (32% by FA, Taenia spp. (17.8% and Cryptosporidium spp. (7.1%. The Giardia isolates typed as the dog-specific assemblages C or D and four Cryptosporidium isolates typed as C. canis. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 15% of the dogs. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. and against T. gondii were detected in 37.5% and 6% of the cats respectively. FeLV antigen was detected in 10% of the cats.

  19. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  20. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  1. Vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs in the Baltic and Nordic countries: A questionnaire study to veterinarians on canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-09-15

    Canine vector-borne diseases have been spreading northwards in Europe, and canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) and Dirofilaria repens have been diagnosed also in the Baltic and the Nordic countries. We used an online questionnaire to survey how large a proportion of veterinarians in the Baltic (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) saw canine babesiosis cases and dogs infected with D. immitis and D. repens in 2016. In addition, questions regarding transmission, zoonotic potential, clinical signs, and treatment of the infections were asked. The questionnaire was completed by 122 veterinarians. In 2016, 23% of them had seen at least one case of canine babesiosis, 15% at least one dog with D. immitis infection, and 9% at least one dog with D. repens infection. A veterinarian working in the Baltic countries had 12.2 times higher odds to have seen a canine babesiosis case and 9.3 times higher odds to have seen a dog with D. repens infection than a veterinarian working in the Nordic countries did. While 48% of the veterinarians knew that canine babesiosis is not considered a zoonosis, 26% knew that D. immitis is zoonotic and 34% knew that D. repens is zoonotic. The results suggested that autochthonous cases of the three vector-borne parasitic infections were seen by veterinarians in the Baltic countries, whereas most cases seen by veterinarians in the Nordic countries appeared to be imported. A substantial proportion of the veterinarians did not know whether the parasites are zoonotic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  3. Malaria and Other Vector-Borne Infection Surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Program: Review of 2009 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    Vector borne infections (VBIs) such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, scrub typhus , and plague comprise a significant proportion of the global...a VBI: scrub typhus (19), murine typhus (three), Japanese encephalitis (JE) (two), primary dengue infection (12), secondary dengue infection (nine...prioritized by GSRI, half are VBIs (malaria, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya, CCHF, sandfly fever, O’nyong-nyong, Sindbis virus, scrub typhus

  4. Affective cycling in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, A.

    1988-01-01

    Depression in an elderly man with primary recurrent unipolar depression responded to radioactive iodine treatment of a thyrotoxic nodule, without the addition of psychotropic medications. Two months later, manic symptoms developed concomitant with the termination of the hyperthyroid state secondary to the radioactive iodine treatment. Clinical implications of these findings in relation to the possible mechanism of action of thyroid hormones on affective cycling are discussed

  5. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Zamora-Vilchis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  6. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308 ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  7. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania: infestation with arthropod ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0.001) had a significantly higher risk of infestation than dogs examined during winter. By providing basic data on the infestation with ectoparasites in client-owned, veterinary-cared-for dogs from Albania for the first time, the results of this survey should emphasize the need of an increase of attention to ectoparasites in dogs by both veterinarians and dog owners.

  8. Global trends in the production and use of DDT for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Berg, Henk; Manuweera, Gamini; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    over the period 2001-2014. Results: Available data on global production of DDT showed a 32% decline over the reporting period, from 5144 to 3491 metric tons of active ingredient p.a. Similarly, global use of DDT, for control of malaria and leishmaniasis, showed a 30% decline over the period 2001...

  9. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products

  10. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p dogs to various types of endoparasitism while the variables breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), gender, and type of food were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall endoparasitism revealed that dogs >1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs living together with other pets than that for a dog without other dogs or cats.

  11. Emerging viral diseases from a vaccinology perspective: preparing for the next pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Barney S; Sullivan, Nancy J

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases will continue to threaten public health and are sustained by global commerce, travel and disruption of ecological systems. Most pandemic threats are caused by viruses from either zoonotic sources or vector-borne sources. Developing better ways to anticipate and manage the ongoing microbial challenge will be critical for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and, conversely, each such goal will affect the ability to control infectious diseases. Here we discuss how technology can be applied effectively to better prepare for and respond to new viral diseases with a focus on new paradigms for vaccine development.

  12. Assessing bat droppings and predatory bird pellets for vector-borne bacteria: molecular evidence of bat-associated Neorickettsia sp. in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Szőke, Krisztina; Estók, Péter; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Kováts, Dávid; Boldogh, Sándor A; Morandini, Pál; Szekeres, Sándor; Takács, Nóra; Kontschán, Jenő; Meli, Marina L; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; de la Fuente, José; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Sulyok, Kinga M; Weibel, Beatrice; Gönczi, Enikő; de Bruin, Arnout; Sprong, Hein; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2018-02-28

    In Europe, several species of bats, owls and kestrels exemplify highly urbanised, flying vertebrates, which may get close to humans or domestic animals. Bat droppings and bird pellets may have epidemiological, as well as diagnostic significance from the point of view of pathogens. In this work 221 bat faecal and 118 bird pellet samples were screened for a broad range of vector-borne bacteria using PCR-based methods. Rickettsia DNA was detected in 13 bat faecal DNA extracts, including the sequence of a rickettsial insect endosymbiont, a novel Rickettsia genotype and Rickettsia helvetica. Faecal samples of the pond bat (Myotis dasycneme) were positive for a Neorickettsia sp. and for haemoplasmas of the haemofelis group. In addition, two bird pellets (collected from a Long-eared Owl, Asio otus, and from a Common Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus) contained the DNA of a Rickettsia sp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, respectively. In both of these bird pellets the bones of Microtus arvalis were identified. All samples were negative for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydiales. In conclusion, bats were shown to pass rickettsia and haemoplasma DNA in their faeces. Molecular evidence is provided for the presence of Neorickettsia sp. in bat faeces in Europe. In the evaluated regions bat faeces and owl/kestrel pellets do not appear to pose epidemiological risk from the point of view of F. tularensis, C. burnetii and Chlamydiales. Testing of bird pellets may provide an alternative approach to trapping for assessing the local occurrence of vector-borne bacteria in small mammals.

  13. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  14. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  15. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  16. Viral diseases affecting chickpea crops in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAFAA G. KUMARI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to identify virus diseases affecting chickpea crops in the major production areas of Eritrea was conducted during November 2005. The survey covered 31 randomly selected chickpea fi elds. Virus disease incidence was determined on the basis of laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly collected samples from each fi eld against antisera of 9 legume viruses. Serological tests indicated that the Luteoviruses were the most common, with an overall incidence of 5.6%, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, genus Nanovirus, family Nanoviridae (4.1% and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae (0.9%. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR test showed that the most common luteoviruses in Eritrea are Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV followed by Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Based on the fi eld symptoms observed, 29 fi elds had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and only two fi elds had an incidence of about 5%, whereas on the basis of laboratory testing, 19 fi elds had more than 6% virus incidence (three of these had an incidence of 29.5, 34.5 and 40.5%. This is the fi rst survey of chickpea viruses in Eritrea and the fi rst report of BWYV, CpCDV, CpCSV and FBNYV naturally infecting chickpea in Eritrea.

  17. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a “new” Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as “blue marble health.” Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs. PMID:29346369

  18. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  19. Effects of extreme precipitation to the distribution of infectious diseases in Taiwan, 1994-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Jean Chen

    Full Text Available The incidence of extreme precipitation has increased with the exacerbation of worldwide climate disruption. We hypothesize an association between precipitation and the distribution patterns that would affect the endemic burden of 8 infectious diseases in Taiwan, including water- and vector-borne infectious diseases. A database integrating daily precipitation and temperature, along with the infectious disease case registry for all 352 townships in the main island of Taiwan was analysed for the period from 1994 to 2008. Four precipitation levels, 350 mm, were categorized to represent quantitative differences, and their associations with each specific disease was investigated using the Generalized Additive Mixed Model and afterwards mapped on to the Geographical Information System. Daily precipitation levels were significantly correlated with all 8 mandatory-notified infectious diseases in Taiwan. For water-borne infections, extreme torrential precipitation (>350 mm/day was found to result in the highest relative risk for bacillary dysentery and enterovirus infections when compared to ordinary rain (<130 mm/day. Yet, for vector-borne diseases, the relative risk of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis increased with greater precipitation only up to 350 mm. Differential lag effects following precipitation were statistically associated with increased risk for contracting individual infectious diseases. This study's findings can help health resource sector management better allocate medical resources and be better prepared to deal with infectious disease outbreaks following future extreme precipitation events.

  20. Improving vector-borne pathogen surveillance: A laboratory-based study exploring the potential to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites in mosquito saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Jochim, Ryan; Yarnell, Michael; Ferlez, Karen Bingham; Shashikumar, Soumya; Richardson, Jason H

    2017-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogen surveillance programmes typically rely on the collection of large numbers of potential vectors followed by screening protocols focused on detecting pathogens in the arthropods. These processes are laborious, time consuming, expensive, and require screening of large numbers of samples. To streamline the surveillance process, increase sample throughput, and improve cost-effectiveness, a method to detect dengue virus and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum) by leveraging the sugar-feeding behaviour of mosquitoes and their habit of expectorating infectious agents in their saliva during feeding was investigated in this study. Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and P. falciparum infected female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were allowed to feed on honey coated Flinders Technical Associates -FTA® cards dyed with blue food colouring. The feeding resulted in deposition of saliva containing either DENV-2 particles or P. falciparum sporozoites onto the FTA card. Nucleic acid was extracted from each card and the appropriate real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was run to detect the pathogen of interest. As little as one plaque forming unit (PFU) of DENV-2 and as few as 60 P. falciparum parasites deposited on FTA cards from infected mosquitoes were detected via qPCR. Hence, their use to collect mosquito saliva for pathogen detection is a relevant technique for vector surveillance. This study provides laboratory confirmation that FTA cards can be used to capture and stabilize expectorated DENV-2 particles and P. falciparum sporozoites from infectious, sugar-feeding mosquitoes in very low numbers. Thus, the FTA card-based mosquito saliva capture method offers promise to overcome current limitations and revolutionize traditional mosquito-based pathogen surveillance programmes. Field testing and further method development are required to optimize this strategy.

  1. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Molecular Genetic Studies of Some Eye Diseases Affecting the Indian Population. Single gene disorders. Complex eye diseases. Genotype-phenotype correlation. Molecular diagnostics.

  2. TEMPORAL ORDER OF DISEASE PAIRS AFFECTS SUBSEQUENT DISEASE TRAJECTORIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mette K; Westergaard, David; Jensen, Anders Boeck

    2016-01-01

    order of appearance. We discuss these different types of disease co-occurrences, and use the two diseases "sleep apnea" and "diabetes" to showcase the approach which otherwise can be applied to any disease pair. We benefit from seven million electronic medical records covering the entire population...... of Denmark for more than 20 years. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder and it has previously been shown to be bidirectionally linked to diabetes, meaning that each disease increases the risk of acquiring the other. We confirm that there is no significant temporal relationship......, as approximately half of patients with both diseases are diagnosed with diabetes first. However, we also show that patients diagnosed with diabetes before sleep apnea have a higher disease burden compared to patients diagnosed with sleep apnea before diabetes. The study clearly demonstrates that it is not only...

  3. Chagas Disease: No Longer Exotic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-03

    This podcast is designed to inform health care providers about Chagas disease, diagnosis, and treatment and to assist in identifying infected patients.  Created: 4/3/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/8/2008.

  4. Analytic calculation of finite-population reproductive numbers for direct- and vector-transmitted diseases with homogeneous mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Lindsay; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    The basic reproductive number, R0, provides a foundation for evaluating how various factors affect the incidence of infectious diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that, particularly for vector-transmitted diseases, R0 should be modified to account for the effects of finite host population within a single disease transmission generation. Here, we use a transmission factor approach to calculate such "finite-population reproductive numbers," under the assumption of homogeneous mixing, for both vector-borne and directly transmitted diseases. In the case of vector-borne diseases, we estimate finite-population reproductive numbers for both host-to-host and vector-to-vector generations, assuming that the vector population is effectively infinite. We find simple, interpretable formulas for all three of these quantities. In the direct case, we find that finite-population reproductive numbers diverge from R0 before R0 reaches half of the population size. In the vector-transmitted case, we find that the host-to-host number diverges at even lower values of R0, while the vector-to-vector number diverges very little over realistic parameter ranges.

  5. Carrion’s disease: an eradicable illness?

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Cláudia; Pons, Maria J.; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana Mercedes; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Carrion's disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, a vector-borne pathogen restricted to the Andean valleys of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Carrion's disease is a biphasic illness; in the acute phase the case-fatality rate can be as high as 88 %, related to high parasitemia, arriving to almost all erythrocytes, and secondary bacterial infections c...

  6. Economics of vector-borne diseases prevention: The case of the Tiger Mosquito control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention plan in the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Morales, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is considered one of the most invasive mosquito species in the world. It has proved capacity for local transmission of Chikungunya and Dengue within Europe. This research evaluated public costs related to the implementation of the plan for Ae. albopictus control and Chikungunya and Dengue prevention set up in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), where a Chikungunya epidemic outbreak occurred in 2007, with 217 confirmed cases. The management plan started in 2008 by involvin...

  7. Sociocultural factors influencing control and prevention of vector-borne diseases: The case of zika in Santa Marta (Colombia, 2015-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Lorena Perafán Ledezma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 2016, el grupo de Investigación en Diversidad Humana (IDHUM de la Universidad del Magdalena inició un proceso de investigación sobre conocimientos, percepciones y prácticas en torno al Zika y su vector en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Dado lo relevante del tema para la salud pública, consideramos pertinente comunicar a través de este medio algunos de nuestros hallazgos antes de terminar la investigación y que esta se publique en su totalidad.

  8. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Ayala, C; Medina Lara, A

    2002-06-01

    A study of unit costs and cost components of two malaria-control strategies (house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides) was undertaken in 11 malaria-endemic states (departamentos) of Colombia, using data provided by control staff on self-administered questionnaires. The accuracy of the data was verified by personal visits, telephone conversations and complementary information from 10 other states. Allthe financial-cost components of the malaria-control operations carried out in the previous 6 months and the results of the control operations themselves (including the numbers of houses sprayed and numbers of bednets impregnated/day) were recorded. The information was stratified according to whether the target communities were 'near' or 'far away' from an operational base, the far-away communities being those that needed overnight stays by the control staff. The main variables analysed were unit costs/house treated, and annual cost/person protected. The results show that house spraying was generally more expensive for the health services than bednet impregnation. This is particularly the case in 'nearby' communities, where most of those at-risk live. In such communities, spraying one house was 7.2 times more expensive than impregnating one bednet. Even if only those sleeping under an impregnated net were assumed to be protected, the unit costs/person protected in a 'nearby' community were twice as high for house spraying than for bednet impregnation. In 'nearby' communities, where technicians could return to the operational base each evening, insecticides made up 80% of the total spraying costs and 42% of the costs of bednet impregnation. In 'far-away' communities, however, salaries and 'per diems' were the most important cost components, representing, respectively, 23% and 22% of the costs of spraying, and 34% plus 27% of the costs of impregnation. Insecticide wastage and non-use of discounts on insecticide prices (available through the national Ministry of Health) increased the overall costs considerably. The multiple uses of these cost calculations for district health managers are presented.

  9. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hii, J.; Soares, A.; Mnzava, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.; Tan, S.H.; Matthews, G.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods: A

  10. Why Did Zika Not Explode in Cuba? The Role of Active Community Participation to Sustain Control of Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Pérez, Dennis; Guzman, Maria G; Barrington, Clare

    2017-08-01

    As the global public health community develops strategies for sustainable Zika prevention and control, assessment of the Cuban response to Zika provides critical lessons learned. Cuba's early and successful response to Zika, grounded in the country's long-standing dengue prevention and control program, serves as a model of rapid mobilization of intersectoral efforts. Sustaining this response requires applying the evidence generated within the Cuban dengue program that active community participation improves outcomes and is sustainable and cost-effective. There is also a need for implementation science efforts to assess the transferability of lessons learned from Zika prevention and control to other pathogens and from one context to another in addition to how to take these efforts to scale.

  11. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  12. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  13. What Teachers Need to Know about Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lysandra

    2009-01-01

    Although widely misunderstood, Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector borne disease in the United States. Children are the most at-risk group for Lyme disease, which can impact every system in the body. It can produce the musculo-skeletal, neurologic, psychiatric, opthalmologic, and cardiac symptoms. The symptoms of Lyme disease can have a…

  14. Tick-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Robert L; Corey, Ralph

    2005-06-15

    Tick-borne diseases in the United States include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, and relapsing fever. It is important for family physicians to consider these illnesses when patients present with influenza-like symptoms. A petechial rash initially affecting the palms and soles of the feet is associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, whereas erythema migrans (annular macule with central clearing) is associated with Lyme disease. Various other rashes or skin lesions accompanied by fever and influenza-like illness also may signal the presence of a tick-borne disease. Early, accurate diagnosis allows treatment that may help prevent significant morbidity and possible mortality. Because 24 to 48 hours of attachment to the host are required for infection to occur, early removal can help prevent disease. Treatment with doxycycline or tetracycline is indicated for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and relapsing fever. In patients with clinical findings suggestive of tick-borne disease, treatment should not be delayed for laboratory confirmation. If no symptoms follow exposure to tick bites, empiric treatment is not indicated. The same tick may harbor different infectious pathogens and transmit several with one bite. Advising patients about prevention of tick bites, especially in the summer months, may help prevent exposure to dangerous vector-borne diseases.

  15. Affective disorders and endocrine disease. New insights from psychosomatic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, G A

    1994-01-01

    This is a review of psychosomatic interactions between affective disorders (depressive and anxiety disturbances, irritable mood) and endocrine disease. Particular reference is made to stressful life events in the pathogenesis of endocrine disease, psychopathology of hormonal disturbances, and pathophysiology of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in depression and Cushing's disease. These psychosomatic interactions may lead to appraisal of common etiological mechanisms in endocrine and psychiatric disorders, of the value of retaining the category of organic affective syndromes in psychiatric classification, and of the need for research on quality-of-life measures in endocrine disease. The establishment of "psychoendocrine units," where both endocrinologists and psychiatrists should work, is advocated. Such psychoendocrine units may serve and benefit clinical populations who currently defy traditional medical subdivisions.

  16. Elemental composition changes in citrus affected by the CVC disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai Fernandes de, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Turra, C.; Franca de, E.J.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) disease results in serious economical losses for the Brazilian citriculture. The influence of CVC disease on the elemental composition of citrus plants was investigated. Leaves of sweet orange varieties Hamlin, Pera Rio and Valencia were collected from healthy and CVC-affected trees for chemical characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Significant differences between healthy and CVC-affected leaves were identified for Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, K, La, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc and Sm. Rare earth elements presented consistently higher mass fractions in the healthy leaves. (author)

  17. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Some factors that possibly affect tropical disease distribution was investigated in about 500 randomize human dwellings. The studied factors include wild animals, domestic animals, wild plants, cultivated plants, nature of soil, nature of water, positions of human dwellings, nature of building material and position of animal ...

  18. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pafumi (Carlo); V. Leanza (Vito); L. Coco (Luana); S. Vizzini (Stefania); L. Ciotta (Lilliana); A. Messina (Alessandra); G. Zarbo (Giuseppe); A. D'Agati (Alfio); M.A. Palumbo (Marco Antonio); A. Iemmola (Alessandra); F.A. Gulino (Ferdinando Antonio); M.C. Teodoro (Maria Cristina); M. Attard (Matthew); A.C. Plesca (Alina Cristina); C. Soares (Catarina); N. Kouloubis (Nina); M. Chammas (Mayada)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100

  19. Population dynamics and infectious diseases in Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sleigh, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    ... such as SARS. David J BRADLEY is Ross Professor of Tropical Hygiene Emeritus at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University. He has worked on the epidemiology and control of vector-borne and infectious diseases, water in relation to health, and concepts in international h...

  20. Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Epidemiological studies in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRickettsial diseases are vector-borne zoonoses caused by obligate intracellular bacteria within the order Rickettsiales, which was previously described as short, Gram-negative rod bacteria that retained basic fuchsin when stained by the method of Gimenez. As development in molecular

  1. Cognitive and Affective Correlates of Temperament in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pluck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD patients display low novelty seeking scores on the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ, which may reflect the low dopamine function that characterises the disease. People with PD also display raised harm avoidance scores. Due to these and other observations, a “parkinsonian personality” has been suggested. However, little is known about how these features relate to cognitive and affective disorders, which are also common in PD. We examined links between TPQ scores and performance on an attentional orienting task in a sample of 20 people with PD. In addition, associations between TPQ and depression and anxiety scores were explored. It was found that novelty seeking scores were significantly correlated with a reaction time measure of attentional orienting to visual novelty. Harm avoidance scores were significantly correlated with anxiety, but not depression scores. These findings extend our understanding of how temperament interacts with cognitive and affective features of the disorder.

