WorldWideScience

Sample records for affected vector-borne diseases

  1. Vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  2. Vector-borne diseases in Haiti: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Haiti lies on the western third of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean, and is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere. Haiti attracts a lot of medical attention and support due to severe natural disasters followed by disastrous health consequences. Vector-borne infections are still prevalent there with some unique aspects comparing it to Latin American countries and other Caribbean islands. Although vector-borne viral diseases such as dengue and recently chikungunya can be found in many of the Caribbean islands, including Haiti, there is an apparent distinction of the vector-borne parasitic diseases. Contrary to neighboring Carribbean islands, Haiti is highly endemic for malaria, lymphatic filariasis and mansonellosis. Affected by repeat natural disasters, poverty and lack of adequate infrastructure, control of transmission within Haiti and prevention of dissemination of vector-borne pathogens to other regions is challenging. In this review we summarize some aspects concerning diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens in Haiti.

  3. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  4. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  5. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  6. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  7. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  8. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  9. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:22444826

  10. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

  11. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong. PMID:21679886

  12. Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherst, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes ar...

  13. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  14. Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birgit; Bødker, Rene

    spatial parameters relevant to the distribution of vectors were included in the database and used as input in various distribution models. All collected datasets were assembled in a gridded climate database and presented at the website, www.nordrisk.dk. The website was created with the purpose...... interpolated to daily climate surfaces, using a squared IDW method. In the absence of a more local lapse rate the generally accepted lapse rate of -0.006 C˚/m was used to account for the relationship between temperature and altitude. The interpolation was carried out on temperatures at sea...... derivatives were calculated in order to assess the geographical and seasonal variation in the area. In order to evaluate the response of vector borne diseases to possible future climate changes and the subsequent potential spread into new areas, daily temperature predictions (mean, min and max) for three 20...

  15. Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number R0 and risk maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the derivation of the basic reproduction number (R0) for vector-borne diseases, in the context of studying the effect of climate change on the risk of emergence diseases. Vector-borne diseases are transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by vectors, usuall

  16. Will integrated surveillance systems for vectors and vector-borne diseases be the future of controlling vector-borne diseases? A practical example from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z

    2016-07-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes. PMID:26899818

  17. Vertebrate reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases of importance to human and domestic animal health are listed and the increasing emergence of syndromes, new epidemiological cycles and distributions are highlighted. These diseases involve a multitude of vectors and hosts, frequently for the same pathogen, and involve natural enzootic cycles, wild reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles, sometimes affecting humans and domestic animals. On occasions the main reservoir is in the domestic environment. Drivers for secondary cycles are mainly related to human impacts and activities and therefore, for purposes of prevention and control, the focus needs to be on the socioecology of the diseases. Technical and therapeutical solutions exist, and for control there needs to be a clear understanding of the main vertebrate hosts or reservoirs and the main vectors. The targets of interventions are usually the vector and/or secondary epidemiological cycles and, in the case of humans and domestic animals, the spillover or incidental hosts are treated. More attention needs to be given to the importance of the political economy in relation to vector-borne diseases, as many key drivers arise from globalisation, climate change and changes in structural ecologies. Attention to reducing the risk of emergence of new infection cycles through better management of the human-animal-environment interface is urgently needed. PMID:26470455

  18. Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1996-12-31

    Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

  19. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements

  20. Assessment of changes of vector borne diseases with wetland characteristics using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Sarun, S; Justus, J; Vineetha, P; Sheeja, R V

    2015-04-01

    Vector borne diseases are a threat to human health. Little attention has been paid to the prevention of these diseases. We attempted to identify the significant wetland characteristics associated with the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever and malaria in Kerala, a tropical region of South West India using multivariate analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression). High/medium turbid coastal lagoons and inland water-logged wetlands with aquatic vegetation have significant effect on the incidence of chikungunya while dengue influenced by high turbid coastal beaches and malaria by medium turbid coastal beaches. The high turbidity in water is due to the urban waste discharge namely sewage, sullage and garbage from the densely populated cities and towns. The large extent of wetland is low land area favours the occurrence of vector borne diseases. Hence the provision of pollution control measures at source including soil erosion control measures is vital. The identification of vulnerable zones favouring the vector borne diseases will help the authorities to control pollution especially from urban areas and prevent these vector borne diseases. Future research should cover land use cover changes, climatic factors, seasonal variations in weather and pollution factors favouring the occurrence of vector borne diseases. PMID:25412801

  1. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  2. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted. We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even

  3. A novel tool for classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari Rao Vadrevu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a novel tool that renders efficient classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases. This algorithm has been applied on the data of the Filariasis disease and the results are compared with the well-known k-nearest neighbor algorithm.