  2. Caregiver roles in families affected by Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this study was to explore family caregivers' experiences with the impact of Huntington's disease (HD) on the family structure and roles in the family. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed 15 family caregivers in families affected by HD, based on a semi-structured interview guide...... for impairments by taking on adult responsibilities, and in some families, a child had the role as main caregiver. The increasing need for care could cause conflicts between the role as family member and family caregiver. The burden of care within the family could fragment and isolate the family. CONCLUSIONS......: Huntington's disease has a major impact on family systems. Caregiver roles are shaped by impairments in the affected family member and corresponding dynamic adoption and change in roles within the family. Making assessments of the family structure and roles, professionals may understand more about how...

  3. Prevalence of coeliac disease in Italian patients affected by Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Campanella, Jonia; Soriani, Alessandra; Vailati, Alberto; Corazza, Gino R

    2006-03-01

    It is well known that coeliac disease is associated with autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as autoimmune thyroid disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Recently, coeliac disease has been shown in approximately 10% of patients with autoimmune Addison's disease. Addison's disease is the most common cause of primary adrenocortical insufficiency and it shares several clinical features with coeliac disease. Although hyperpigmentation and hypotension are the most specific signs, gastrointestinal symptoms are common and can be the first complaints of the patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of coeliac disease in Italian patients with Addison's disease. Seventeen consecutive patients affected by Addison's disease (14 F, mean age 53.9 years, range 26-79 years) were enrolled in the study. Eleven of them were affected by Addison's disease associated with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; the other 6 patients were suffering from isolated Addison's disease. Diagnosis had been performed at the age of 40.5 years (range 23-55). Steroid treatment had already been started in 16 of the patients. Endomysial antibodies were tested in all of them and a duodenal biopsy was taken in those found to be positive for antiendomysial antibody (EMA). One out of 17 patients was found to be EMA positive. Duodenal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease by showing subtotal villous atrophy. Although we studied only a small sample, our preliminary results confirmed that Addison's disease is associated with coeliac disease, being present in 5.9% of patients with Addison's disease. Since the symptoms can be similar and treatment of Addison's disease can mask coeliac disease, this association should always be actively investigated.

  4. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  5. What affects the quality of life in autoimmune Addison's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G; Hackemann, A; Penna-Martinez, M; Badenhoop, K

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have shown a reduced quality of life in patients with Addison's disease, but little is known about the potential influences. We determined the quality of life in 200 patients with Addison's disease using an Addison's disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire. Data about first symptoms, time to diagnosis and current medication were collected by questionnaires. With increasing latency between first symptoms and diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency, the quality of life decreased in highly significant manner (pdisease (p=0.05), atrophic gastritis (p=0.01) and primary ovarian failure (p=0.01) were highly correlated with reduced scores. Quality of life was significantly lower in female patients and in those with manifestation at older ages. With more autoimmune comorbidities, the quality of life scores dropped. The most important factor, however, was latency between first symptoms and diagnosis that affected patients' quality of life even years after manifestation of the disease. These results confirm and extend previous observations and emphasize the importance of a timely diagnosis. Therefore, medical awareness for this rare but easily treatable disorder needs to be sharpened. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Prion protein polymorphisms affect chronic wasting disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Analysis of the PRNP gene in cervids naturally infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD suggested that PRNP polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of deer to infection. To test this effect, we orally inoculated 12 white-tailed deer with CWD agent. Three different PRNP alleles, wild-type (wt; glutamine at amino acid 95 and glycine at 96, Q95H (glutamine to histidine at amino acid position 95 and G96S (glycine to serine at position 96 were represented in the study cohort with 5 wt/wt, 3 wt/G96S, and 1 each wt/Q95H and Q95H/G96S. Two animals were lost to follow-up due to intercurrent disease. The inoculum was prepared from Wisconsin hunter-harvested homozygous wt/wt animals. All infected deer presented with clinical signs of CWD; the orally infected wt/wt had an average survival period of 693 days post inoculation (dpi and G96S/wt deer had an average survival period of 956 dpi. The Q95H/wt and Q95H/G96S deer succumbed to CWD at 1,508 and 1,596 dpi respectively. These data show that polymorphisms in the PRNP gene affect CWD incubation period. Deer heterozygous for the PRNP alleles had extended incubation periods with the Q95H allele having the greatest effect.

  7. A practical approach to diseases affecting dentate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadilkar, S.; Jaggi, S.; Patel, B.; Yadav, R.; Hanagandi, P.; Faria do Amaral, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of diseases affect the dentate nuclei. When faced with the radiological demonstration of signal changes in the dentate nuclei, radiologists and clinical neurologists have to sieve through the many possibilities, which they do not encounter on a regular basis. This task can be challenging, and therefore, developing a clinical, radiological, and laboratory approach is important. Information on the topic is scattered and the subject has not yet been reviewed. In this review, a combined clinicoradiological approach is presented. The signal changes in T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), diffusion, susceptibility weighted, and gadolinium-enhanced images can give specific or highly suggestive patterns, which are illustrated. The role of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnostic process is discussed. Specific radiological patterns do not exist in a significant proportion of patients where the clinical and laboratory analysis becomes important. In this review, we group the clinical constellations to narrow down the differential diagnosis and highlight the diagnostic clinical signs, such as tendon xanthomas and Kayser–Fleischer rings. As will be seen, a number of these conditions are potentially reversible, and hence, their early diagnosis is desirable. Finally, key diagnostic tests and available therapies are outlined. The practical approach thus begins with the radiologist and winds its way through the clinician, towards carefully selected diagnostic tests defining the therapy options. - Highlights: • Dentate nuclei are affected in leukodystrophies, metabolic, toxic, neurodegenerative, inflammatory and infectious diseases. • A number of these diseases are modifiable or reversible and hence it is important to diagnose them early. • Clinical or radiological tell-tale markers are present in a proportion of them. • In others, a practical approach beginning with radiology and taking help of clinical and laboratory features helps the

  8. Frequency-Dependent Disease Transmission and the Dynamics of the Silene-Ustilago Host-Pathogen System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrall, P.H.; Biere, A.; Uyenoyama, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Models incorporating density-dependent disease transmission functions generally provide a good fit for airborne and directly transmitted bacterial or viral diseases. However, the transmission dynamics of sexually transmitted and vector-borne diseases are likely to be frequency- rather than density-

  9. Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2012-09-01

    The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector

  10. Regional Warming and Emerging Vector-Borne Zoonotic Dirofilariosis in the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and Other Post-Soviet States from 1981 to 2011 and Projection by 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kartashev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze through a climatic model the influence of regional warming on the geographical spreading and potential risk of infection of human dirofilariosis in Russia, Ukraine, and other post-Soviet states from 1981 to 2011 and estimate the situation by 2030. The model correctly predicts the spatiotemporal location of 97.10% of 2154 clinical cases reported in the area during the studied period, identified by a retrospective review of the literature. There exists also a significant correlation between annual predicted Dirofilaria generations and calculated morbidity. The model states the progressive increase of 14.8% in the potential transmission area, up to latitude 64°N, and 14.7% in population exposure. By 2030 an increase of 18.5% in transmission area and 10.8% in population exposure is expected. These findings strongly suggest the influence of global warming in both geographical spreading and increase in the number of Dirofilaria generations. The results should alert about the epidemiological behavior of dirofilariosis and other mosquito-borne diseases in these and other countries with similar climatic characteristics.

  11. Regional warming and emerging vector-borne zoonotic dirofilariosis in the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and other post-Soviet states from 1981 to 2011 and projection by 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashev, Vladimir; Afonin, Alexandr; González-Miguel, Javier; Sepúlveda, Rosa; Simón, Luis; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We analyze through a climatic model the influence of regional warming on the geographical spreading and potential risk of infection of human dirofilariosis in Russia, Ukraine, and other post-Soviet states from 1981 to 2011 and estimate the situation by 2030. The model correctly predicts the spatiotemporal location of 97.10% of 2154 clinical cases reported in the area during the studied period, identified by a retrospective review of the literature. There exists also a significant correlation between annual predicted Dirofilaria generations and calculated morbidity. The model states the progressive increase of 14.8% in the potential transmission area, up to latitude 64 °N, and 14.7% in population exposure. By 2030 an increase of 18.5% in transmission area and 10.8% in population exposure is expected. These findings strongly suggest the influence of global warming in both geographical spreading and increase in the number of Dirofilaria generations. The results should alert about the epidemiological behavior of dirofilariosis and other mosquito-borne diseases in these and other countries with similar climatic characteristics.

  12. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious...

  13. Molecular entomology: analyzing tiny molecules to answer big questions about disease vectors and their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomologists at the Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit at USDA-Agricultural Research Service are tasked with protecting the nation’s livestock from domestic, foreign and emerging vector-borne diseases. To accomplish this task, a vast array of molecular techniques are being used in pr...

  14. The importance of age dependent mortality and the extrinsic incubation period in models of mosquito-borne disease transmission and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve E Bellan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all mathematical models of vector-borne diseases have assumed that vectors die at constant rates. However, recent empirical research suggests that mosquito mortality rates are frequently age dependent. This work develops a simple mathematical model to assess how relaxing the classical assumption of constant mortality affects the predicted effectiveness of anti-vectorial interventions. The effectiveness of mosquito control when mosquitoes die at age dependent rates was also compared across different extrinsic incubation periods. Compared to a more realistic age dependent model, constant mortality models overestimated the sensitivity of disease transmission to interventions that reduce mosquito survival. Interventions that reduce mosquito survival were also found to be slightly less effective when implemented in systems with shorter EIPs. Future transmission models that examine anti-vectorial interventions should incorporate realistic age dependent mortality rates.

  15. Parkinson disease affects peripheral sensory nerves in the pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Chen, Jingming; Su, Hungxi; Sanders, Ira; Nyirenda, Themba; Adler, Charles H; Shill, Holly A; Caviness, John N; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2013-07-01

    Dysphagia is very common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and often leads to aspiration pneumonia, the most common cause of death in PD. Current therapies are largely ineffective for dysphagia. Because pharyngeal sensation normally triggers the swallowing reflex, we examined pharyngeal sensory nerves in PD patients for Lewy pathology.Sensory nerves supplying the pharynx were excised from autopsied pharynges obtained from patients with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (n = 10) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 4). We examined the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX), the pharyngeal sensory branch of the vagus nerve (PSB-X), and the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) innervating the laryngopharynx. Immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated α-synuclein was used to detect Lewy pathology. Axonal α-synuclein aggregates in the pharyngeal sensory nerves were identified in all of the PD subjects but not in the controls. The density of α-synuclein-positive lesions was greater in PD patients with dysphagia versus those without dysphagia. In addition, α-synuclein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in the ISLN were much more abundant than those in cranial nerve IX and PSB-X. These findings suggest that pharyngeal sensory nerves are directly affected by pathologic processes in PD. These abnormalities may decrease pharyngeal sensation, thereby impairing swallowing and airway protective reflexes and contributing to dysphagia and aspiration.

  16. Renal replacement therapy for rare diseases affecting the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wühl, Elke; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Wanner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, increased efforts have been undertaken to address the needs of patients with rare diseases by international initiatives and consortia devoted to rare disease research and management. However, information on the overall prevalence of rare diseases within the end-stage...

  17. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  18. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  19. How patient positioning affects radiographic signs of canine lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, P.F.; Green, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A single radiographic projection risks missing signs of lung disease. Four case reports of dogs are given to emphasize inadequate visualization with just one or two radiographs. It is advisable to take both right and left lateral views along with a dorsoventral view in a patient, that might have lung disease

  20. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jonathan M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  1. The poorest of the poor: a poverty appraisal of households affected by visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelaert, M; Meheus, F; Sanchez, A; Singh, S P; Vanlerberghe, V; Picado, A; Meessen, B; Sundar, S

    2009-06-01

    To provide data about wealth distribution in visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-affected communities compared to that of the general population of Bihar State, India. After extensive disease risk mapping, 16 clusters with high VL transmission were selected in Bihar. An exhaustive census of all households in the clusters was conducted and socio-economic household characteristics were documented by questionnaire. Data on the general Bihar population taken from the National Family Health Survey of India were used for comparison. An asset index was developed based on Principal Components Analysis and the distribution of this asset index for the VL communities was compared with that of the general population of Bihar. 83% of households in communities with high VL attack rates belonged to the two lowest quintiles of the Bihar wealth distribution. All socio-economic indicators showed significantly lower wealth for those households. Visceral leishmaniasis clearly affects the poorest of the poor in India. They are most vulnerable, as this vector-born disease is linked to poor housing and unhealthy habitats. The disease leads the affected households to more destitution because of its impact on household income and wealth. Support for the present VL elimination initiative is important in the fight against poverty.

  2. Common fish diseases and parasites affecting wild and farmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensification of aquaculture production in Uganda is likely to result into disease out-breaks leading to economic losses to commercial fish farms and associated natural aquatic ecosystems. This survey assessed health profiles of selected commercial fish farms and adjacent natural aquatic ecosystemsto identify fish ...

  3. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to

  4. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    for the sandflies which is the vector of visceral leishmaniasis. It seems that the effect of microclimate was not on the considerations of villagers to build their dwellings as the very dense of date palms trees, vegetable farms and irrigation canals which are a determinant factors in the prevalence of diseases. Some dwellings ...

  5. Dopaminergic medication affects choice bias in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, A.J.M. van; Helmich, R.C.G.; Dirkx, M.F.M.; Zach, H.; Bloem, B.R.; Toni, I.; Cools, R.; Ouden, H.E.M. den

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess dopaminergic effects on choice bias in Parkinson's disease (PD). Background: Bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor are the core symptoms of PD, but many patients also suffer from cognitive dysfunction. For instance, PD patients have an increased tendency to learn from aversive

  6. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Semantic Trouble Sources and Their Repair in Conversations Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika; Bloch, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dysarthria arising from Parkinson's disease may affect intelligibility in conversational interaction. Research has also shown that Parkinson's disease may affect cognition and cause word-retrieval difficulties and pragmatic problems in the use of language. However, it is not known whether or how these…

  8. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  9. Does ageism affect the management of ischaemic heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Matthew; Bowling, Ann; McKee, Dorothy; Kennelly, Marian; Banning, Adrian P; Dudley, Nigel; Elder, Andrew; Martin, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    To analyse access by age to exercise testing, coronary angiography, revascularisation (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty/stent insertion and coronary artery bypass graft surgery) and receipt of thrombolysis, where indicated, for hospital patients with diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Retrospective case note analysis, tracking each case backwards and forwards by 12 months from the patient's date of entry to the study. The setting was a district hospital in the eastern part of outer London. The case notes eligible for inclusion were those of elective and emergency in-patients with an in-patient ICD-10 code of ischaemic heart disease, angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction and a consecutive 20% sample of new cardiac outpatients with these diagnoses. Analysis of 712 case notes showed that older hospital patients with ischaemic heart disease, and with indications for further investigation, were less likely than younger people to be referred for exercise tolerance tests and cardiac catheterisation and angiography. This was independent of both gender and severity of condition. Older patients did not appear to be discriminated against in relation to receipt of indicated treatments (revascularisation or thrombolysis), although, in the case of revascularisation, older patients were more likely to have been filtered out at the investigation stage (catheterisation and angiography), so selection bias partly explains this finding. The current findings from a single hospital are comparable with the results from a broader study of equity of access by age to cardiological interventions in another district hospital in the same region. Although only two hospitals were analysed, the similarity of findings enhances the generalisability of the results presented here. It appears that age per se causes older cardiac hospital patients to be treated differently.

  10. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with 99m Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA)

  11. Case report 387: Gaucher disease affecting the skeleton (left femur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabas, J.H.; Daffner, R.H.; Hartsock, R.J.; Blakley, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A case is described of a non-Jewish (Italian) 49-year-old man who presented to the hospital with pain in the left hip. Radionuclide studies showed decreased tracer activity with /sup 99m/Tc MDP over a lytic area in the subtrochanteric region of the left femur. Increased activity, however, was present in the right temporal bone, low anterior rib cage and right tenth posterior rib. The presence of subendosteal sclerosis with some cortical thickening adjacent to the femoral lesion, suggested the possibility of malignant neoplasm, (e.g. chondrosarcoma). Biopsy of the bone marrow showed the presence of Gaucher disease. (orig./SHA).

  12. Postnatal Infections and Immunology Affecting Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhuber, Gloria S

    2015-12-01

    Premature infants suffer significant respiratory morbidity during infancy with long-term negative consequences on health, quality of life, and health care costs. Enhanced susceptibility to a variety of infections and inflammation play a large role in early and prolonged lung disease following premature birth, although the mechanisms of susceptibility and immune dysregulation are active areas of research. This article reviews aspects of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses that are altered by preterm birth and that impact chronic respiratory morbidity in these children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Marié, Jean-Lou

    2009-08-26

    Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.

  14. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  15. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  16. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  17. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that

  18. Framing obesity a disease: Indirect effects of affect and controllability beliefs on weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela S; MacInnis, Cara; Ellard, John H; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2018-05-24

    Obesity has been declared a disease by the American and Canadian Medical Associations. Although these declarations sparked much debate as to the impact of framing obesity as a disease on weight bias, strong empirical research is needed to examine this impact. The current study examined the impact of framing obesity a disease on weight bias, focusing on moderating and mediating processes. A sample of 309 participants living in the United States or Canada was recruited from Crowdflower. Participants completed measures of demographics, ideology, general attitudes, and previous contact quality and quantity with people living with obesity. Participants then read one of three articles as part of an experimental manipulation framing obesity as a disease, obesity not as a disease, and a control article unrelated to obesity. Post-manipulation included measures of affect, disgust, empathy, blame, and weight bias. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the obesity-disease condition to the obesity-not-disease condition and control condition. The manipulation had a direct effect on affect (emotions), such that affect toward individuals with obesity was more positive in the obesity-disease condition than the obesity-not-disease and control condition combined. Exploration of moderating effects revealed that both the belief in a just world and weight satisfaction moderated the relationship between the obesity-disease manipulation and blame for obesity. Two models of indirect effects on weight bias were also examined, which demonstrated that the obesity-disease manipulation predicted less weight bias through more positive affect (model 1) as well as less weight bias through decreased blame among individuals high in belief in a just world (model 2). This study further highlights the complex effects of declaring obesity a disease, uncovering a new direction for future research into the role of affect as well as indirect effects of characterising obesity a disease on weight bias.

  19. Global warming and spread of infectious diseases; Globale Erwaermung und Ausbreitung von Infektionskrankheiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, B.; Fleischer, B. [Bernhard-Nocht-Institut fuer Tropenmedizin (BNI), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-01-15

    At the end of the twentieth century, tropical infectious diseases increased despite earlier successes of eradication campaigns. As a global warming of 1.4-5.8 C is anticipated to occur by 2100, mainly the vector-borne tropical diseases that are particularly sensitive to climate are expected to spread. Although biological reasons seemingly support this hypothesis, ecological and socio-economic factors have in the past proven to be stronger driving forces for the spread of infectious diseases than climate. (orig.)

  20. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Launching the first postgraduate diploma in medical entomology and disease vector control in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, H R; Mnzava, A; Bile, K M; Hafeez, A; Zaman, S

    2010-01-01

    The Health Services Academy has launched a 12-month postgraduate diploma course in medical entomology and disease vector control. The objective is to create a core of experts trained to prevent and control vector-borne diseases. The course is a response to the serious health and socioeconomic burden caused by a number of vector-borne diseases in Pakistan. The persistence, emergence and re-emergence of these diseases is mainly attributed to the scarcity of trained vector-control experts. The training course attempts to fill the gap in trained manpower and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, resulting in incremental gains to public health. This paper aims to outline the steps taken to establish the course and the perceived challenges to be addressed in order to sustain its future implementation.

  2. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  3. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  4. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  5. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aka Akt?rk, ?lk?; G?rek Dilekta?l?, Asl?; ?eng?l, Aysun; Musaffa Salep?i, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; D?ger, Mustafa; Ar?k Ta?y?kan, Hale; Durmu? Ko?ak, Nagihan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admi...

  6. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, C.; Lindsay, S.W.; Chitnis, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between th...

  7. Tropical diseases on insurgence: Clinician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Chatterjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many known and unknown factors play a synergistic role in the emergence or re-emergence of some infections in a particular area or country. In recent years, India has seen a significant increase in the prevalence of many viral or bacterial diseases. Many are vector borne and are zoonotic disease while others have different source and mode of transmission. These diseases are often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Five important diseases such as leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, and leishmaniasis have been discussed in this article.

  8. Normal and mutant HTT interact to affect clinical severity and progression in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, N A; Jurgens, C K; Landwehrmeyer, G B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene (HTT). We aimed to assess whether interaction between CAG repeat sizes in the mutant and normal allele could affect disease severity and progression. METHODS: Using...... with less severe symptoms and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing CAG repeat size in normal HTT diminishes the association between mutant CAG repeat size and disease severity and progression in Huntington disease. The underlying mechanism may involve interaction of the polyglutamine domains of normal...

  9. Chronic disease management: does the disease affect likelihood of care planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Ramsay, Emmae N; Ryan, Philip; Caughey, Gillian E; Esterman, Adrian; Shakib, Sepehr; Gilbert, Andrew L; McDermott, Robyn

    2012-11-01

    To compare the demographic, socioeconomic, and medical characteristics of patients who had a General Practitioner Management Plan (GPMP) with those for patients without GPMP. Cohort study of patients with chronic diseases during the time period 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2008 using the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) claims database. Of the 88 128 veterans with chronic diseases included in the study, 23 015 (26%) veterans had a GPMP and 11 089 (13%) had a Team Care Arrangement (TCA). Those with a GPMP had a higher number of comorbidities (P<0.001), and a higher use of services such as health assessment and medicine review (P<0.001) than did those without GPMP. Diabetes was associated with a significantly increased use of GPMP compared with all other chronic diseases except heart failure. GPMPs are used in a minority of patients with chronic diseases. Use is highest in people with diabetes.

  10. Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis and their vectors in Europe. New distribution trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eMorchón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002-2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10 years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs towards central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out.

  11. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  12. Using internet search queries for infectious disease surveillance: screening diseases for suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Avril, Simon M R; Clements, Archie C A; Brownstein, John S; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-12-31

    Internet-based surveillance systems provide a novel approach to monitoring infectious diseases. Surveillance systems built on internet data are economically, logistically and epidemiologically appealing and have shown significant promise. The potential for these systems has increased with increased internet availability and shifts in health-related information seeking behaviour. This approach to monitoring infectious diseases has, however, only been applied to single or small groups of select diseases. This study aims to systematically investigate the potential for developing surveillance and early warning systems using internet search data, for a wide range of infectious diseases. Official notifications for 64 infectious diseases in Australia were downloaded and correlated with frequencies for 164 internet search terms for the period 2009-13 using Spearman's rank correlations. Time series cross correlations were performed to assess the potential for search terms to be used in construction of early warning systems. Notifications for 17 infectious diseases (26.6%) were found to be significantly correlated with a selected search term. The use of internet metrics as a means of surveillance has not previously been described for 12 (70.6%) of these diseases. The majority of diseases identified were vaccine-preventable, vector-borne or sexually transmissible; cross correlations, however, indicated that vector-borne and vaccine preventable diseases are best suited for development of early warning systems. The findings of this study suggest that internet-based surveillance systems have broader applicability to monitoring infectious diseases than has previously been recognised. Furthermore, internet-based surveillance systems have a potential role in forecasting emerging infectious disease events, especially for vaccine-preventable and vector-borne diseases.

  13. Differential glucose metabolism in mice and humans affected by McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is a disease caused by myophosphorylase deficiency leading to "blocked" glycogen breakdown. A significant but varying glycogen accumulation in especially distal hind limb muscles of mice affected by McArdle disease has recently been demonstrated......, which could lead to lower glycogen accumulation. In comparison, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus had massive glycogen accumulation, but few, if any, changes or adaptations in glucose metabolism compared with wild-type mice. The findings suggest plasticity in glycogen metabolism....... In this study, we investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects glucose metabolism in hind limb muscle of 20-wk-old McArdle mice and vastus lateralis muscles from patients with McArdle disease. Western blot analysis and activity assay demonstrated that glycogen synthase was inhibited in glycolytic muscle...

  14. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamagishi; Takuya Sato; Atsushi Sato; Toru Imamura

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ...

  15. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  16. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  17. Microbiome analysis of a disease affecting the deep-sea sponge Geodia barretti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luter, Heidi M; Bannister, Raymond J; Whalan, Steve; Kutti, Tina; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Webster, Nicole S

    2017-05-24

    Reports of sponge disease are becoming increasingly frequent, although almost all instances involve shallow-water, tropical species. Here, we describe the first disease affecting the deep-water sponge, Geodia barretti. The disease is characterised by brown/black discolouration of the sponge tissue, extensive levels of tissue disintegration and increased levels of fouling. Disease prevalence was quantified using video survey transects conducted between 100 and 220 meters in Korsfjorden, Norway and the microbial communities of healthy and diseased sponges were compared using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Highly divergent community profiles were evident between the different health states; with distinct community shifts involving higher relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Deltaproteobacteria in diseased individuals. In addition, three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were exclusively present in diseased individuals and were shared between the disease lesions and the apparently healthy tissue of diseased individuals, suggesting a non-localised infection or dysbiosis. Genomic analysis of the G. barretti microbiome combined with experimental work to assess the mechanisms of infection will further elucidate the role of microorganisms in the disease. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

  19. Affected parent sex and severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a retrospective cohort study
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Kristen L; Chonchol, Michel; You, Zhiying; Gupta, Malika; Gitomer, Berenice

    2018-03-01

    Parental inheritance may differentially affect autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (-ADPKD) severity via genetic imprinting or in utero epigenetic modifications; however, evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal retrospective cohort study to assess the association between sex of the affected parent and time to hypertension diagnosis, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and death in patients with the PKD1 genotype. 814 individuals who participated in research at the University of Colorado were studied. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. The predictor was parental sex, and outcomes were diagnosis of hypertension, progression to ESRD, and death. We also examined associations in four strata according to affected parent and participant sex, as previous studies have reported earlier onset of ESRD in males compared to females. The median follow-up for each outcome was as follows: hypertension, 30 (interquartile range (IQR): 18, 37); ESRD, 43 (IQR: 31, 52), death 39 (IQR: 25, 52) years of age. Among affected offspring in the entire cohort, there was no difference in hypertension diagnosis (p = 0.97) or progression to ESRD (p = 0.79) according to affected parent sex; however, participants with an affected mother were more likely to die than participants with an affected father (p father (p < 0.01) but not when the affected parent was the mother (p ≥ 0.11). Our results are largely in contrast to the hypothesis that severity of ADPKD is worse with maternal inheritance of disease.
.

  20. Acetazolamide as a vasodilatory stimulus in cerebrovascular diseases and in conditions affecting the cerebral vasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settakis, G.; Molnár, C.; Kerényi, L.; Kollár, J.; Legemate, D.; Csiba, L.; Fülesdi, B.

    2003-01-01

    Pathologic processes affecting the brain vessels may damage cerebral vasodilatory capacity. Early detection of cerebral dysfunction plays an important role in the prevention of cerebrovascular diseases. In recent decades acetazolamide (AZ) has frequently been used for this purpose. In the present

  1. Changing Patterns of Emerging Zoonotic Diseases in Wildlife, Domestic Animals, and Humans Linked to Biodiversity Loss and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2017-12-15

    The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers. Selected emerging zoonoses including RNA viruses, Rift Valley fever, trypanosomiasis, Hanta virus infection, and other vector-borne diseases are discussed in detail. Also, coprophagous beetles are proposed as important vectors in the transmission and maintenance of infectious pathogens. An overview of the impacts of climate change in emerging disease ecology within the context of Brazil as a case study is provided. Animal Care and Use Committee requirements were investigated, concluding that ecology journals have low rates of explicit statements regarding the welfare and wellbing of wildlife during experimental studies. Most of the solutions to protect biodiversity and predicting and preventing the next epidemic in humans originating from wildlife are oriented towards the developed world and are less useful for biodiverse, low-income economies. We need the development of regional policies to address these issues at the local level.

  2. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings...... to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray...... no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus...

  3. Ecosystem screening approach for pathogen-associated microorganisms affecting host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiana, Eric; Marais, Antoine; Mura, Catherine; Industri, Benoît; Arbiol, Gilles; Ponchet, Michel

    2011-09-01

    The microbial community in which a pathogen evolves is fundamental to disease outcome. Species interacting with a pathogen on the host surface shape the distribution, density, and genetic diversity of the inoculum, but the role of these species is rarely determined. The screening method developed here can be used to characterize pathogen-associated species affecting disease. This strategy involves three steps: (i) constitution of the microbial community, using the pathogen as a trap; (ii) community selection, using extracts from the pathogen as the sole nutrient source; and (iii) molecular identification and the screening of isolates focusing on their effects on the growth of the pathogen in vitro and host disease. This approach was applied to a soilborne plant pathogen, Phytophthora parasitica, structured in a biofilm, for screening the microbial community from the rhizosphere of Nicotiana tabacum (the host). Two of the characterized eukaryotes interfered with the oomycete cycle and may affect the host disease. A Vorticella species acted through a mutualistic interaction with P. parasitica, disseminating pathogenic material by leaving the biofilm. A Phoma species established an amensal interaction with P. parasitica, strongly suppressing disease by inhibiting P. parasitica germination. This screening method is appropriate for all nonobligate pathogens. It allows the definition of microbial species as promoters or suppressors of a disease for a given biotope. It should also help to identify important microbial relationships for ecology and evolution of pathogens.

  4. NMR metabolomics of esca disease-affected Vitis vinifera cv. Alvarinho leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marta R M; Felgueiras, Mafalda L; Graça, Gonçalo; Rodrigues, João E A; Barros, António; Gil, Ana M; Dias, Alberto C P

    2010-09-01

    Esca is a destructive disease that affects vineyards leading to important losses in wine production. Information about the response of Vitis vinifera plants to this disease is scarce, particularly concerning changes in plant metabolism. In order to study the metabolic changes in Vitis plants affected by esca, leaves from both infected and non-affected cordons of V. vinifera cv. Alvarinho (collected in the Vinho Verde region, Portugal) were analysed. The metabolite composition of leaves from infected cordons with visible symptoms [diseased leaves (dl)] and from asymptomatic cordons [healthy leaves (hl)] was evaluated by 1D and 2D (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR spectra showed a clear separation between dl and hl leaves, indicating differential compound production due to the esca disease. NMR/PCA analysis allowed the identification of specific compounds characterizing each group, and the corresponding metabolic pathways are discussed. Altogether, the study revealed a significant increase of phenolic compounds in dl, compared with hl, accompanied by a decrease in carbohydrates, suggesting that dl are rerouting carbon and energy from primary to secondary metabolism. Other metabolic alterations detected comprised increased levels of methanol, alanine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid in dl, which might be the result of the activation of other defence mechanisms.

  5. Climate Chage in Spain and its Influence on Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Iriso Calle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades Spain has experienced a resurgence of some vector-transmitted diseases which were thought to be under control and the appearance of new ones. Likewise, the arrival of new vectors and, in some cases, their establishment and expansion is creating to new public health risks. In general, these phenomena have been associated with complex ecological and climate-driven changes which have favored and increased the densities of vectors and their reservoirs, but they have also been affected by processes that have been triggered or accelerated by man such as globalization, urban development, deforestation and land-use changes.Changes in the distribution of vectors and their capacity to transmit pathogens owing to climate change will become more evident in areas that lie within their distribution limits, as is Spain’s case.This is compounded by Spain’s proximity to Africa and the potential entry of new vectors and pathogens from this continent.This scenario necessitates setting up action programs aimed at both identifying risks posed by vectors and preventing vector-borne diseases, and efficiently managing possible outbreaks that could occur in the future.We have reviewed the scenarios which Spain is expected to experience in connection with climate change and its impact on the incidence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, phlebotomine sand flies, ticks and other arthropods, and rodents.

  6. Can Horton hear the whos? The importance of scale in mosquito-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C C; Alto, B W; Anderson, S L; Connelly, C R; Day, J F; Richards, S L; Smartt, C T; Tabachnick, W J

    2014-03-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is determined by mechanisms and interactions at different scales of biological organization, from individual-level cellular processes to community interactions between species and with the environment. Most research, however, focuses on one scale or level with little integration between scales or levels within scales. Understanding the interactions between levels and how they influence our perception of vector-borne pathogens is critical. Here two examples of biological scales (pathogen transmission and mosquito mortality) are presented to illustrate some of the issues of scale and to explore how processes on different levels may interact to influence mosquito-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Individual variation in survival, vector competence, and other traits affect population abundance, transmission potential, and community structure. Community structure affects interactions between individuals such as competition and predation, and thus influences the individual-level dynamics and transmission potential. Modeling is a valuable tool to assess interactions between scales and how processes at different levels can affect transmission dynamics. We expand an existing model to illustrate the types of studies needed, showing that individual-level variation in viral dose acquired or needed for infection can influence the number of infectious vectors. It is critical that interactions within and among biological scales and levels of biological organization are understood for greater understanding of pathogen transmission with the ultimate goal of improving control of vector-borne pathogens.

  7. Norrie disease and exudative vitreoretinopathy in families with affected female carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, B S; Hiraoka, M; Trese, D C; Trese, M T

    1999-01-01

    Norrie disease (ND) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital blindness, which is often associated with sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder characterized by an abnormality of the peripheral retina and is not associated with systemic diseases. X-linked recessive disorders generally do not affect females. Here we show that female carriers can be associated with manifestation of an X-linked disorder. A four-generation family with an affected female, and a history of congenital blindness and hearing loss, was identified through the pro-band. A second family, with a full-term female infant, was evaluated through ophthalmic examinations and found to exhibit ocular features, such as retinal folds, retinal detachment and peripheral exudates. Peripheral blood specimens were collected from several affected and unaffected family members. DNA was extracted and analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the exons of the Norrie disease gene. The amplified products were sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. In an X-linked four-generation family, a novel missense (A118D) mutation in the third exon of the Norrie disease gene, was identified. The mutation was transmitted through three generations and cosegregated with the disease. The affected maternal grandmother and the unaffected mother carried the same mutation in one of their alleles. In an unrelated sporadic family, a heterozygous missense mutation (C96Y) was identified in the third exon of the Norrie disease gene in an affected individual. Analysis of exon-1 and 2 of the Norrie disease gene did not reveal any additional sequence alterations in these families. The mutations were not detected in the unaffected family members and the 116 normal unrelated controls, suggesting that they are likely to be the pathogenic mutations

  8. Cognitive/affective and somatic/affective symptoms of depression in patients with heart disease and their association with cardiovascular prognosis : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azevedo, R. de Miranda; Roest, A. M.; Hoen, P. W.; de Jonge, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several prospective longitudinal studies have suggested that somatic/affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, are related to prognosis in patients with heart disease, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the

  9. Analysis of factors affecting the quality of life of those suffering from Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobak-Bień, Joanna; Gawor, Anna; Paplaczyk, Małgorzata; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Gąsiorowska, Anita

    2017-08-31

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. Its chronic nature, as well as symptoms of intestinal and overall significantly impedes the daily functioning of patients. Alternately occurring periods of exacerbation and remission are the cause of reduced quality of life of patients. Understanding the factors that caused the decrease in the quality of life, it allows us to understand the behavior and the situation of the patient and the ability to cope with stress caused by the disease. The aim of the study was to analyze the factors affecting the quality of life of people with Crohn's disease. The study group consisted of 50 people diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Respondents were treated at the Department of General Surgery and Colorectal Medical University of Lodz and Gastroenterological Clinic at the University Clinical Hospital No. 1 in Lodz. Quality of Life Survey was carried out by a diagnostic survey using a research tool SF-36v2 and surveys of its own design. Analysis of the results demonstrated that the quality of life of patients with Crohn's disease was reduced, especially during exacerbations. Evaluation of the quality of life of respondents in physical terms was slightly higher than in the mental aspect. Higher education subjects and the lack of need for surgical treatment significantly improves the quality of life. The occurrence of chronic disease reduces the quality of life of respondents. Elderly patients are better able to adapt to the difficult situation caused by the disease. The quality of life of women and men is at a similar level and patients in remission of the disease have a better quality of life of patients during exacerbations.

  10. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Families Affected by Huntington's Disease Report Difficulties in Communication, Emotional Involvement, and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Celine M H; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C; Andrews, Sophie C

    2017-01-01

    Family functioning in Huntington's disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD.

  12. Families Affected by Huntington’s Disease Report Difficulties in Communication, Emotional Involvement, and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Celine M.H.; Labuschagne, Izelle; Mercieca, Emily-Clare; Fisher, Fiona; Gluyas, Cathy; Stout, Julie C.; Andrews, Sophie C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family functioning in Huntington’s disease (HD) is known from previous studies to be adversely affected. However, which aspects of family functioning are disrupted is unknown, limiting the empirical basis around which to create supportive interventions. Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess family functioning in HD families. Methods: We assessed family functioning in 61 participants (38 HD gene-expanded participants and 23 family members) using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin and Bishop, 1983), which provides scores for seven domains of functioning: Problem Solving; Communication; Affective Involvement; Affective Responsiveness; Behavior Control; Roles; and General Family Functioning. Results: The most commonly reported disrupted domain for HD participants was Affective Involvement, which was reported by 39.5% of HD participants, followed closely by General Family Functioning (36.8%). For family members, the most commonly reported dysfunctional domains were Affective Involvement and Communication (both 52.2%). Furthermore, symptomatic HD participants reported more disruption to Problem Solving than pre-symptomatic HD participants. In terms of agreement between pre-symptomatic and symptomatic HD participants and their family members, all domains showed moderate to very good agreement. However, on average, family members rated Communication as more disrupted than their HD affected family member. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to target areas of emotional engagement, communication skills and problem solving in family interventions in HD. PMID:28968240

  13. Food, nutrients and nutraceuticals affecting the course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranga, José Antonio; López-Miranda, Visitación; Lombó, Felipe; Abalo, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance. Hopefully, research will soon offer enough reliable data to slow down the spread of the disease and to make diet a cornerstone in IBD therapy. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of histological patterns in clinically affected and unaffected palm regions in dupuytren's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo-Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Dupuytren's disease is a fibro-proliferative disease characterized by a disorder of the extracellular matrix (ECM and high myofibroblast proliferation. However, studies failed to determine if the whole palm fascia is affected by the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze several components of the extracellular matrix of three types of tissues-Dupuytren's diseased contracture cords (DDC, palmar fascia clinically unaffected by Dupuytren's disease contracture (NPF, and normal forehand fascia (NFF. Histological analysis, quantification of cells recultured from each type of tissue, mRNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibrillar ECM components and non-fibrillar ECM components were carried out. The results showed that DDC samples had abundant fibrosis with reticular fibers and few elastic fibers, high cell proliferation and myofibroblasts, laminin and glycoproteins, whereas NFF did not show any of these findings. Interestingly, NPF tissues had more cells showing myofibroblasts differentiation and more collagen and reticular fibers, laminin and glycoproteins than NFF, although at lower level than DDC, with similar elastic fibers than DDC. Immunohistochemical expression of decorin was high in DDC, whereas versican was highly expressed NFF, with no differences for aggrecan. Cluster analysis revealed that the global expression profile of NPF was very similar to DDC, and reculturing methods showed that cells corresponding to DDC tissues proliferated more actively than NPF, and NPF more actively than NFF. All these results suggest that NPF tissues may be affected, and that a modification of the therapeutic approach used for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease should be considered.

  15. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was ‘no recommendation by doctors’: 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p0.05. Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients

  16. Physical activity and metabolic disease among people with affective disorders: Prevention, management and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-15

    One in ten and one in three of people with affective disorders experience diabetes and metabolic syndrome respectively. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) are key risk factors that can ameliorate the risk of metabolic disease among this population. However, PA is often seen as luxury and/or a secondary component within the management of people with affective disorders. The current article provides a non-systematic best-evidence synthesis of the available literature, detailing a number of suggestions for the implementation of PA into clinical practice. Whilst the evidence is unequivocal for the efficacy of PA to prevent and manage metabolic disease in the general population, it is in its infancy in this patient group. Nonetheless, action must be taken now to ensure that PA and reducing SB are given a priority to prevent and manage metabolic diseases and improve wider health outcomes. PA should be treated as a vital sign and all people with affective disorders asked about their activity levels and if appropriate advised to increase this. There is a need for investment in qualified exercise specialists in clinical practice such as physiotherapists to undertake and oversee PA in practice. Behavioural strategies such as the self-determined theory should be employed to encourage adherence. Funding is required to develop the evidence base and elucidate the optimal intervention characteristics. PA interventions should form an integral part of the multidisciplinary management of people with affective disorders and our article outlines the evidence and strategies to implement this in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular responses in Malus domestica 'M26' roots affected by apple replant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Stefan; Bartsch, Melanie; Winkelmann, Traud

    2017-06-01

    Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple 'M26' roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.