  4. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  5. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  6. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  7. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-10-26

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  8. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hildebrand, von A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. A

  9. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  10. Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Leach, Steve A

    2015-06-01

    During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. From a veterinary perspective, the emergence of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses show that northern Europe is equally susceptible to transmission of vector-borne disease. These changes are in part due to increased globalisation, with intercontinental air travel and global shipping transport creating new opportunities for invasive vectors and pathogens. However, changes in vector distributions are being driven by climatic changes and changes in land use, infrastructure, and the environment. In this Review, we summarise the risks posed by vector-borne diseases in the present and the future from a UK perspective, and assess the likely effects of climate change and, where appropriate, climate-change adaptation strategies on vector-borne disease risk in the UK. Lessons from the outbreaks of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya in the Caribbean emphasise the need to assess future vector-borne disease risks and prepare contingencies for future outbreaks. Ensuring that adaptation strategies for climate change do not inadvertently exacerbate risks should be a primary focus for decision makers. PMID:25808458

  11. Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Margaletić, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the ‘One Health initiative’ which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

  12. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit.

  13. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:27260548

  14. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  15. The genetics of African trypanosomes : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tait

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of genetic exchange is not only a fundamental property of an organism but its occurrence provides us with methods of analysis that can be used to dissect the basis of important traits. This paper will review the current evidence for a sexual cycle in Trypanosoma brucei and illustrate how genetic analysis can be used as a tool to identify genes of relevance to the disease, its treatment and transmission. The role of this process in the generation of diversity in the field will be illustrated by considering populations of the three sub-species of T. brucei and how the availability of genome sequence data has been exploited to study whether genetic exchange occurs in the trypanosomes infecting livestock. Finally, the use of population genetics as a methodology to identify genes under selection will be discussed and this will be illustrated as an approach to validating markers for drug resistance with examples from other parasitic protozoa.

  16. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...... grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better...

  17. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne

  18. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2011-12-29

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  19. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  20. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol

    2012-12-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882

  1. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

  2. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  3. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  4. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  5. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Kalluri; Peter Gilruth; David Rogers; Martha Szczur

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabi...

  6. [Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany. PMID:24781913

  7. Global dynamics of a vector-borne disease model with latency and saturating incidence rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a vector-borne disease model containing latency and nonlinear incidence rates. Global analysis is completely determined by suitable Lyapunov functionals. We explicitely determine the basic reproduction number and find that if this number is less than one then disease dies out, but if the number is larger than one, the disease causing strain become endemic. The study shows that the latency delay explicitely in°uence the disease persistence. Keywords: Latency, saturating incidence, basic reproduction number, global attractivity, Lyapunov functionals.

  8. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians

  9. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  10. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Rock; Wood, D. A.; Keeling, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into t...

  11. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  12. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  13. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well.

  14. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. PMID:26751818

  15. The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, M

    2012-12-01

    There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  16. Genetic resistance: tolerance to vector-borne diseases and the prospects and challenges of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, H; Hanotte, O

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases in cattle and small ruminants (e.g. trypanosomosis, Rift Valley fever and East Coast fever) are associated with major economic losses in tropical countries, and particularly on the African continent. A variety of control strategies (e.g. management, vaccination and/or acaricide treatments) are used to minimise their negative impacts. These strategies are often associated with environmental, technical and/or economic drawbacks. However, several indigenous livestock populations have been reported to show a level of genetic tolerance or resistance to such disease challenges (e.g. trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and Djallonké sheep). Use of these populations represents a sustainable alternative approach to minimising the negative impact of such infection/infestation on livestock production. This review summarises the current understanding of the genetic control of these adaptations, identifies knowledge gaps and critically examines the possible impacts of genomics approaches to the genetic improvement of tolerance and/or resistance to vector-borne diseases. PMID:26470457