  18. Demographic characteristics and infectious diseases of a population of American black bears in Humboldt County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nicole; Higley, J Mark; Sajecki, Jaime L; Chomel, Bruno B; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are common, widely distributed, and broad-ranging omnivorous mammals in northern California forests. Bears may be susceptible to pathogens infecting both domestic animals and humans. Monitoring bear populations, particularly in changing ecosystems, is important to understanding ecological features that could affect bear population health and influence the likelihood that bears may cause adverse impacts on humans. In all, 321 bears were captured between May, 2001, and October, 2003, and blood samples were collected and tested for multiple zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. We found a PCR prevalence of 10% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and a seroprevalence of 28% for Toxoplasma gondii, 26% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 26% for A. phagocytophilum, 8% for Trichinella spiralis, 8% for Francisella tularensis and 1% for Yersinia pestis. In addition, we tested bears for pathogens of domestic dogs and found a seroprevalence of 15% for canine distemper virus and 0.6% for canine parvovirus. Our findings show that black bears can become infected with pathogens that are an important public health concern, as well as pathogens that can affect both domestic animals and other wildlife species.

  19. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  20. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  1. How do demographic transitions and public health policies affect patients with Parkinson's disease in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Tânia M; Felicio, Andre C

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen's rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson's disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson's disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population.

  2. How glyphosate affects plant disease development: it is more than enhanced susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Ray

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate has been shown to affect the development of plant disease in several ways. Plants utilize phenolic and other shikimic acid pathway-derived compounds as part of their defense against pathogens, and glyphosate inhibits the biosynthesis of these compounds via its mode of action. Several studies have shown a correlation between enhanced disease and suppression of phenolic compound production after glyphosate. Glyphosate-resistant crop plants have also been studied for changes in resistance as a result of carrying the glyphosate resistance trait. The evidence indicates that neither the resistance trait nor application of glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant plants increases susceptibility to disease. The only exceptions to this are cases where glyphosate has been shown to reduce rust diseases on glyphosate-resistant crops, supporting a fungicidal role for this chemical. Finally, glyphosate treatment of weeds or volunteer crops can cause a temporary increase in soil-borne pathogens that may result in disease development if crops are planted too soon after glyphosate application. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Decision aids for multiple-decision disease management as affected by weather input errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, W F; Gent, D H; Mahaffee, W F; Coop, L B; Fox, A D

    2011-06-01

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSSs) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation, or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and management decision recommendations. The extent to which errors in weather inputs affect the quality of the final management outcome depends on a number of aspects of the disease management context, including whether management consists of a single dichotomous decision, or of a multi-decision process extending over the cropping season(s). Decision aids for multi-decision disease management typically are based on simple or complex algorithms of weather data which may be accumulated over several days or weeks. It is difficult to quantify accuracy of multi-decision DSSs due to temporally overlapping disease events, existence of more than one solution to optimizing the outcome, opportunities to take later recourse to modify earlier decisions, and the ongoing, complex decision process in which the DSS is only one component. One approach to assessing importance of weather input errors is to conduct an error analysis in which the DSS outcome from high-quality weather data is compared with that from weather data with various levels of bias and/or variance from the original data. We illustrate this analytical approach for two types of DSS, an infection risk index for hop powdery mildew and a simulation model for grass stem rust. Further exploration of analysis methods is needed to address problems associated with assessing uncertainty in multi-decision DSSs.

  4. Prognosis method to predict small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to develop an effective radiological symptom-complex of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic breast disease by using multivariate statistical methods.Materials and methods. Radiological findings of small-sized breast cancer affected by fibrocystic mastopathy were analyzed in 100 patients with histologically verified diagnosis.Results. It was revealed that the conventional approach to the analysis of mammograms based on the detection of the primary, secondary and indirect mammographic signs of small-sized breast cancer is not effective enough - the sensitivity of mammography is only 62%. Fibrocystic disease and moderate-to-severe sclerosing adenosis make small-sized breast cancer hard to visualize by mammography. The detailed analysis of mammograms allowed us to identify the additional manifestations of small-sized breast cancer affected by mastopathy. The computer program allowing us to evaluate the risk of small-size breast cancer and the diagnostic algorithm for detecting small size breast cancer with sensitivity of 92% were developed. 

  5. Cortical correlates of affective syndrome in dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís T. Hayata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD are prevalent, however their relationship with patterns of cortical atrophy is not fully known. Objectives To compare cortical atrophy’s patterns between AD patients and healthy controls; to verify correlations between neuropsychiatric syndromes and cortical atrophy. Method 33 AD patients were examined by Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Patients and 29 controls underwent a 3T MRI scanning. We considered four NPI syndromes: affective, apathy, hyperactivity and psychosis. Correlations between structural imaging and neuropsychiatric scores were performed by Freesurfer. Results were significant with a p-value < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. Results Patients exhibited atrophy in entorhinal cortices, left inferior and middle temporal gyri, and precuneus bilaterally. There was correlation between affective syndrome and cortical thickness in right frontal structures, insula and temporal pole. Conclusion Cortical thickness measures revealed atrophy in mild AD. Depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with atrophy of right frontal, temporal and insular cortices.

  6. Risky decision-making and affective features of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Alice; Ellis, Simon J; Grange, James A; Tamburin, Stefano; Dal Lago, Denise; Vianello, Greta; Edelstyn, Nicola M J

    2018-02-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered dopaminergic treatment side effects. Cognitive and affective factors may increase the risk of ICD in PD. The aim is to investigate risky decision-making and associated cognitive processes in PD patients with ICDs within a four-stage conceptual framework. Relationship between ICDs and affective factors was explored. Thirteen PD patients with ICD (ICD+), 12 PD patients without ICD (ICD-), and 17 healthy controls were recruited. Overall risky decision-making and negative feedback effect were examined with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). A cognitive battery dissected decision-making processes according to the four-stage conceptual framework. Affective and motivational factors were measured. ANOVA showed no effect of group on overall risky decision-making. However, there was a group × feedback interaction [F (2, 39) = 3.31, p = 0.047]. ICD+, unlike ICD- and healthy controls, failed to reduce risky behaviour following negative feedback. A main effect of group was found for anxiety and depression [F(2, 38) = 8.31, p = 0.001], with higher symptoms in ICD+ vs. healthy controls. Groups did not differ in cognitive outcomes or affective and motivational metrics. ICD+ may show relatively preserved cognitive function, but reduced sensitivity to negative feedback during risky decision-making and higher symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  7. Six-Digit CPK and Mildly Affected Renal Function in McArdle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Spyropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy, white 12-year-old girl presented with diffuse body aches and poor perfusion. She developed severe respiratory failure and marked rhabdomyolysis and was mechanically ventilated. Although her CPK peaked at 500,000 IU/L, her renal function was mildly affected and her creatinine did not exceed the 0.8 mg/dL. The rhabdomyolysis was gradually resolved following aggressive fluid hydration. The patient did not require dialysis and made a complete recovery. Genetic studies revealed the diagnosis of McArdle disease.

  8. Cognitive and affective theory of mind in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Camille; Noblet, Vincent; Phillipps, Clélie; Cretin, Benjamin; Vogt, Natacha; Philippi, Nathalie; Kemp, Jennifer; de Petigny, Xavier; Bilger, Mathias; Demuynck, Catherine; Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine; Armspach, Jean-Paul; Blanc, Frédéric

    2016-03-16

    Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts (cognitive component) or feelings (affective component) to others. This function has been studied in many neurodegenerative diseases; however, to our knowledge, no studies investigating ToM in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have been published. The aim of our study was to assess ToM in patients with DLB and to search for neural correlates of potential deficits. Thirty-three patients with DLB (DLB group) and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD group), all in the early stage of the disease, as well as 16 healthy elderly control subjects (HC group), were included in the study. After a global cognitive assessment, we used the Faux Pas Recognition (FPR) test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) test and Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition test to assess cognitive and affective components of ToM. Patients underwent cerebral 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, and atrophy of grey matter was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. We performed a one-sample t test to investigate the correlation between each ToM score and grey matter volume and a two-sample t test to compare patients with DLB impaired with those non-impaired for each test. The DLB group performed significantly worse than the HC group on the FPR test (P = 0.033) and the RME test (P = 0.015). There was no significant difference between the AD group and the HC group or between the DLB group and the AD group. Some brain regions were associated with ToM impairments. The prefrontal cortex, with the inferior frontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex, was the main region, but we also found correlations with the temporoparietal junction, the precuneus, the fusiform gyrus and the insula. This study is the first one to show early impairments of ToM in DLB. The two cognitive and affective components both appear to be affected in this disease. Among patients with ToM difficulties, we found atrophy in brain regions classically

  9. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  10. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: phenotypic characterization and genotypic correlations in 21 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudorfer, Orit; Pastores, Gregory M; Zeng, Bai J; Gianutsos, John; Zaroff, Charles M; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the phenotype (and corresponding genotype) of adult patients with late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, a clinical variant of the GM2-gangliosidoses. A comprehensive physical examination, including neurological assessments, was performed to establish the current disease pattern and severity. In addition, the patients' past medical histories were reviewed. The patients' alpha-subunit mutations (beta-Hexosaminidase A genotype) were determined and correlated with their corresponding clinical findings and disease course. Twenty-one patients (current mean age: 27.0 years; range: 14-47 years) were identified. The pedigree revealed a relative with the "classic" infantile or late-onset form of Tay-Sachs disease in four (out of 18) unrelated families. The patients were predominantly male (15/21 individuals) and of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (15/18 families). Mean age at onset was 18.1 years; balance problems and difficulty climbing stairs were the most frequent presenting complaints. In several cases, the diagnosis was delayed (mean age at diagnosis: 27.0 years). Analysis of the beta-hex A gene revealed the G269S mutation as the most common disease allele; found in homozygosity (N = 1) or heterozygosity (N = 18; including 2 sib pairs). Disease onset (age 36 years) was delayed and progression relatively slower in the homozygous G269S patient. Two siblings (ages 28 and 31 years), of non-Jewish ancestry, were compound heterozygotes (TATC1278/W474C); their clinical course is dominated by psychiatric problems. Brain imaging studies revealed marked cerebellar atrophy in all patients (N = 18) tested, regardless of disease stage. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease is an infrequent disorder and the diagnosis is often missed or delayed (by approximately 8 years). Early on, the majority of patients develop signs of either cerebellar or anterior motor neuron involvement. Affected individuals may also develop psychotic episodes. In most cases, the later

  11. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  12. Effect of dopamine therapy on nonverbal affect burst recognition in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Péron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD provides a model for investigating the involvement of the basal ganglia and mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the recognition of emotions from voices (i.e., emotional prosody. Although previous studies of emotional prosody recognition in PD have reported evidence of impairment, none of them compared PD patients at different stages of the disease, or ON and OFF dopamine replacement therapy, making it difficult to determine whether their impairment was due to general cognitive deterioration or to a more specific dopaminergic deficit. METHODS: We explored the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways in the recognition of nonverbal affect bursts (onomatopoeias in 15 newly diagnosed PD patients in the early stages of the disease, 15 PD patients in the advanced stages of the disease and 15 healthy controls. The early PD group was studied in two conditions: ON and OFF dopaminergic therapy. RESULTS: Results showed that the early PD patients performed more poorly in the ON condition than in the OFF one, for overall emotion recognition, as well as for the recognition of anger, disgust and fear. Additionally, for anger, the early PD ON patients performed more poorly than controls. For overall emotion recognition, both advanced PD patients and early PD ON patients performed more poorly than controls. Analysis of continuous ratings on target and nontarget visual analog scales confirmed these patterns of results, showing a systematic emotional bias in both the advanced PD and early PD ON (but not OFF patients compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results i confirm the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways and basal ganglia in emotional prosody recognition, and ii suggest a possibly deleterious effect of dopatherapy on affective abilities in the early stages of PD.

  13. Concomitant Use of Immunomodulators Affects the Durability of Infliximab Therapy in Children With Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Victoria; Lerer, Trudy; Griffiths, Anne; LeLeiko, Neal; Cabrera, Jose; Otley, Anthony; Rick, James; Mack, David; Bousvaros, Athos; Rosh, Joel; Grossman, Andrew; Saeed, Shehzaad; Kay, Marsha; Boyle, Brendan; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Keljo, David; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Faubion, William; Kappelman, Michael D; Sudel, Boris; Markowitz, James; Hyams, Jeffrey S

    2015-10-01

    It is important to determine the effects of immunomodulators on the ability of children to remain on infliximab therapy for Crohn's disease (durability of therapy), given the potential benefits and risks of concomitant therapy-especially with thiopurines in male patients. We investigated how immunomodulatory treatment affects the durability of infliximab therapy. We collected data from the Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Collaborative Research Group Registry, from January 2002 through August 2014, on 502 children with Crohn's disease who participated in a prospective multicenter study. Data were collected from patients who received at least a 3-dose induction regimen of infliximab, and their concomitant use of immunomodulators: no thiopurine or methotrexate treatment, treatment for 6 months or less during infliximab therapy, or treatment for more than 6 months during infliximab therapy. The probabilities (± standard error) that children remained on infliximab therapy for 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years after the treatment began were 0.84 ± 0.02, 0.69 ± 0.03, and 0.60 ± 0.03, respectively. Age, sex, and disease extent or location did not affect the durability of infliximab therapy. Greater length of concomitant use of immunomodulators was associated with increased time of infliximab therapy. The probability that patients with more than 6 months of immunomodulator use remained on infliximab therapy for 5 years was 0.70 ± 0.04, compared with 0.48 ± 0.08 for patients who did not receive immunomodulators and 0.55 ± 0.06 for patients who received immunomodulators for 6 months or less (P immunomodulators for 6 months or more after starting infliximab, the overall durability of infliximab therapy was greater among patients receiving methotrexate than thiopurine (P immunomodulator for more than 6 months after starting infliximab therapy increases the chances that patients will remain on infliximab. In boys, methotrexate appears to increase the durability of

  14. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients With Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases. PMID:26234976

  15. Emotion Risk-Factor in Patients with Cardiac Diseases: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies, Positive Affect and Negative Affect (A Case-Control Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Alikhani, Mostafa; Zakiei, Ali; Janjani, Parisa; Aghei, Abbas

    2015-05-17

    Application of psychological interventions is essential in classic treatments for patient with cardiac diseases. The present study compared cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect, and negative affect for cardiac patients with healthy subjects. This study was a case-control study. Fifty subjects were selected using convenient sampling method from cardiac (coronary artery disease) patients presenting in Imam Ali medical center of Kermanshah, Iran in the spring 2013. Fifty subjects accompanied the patients to the medical center, selected as control group, did not have any history of cardiac diseases. For collecting data, the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire and positive and negative affect scales were used. For data analysis, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) Was applied using the SPSS statistical software (ver. 19.0). In all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, there was a significant difference between the two groups. A significant difference was also detected regarding positive affect between the two groups, but no significant difference was found regarding negative affect. We found as a result that, having poor emotion regulation strategies is a risk factor for developing heart diseases.

  16. Does radiographic arthrosis correlate with cartilage pathology in Labrador Retrievers affected by medial coronoid process disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michael; Heller, Jane; Solano, Miguel; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Sparrow, Tim; Kowaleski, Mike

    2014-02-01

    To compare radiographic elbow arthrosis with arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers with elbow osteoarthritis secondary to medial coronoid process (MCP) disease. Retrospective epidemiological study. Labrador retrievers (n = 317; 592 elbow joints). Data were collected retrospectively (June 2007-June 2011) to identify Labrador retrievers with thoracic limb lameness and elbow pain, a complete set of elbow radiographs, and a comprehensive arthroscopic surgery report. Each radiograph was scored for osteophytosis on the anconeal process and ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis using a modification of the International Elbow Working Group (IEWG) scoring system. Elbows affected by traumatic MCP fracture, humeral condylar osteochondrosis, or ununited anconeal process were excluded. The arthroscopic report was used to generate a composite cartilage score (CCS; 0 = normal, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe) for each elbow joint. Ordinal regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between radiographic arthrosis score and CCS. There was a significant relationship between radiographic elbow arthrosis and CCS (P arthrosis can be used to predict the severity of arthroscopic cartilage pathology in Labrador retrievers affected by MCP disease. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  18. Did depressive symptoms affect recognition of emotional prosody in Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vélez Feijó

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Vélez Feijó1, Carlos RM Rieder3, Márcia LF Chaves21Medical Sciences Post-Graduate Course; 2Internal Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Movement Disorders Clinic Coordinator, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilObjective: Evaluate the influence of depressive symptoms on the recognition of emotional prosody in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, and identify types of emotion on spoken sentences.Methods: Thirty-five PD patients and 65 normal participants were studied. Dementia was checked with the Mini Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and DSM IV. Recognition of emotional prosody was tested by asking subjects to listen to 12 recorded statements with neutral affective content that were read with a strong affective expression. Subjects had to recognize the correct emotion by one of four descriptors (angry, sad, cheerful, and neutral. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was employed to rate depressive symptoms with the cutoff 14.Results: Total ratings of emotions correctly recognized by participants below and above the BDI cutoff were similar among PD patients and normal individuals. PD patients who correctly identified neutral and anger inflections presented higher rates of depressive symptoms (p = 0.011 and 0.044, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the normal group.Conclusions: Depression may modify some modalities of emotional prosody perception in PD, by increasing the perception of non-pleasant emotions or lack of affection, such as anger or indifference.Keywords: emotional prosody, Parkinson’s disease, depression, emotion

  19. Oral Microbial Shift: Factors affecting the Microbiome and Prevention of Oral Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Namrata; Dagli, Rushabh; Darwish, Shrouq; Baroudi, Kusai

    2016-01-01

    Recently, oral microbiome has gained popularity among scientists. Microorganisms are no longer considered as disease-producing pathogens, rather they are now considered as partners of human in maintaining health. Since ancient times, changes in our lifestyle have affected our microbiome and the balance with their human host has been perturbed. The present review includes the description about factors affecting oral microbiome and establishing symbiosis with the human host so that they contribute in maintaining health rather than eliciting diseases. A comprehensive literature search was performed on databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline until April 2015. First, articles were selected on the basis of their titles and then abstracts were screened and unwanted articles were excluded. Articles obtained from all the databases were checked and duplicate articles were removed. Articles obtained from various databases: PubMed = 35, Google Scholar=8. Out of these 43 articles, total 29 articles were finally selected for this review. The published literature suggests that the modern oral microbiome is less biodiverse, and possess more pathogenic bacterial species and lesser beneficial bacteria. The possible factors mainly responsible for this shift in microbiome were found to be change in diet, industrial revolution and indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Various changes in lifestyles have affected oral microbiome adversely and perturb the symbiosis between the microbiome and their hosts. The present oral microbiome is found to be less diverse and more pathogenic. The present review may be helpful in understanding the relationship between the microbiome and their human hosts so that microbiome contributes in maintaining healthy state of the body.

  20. Sandfly fever in Afghanistan-a sometimes overlooked disease of military importance: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John W; Flood, Daniel T; Orr, Nicholas H; Constantineau, Jason A; Caviness, James W

    2017-01-01

    Sandfly fever, sometimes known as pappataci fever or Phlebotomus fever, is a vector transmitted viral illness with a history of affecting naïve military formations that travel through or fight in areas in which the infection is endemic. We present a series of 4 hospitalized cases of sandfly fever (2 presumptive, 2 laboratory confirmed) that were admitted to a Role 3 hospital in Afghanistan for evaluation and treatment following medical evacuation from a forward area for marked fevers and malaise. Laboratory evaluation of these cases was significant for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, consistent with historical descriptions of sandfly fever. In the correct geographic and clinical setting, the finding of mild leukopenia among a cluster of febrile patients should prompt the clinician to at least consider a diagnosis of sandfly fever. A cluster investigation conducted by preventive medicine personnel identified numerous other presumed cases of sandfly fever in this forward special operations camp. Response efforts emphasized enforcement of standard vector-borne disease control measures by operational leadership in order to limit effect on tactical operations. We review historical instances of sandfly fever affecting military operations, and present a review of clinical presentation, transmission, management, and prevention.

  1. Cognitive and affective benefits of combination therapy with galantamine plus cognitive rehabilitation for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuchi, Ryo; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Matsuzono, Kosuke; Takao, Yoshiki; Wakutani, Yosuke; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Deguchi, Kentaro; Yamashita, Toru; Abe, Koji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a galantamine only therapy and a combination therapy with galantamine plus ambulatory cognitive rehabilitation for Alzheimer's disease patients. For this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 86 patients with Alzheimer's disease, dividing them into two groups - a galantamine only group (group G, n = 45) and a combination with galantamine plus ambulatory rehabilitation group (group G + R, n = 41). The present cognitive rehabilitation included a set of physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy for 1-2 h once or twice a week. We compared the Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery for cognitive assessment, and Geriatric Depression Scale, Apathy Scale, and Abe's Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia score for affective assessment in two groups over 6 months. The baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score was 20.2 and 18.7 in groups G and G + R, respectively. Other baseline data (Frontal Assessment Battery, Geriatric Depression Scale, Apathy Scale, and Abe's Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia) were not different between the two groups. Although group G kept all the scores stable until 6 months of the treatment, the Apathy Scale score showed a significant improvement in group G + R as early as 3 months, followed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Frontal Assessment Battery improvements at 6 months (*P = 0.04 and *P = 0.02, respectively). The Geriatric Depression Scale and Abe's Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia did not show any changes. The combination therapy of galantamine plus ambulatory cognitive rehabilitation showed a superior benefit both on cognitive and affective functions than galantamine only therapy in Alzheimer's disease patients. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. The interactions among impact factors affecting 131I treatment efficacy of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Tan Jian; Zhang Guizhi; He Yajing; Dong Feng; Wang Renfei; Xiao Qian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the possible interactions among different impact factors possibly affecting the treatment efficacy of 131 I in Graves' disease (GD). Methods: Six hundred and thirty two GD patients that had been treated by 131 I, with or without antithyroid drugs (ATD), were included in this study. The impact factors were pre-defined as age (x 1 ), sex (x 2 ), mass of thyroid (x 3 ), course of disease (x 4 ), initial symptom (x 5 ), condition of disease (x 6 ), ATD treatment duration (x 7 ), effective half life time (x 8 ), maximum 131 I uptake rate (x 9 ), total dose of 131 I (x 10 ), dose of 131 I per gram of thyroid (x 11 ), TRAb (x 12 ), TSI (x 13 ), TgAb (x 14 ), and thyroid microsomal antibody(TMAb) level (x 15 ). Interactions among different impact factors were studied by t-test, χ 2 test and multi-variant logistic regression. Results: Age, mass of thyroid, ATD treatment duration, maximum 131 I uptake rate, dose of 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue and TSI level were identified as independent impact factors affecting the 131 I treatment efficacy on GD (χ 2 =6.908, t=-4.063, χ 2 =13.558, t=-2.553, t=4.528, χ 2 =9.716, all P 131 I uptake rate (likelihood χ 2 =8.176, P>0.05; F=2.928, 1.992, 2.629, 2.215, all P 131 I treatment, which might guide the prescription of 131 I dosage for GD treatment. (authors)

  3. Impulsivity in Parkinson’s Disease Is Associated With Alterations in Affective and Sensorimotor Striatal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit F. L. Ruitenberg

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A subset of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD experiences problems with impulse control, characterized by a loss of voluntary control over impulses, drives, or temptations regarding excessive hedonic behavior. The present study aimed to better understand the neural basis of such impulse control disorders (ICDs in PD. We collected resting-state functional connectivity and structural MRI data from 21 PD patients with ICDs and 30 patients without such disorders. To assess impulsivity, all patients completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and performed an information-gathering task. MRI results demonstrated substantial differences in neural characteristics between PD patients with and without ICDs. Results showed that impulsivity was linked to alterations in affective basal ganglia circuitries. Specifically, reduced frontal–striatal connectivity and GPe volume were associated with more impulsivity. We suggest that these changes affect decision making and result in a preference for risky or inappropriate actions. Results further showed that impulsivity was linked to alterations in sensorimotor striatal networks. Enhanced connectivity within this network and larger putamen volume were associated with more impulsivity. We propose that these changes affect sensorimotor processing such that patients have a greater propensity to act. Our findings suggest that the two mechanisms jointly contribute to impulsive behaviors in PD.

  4. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  5. Land-use change and infectious disease in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M. C.; Ericksen, P. J.; Mohamed, A. Ben; Connor, S. J.

    Land-use change has been associated with changes in the dynamics of infectious disease in West Africa. Here we describe the complex interactions of land-use change with three diseases (both vector- and non-vector-borne) of considerable public health significance in this region, namely, malaria and irrigation; epidemic meningitis and land degradation; onchocerciasis and deforestation. We highlight the confounding effect of climate variability, which acts as a driver of both land-use change and human health. We conclude, as have others, that the scale of observation always matters, and complex and dynamic feedbacks among social-ecological systems are not easily teased apart. We suggest that in order to establish the causal chain of interactions between land-use change and human health outcomes two approaches are necessary. The first is to have a thorough understanding of the aetiology of disease and the specific mechanisms by which land-use and climate variability affect the transmission of pathogens. This is achieved by focused, detailed studies encompassing a wide range of potential drivers, which are inevitably small scale and often cover short time periods. The second consists of large-scale studies of statistical associations between transmission indices or health outcomes and environmental variables stratified by known ecological or socio-economic confounders, and sufficient in size to overcome local biases in results. Such research activities need to be designed to inform each other if we are to develop predictive models for monitoring these diseases and to develop integrated programs for human health and sustainable land use.

  6. Dendritic cell chimerism in oral mucosa of transplanted patients affected by graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Claudio A; Rabanales, Ramón; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Larrondo, Milton; Escobar, Alejandro F; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Alfaro, Jorge I; González, Fermín E

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the main complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical features of GVHD include either an acute (aGVHD) or a chronic (cGVHD) condition that affects locations such as the oral mucosa. While the involvement of the host's dendritic cells (DCs) has been demonstrated in aGVHD, the origin (donor/host) and mechanisms underlying oral cGVHD have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we intend to determine the origin of DCs present in mucosal tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of transplanted patients affected by cGVHD. We purified DCs, from oral biopsies of three patients with cGVHD, through immunobeads and subsequently performed DNA extraction. The origin of the obtained DCs was determined by PCR amplification of 13 informative short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. We also characterised the DCs phenotype and the inflammatory infiltrate from biopsies of two patients by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and histological features of the biopsies were concordant with oral cGVHD. We identified CD11c-, CD207- and CD1a-positive cells in the epithelium and beneath the basal layer. Purification of DCs from the mucosa of patients affected by post-transplantation cGVHD was >95%. PCR-STR data analysis of DCs DNA showed that 100% of analysed cells were of donor origin in all of the evaluated patients. Our results demonstrate that resident DCs isolated from the oral tissue of allotransplanted patients affected by cGVHD are originated from the donor. Further research will clarify the role of DCs in the development and/or severity of oral cGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Do musculoskeletal degenerative diseases affect mortality and cause of death after 10 years in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masaki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Sadao; Suzuki, Koji; Imagama, Shiro

    2011-03-01

    There are several reports from Europe and the United States on mortality from musculoskeletal degenerative diseases; however, no reports have been published from Japan. This study is the first that has examined whether musculoskeletal degenerative diseases affect life prognosis in Japan. As many as 944 persons who were 60 years of age and older and who underwent one or more musculoskeletal checkups (knee, lower back, and bone mineral density examination) were enrolled. Survival and death after 10 years were examined. For each knee, lower back, and bone mineral density examination, subjects were divided into normal and abnormal groups. For each of the examinations (knee, lower back, or bone mineral density), 10-year mortality was compared between the two groups. Also, causes of death were examined after 10 years. As many as 805 subjects survived and 125 died. For those with and without osteoarthritis of the knee, mortality after 10 years was 17 and 10%, respectively. For those with and without lower back abnormalities, mortality after 10 years was 12 and 14%, respectively. For those with or without low bone mineral density, mortality after 10 years was 17 and 10%, respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and lifestyle revealed that odds ratio of death after 10 years was 2.32 and 2.33 in the presence of osteoarthritis of the knee and a low bone mineral density, respectively, and thus the risk of death after 10 years was significantly high. With regard to the cause of death, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases were most frequently evident in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Musculoskeletal degenerative diseases influence mortality after 10 years.

  8. Factors That Affect Disease Progression After First Attack of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Sara; Swärd, Per; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about recurrence of pancreatitis after an initial episode, and little is known about how the disease progresses or what factors affect progression. We performed a population-based study of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) to determine their outcomes and associated factors. We performed a retrospective study of patients with first-time AP from 2003 through 2012 in a well-defined area of Sweden. Data were collected from medical records on disease etiology, severity (according to the Atlanta classification), recurrence of AP, subsequent chronic pancreatitis, and mortality. Patients were followed up for a median time of 4.6 years, until death or the end of 2013. We identified 1457 patients with first-time AP (48% biliary disease, 17% alcohol-associated, 9.9% severe); 23% of patients had 1 or more recurrences. Risk for recurrence was significantly higher among smokers (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.95; P = .03), patients with alcohol-associated AP (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.25-2.23; P chronic pancreatitis, although alcohol-associated AP progressed most frequently (2.8/100 patient-years). Patients with recurrent AP were at the highest risk for chronic pancreatitis (HR, 6.74; 95% CI, 4.02-11.3; P associated AP (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.05-5.87; P associated only with organ failure (odds ratio, 71.17; 95% CI, 21.14-239.60; P chronic pancreatitis. Recurrence increases the risk for progression to chronic pancreatitis. Most patients who die upon disease recurrence have biliary AP. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Retrospective analysis of factors affecting the progression of Chronic Renal Failure in Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.R.; Tashkandi, Muhammed A.; Nahrir, S.; Maulana, A.

    2006-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the commonest congenital cystic renal disease. Factors such as hypertension, urinary tract infection, hematuria and proteinuria may effect the progression to chronic renal failure in ADPKD patients. Therapeutic interventions, such as the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or diet modification, may impact the natural progression of the disease. We aim in this study to review a registry of ADPKD patients in order to compare the slow and fast progressors and identify possible predictors of progression and interventions that slow the progression of this disease. Sheffield Kidney Institute (SKI), one of the largest kidney institutes in Northern Europe, has registered a large number of ADPKD patients since 1981. SKI's computer network contains a wide range of information on these patients. We selected 94 adult polycystic patients from the SKI for retrospective analysis of factors affecting progression to chronic renal failure. Patients who doubled their s. creatinine in 3 6 months were considered fast progressors (FP), while those who doubled their s. creatinine in > 36 months were regarded as slow progressors (SP). There 70 patients in the FP group and 24 patients in the SP group. A third group of 137 patients consisted of non-progressors (NP) who ha d stable s. creatinine levels during the same period. We found that the incidence of hypertension, UTI, macroscopic and microscopic hematuria, and overt proteinuria in the FP group was higher than in SP and NP groups. Modification of some factors, such as hypertension and UTI, may decrease the rate of the deterioration of renal function. (author)

  10. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lansbergen, M.M.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, A.; Sijben, J.W.; Heerschap, A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients

  11. Predictive value of social inhibition and negative affectivity for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2014-01-01

    Methodological considerations and selected null findings indicate the need to reexamine the Type D construct. We investigated whether associations with cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) involve the specific combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition...

  12. Fecal Calprotectin Is Not Affected by Pregnancy: Clinical Implications for the Management of Pregnant Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian L; Gearry, Richard B

    2017-01-01

    Background: Noninvasive biomarkers of inflammation for monitoring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are important in pregnancy. Clinical and laboratory markers are often affected by the physiological adaption that occurs during pregnancy, although, few, if any, data exist on fecal calprotectin (FC...

  13. A systematic review of amyloid-beta peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Heegaard, N. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Affective disorders are associated with an increased occurrence of cognitive deficits and have been linked to cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The putative molecular mechanisms involved in these associations are however not clear. The aim of this systematic review...... were limited by very low sample numbers. Finally, different assays for amyloid-beta were utilized in the different studies, thus hampering comparisons. Conclusion: To unravel possible risk relations and causalities between affective disorder and Alzheimer's disease and to determine how amyloid...

  14. Bipolar affective disorder and Parkinson's disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognized association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, A; Spissu, A; Floris, G L; Congia, S; Saddi, M V; Melis, M; Mascia, M M; Pinna, F; Tuveri, A; Solla, P; Milia, A; Giagheddu, M; Tacconi, P

    2002-09-01

    Five patients (4 women) with Parkinson's disease (PD) and primary major psychiatric disorder (PMPD) meeting DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) were studied. Four patients had early onset PD. Four developed a severe psychiatric disorder a few years after starting dopaminergic therapy in presence of a mild motor disability and a mild cognitive impairment, with no evidence of cerebral atrophy at CT or MRI. Two patients developed a clear manic episode; the other three presented a severe depressive episode (in one case featuring a Cotard syndrome). None showed previous signs of long term L-dopa treatment syndrome (LTS), hallucinosis or other minor psychiatric disorders. The two manic episodes occurred shortly after an increase of dopaminergic therapy and in one case rapid cyclic mood fluctuations were observed. At the onset of psychiatric symptoms, all patients had an unspecific diagnosis of chronic delusional hallucinatory psychosis (CDHP).

  15. Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiefeng; Hu, Renjian; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoying; Jin, Xiuming

    2017-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients. Although there have been many studies evaluating ocular manifestations in patients with GVHD, the present study is, to our knowledge, the first to study the relationship between vitamin A and ocular manifestations of GVHD in humans. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of ocular GVHD in adults.

  16. Serum Vitamin A Levels May Affect the Severity of Ocular Graft-versus-Host Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefeng Tong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a well-established therapeutic option for a range of inherited and acquired hematological disorders. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD remains the leading cause of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HSCT recipients. Ocular involvement occurs in up to 80% of chronic GVHD patients. In our cases, the diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency was suspected for GVHD patients. Serum vitamin A measurements were conducted to confirm clinical suspicions. Our study revealed significant decrease in serum levels of vitamin A in chronic liver GVHD patients. Although there have been many studies evaluating ocular manifestations in patients with GVHD, the present study is, to our knowledge, the first to study the relationship between vitamin A and ocular manifestations of GVHD in humans. Our data suggest that vitamin A deficiency affects the severity of ocular GVHD in adults.

  17. Late-onset Tay-Sachs disease: the spectrum of peripheral neuropathy in 30 affected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Barbara E; Logigian, Eric L; Kolodny, Edwin H; Pastores, Gregory M

    2008-08-01

    Late-onset Tay-Sachs (LOTS) disease is a chronic, progressive, lysosomal storage disorder caused by a partial deficiency of beta-hexosaminidase A (HEXA) activity. Deficient levels of HEXA result in the intracellular accumulation of GM2-ganglioside, resulting in toxicity to nerve cells. Clinical manifestations primarily involve the central nervous system (CNS) and lower motor neurons, and include ataxia, weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, dysphagia, dystonia, seizures, psychosis, mania, depression, and cognitive decline. The prevalence of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement in LOTS has not been well documented, but it has traditionally been thought to be very low. We examined a cohort of 30 patients with LOTS who underwent clinical and electrophysiologic examination, and found evidence of a predominantly axon loss polyneuropathy affecting distal nerve segments in the lower and upper extremities in eight patients (27%).

  18. Positive Affect and Survival in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; Denollet, Johan; de Jonge, Peter; Whooley, Mary A.

    Objective: Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might

  19. Positive affect and survival in patients with stable coronary heart disease : Findings from the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, P.W.; Denollet, J.; de Jonge, P.; Whooley, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might

  20. Affective symptoms as predictors of Alzheimer's disease in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a 10-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, I.H.G.B.; Visser, P.J.; Aalten, P.; Kester, A.; Jolles, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Affective symptoms are common in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but there is disagreement whether these symptoms are predictive for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the predictive accuracy of affective symptoms for AD during a follow-up study in subjects with MCI,

  1. Loci Affecting Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase in Adults and Adolescents Show Age X SNP interaction and Cardiometabolic Disease Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelberg, R.P.S.; Benyamin, B.; de Moor, M.H.M.; Warrington, N.M.; Gordon, S.; Henders, A.K.; Medland, S.E.; Nyholt, DR; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hottenga, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Beilin, L.J.; Mori, T.A.; Wright, M.J.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; Pennell, C.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Martin, N.G.; Whitfield, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity is a marker of liver disease which is also prospectively associated with the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancers. We have discovered novel loci affecting GGT in a genome-wide association study (rs1497406 in

  2. Selection on alleles affecting human longevity and late-life disease: the example of apolipoprotein E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Drenos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that genes affecting health in old age, such as cardiovascular and Alzheimer diseases, are beyond the reach of natural selection. We show in a simulation study based on known genetic (apolipoprotein E and non-genetic risk factors (gender, diet, smoking, alcohol, exercise that, because there is a statistical distribution of ages at which these genes exert their influence on morbidity and mortality, the effects of selection are in fact non-negligible. A gradual increase with each generation of the epsilon2 and epsilon3 alleles of the gene at the expense of the epsilon4 allele was predicted from the model. The epsilon2 allele frequency was found to increase slightly more rapidly than that for epsilon3, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two. Our result may explain the recent evolutionary history of the epsilon 2, 3 and 4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene and has wider relevance for genes affecting human longevity.

  3. Plasmalogens Inhibit APP Processing by Directly Affecting γ-Secretase Activity in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Grösgen, Sven; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Mett, Janine; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias; Grimm, Marcus O. W.

    2012-01-01

    Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously it has been shown that plasmalogens, the major brain phospholipids, are altered in AD. However, it remained unclear whether plasmalogens themselves are able to modulate amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing or if the reduced plasmalogen level is a consequence of AD. Here we identify the plasmalogens which are altered in human AD postmortem brains and investigate their impact on APP processing resulting in Aβ production. All tested plasmalogen species showed a reduction in γ-secretase activity whereas β- and α-secretase activity mainly remained unchanged. Plasmalogens directly affected γ-secretase activity, protein and RNA level of the secretases were unaffected, pointing towards a direct influence of plasmalogens on γ-secretase activity. Plasmalogens were also able to decrease γ-secretase activity in human postmortem AD brains emphasizing the impact of plasmalogens in AD. In summary our findings show that decreased plasmalogen levels are not only a consequence of AD but that plasmalogens also decrease APP processing by directly affecting γ-secretase activity, resulting in a vicious cycle: Aβ reduces plasmalogen levels and reduced plasmalogen levels directly increase γ-secretase activity leading to an even stronger production of Aβ peptides. PMID:22547976

  4. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  5. Factors affecting the success of weaning in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Teke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Weaning failure rate was higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and many factors affect it. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the success of weaning in COPD patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV.Materials and methods: Totally 43 COPD patients who received IMV in intensive care unit were included. Clinical and laboratory results and Acute Physiology Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were recorded and affecting factors on weaning success were investigated.Results: In 43 patients, 25 had successful weaning (58.1%. Patients with high APACHE II score prior to intubation was found as associated with weaning failure. High Glasgow coma scale (GCS scores before entubation and weaning are associated with weaning success. Pre-weaning anxiety, positive endotracheal aspirate culture, pulmonary arterial pressure value, enteral feeding, pre-weaning tachycardia, pre-weaning cuff leaking and FiO2 values were found to be associated with weaning failure. Pre-weaning cortisol levels were associated with weaning success. In successful weaning group, measured NIF and VT in spontaneous mode were found as higher and f/VT ratio was lower compared with unsuccessful group. T-tube during the 15th and 30th minutes of the symptoms of fatigue (sweating assets were associated with weaning failure. IMV duration and longer extubation duration of weaning, and more number of t-tube insertion attempts were found as associated with failure of weaning.Conclusions: Infection in patients with COPD, the presence of anxiety, and hemodynamic and respiratory instability significantly increases the weaning failure.

  6. Effect of Parkinson Disease on Emotion Perception Using the Persian Affective Voices Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarian, Arezoo; Shavaki, Yunes Amiri; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Jafari, Zahra

    2018-05-04

    Emotion perception plays a major role in proper communication with people in different social interactions. Nonverbal affect bursts can be used to evaluate vocal emotion perception. The present study was a preliminary step to establishing the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV) test, as well as to investigate the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on vocal emotion perception. The short, emotional sound made by pronouncing the vowel "a" in Persian was recorded by 22 actors and actresses to develop the Persian version of the MAV, the Persian Affective Voices (PAV), for emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutrality. The results of the recordings of five of the actresses and five of the actors who obtained the highest score were used to generate the test. For convergent validity assessment, the correlation between the PAV and a speech prosody comprehension test was examined using a gender- and age-matched control group. To investigate the effect of the PD on emotion perception, the PAV test was performed on 28 patients with mild PD between ages 50 and 70 years. The PAV showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80). A significant positive correlation was observed between the PAV and the speech prosody comprehension test. The test-retest reliability also showed the high repeatability of the PAV (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.815, P ≤ 0.001). A significant difference was observed between the patients with PD and the controls in all subtests. The PAV test is a useful psychometric tool for examining vocal emotion perception that can be used in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome as a Factor Affecting Systemic Inflammation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsztajn, R; Przybyłowski, T; Maskey-Warzęchowska, M; Paplińska-Goryca, M; Nejman-Gryz, P; Karwat, K; Chazan, R

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a systemic disease which may be associated with other comorbidities. The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in COPD patients and to assess its impact on systemic inflammation and lung function. MS was diagnosed in accordance with the recommendations of the Polish Forum for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. The study group consisted of 267 patients with stable COPD in all stages of severity. All patients underwent spirometry with bronchial reversibility testing and 6 min walk test (6MWT). The following blood tests were evaluated: lipid profile, glucose and C-reactive protein as well as serum concentration of IL-6, leptin, adiponectin, and endothelin. MS was diagnosed in 93 patients (35.8%). No differences were observed in the incidence of MS in relation to airflow limitation severity (mild; moderate; severe and very severe: 38.9; 36.3; 35.2 and 25.0%, respectively). FEV 1 (% predicted), FVC (% predicted), 6MWT distance (6MWD), age, and the number of pack-years were similar in patients with and without MS. MS was more frequent in males than females (38.7 vs. 28.4%, p > 0.05). Serum concentrations of IL-6, endothelin, leptin, and CRP were higher in the MS group, contrary to adiponectin concentration which was lower (p < 0.01). MS was more frequent in male COPD patients, but there were no differences in its frequency between patients with different severity of airflow limitation. We conclude that MS, as a comorbidity, occurs in all COPD stages and affects systemic inflammation. MS incidence does not depend on COPD severity.