  17. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; Medlock, Jolyon M; Hubalek, Zdenek; Hjertqvist, Marika; Perrin, Yvon; Lancelot, Renaud; Duchyene, Els; Hendrickx, Guy; Stroo, Arjan; Heyman, Paul; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of VBDs. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens that they transmit is vital to the risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance, and control of VBDs. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face an ever-increasing range of possible surveillance targets and an associated prioritization process. Here, we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance, and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of VBDs in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into five different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for VBDs entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure. PMID:25566522

  18. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from İzmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  19. Multi-disease data management system platform for vector-borne diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Eisen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging information technologies present new opportunities to reduce the burden of malaria, dengue and other infectious diseases. For example, use of a data management system software package can help disease control programs to better manage and analyze their data, and thus enhances their ability to carry out continuous surveillance, monitor interventions and evaluate control program performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We describe a novel multi-disease data management system platform (hereinafter referred to as the system with current capacity for dengue and malaria that supports data entry, storage and query. It also allows for production of maps and both standardized and customized reports. The system is comprised exclusively of software components that can be distributed without the user incurring licensing costs. It was designed to maximize the ability of the user to adapt the system to local conditions without involvement of software developers. Key points of system adaptability include 1 customizable functionality content by disease, 2 configurable roles and permissions, 3 customizable user interfaces and display labels and 4 configurable information trees including a geographical entity tree and a term tree. The system includes significant portions of functionality that is entirely or in large part re-used across diseases, which provides an economy of scope as new diseases downstream are added to the system at decreased cost. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a system with great potential for aiding disease control programs in their task to reduce the burden of dengue and malaria, including the implementation of integrated vector management programs. Next steps include evaluations of operational implementations of the current system with capacity for dengue and malaria, and the inclusion in the system platform of other important vector-borne diseases.

  20. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  1. Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Rascalou

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale.

  2. Promoting Spatial Data Synthesis for Vector-Borne Disease Assessment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD ŞANDRU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the continually human interaction with the environment, the present paper reveals the spatial data integration of environmental factors such as topography, vegetation and surface temperature with epidemiological statistical data for assessing vector-borne diseases in Romania, monitored between 2009 and 2011. This study is a small piece of a big puzzle, part of an extended research that evaluates the contribution of geospatial and ground observation data to public health assessment. It is intended to implement a useful and innovative system for Romania’s public health, which provides information on various aspects such as the prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on, either for creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate actions to handle situations.

  3. Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Bisanzio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.

  4. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...... for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0...... partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax...

  5. New approaches and omics tools for mining of vaccine candidates against vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleš, Josipa; Horvatić, Anita; Guillemin, Nicolas; Galan, Asier; Mrljak, Vladimir; Bhide, Mangesh

    2016-08-16

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) present a major threat to human and animal health, as well as place a substantial burden on livestock production. As a way of sustainable VBD control, focus is set on vaccine development. Advances in genomics and other "omics" over the past two decades have given rise to a "third generation" of vaccines based on technologies such as reverse vaccinology, functional genomics, immunomics, structural vaccinology and the systems biology approach. The application of omics approaches is shortening the time required to develop the vaccines and increasing the probability of discovery of potential vaccine candidates. Herein, we review the development of new generation vaccines for VBDs, and discuss technological advancement and overall challenges in the vaccine development pipeline. Special emphasis is placed on the development of anti-tick vaccines that can quell both vectors and pathogens.

  6. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units. PMID:25074596

  7. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units.

  8. Man bites mosquito: understanding the contribution of human movement to vector-borne disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Adams

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.

  9. Socio-economic factors influencing control of vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist system of south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Anthony; McLeod, Anni; Percy, Rachel; Kyewalabye, Elizabeth

    2008-05-01

    Research in control of tick-borne diseases and trypanosomosis, and their vectors, namely, ticks and tsetse flies respectively, has been on going for decades. However, very little attention has been paid to the socio-economic factors that are likely to influence the outcome of the interventions in the control of these diseases. Thus, this study was designed to investigate these factors, mainly the intra-household factors influencing decision-making in the control of Vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist areas of Uganda. These factors included: indigenous technical knowledge, household economic factors, and gender. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the collection and analysis of data. The tools used for data collection included among others, participatory learning and action (PLA), and Case studies. The findings included the following: In pastoralist households, a big proportion of the household budget was allocated to vector-borne diseases control. In the male-headed households, men dominated decision-making on vector-borne diseases control, although the goals and priorities of men and women in these households were not the same. Also, vector-borne disease control was predominantly by use of modern veterinary drugs, and pastoralists treated sick cattle by themselves even in situations where there were veterinary personnel. PMID:18557192

  10. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool f

  11. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Rock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host–vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought.