  8. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpma, A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lansbergen, M.M.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, A.; Sijben, J.W.; Heerschap, A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer?s disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients with Alzheimer?s disease. Methods Thirty-four drug-naive patients with mild Alzheimer?s disease (Mini Mental State Examination score ?20) were enrolled in this exploratory, double-blind, randomized...

  9. Exercise mediates the association between positive affect and 5-year mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Versteeg, Henneke; Hansen, Tina B

    2013-01-01

    Background- Positive affect has been associated with better prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether positive affect predicted time to first cardiac-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality, and whether exercise me...... between positive affect and mortality. Interventions aimed at increasing both positive affect and exercise may have better results with respect to patients' prognosis and psychological well-being than interventions focusing on 1 of these factors alone.......Background- Positive affect has been associated with better prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether positive affect predicted time to first cardiac-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality, and whether exercise...... mediated this relationship in patients with established ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results- The sample comprised 607 patients with ischemic heart disease from Holbæk Hospital, Denmark. In 2005, patients completed the Global Mood Scale (GMS) to assess positive affect and a purpose-designed question...

  10. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an effective adjunctive treatment for chronic Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Huang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States, but it is relatively rare in Taiwan. Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotic agents, but approximately 20% of these patients experience persistent or intermittent subjective symptoms, so-called chronic Lyme disease (CLD. The mechanisms of CLD remain unclear and the symptoms related to CLD are difficult to manage. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT was applied in CLD therapy in the 1990s. However, reported information regarding the effectiveness of HBOT for CLD is still limited. Here, we present a patient with CLD who was successfully treated with HBOT.

  12. Oral health- related quality of life in patients with rare inherited diseases affecting bone and teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Haubek, Dorte

    Background X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by insufficient bone mineralization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is another rare inherited disease characterized by fragile bones because of defective collagen synthesis. Both diseases may have impact on teeth...

  13. Factors affecting dermatological manifestations in patients with end stage renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anees, M.; Gull, S.; Nazeer, A.

    2018-01-01

    To determine skin changes in patients of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and factors affecting these changes. Study Design:Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study:Nephrology Department, Mayo Hospital, Lahore in collaboration with Dermatology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from October 2015 to January 2016. Methodology:Two hundred patients who were undergoing MHD for more than three months were included in the study. Patients' demographic data, laboratory reports and dialysis records were noted in a predesigned questionnaire. Skin examination was carried out by consultant dermatologist after patient's permission. Results:Among 200 patients included in study, 105 were males and rest of them were females. Major causes of ESRD were Diabetes Mellitus (n=83, 41.5%, followed by Hypertension (n=80, 40%), Nephrolithiasis (n=15, 7.5%) and Chronic glomerulonephritis (n=5, 2.5%). At least one cutaneous finding was present in every patient. Common skin findings observed were pigmentation (86%), xerosis (83%), pallor (79%), pruritus (69%), acquired ichthyosis (50.5%), and bacterial skin infections (18.5%). Among them, nail manifestations were half-and-half nails (52%), nychomycosis (30.5%), onycholysis (20.5%), subungual hyperkeratosis (23.5%), and Mee's lines (7.5). Among hair changes were sparse scalp hair (38.5%), brittle and lustreless hair (28%). The factors contributing to skin changes were patient's age, cause of ESRD, anti HCV positivity, high urea and creatinine levels, duration and frequency of hemodialysis, hemoglobin levels, calcium phosphate product and socioeconomic status. Some skin manifestations were interrelated with each other like xerosis with pruritus (p<0.001), pruritus with bacterial infection (p<0.022), acquired Ichthyosis (p=0.008) and hair changes (p=0.035). Conclusion:ESRD patients on hemodialysis develop various skin changes during the course of disease

  14. Executive dysfunction affects word list recall performance: Evidence from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Monica; Rossi, Stefania; Cerami, Chiara; Marcone, Alessandra; Iannaccone, Sandro; Francesco Cappa, Stefano; Perani, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is widely used in clinical practice to evaluate verbal episodic memory. While there is evidence that RAVLT performance can be influenced by executive dysfunction, the way executive disorders affect the serial position curve (SPC) has not been yet explored. To this aim, we analysed immediate and delayed recall performances of 13 non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with a specific mild executive dysfunction (ALSci) and compared their performances to those of 48 healthy controls (HC) and 13 cognitively normal patients with ALS. Moreover, to control for the impact of a severe dysexecutive syndrome and a genuine episodic memory deficit on the SPC, we enrolled 15 patients with a diagnosis of behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and 18 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Results documented that, compared to cognitively normal subjects, ALSci patients had a selective mid-list impairment for immediate recall scores. The bvFTD group obtained low performances with a selectively increased forgetting rate for terminal items, whereas the AD group showed a disproportionately large memory loss on the primary and middle part of the SPC for immediate recall scores and were severely impaired in the delayed recall trial. These results suggested that subtle executive dysfunctions might influence the recall of mid-list items, possibly reflecting deficiency in control strategies at retrieval of word lists, whereas severer dysexecutive syndrome might also affect the recall of terminal items possibly due to attention deficit or retroactive interference. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients' memory impairments in daily living.

  16. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamagishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.

  17. Factors affecting regional pulmonary blood flow in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistolesi, M.; Miniati, M.; Bonsignore, M.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the effect of left heart disease on pulmonary blood flow distribution, we measured mean pulmonary arterial and wedge pressures, cardiac output, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary blood volume, and arterial oxygen tension before and after treatment in 13 patients with longstanding ischemic heart failure and pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema was evaluated by a radiographic score, and regional lung perfusion was quantified on a lung scan by the upper to lower third ratio (U:L ratio) of pulmonary blood flow per unit of lung volume. In all cases, redistribution of lung perfusion toward the apical regions was observed; this pattern was not affected by treatment. After treatment, pulmonary vascular pressures, resistance, and edema were reduced, while pulmonary blood volume did not change. At this time, pulmonary vascular resistance showed a positive correlation with the U:L ratio (r = 0.78; P less than 0.01), whereas no correlation was observed between U:L ratio and wedge pressure, pulmonary edema, or arterial oxygen tension. Hence, redistribution of pulmonary blood flow, in these patients, reflects chronic structural vascular changes prevailing in the dependent lung regions

  18. Prosody impairment and associated affective and behavioral disturbances in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, V J; Ingram, S M; Lamar, M; Green, R C

    1996-12-01

    We examined the ability to produce, repeat, and comprehend emotional prosody in 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in 11 elderly normal control subjects. In addition, caregivers of AD patients completed affective and behavioral measures with reference to the patient. Relative to control subjects, comprehension of emotional prosody was marginally impaired in mildly demented AD patients, whereas production, comprehension, and repetition of emotional prosody were significantly impaired in moderately demented AD patients. The moderately demented patients performed significantly poorer than the mildly demented patients on the production and repetition tasks. In contrast, there was no significance difference between the two groups on the prosody comprehension task. Additional analyses revealed an inverse relationship between the ability to correctly produce and repeat emotional prosody and the frequency of agitated behaviors and depressive symptomatology in moderately demented patients. This latter findings suggests that the inability to communicate emotional message is associated with disturbances in mood and behavior in AD patients. Implications for the management of disruptive behavior in agitated and aprosodic AD patients include the development of caregiver sensitivity to unexpressed emotion and caregiver assistance with emotional expression.

  19. Personality Traits and Cortical Activity Affect Gambling Behavior in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Siri, Chiara; Meucci, Nicoletta; Pezzoli, Gianni; Angioletti, Laura

    2018-03-26

    Pathological gambling (PG) in Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests as a persistent and uncontrollable gambling behavior, characterized by dysfunctional decision-making and emotional impairment related to high-risk decisions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between personality traits and prefrontal cortex activity in PD patients with or without PG. Thus, hemodynamic cortical activity measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance were recorded in forty-six PD patients, divided into three groups according to their gambling status: PD patients with active gambling behavior (PDG); PD patients who remitted from PG (PDNG); and a control group (CG) composed by patients with PD only. Results indicates that gambling behavior in PD patients is strongly predictive of dysfunctional cognitive strategy; affecting anomalous cortical response with a left hemispheric unbalance in dorsal areas; and it is related to more reward sensitivity than impulsivity personality components. PDG patients differed from PDNG and CG from both behavioral and brain response to decision-making. Overall, these effects confirm a pathological condition related to cognitive and emotional aspects which makes the patients with PGD victims of their dysfunctional behavior.

  20. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  1. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  2. Improvement of Disease Prediction and Modeling through the Use of Meteorological Ensembles: Human Plague in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M.; Monaghan, Andrew; Griffith, Kevin S.; Apangu, Titus; Mead, Paul S.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate and weather influence the occurrence, distribution, and incidence of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by vector-borne or zoonotic pathogens. Thus, models based on meteorological data have helped predict when and where human cases are most likely to occur. Such knowledge aids in targeting limited prevention and control resources and may ultimately reduce the burden of diseases. Paradoxically, localities where such models could yield the greatest benefits, such as tropical regions where morbidity and mortality caused by vector-borne diseases is greatest, often lack high-quality in situ local meteorological data. Satellite- and model-based gridded climate datasets can be used to approximate local meteorological conditions in data-sparse regions, however their accuracy varies. Here we investigate how the selection of a particular dataset can influence the outcomes of disease forecasting models. Our model system focuses on plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in the West Nile region of Uganda. The majority of recent human cases have been reported from East Africa and Madagascar, where meteorological observations are sparse and topography yields complex weather patterns. Using an ensemble of meteorological datasets and model-averaging techniques we find that the number of suspected cases in the West Nile region was negatively associated with dry season rainfall (December-February) and positively with rainfall prior to the plague season. We demonstrate that ensembles of available meteorological datasets can be used to quantify climatic uncertainty and minimize its impacts on infectious disease models. These methods are particularly valuable in regions with sparse observational networks and high morbidity and mortality from vector-borne diseases. PMID:23024750

  3. Improvement of disease prediction and modeling through the use of meteorological ensembles: human plague in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Moore

    Full Text Available Climate and weather influence the occurrence, distribution, and incidence of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by vector-borne or zoonotic pathogens. Thus, models based on meteorological data have helped predict when and where human cases are most likely to occur. Such knowledge aids in targeting limited prevention and control resources and may ultimately reduce the burden of diseases. Paradoxically, localities where such models could yield the greatest benefits, such as tropical regions where morbidity and mortality caused by vector-borne diseases is greatest, often lack high-quality in situ local meteorological data. Satellite- and model-based gridded climate datasets can be used to approximate local meteorological conditions in data-sparse regions, however their accuracy varies. Here we investigate how the selection of a particular dataset can influence the outcomes of disease forecasting models. Our model system focuses on plague (Yersinia pestis infection in the West Nile region of Uganda. The majority of recent human cases have been reported from East Africa and Madagascar, where meteorological observations are sparse and topography yields complex weather patterns. Using an ensemble of meteorological datasets and model-averaging techniques we find that the number of suspected cases in the West Nile region was negatively associated with dry season rainfall (December-February and positively with rainfall prior to the plague season. We demonstrate that ensembles of available meteorological datasets can be used to quantify climatic uncertainty and minimize its impacts on infectious disease models. These methods are particularly valuable in regions with sparse observational networks and high morbidity and mortality from vector-borne diseases.

  4. Adaptation and Evaluation of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Model for Lyme Disease Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Aenishaenslin

    Full Text Available Designing preventive programs relevant to vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease (LD can be complex given the need to include multiple issues and perspectives into prioritizing public health actions. A multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA model was previously used to rank interventions for LD prevention in Quebec, Canada, where the disease is emerging. The aim of the current study was to adapt and evaluate the decision model constructed in Quebec under a different epidemiological context, in Switzerland, where LD has been endemic for the last thirty years. The model adaptation was undertaken with a group of Swiss stakeholders using a participatory approach. The PROMETHEE method was used for multi-criteria analysis. Key elements and results of the MCDA model are described and contrasted with the Quebec model. All criteria and most interventions of the MCDA model developed for LD prevention in Quebec were directly transferable to the Swiss context. Four new decision criteria were added, and the list of proposed interventions was modified. Based on the overall group ranking, interventions targeting human populations were prioritized in the Swiss model, with the top ranked action being the implementation of a large communication campaign. The addition of criteria did not significantly alter the intervention rankings, but increased the capacity of the model to discriminate between highest and lowest ranked interventions. The current study suggests that beyond the specificity of the MCDA models developed for Quebec and Switzerland, their general structure captures the fundamental and common issues that characterize the complexity of vector-borne disease prevention. These results should encourage public health organizations to adapt, use and share MCDA models as an effective and functional approach to enable the integration of multiple perspectives and considerations in the prevention and control of complex public health issues such as Lyme disease or

  5. Adaptation and Evaluation of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Model for Lyme Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Gern, Lise; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André; Hongoh, Valérie; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Milord, François; Bélanger, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Designing preventive programs relevant to vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease (LD) can be complex given the need to include multiple issues and perspectives into prioritizing public health actions. A multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) model was previously used to rank interventions for LD prevention in Quebec, Canada, where the disease is emerging. The aim of the current study was to adapt and evaluate the decision model constructed in Quebec under a different epidemiological context, in Switzerland, where LD has been endemic for the last thirty years. The model adaptation was undertaken with a group of Swiss stakeholders using a participatory approach. The PROMETHEE method was used for multi-criteria analysis. Key elements and results of the MCDA model are described and contrasted with the Quebec model. All criteria and most interventions of the MCDA model developed for LD prevention in Quebec were directly transferable to the Swiss context. Four new decision criteria were added, and the list of proposed interventions was modified. Based on the overall group ranking, interventions targeting human populations were prioritized in the Swiss model, with the top ranked action being the implementation of a large communication campaign. The addition of criteria did not significantly alter the intervention rankings, but increased the capacity of the model to discriminate between highest and lowest ranked interventions. The current study suggests that beyond the specificity of the MCDA models developed for Quebec and Switzerland, their general structure captures the fundamental and common issues that characterize the complexity of vector-borne disease prevention. These results should encourage public health organizations to adapt, use and share MCDA models as an effective and functional approach to enable the integration of multiple perspectives and considerations in the prevention and control of complex public health issues such as Lyme disease or other vector-borne

  6. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Carl S; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H; Hudak, Andrew T; Noh, Susan M; Futse, James E

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  7. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl S Beckley

    Full Text Available Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B

  8. RISK FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCIDENCE OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AT THE DR. WAHIDIN SUDIROHUSODO GENERAL HOSPITAL IN MAKASSAR IN 2010

    OpenAIRE

    arsin, A. Arsunan

    2011-01-01

    Dipresentasikan pada kegiatan " The 43rd APACPH Conference" di Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Korea. pada tanggal 20-22 Oktober 2011 RISK FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCIDENCE OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AT THE DR. WAHIDIN SUDIROHUSODO GENERAL HOSPITAL IN MAKASSAR IN 2010 A. Arsunan Arsin, Wiwik, Ridwan Amiruddin Hasanuddin University, Indonesia Coronary heart disease is the first cause of death in the world and the fifth cause of death in all hospitals in Indonesi...

  9. Affective and cognitive behavior in the alpha-galactosidase A deficient mouse model of Fabry disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Hofmann

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder with intracellular accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3 due to α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A deficiency. Fabry patients frequently report of anxiety, depression, and impaired cognitive function. We characterized affective and cognitive phenotype of male mice with α-Gal A deficiency (Fabry KO and compared results with those of age-matched male wildtype (WT littermates. Young (3 months and old (≥ 18 months mice were tested in the naïve state and after i.pl. injection of complete Freund`s adjuvant (CFA as an inflammatory pain model. We used the elevated plus maze (EPM, the light-dark box (LDB and the open field test (OF to investigate anxiety-like behavior. The forced swim test (FST and Morris water maze (MWM were applied to assess depressive-like and learning behavior. The EPM test revealed no intergroup difference for anxiety-like behavior in naïve young and old Fabry KO mice compared to WT littermates, except for longer time spent in open arms of the EPM for young WT mice compared to young Fabry KO mice (p<0.05. After CFA injection, young Fabry KO mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior compared to young WT littermates (p<0.05 and naïve young Fabry KO mice (p<0.05 in the EPM as reflected by shorter time spent in EPM open arms. There were no relevant differences in the LDB and the OF test, except for longer time spent in the center zone of the OF by young WT mice compared to young Fabry KO mice (p<0.05. Complementary to this, depression-like and learning behavior were not different between genotypes and age-groups, except for the expectedly lower memory performance in older age-groups compared to young mice. Our results indicate that genetic influences on affective and cognitive symptoms in FD may be of subordinate relevance, drawing attention to potential influences of environmental and epigenetic factors.

  10. Neuropsychological correlates of cognitive, emotional-affective and auto-activation apathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Turchetta, Chiara Stella; Caruso, Giulia; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Augusto Giovanni

    2018-01-31

    Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy. Furthermore, whether there is an association in AD between E-aff apathy and theory of mind (ToM),the cognitive functions subsumed by the orbito-basal prefrontal cortex, has not been investigated. Aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between C, E-Aff and auto-activation apathy and performance on tasks investigating executive and ToM cognitive functions in AD. For this purpose, 20 AD patients with apathy and 20 matched controls were submitted to an executive and ToM neuropsychological assessment. Apathy was assessed with a weekly diary (ApD) created specifically to assist caregivers in quantifying the C, E-Aff and auto-activation symptomatology of apathy. Correlational analyses showed that AD patients' scores on the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST) and Emotion Attribution tasks were correlated with most ApD scores. However, regression analyses showed that C diary scores were predicted by MCST performance, E-Aff diary scores by performance on the E-Attribution task and ApD scores measuring auto-activation apathy were predicted by both the MCST and the Emotion Attribution scores. These results confirm the co-occurrence of apathy and executive-function deficits in AD and suggest a specific association between AD patients' executive deficits and the cognitive component of apathy. Furthermore, they document, for the first time, an association between poor performance on tests assessing ToM abilities and the emotional-affective

  11. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes through Integrated Study of Alzheimer's Disease Affected Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Puthiyedth

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in older adults that damages the brain and results in impaired memory, thinking and behaviour. The identification of differentially expressed genes and related pathways among affected brain regions can provide more information on the mechanisms of AD. In the past decade, several studies have reported many genes that are associated with AD. This wealth of information has become difficult to follow and interpret as most of the results are conflicting. In that case, it is worth doing an integrated study of multiple datasets that helps to increase the total number of samples and the statistical power in detecting biomarkers. In this study, we present an integrated analysis of five different brain region datasets and introduce new genes that warrant further investigation.The aim of our study is to apply a novel combinatorial optimisation based meta-analysis approach to identify differentially expressed genes that are associated to AD across brain regions. In this study, microarray gene expression data from 161 samples (74 non-demented controls, 87 AD from the Entorhinal Cortex (EC, Hippocampus (HIP, Middle temporal gyrus (MTG, Posterior cingulate cortex (PC, Superior frontal gyrus (SFG and visual cortex (VCX brain regions were integrated and analysed using our method. The results are then compared to two popular meta-analysis methods, RankProd and GeneMeta, and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets.We find genes related with AD that are consistent with existing studies, and new candidate genes not previously related with AD. Our study confirms the up-regualtion of INFAR2 and PTMA along with the down regulation of GPHN, RAB2A, PSMD14 and FGF. Novel genes PSMB2, WNK1, RPL15, SEMA4C, RWDD2A and LARGE are found to be differentially expressed across all brain regions. Further investigation on these genes may provide new insights into the development of AD. In addition, we

  12. Self-management and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): The mediating effects of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto P; Abascal-Bolado, Beatriz; Dulohery, Megan M

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to increase our understanding of general self-management (SM) abilities in COPD by determining if SM can predict disease specific quality of life (QoL), by investigating whether specific SM domains are significant in COPD and by exploring the mediating effect of the positive/negative affect in the association between SM and QoL. Cross-sectional study based on 292 patients with COPD. Measures included demographics, lung function, gait speed, health care utilization, positive/negative affect, SM abilities, breathlessness and disease specific QoL. We performed, correlation, multiple regression models and mediation analysis (positive/negative affect being mediator between SM and QoL association). After controlling for breathlessness, living alone, marital status, hospitalization history, age and lung function, SM related to QoL (pnegative affect ratio completely mediates the relationship of SM with QoL. SM is independently associated with disease specific QoL in COPD after adjustment significant covariates but positive/negative affect ratio completely mediates the relationship of SM with QoL. Measuring positive/negative affect and addressing investment behavior and self-efficacy are important in implementing COPD-SM programs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The link between negative affect, vagal tone, and visceral sensitivity in quiescent Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Pellissier, S; Picot, A; Dantzer, C; Bonaz, B

    2014-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction and mood disorders are frequently described in Crohn's disease (CD) and are known to influence visceral sensitivity. We addressed the link between vagal tone, negative affect, and visceral sensitivity in CD patients without concomitant features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Rectal distensions to a discomfort threshold of 70% and onset of pain were performed in nine CD patients in remission and eight healthy controls. Autonomic parameters were evaluated with heart rate variability and electrodermal reactivity. We showed that CD patients had (i) higher scores of depressive symptomatology (12 ± 3 in patients vs 4 ± 1 in controls on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; p = 0.038), (ii) reduced vagal tone (HF 257 ± 84 ms(2) vs 1607 ± 1032 ms(2) , p = 0.043; LF 455 ± 153 ms(2) vs 1629 ± 585 ms(2) , p = 0.047), (iii) decreased sympathetic reactivity during an aversive stimulus, and (iv) higher tolerance to rectal distension pressures (43 ± 3 mmHg vs 30 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.002) and low sensitivity index scores. In conclusion, our results provide preliminary evidence that patients with quiescent CD, in the absence of IBS, are hyposensate to experimental rectal distension. These data provide further evidence that anxiety and depressive symptomatology in addition to autonomic dysfunction modulate visceral pain perception in quiescent CD patients in the absence of IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Monoclonal antibody identification of subpopulations of cerebral cortical neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Rudnicka, M.; Hinton, D.R.; Blanks, J.C.; Kozlowski, M.

    1987-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the paucity of molecular markers available for the identification of neuronal subtypes, the specificity of neuronal loss within the cerebral cortex has been difficult to evaluate. With a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) applied to central nervous system tissues from AD patients, the authors have immunocytochemically identified a population of vulnerable cortical neurons; a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons is recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 in the hippocampus and neocortex, and clusters of multipolar neurons in the entorhinal cortex reactive with mAb 44.1 show selective degeneration. Closely adjacent stellate-like neurons in these regions, identified by mAb 6A2, show striking preservation in AD. The neurons recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 do not comprise a single known neurotransmitter system. mAb 3A4 identifies a phosphorylated antigen that is undetectable in normal brain but accumulates early in the course of AD in somas of vulnerable neurons. Antigen 3A4 is distinct from material reactive with thioflavin S or antibody generated against paired helical filaments. Initially, antigen 3A4 is localized to neurons in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum, later in the association neocortex, and, ultimately in cases of long duration, in primary sensory cortical regions. mAb 3F12 recognizes multiple bands of immunoblots of homogenates of normal and AD cortical tissues, whereas mAb 3A4 does not bind to immunoblots containing neurofilament proteins or brain homogenates from AD patients. Ultrastructurally, antigen 3A4 is localized to paired-helical filaments. Using these mAbs, further molecular characterization of the affected cortical neurons is now possible

  16. Decreased enzymatic activity of 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase affects the development of several diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of folates in human physiology is well known, as are various pathologies associated with low folate status. Folate deficiency can occur due to low dietary intake, genetic predisposition or treatment with medicines affecting the folate status. The aim of this paper is to explore the importance of determining genetic polymorphisms which influence the levels of biologically active folate. MTHFR is involved in the transformation of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. Polymorphisms of the MTHRF gene are associated with decreased enzymatic activity.Only 9.3 % of the population in Slovenia displays full activity of the MTHFR enzyme; these subjects are non-mutated homozygotes (wild-type alleles. In contrast, the average enzymatic activity in subjects with mutated alleles is between 50 and 60 %. MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and various types of cancer. There is also an increased risk for congenital malformations. Folic acid food fortification was introduced in some countries in order to assure an adequate folate status in the population. However, this approach does not address the decreased activity of MTHFR.Polymorphism in the key enzymes of the folate cycle is common. Determination of the genetic predisposition is therefore plausible in the most vulnerable groups of the population, such as pregnant women and patients receiving medicines influencing the folate cycle in various ways, e.g. 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine. Genotyping would allow the identification of patients at high risk for suboptimal folate status.

  17. Characterization of vascular lesions in pigs affected by porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, A R; Segalés, J

    2015-05-01

    Vascular lesions and their association with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were evaluated in multiple organs from 10 pigs affected with PCV2-systemic disease (PCV2-SD). Animals had vascular lesions in multiple organs, consisting of lymphohistiocytic lymphangitis and/or phlebitis, mild to severe necrotizing arteritis, and thrombosis within splenic arterioles and choroid plexus capillaries. Variable amounts of PCV2 nucleic acid detected by in situ hybridization were present within endothelial cells, tunica media myocytes, and perivascular and/or intralesional inflammatory cell infiltrates. PCV2 nucleic acid was detected within endothelial cells of both lymphatic and blood vessels without lesions in the associated tissues. Necrotizing arteritis was principally present in lymph nodes and kidney and consisted of degeneration, necrosis, and pyknosis of myocytes, often with intracytoplasmic, brightly eosinophilic inclusion bodies that were strongly positive for PCV2 nucleic acid. Segmental or circumferential fibrinoid necrosis was mainly present in vessels of the lymph node, spleen, and choroid plexus and was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. Severe lymphangitis associated with strong intralesional PCV2 labeling was frequently detected within the mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes and the lamina propria of the ileum. In most tissues, medium and large lymphatics and/or veins often had disruption of the intima and mild mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration that was variably associated with PCV2 nucleic acid. The present study indicates that vasculitis is a frequent finding in natural cases of PCV2-SD and that PCV2 may have a direct cytopathic effect on tunica media myocytes of small- and medium-sized arteries as well as endothelium. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Hospital specific factors affect quality of blood pressure treatment in chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilen, A.D. van; Blankestijn, P.J.; Buren, M. van; Dam, M.A. ten; Kaasjager, K.A.; Ligtenberg, G.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Sluiter, H.E.; Ven, P.J. van der; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Vleming, L.; Bots, M.L.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) is the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) disease and progression of kidney dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. Despite extensive antihypertensive treatment possibilities, adequate control is notoriously hard to achieve.

  19. Simulating infectious disease risk based on climatic drivers: from numerical weather prediction to long term climate change scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Ndione, J. A.; Diallo, M.; MacLeod, D.; Faye, O.; Ba, Y.; Dia, I.; Medlock, J. M.; Leach, S.; McIntyre, K. M.; Baylis, M.; Morse, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant health and socioeconomic impacts. In particular, vector born diseases are the most likely to be affected by climate; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the surrounding environmental conditions. Disease risk models of various complexities using different streams of climate forecasts as inputs have been developed within the QWeCI EU and ENHanCE ERA-NET project frameworks. This work will present two application examples, one for Africa and one for Europe. First, we focus on Rift Valley fever over sub-Saharan Africa, a zoonosis that affects domestic animals and humans by causing an acute fever. We show that the Rift Valley fever outbreak that occurred in late 2010 in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania might have been anticipated ten days in advance using the GFS numerical weather prediction system. Then, an ensemble of regional climate projections is employed to model the climatic suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito for the future over Europe. The Asian tiger mosquito is an invasive species originally from Asia which is able to transmit West Nile and Chikungunya Fever among others. This species has spread worldwide during the last decades, mainly through the shipments of goods from Asia. Different disease models are employed and inter-compared to achieve such a task. Results show that the climatic conditions over southern England, central Western Europe and the Balkans might become more suitable for the mosquito (including the proviso that the mosquito has already been introduced) to establish itself in the future.

  20. Positive Affect and Health Behaviors Across 5 Years in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease: The Heart and Soul Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Whooley, Mary A

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological states are linked to superior health and longevity, possibly due to behavioral factors. We evaluated cross-sectional and 5-year associations between positive affect and health behaviors in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Outpatients with CHD reported positive affect, physical activity, sleep quality, medication adherence, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use at baseline (n = 1022) and 5 years later (n = 662). Covariates in regression analyses included demographics, cardiac disease severity, and depressive symptoms. At baseline, higher positive affect (per 1 standard deviation) was associated with better health behaviors: physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.77, p positive affect did not predict health behaviors at follow-up, accounting for baseline behaviors. However, increases in positive affect across 5 years co-occurred with improvements in physical activity (B = 0.023, standard error [SE] = 0.008, p = .002), sleep quality (B = 0.011, SE = 0.005, p = .039), and medication adherence (B = 0.014, SE = 0.004, p Positive affect was associated with health behaviors among patients with CHD. Efforts to sustain or enhance positive affect may be promising for promoting better health behaviors.

  1. Positive affect and survival in patients with stable coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Petra W; Denollet, Johan; de Jonge, Peter; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-07-01

    Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might explain this association. The Heart and Soul Study is a prospective cohort study of 1,018 outpatients with stable coronary heart disease. Participants were recruited between September 11, 2000, and December 20, 2002, and were followed up to June 2011. Baseline positive affect was assessed by using the 10-item positive affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the risk of mortality (primary outcome measure) and cardiovascular events (heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack) associated with positive affect, adjusting for baseline cardiac disease severity and depression. We also evaluated the extent to which these associations were explained by potential biological and behavioral mediators. A total of 369 patients (36%) died during a mean ± SD follow-up period of 7.1 ± 2.5 years. Positive affect was not significantly associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00; P = .06). However, each standard deviation (8.8-point) increase in positive affect score was associated with a 16% decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.92; P = .001). After adjustment for cardiac disease severity and depressive symptoms, positive affect remained significantly associated with improved survival (HR: 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.97; P = .01). The association was no longer significant after adjustment for behavioral factors, and particularly physical activity (HR: 0.92; 95% CI, 0.82-1.03; P = .16). Further adjustment for C-reactive protein and omega-3 fatty acids did not result in any meaningful changes (HR: 0.94; 95% CI, 0.84-1.06; P = .31). In this

  2. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles

  3. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Pichit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  4. Anticipatory modulation of digit placement for grasp control is affected by Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie R Lukos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful object manipulation relies on the ability to form and retrieve sensorimotor memories of digit forces and positions used in previous object lifts. Past studies of patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD have revealed that the basal ganglia play a crucial role in the acquisition and/or retrieval of sensorimotor memories for grasp control. Whereas it is known that PD impairs anticipatory control of digit forces during grasp, learning deficits associated with the planning of digit placement have yet to be explored. This question is motivated by recent work in healthy subjects revealing that anticipatory control of digit placement plays a crucial role for successful manipulation.We asked ten PD patients off medication and ten age-matched controls to reach, grasp and lift an object whose center of mass (CM was on the left, right or center. The only task requirement was to minimize object roll during lift. The CM remained the same across consecutive trials (blocked condition or was altered from trial to trial (random condition. We hypothesized that impairment of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits in PD patients would reduce their ability to anticipate digit placement appropriate to the CM location. Consequently, we predicted that PD patients would exhibit similar digit placement in the blocked vs. random conditions and produce larger peak object rolls than that of control subjects. In the blocked condition, PD patients exhibited significantly weaker modulation of fingertip contact points to CM location and larger object roll than controls (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Nevertheless, both controls and PD patients minimized object roll more in the blocked than in the random condition (p<0.01.Our findings indicate that, even though PD patients may have a residual ability of anticipatory control of digit contact points and forces, they fail to implement a motor plan with the same degree of effectiveness as controls. We conclude

  5. Histopathology of crustose coralline algae affected by white band and white patch diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Quéré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crustose coralline algae (CCA are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Over the past two decades, epizootics have been reported for several CCA species on coral reefs worldwide. However, their causes remain often unknown in part because few studies have investigated CCA pathologies at a microscopic scale. We studied the cellular changes associated with two syndromes: Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS and Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD from samples collected in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Healthy-looking tissue of diseased CCA did not differ from healthy tissue of healthy CCA. In diseased tissues of both pathologies, the three characteristic cell layers of CCA revealed cells completely depleted of protoplasmic content, but presenting an intact cell wall. In addition, CWBS showed a transition area between healthy and diseased tissues consisting of cells partially deprived of protoplasmic material, most likely corresponding to the white band characterizing the disease at the macroscopic level. This transition area was absent in CWPD. Regrowth at the lesion boundary were sometimes observed in both syndromes. Tissues of both healthy and diseased CCA were colonised by diverse boring organisms. Fungal infections associated with the diseased cells were not seen. However, other bioeroders were more abundant in diseased vs healthy CCA and in diseased vs healthy-looking tissues of diseased CCA. Although their role in the pathogenesis is unclear, this suggests that disease increases CCA susceptibility to bioerosion. Further investigations using an integrated approach are needed to carry out the complete diagnosis of these diseases.

  6. Evolutionary Meta-Analysis of Association Studies Reveals Ancient Constraints Affecting Disease Marker Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Joel T.; Chen, Rong; Sanderford, Maxwell; Butte, Atul J.; Kumar, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide disease association studies contrast genetic variation between disease cohorts and healthy populations to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other genetic markers revealing underlying genetic architectures of human diseases. Despite scores of efforts over the past decade, many reproducible genetic variants that explain substantial proportions of the heritable risk of common human diseases remain undiscovered. We have conducted a multispecies genomic analysis of 5,831 putative human risk variants for more than 230 disease phenotypes reported in 2,021 studies. We find that the current approaches show a propensity for discovering disease-associated SNPs (dSNPs) at conserved genomic positions because the effect size (odds ratio) and allelic P value of genetic association of an SNP relates strongly to the evolutionary conservation of their genomic position. We propose a new measure for ranking SNPs that integrates evolutionary conservation scores and the P value (E-rank). Using published data from a large case-control study, we demonstrate that E-rank method prioritizes SNPs with a greater likelihood of bona fide and reproducible genetic disease associations, many of which may explain greater proportions of genetic variance. Therefore, long-term evolutionary histories of genomic positions offer key practical utility in reassessing data from existing disease association studies, and in the design and analysis of future studies aimed at revealing the genetic basis of common human diseases. PMID:22389448

  7. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I. RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0 for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1 for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms, but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5 vs. 5.4 (4.3 for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9 vs. 6.7 (7.2 for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84 or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84. CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process.

  8. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Pathway to diagnosis and real-life experience of patients believing they are affected by "chronic Lyme disease"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, E; Gonnet, F; Revil-Signorat, A; Zipper, A C

    2018-04-26

    Chronic Lyme disease is a subject of scientific and social controversy in both Europe and the United States. The aim of our study was to analyze the pathway to diagnosis of patients believing they were affected by the disease, and to describe their real-life experience. A qualitative study was performed with 13 patients declaring themselves to be affected by chronic Lyme disease. Interviews were analyzed by 2 general medical practice interns, supervised by a general practitioner with a diploma in socio-anthropology and an infectious diseases specialist. Internet and other media played a major role in informing the patients or their doctor about the existence and the characteristics of chronic Lyme disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by features considered objective (chronic infection by Borrelia, tick bite, positive serology, beneficial or worsening effects of antibiotics). The long medical diagnosis and treatment process of those interviewed was marked by a conflicted relationship with the medical profession, caused by a feeling of non-recognition and abandonment. They reported their experience as being very painful, both because of the physical pain and also the psychological consequences of their condition. Improving the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients believing themselves to be affected by chronic Lyme disease appears highly necessary both to limit their search for diagnosis and their experience of pain. It could be based on existing guidelines concerning medically unexplained symptoms to which the chronic Lyme disease issue appears quite similar on several points. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Black stain root disease studies on ponderosa pine parameters and disturbance treatments affecting infection and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Otrosina; J.T. Kliejunas; S. Smith; D.R. Cluck; S.S. Sung; C.D. Cook

    2007-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. Ex Laws.), caused by Leptographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside Sierra Nevada pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root...

  11. ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

    2014-01-01

    Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this

  12. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 affect the severity of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alfredo; Pezzuto, Federica; Di Cerbo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Graves' disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete countries, is associated with the presence of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are responsible for thyroid growth and hyperfunction. In this article, we report the unusual case of a patient with acromegaly and a severe form of Graves' disease. Here, we address the issue concerning the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in influencing thyroid function. Severity of Graves' disease is exacerbated by coexistent acromegaly and both activity indexes and symptoms and signs of Graves' disease improve after the surgical remission of acromegaly. We also discuss by which signaling pathways GH and IGF1 may play an integrating role in regulating the function of the immune system in Graves' disease and synergize the stimulatory activity of Graves' IgGs. Clinical observations have demonstrated an increased prevalence of euthyroid and hyperthyroid goiters in patients with acromegaly.The coexistence of acromegaly and Graves' disease is a very unusual event, the prevalence being Graves' disease associated with acromegaly and show that surgical remission of acromegaly leads to a better control of symptoms of Graves' disease.

  13. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  14. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  15. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  16. BDNF and VEGF in the pathogenesis of stress-induced affective diseases: an insight from experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka, Marta; Obuchowicz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Stress is known to play an important role in etiology, development and progression of affective diseases. Especially, chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), neurotransmission and the immune system, acts as a trigger for affective diseases. It has been reported that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and persistent up-regulation of glucocorticoid expression in the brain and periphery increases the excitotoxic effect on CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus resulting in dendritic atrophy, apoptosis of neurons and possibly inhibition of neurogenesis in adult brain. Stress was observed to disrupt neuroplasticity in the brain, and growing evidence demonstrates its role in the pathomechanism of affective disorders. Experimental studies indicate that a well-known brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which have recently focused increasing attention of neuroscientists, promote cell survival, positively modulate neuroplasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis. In this paper, we review the alterations in BDNF and VEGF pathways induced by chronic and acute stress, and their relationships with HPA axis activity. Moreover, behavioral effects evoked in rodents by both above-mentioned factors and the effects consequent to their deficit are presented. Biochemical as well as behavioral findings suggest that BDNF and VEGF play an important role as components of cascade of changes in the pathomechanism of stress-induced affective diseases. Further studies on the mechanisms regulating their expression in stress conditions are needed to better understand the significance of trophic hypothesis of stress-induced affective diseases.

  17. Affective touch awareness in mental health and disease relates to autistic traits - An explorative neurophysiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Geide, Helen; Paulus, Martin; Weidner, Kerstin; Olausson, Håkan

    2016-11-30

    Affective touch is important for social interaction within families and groups and there is evidence that unmyelinated C tactile fibers are involved in this process. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders show alterations in the perception and processing of affective touch. sThus, we hypothesized that affective touch awareness based on C tactile fiber activation is impaired in individuals with high levels of autistic trait. The pleasantness perception of optimal and suboptimal C tactile stimuli was tested in an explorative study in 70 patients recruited from an outpatient psychotherapy clinic and 69 healthy comparison subjects. All participants completed questionnaires about autistic traits, depressive symptomatology, childhood maltreatment, and about the daily amount of touch. Relative to comparison subjects, patients reported engaging in touch less frequently in daily life and rated touch less pleasant. Reduced valence ratings of touch were explained by childhood maltreatment but not by any particular disorder or depression severity. Among all tested variables, the affective touch awareness correlated with autistic traits only - in patients as well as in comparison subjects. Taken together, individuals with mental health issues have a lower baseline of expression and reception of affective touch. Autistic traits and childhood maltreatment modulate the experience of affective touch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MR findings in acute Lyme disease affecting the knee. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallaro, A.; Harrer, T.; Richter, H.; Bautz, W.; Fellner, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report a case with primarily unspecific arthralgia after surgical therapy of hallux valgus deformity and consecutive reflex sympathetic dystrophy in which MR led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (orig.)

  19. MR findings in acute Lyme disease affecting the knee. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, A.; Harrer, T.; Richter, H.; Bautz, W.; Fellner, F.A. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we report a case with primarily unspecific arthralgia after surgical therapy of hallux valgus deformity and consecutive reflex sympathetic dystrophy in which MR led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (orig.)

  20. How virtual admission affects coping – telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emme, Christina; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Østergaard, Birte

    2014-01-01

    To describe what characterises chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' coping of physical, emotional and social problems before, during and after virtual admission, in interaction with health professionals and relatives....

  1. Positive affect moderates the effect of negative affect on cardiovascular disease-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality after cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Fiorenza Angela; von Känel, Roland; Saner, Hugo; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Stauber, Stefanie

    2015-10-01

    Little is known as to whether negative emotions adversely impact the prognosis of patients who undergo cardiac rehabilitation. We prospectively investigated the predictive value of state negative affect (NA) assessed at discharge from cardiac rehabilitation for prognosis and the moderating role of positive affect (PA) on the effect of NA on outcomes. A total of 564 cardiac patients (62.49 ± 11.51) completed a comprehensive three-month outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program, filling in the Global Mood Scale (GMS) at discharge. The combined endpoint was cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related hospitalizations plus all-cause mortality at follow-up. Cox regression models estimated the predictive value of NA, as well as the moderating influence of PA on outcomes. Survival models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and severity of disease. During a mean follow-up period of 3.4 years, 71 patients were hospitalized for a CVD-related event and 15 patients died. NA score (range 0-20) was a significant and independent predictor (hazard ratio (HR) 1.091, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.012-1.175; p = 0.023) with a three-point higher level in NA increasing the relative risk by 9.1%. Furthermore, PA interacted significantly with NA (p < 0.001). The relative risk of poor prognosis with NA was increased in patients with low PA (p = 0.012) but remained unchanged in combination with high PA (p = 0.12). The combination of NA with low PA was particularly predictive of poor prognosis. Whether reduction of NA and increase of PA, particularly in those with high NA, improves outcome needs to be tested. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  2. Is blinking of the eyes affected in extrapyramidal disorders? An interesting observation in a patient with Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Lalla, Rakesh; Patil, Tushar B

    2012-11-27

    Blinking of eye is a routine human activity which seldom attracts any attention of clinicians in health and disease. There is experimental evidence that blink rate is affected in extrapyramidal disorders affecting the balance of these neurotransmitters. However, no observations regarding blink rate in Wilson disease (WD) have been reported previously. We report a patient of WD with an increased spontaneous blink rate. A 24-year-old lady presented complaining of tremulousness of both upper limbs and head for 2 years, dysphagia and difficulty in speaking for 1.5 years and abnormal behaviour for last 1 year. We observed that her blink rate at rest was 32/min. Serum ceruloplasmin level was low (0.08 g/l). The patient was started on therapy with D-penicillamine, zinc sulphate, levodopa-carbidopa and trihexiphenidyl. At 1-month follow-up, patient's tremors were markedly decreased and blink rate at rest was decreased to 12/min.

  3. Primary care nursing activities with patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Ariane; Hudon, Catherine; Poitras, Marie-Eve; Roberge, Pasquale; Chouinard, Maud-Christine

    2017-05-01

    To describe nursing activities in primary care with patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders. Patients in primary care who are affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression require care and follow-up based on their physical and mental health condition. Primary care nurses are increasingly expected to contribute to the care and follow-up of this growing clientele. However, little is known about the actual activities carried out by primary care nurses in providing this service in the Province of Quebec (Canada). A qualitative descriptive study was conducted. Data were obtained through semistructured individual interviews with 13 nurses practising among patients with physical chronic disease in seven Family Medicine Groups in Quebec (Canada). Participants described five activity domains: assessment of physical and mental health condition, care planning, interprofessional collaboration, therapeutic relationship and health promotion. The full potential of primary care nurses is not always exploited, and some activities could be improved. Evidence for including nurses in collaborative care for patients affected by physical chronic disease and common mental disorders has been shown but is not fully implemented in Family Medicine Groups. Future research should emphasise collaboration among mental health professionals, primary care nurses and family physicians in the care of patients with physical chronic disease and common mental disorders. Primary care nurses would benefit from gaining more knowledge about common mental disorders and from identifying the resources they need to contribute to managing them in an interdisciplinary team. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  5. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  6. IL-1 signal affects both protection and pathogenesis of virus-induced chronic CNS demyelinating disease

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    Kim Byung S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theiler’s virus infection induces chronic demyelinating disease in mice and has been investigated as an infectious model for multiple sclerosis (MS. IL-1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of both the autoimmune disease model (EAE and this viral model for MS. However, IL-1 is known to play an important protective role against certain viral infections. Therefore, it is unclear whether IL-1-mediated signaling plays a protective or pathogenic role in the development of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. Methods Female C57BL/6 mice and B6.129S7-Il1r1tm1Imx/J mice (IL-1R KO were infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (1 x 106 PFU. Differences in the development of demyelinating disease and changes in the histopathology were compared. Viral persistence, cytokine production, and immune responses in the CNS of infected mice were analyzed using quantitative PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Results Administration of IL-1β, thereby rending resistant B6 mice susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease, induced a high level of Th17 response. Interestingly, infection of TMEV into IL-1R-deficient resistant C57BL/6 (B6 mice also induced TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. High viral persistence was found in the late stage of viral infection in IL-1R-deficient mice, although there were few differences in the initial anti-viral immune responses and viral persistent levels between the WT B6 and IL-1R-deficiecent mice. The initial type I IFN responses and the expression of PDL-1 and Tim-3 were higher in the CNS of TMEV-infected IL-1R-deficient mice, leading to deficiencies in T cell function that permit viral persistence. Conclusions These results suggest that the presence of high IL-1 level exerts the pathogenic role by elevating pathogenic Th17 responses, whereas the lack of IL-1 signals promotes viral persistence in the spinal cord due to insufficient T cell activation by elevating the production of

  7. Impact of radiation therapy for benign diseases; Role de la radiotherapie dans les affections benignes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, G. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Fondation Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Van Houtte, P.; Beauvois, S.; Roelandts, M. [Institut Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Radiation therapy of benign diseases represent a wide panel of indications. Some indications are clearly identified as treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM), hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, postoperative heterotopic bone formations or keloid scars. Some indications are under evaluation as complications induced by neo-vessels of age-related macular degeneration or coronary restenosis after angioplasty. Some indications remain controversial with poor evidence of efficiency as treatment of bursitis, tendinitis or Dupuytren`s disease. Some indications are now obsolete such as warts, or contra-indicated as treatment of infant and children. (authors)

  8. Chikungunya virus outbreak expansion and microevolutionary events affecting epidemiology and epidemic potential

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    Powers AM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann M PowersArboviral Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, USAAbstract: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne virus that is associated with severe and prolonged arthralgia. Starting in 2004, CHIKV reemerged in a series of outbreaks along the east coast of Africa and on several islands of the Indian Ocean. Over the subsequent 10 years, the virus spread throughout the globe and caused over three million cases. Molecular characterization of the genomes over time revealed changes that were associated with changes in epidemiology and transmission patterns. Monitoring and exploitation of these changes may lead to better understanding of viral movement and potential options for prevention and control.Keywords: chikungunya, alphaviral evolution, molecular epidemiology, transmission, outbreaks

  9. How do demographic transitions and public health policies affect patients with Parkinson’s disease in Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovolenta TM

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tânia M Bovolenta, Andre C Felicio R. Neurology Program, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Brazil is currently experiencing a significant demographic transition characterized by a decrease in fertility rates and an exponential increase in the number of elderly citizens, which presents a special challenge for the health care professionals. More than other portions of the population, the elderly are most commonly affected by chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. Policymakers contend that Brazil is reasonably well-prepared regarding elderly health care, with policies that aim to ensure the quality of life and the well-being of this portion of the population. However, what happens in practice falls short of what the Brazilian Constitution sets forth. Specifically, there is a clear contradiction between what the law recognizes as being a citizen’s rights and the implementation of guidelines. Because health financing in Brazil remains relatively low, the civil society tries to fill in the gaps as much as possible in the treatment of elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. In this review, we outline the current legislation in Brazil regarding the elderly and in particular, patients with Parkinson’s disease, in the context of a rapidly aging population. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, demographic transition, public health, health assistance financing

  10. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  11. Factors affecting quality of life of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther E.; Oort, Frans J.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Hanneman, Marianne J. G.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; de Langen, Zacharias J.; Madern, Gerard C.; Rieu, Paul N. M. A.; van der Zee, David C.; Looyaard, Nic; van Silfhout-Bezemer, Marina; Aronson, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: First, to compare the quality of life (QL) and perceived self-competence of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease with that of reference groups. Second, to identify predictors of QL. Patients and Methods: A total of 491 patients with anorectal

  12. Factors affecting quality of life of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Esther E.; Oort, Frans J.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Hanneman, Marianne J. G.; van Heurn, L. W. Ernest; de Langen, Zacharias J.; Madern, Gerard C.; Rieu, Paul N. M. A.; van der Zee, David C.; Looyaard, Nic; van Silfhout-Bezemer, Marina; Aronson, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: First, to compare the quality of life (QL) and perceived self-competence of children and adolescents with anorectal malformations or Hirschsprung disease with that of reference groups. Second, to identify predictors of QL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 491 patients with anorectal

  13. Inoculation method, temperature and relative humidity affects leaf and neck anthracnose, a new onion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf and neck anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum coccodes is a new disease of onion in Michigan. To test the effect of inoculation method, ‘Prince’ onion seedlings were grown in the greenhouse and inoculated with either a conidial suspension of C. coccodes (alone or with an abrasive agent) or infe...

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and disability affect the risk of serious infection events in RADIUS 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Arthur; Troum, Orrin; Hooper, Michele; Koenig, Andrew S; Chaudhari, Sandeep; Feng, Jingyuan; Wenkert, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether disease activity and disability independently correlate with serious infection event (SIE) risk in a large rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort. The associations between SIE and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) in the Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Intervention and Utilization Study (RADIUS 1) cohort were evaluated using the Andersen-Gill model (a proportional HR model allowing > 1 event per patient). Of 4084 patients with 347 SIE, 271 patients experienced ≥ 1 SIE. A 5-unit CDAI increase and 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase corresponded to an increase in SIE risk with and without covariate adjustments. A 5-unit CDAI increase corresponded with a 7.7% increased SIE risk (adjusted HR 1.077, 95% CI 1.044-1.112, p < 0.0001) and a 0.4-unit HAQ-DI increase with a 30.1% increased risk (adjusted HR 1.301, 95% CI 1.225-1.381, p < 0.0001). Categorical analysis showed that more severe RA activity (even after controlling for disability) and disability were associated with an increased SIE risk. Increased RA disease activity and disability were each associated with a significantly increased SIE risk in the RADIUS 1 cohort, which could not be completely accounted for by disability.

  15. Variants in RET Associated With Hirschsprung's Disease Affect Binding of Transcription Factors and Gene Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sribudiani, Yunia; Metzger, Marco; Osinga, Jan; Rey, Amanda; Burns, Alan J.; Thapar, Nikhil; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Two noncoding variations in RET-the T allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2435357 (Enh1:C>T) and the A allele of the SNP rs2506004 (Enh2:C>A)-are associated with Hirschsprung's disease. These SNPs are in strong linkage disequilibrium and located in an enhancer

  16. Forming a support group for people affected by inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nidhi Swarup,1 Saumya Nayak,2 Jessie Lee,2 Srinivas Pai Raikar,2 David Hou,2 Senthil Sockalingam,2 Ken J Lee2 1Crohn’s and Colitis Society of Singapore (CCSS, The Arcadia, 2QuintilesIMS, Science Park One, Singapore Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD – primarily Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis – is a debilitating lifelong condition with significant health and economic costs. From diagnosis to management, IBD can cause huge psychosocial concerns to patients and their caregivers. This study reports an experience of a Crohn’s patient, leading to the formation of the first IBD patient support group in Singapore and how this group has evolved in the last 4 years in supporting other IBD patients. IBD patient advocacy and/or support groups facilitate open conversations on patients’ fears, concerns, preferences and needs, and may potentially improve disease knowledge and quality of life for individuals with the condition or their families. Keywords: patient advocacy groups, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, patients, caregivers

  17. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans

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    Tertius Abraham Kohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB (n = 9 or Vastus lateralis (VL (n = 8 were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10. All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%. Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%. In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients.

  18. Identification of seven loci affecting mean telomere length and their association with disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codd, V.; Nelson, C.P.; Albrecht, E.; Mangino, M.; Deelen, J.; Buxton, J.L.; Hottenga, J.J.; Fischer, K.; Esko, T.; Surakka, I.; Broer, L.; Nyholt, DR; Mateo Leach, I.; Salo, P.; Hägg, S.; Matthews, M.K.; Palmen, J.; Norata, G.D.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Saleheen, D.; Amin, N.; Balmforth, A.J.; Beekman, M.; de Boer, R.A.; Böhringer, S.; Braund, P.S.; Burton, P.R.; de Craen, A.J.; Denniff, M.; Dong, Y.; Douroudis, K.; Dubinina, E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Garlaschelli, K.; Guo, D.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Henders, A.K.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; Kananen, L.; Karssen, L.C.; Kettunen, J.; Klopp, N.; Lagou, V.; van Leeuwen, E.; Madden, P.A.; Mägi, R.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Männistö, S.; McCarthy, M.I.; Medland, S.E.; Mihailov, E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Oostra, B.A.; Palotie, A.; Peters, A.; Pollard, H.; Pouta, A.; Prokopenko, I.; Ripatti, S.; Salomaa, V.; Suchiman, H.E.D.; Valdes, A.M.; Verweij, N.; Viñuela, A.; Wang, X.; Wichmann, H. E.; Widen, E.; Willemsen, G.; Wright, M.J.; Xia, K.; Xiao, X.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Catapano, A.L.; Tobin, M.D.; Hall, A.S.; Blakemore, A.I.F.; van Gilst, W.H.; Zhu, H.; Erdmann, J.; Reilly, M.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Schunkert, H.; Talmud, P.J.; Pedersen, N.L.; Perola, M.; Ouwehand, W.; Kaprio, J.; Martin, N.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; Hovatta, I.; Gieger, C.; Metspalu, A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Järvelin, M.R.; Slagboom, P.E.; Thompson, J.R.; Spector, T.D.; van der Harst, P.; Samani, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Interindividual variation in mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cancer and several age-associated diseases. We report here a genome-wide meta-analysis of 37,684 individuals with replication of selected variants in an additional 10,739 individuals. We identified seven loci,

  19. Identification of seven loci affecting mean telomere length and their association with disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codd, Veryan; Nelson, Christopher P.; Albrecht, Eva; Mangino, Massimo; Deelen, Joris; Buxton, Jessica L.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Fischer, Krista; Esko, Tonu; Surakka, Ida; Broer, Linda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Salo, Perttu; Hagg, Sara; Matthews, Mary K.; Palmen, Jutta; Norata, Giuseppe D.; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Saleheen, Danish; Amin, Najaf; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Beekman, Marian; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Bohringer, Stefan; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Denniff, Matthew; Dong, Yanbin; Douroudis, Konstantinos; Dubinina, Elena; Eriksson, Johan G.; Garlaschelli, Katia; Guo, Dehuang; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Henders, Anjali K.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Kananen, Laura; Karssen, Lennart C.; Kettunen, Johannes; Klopp, Norman; Lagou, Vasiliki; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Madden, Pamela A.; Maegi, Reedik; Verweij, Niek; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van der Harst, Pim

    Interindividual variation in mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cancer and several age-associated diseases. We report here a genome-wide meta-analysis of 37,684 individuals with replication of selected variants in an additional 10,739 individuals. We identified seven loci,

  20. Transgenesis and paratransgenesis to control insect-borne diseases: Current status and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Insect-borne diseases cause significant human morbidity and mortality. Current control and preventive methods against vector-borne diseases rely mainly on insecticides. The emergence of insecticide resistance in many disease vectors highlights the necessity to develop new strategies to control these insects. Vector transgenesis and paratransgenesis are novel strategies that aim at reducing insect vectorial capacity, or seek to eliminate transmission of pathogens such as Plasmodium sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Dengue virus currently being developed. Vector transgenesis relies on direct genetic manipulation of disease vectors making them incapable of functioning as vectors of a given pathogen. Paratransgenesis focuses on utilizing genetically modified insect symbionts to express molecules within the vector that are deleterious to pathogens they transmit. Despite the many successes achieved in developing such techniques in the last several years, many significant barriers remain and need to be overcome prior to any of these approaches become a reality. Here, we highlight the current status of these strategies, pointing out advantages and constraints, and also explore issues that need to be resolved before the establishment of transgenesis and paratransgenesis as tools to prevent vector-borne diseases. PMID:19819346

  1. Determinants for the development of visceral leishmaniasis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Isobel McCall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease associated with a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. Among the most important questions in Leishmania research is why some species like L. donovani infect visceral organs, whereas other species like L. major remain in the skin. The determinants of visceral leishmaniasis are still poorly understood, although genomic, immunologic, and animal models are beginning to provide important insight into this disease. In this review, we discuss the vector, host, and pathogen factors that mediate the development of visceral leishmaniasis. We examine the progression of the parasite from the initial site of sand fly bite to the visceral organs and its ability to survive there. The identification of visceral disease determinants is required to understand disease evolution, to understand visceral organ survival mechanisms, and potentially to develop better interventions for this largely neglected disease.

  2. Vaccination strategies for SIR vector-transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Pacheco, Gustavo; Esteva, Lourdes; Vargas, Cristobal

    2014-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the major public health problems in the world with the fastest spreading rate. Control measures have been focused on vector control, with poor results in most cases. Vaccines should help to reduce the diseases incidence, but vaccination strategies should also be defined. In this work, we propose a vector-transmitted SIR disease model with age-structured population subject to a vaccination program. We find an expression for the age-dependent basic reproductive number R(0), and we show that the disease-free equilibrium is locally stable for R(0) ≤ 1, and a unique endemic equilibrium exists for R(0) > 1. We apply the theoretical results to public data to evaluate vaccination strategies, immunization levels, and optimal age of vaccination for dengue disease.

  3. Experiences of community health agents in the care of the elderly affected by chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Tambara Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand which are the experiences of community health agents in the care of patients with chronic diseases. Methods: qualitative research carried out through the interview of 20 community health agents. Data were analyzed following the steps of content analysis. Results: the care for the elderly has limitations due to their low educational level, resistance to adhere to drug therapy and low frequency of visits to health facilities. Another reason is the aging process in itself that may compromise the ability of self-care and the development of daily activities. Conclusion: difficulties of community health agents were identified in the care of elderly people with chronic diseases due to low adherence to treatment and to the health service.

  4. Does multilingualism affect the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease?: A worldwide analysis by country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond M. Klein

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the cognitive requirements associated with bi- and multilingual processing provide a form of mental exercise that, through increases in cognitive reserve and brain fitness, may delay the symptoms of cognitive failure associated with Alzheimer′s disease and other forms of dementia. We collected data on a country-by-country basis that might shed light on this suggestion. Using the best available evidence we could find, the somewhat mixed results we obtained provide tentative support for the protective benefits of multilingualism against cognitive decline. But more importantly, this study exposes a critical issue, which is the need for more comprehensive and more appropriate data on the subject. Keywords: Bilingualism, Alzheimer's disease, Dementia, Brain reserve

  5. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Howarth, Robert W.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide increases in the numbers of human and wildlife diseases present ecologists with the challenge of understanding how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth’s ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Alongside the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens, sometimes leading to epidemic conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we discuss recent experimental advances in this area to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the inter-related nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or

  6. Host-seeking behavior and dispersal of Triatoma infestans, a vector of Chagas disease, under semi-field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Castillo-Neyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease affects millions of people in Latin America. The control of this vector-borne disease focuses on halting transmission by reducing or eliminating insect vector populations. Most transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, involves insects living within or very close to households and feeding mostly on domestic animals. As animal hosts can be intermittently present it is important to understand how host availability can modify transmission risk to humans and to characterize the host-seeking dispersal of triatomine vectors on a very fine scale. We used a semi-field system with motion-detection cameras to characterize the dispersal of Triatoma infestans, and compare the behavior of vector populations in the constant presence of hosts (guinea pigs, and after the removal of the hosts. The emigration rate - net insect population decline in original refuge - following host removal was on average 19.7% of insects per 10 days compared to 10.2% in constant host populations (p = 0.029. However, dispersal of T. infestans occurred in both directions, towards and away from the initial location of the hosts. The majority of insects that moved towards the original location of guinea pigs remained there for 4 weeks. Oviposition and mortality were observed and analyzed in the context of insect dispersal, but only mortality was higher in the group where animal hosts were removed (p-value <0.01. We discuss different survival strategies associated with the observed behavior and its implications for vector control. Removing domestic animals in infested areas increases vector dispersal from the first day of host removal. The implications of these patterns of vector dispersal in a field setting are not yet known but could result in movement towards human rooms.

  7. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, N.; Van den Heuvel, M.; Phalen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of