  13. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals. PMID:27252225

  14. Vector-borne disease problems in rapid urbanization: new approaches to vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, A B; Slooff, R

    1992-01-01

    Owing to population growth, poor levels of hygiene, and increasing urban poverty, the urban environment in many developing countries is rapidly deteriorating. Densely packed housing in shanty towns or slums and inadequate drinking-water supplies, garbage collection services, and surface-water drainage systems combine to create favourable habitats for the proliferation of vectors and reservoirs of communicable diseases. As a consequence, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and dengue are becoming major public health problems associated with rapid urbanization in many tropical countries. The problems in controlling these diseases and eliminating vectors and pests can be resolved by decision-makers and urban planners by moving away from the concept of "blanket" applications of pesticides towards integrated approaches. Sound environmental management practices and community education and participation form the mainstay of some of the most outstanding successes in this area. On the basis of these examples, it is argued that the municipal authorities need to apply a flexible methodology, which must be based on the possibilities of mobilizing community resources, with minimal reliance on routine pesticidal spraying. In this way, vector control becomes a by-product of human development in the city environment. This is now a true challenge.

  15. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals.

  16. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  17. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  18. Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

    2014-10-15

    Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more

  19. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  20. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  1. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases. PMID:20084734

  2. Natural Mosquito-Pathogen Hybrid IgG4 Antibodies in Vector-Borne Diseases: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. However, there is very little ongoing research or information available regarding IgG4 bi-specificity with regard to infectious disease, particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, filariasis, or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings. PMID:27746778

  3. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  4. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  5. An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

    1999-12-01

    This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

  6. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  7. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal;

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden...... and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review...... of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection...

  8. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: A critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Elbers, Armin R W; Hendrikx, Pascal; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Carsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available epidemiological, ecological and entomological information into account. This was demonstrated by the effectiveness of the bulk milk surveillance in detecting the first case in Sweden, highlighting the need for output based standards to allow the most effective, context dependent, surveillance strategies to be used. Preparedness was of fundamental importance in determining the timeliness of detection and control in each country and that this in turn was heavily influenced by knowledge of emerging diseases in neighboring countries. Therefore it is crucial to share information on outbreaks between researchers and decision-makers and across borders continuously in order to react timely in case of an outbreak. Furthermore, timely reaction to an outbreak was heavily influenced by

  9. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases. PMID:26375902

  10. Complex ecological dynamics and eradicability of the vector borne macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gambhir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current global efforts to control the morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases affecting developing countries--such as HIV/AIDS, polio, tuberculosis, malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs-have led to an increasing focus on the biological controllability or eradicability of disease transmission by management action. Here, we use an age-structured dynamical model of lymphatic filariasis transmission to show how a quantitative understanding of the dynamic processes underlying infection persistence and extinction is key to evaluating the eradicability of this macroparasitic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the persistence and extinction dynamics of lymphatic filariasis by undertaking a numerical equilibrium analysis of a deterministic model of parasite transmission, based on varying values of the initial L3 larval density in the system. The results highlighted the likely occurrence of complex dynamics in parasite transmission with three major outcomes for the eradicability of filariasis. First, both vector biting and worm breakpoint thresholds are shown to be complex dynamic entities with values dependent on the nature and magnitude of vector-and host specific density-dependent processes and the degree of host infection aggregation prevailing in endemic communities. Second, these thresholds as well as the potential size of the attractor domains and hence system resilience are strongly dependent on peculiarities of infection dynamics in different vector species. Finally, the existence of multiple stable states indicates the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity in the filariasis system dynamics in which infection thresholds for infection invasion are lower but occur at higher biting rates than do the corresponding thresholds for parasite elimination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variable dynamic nature of thresholds and parasite system resilience reflecting both initial conditions and

  11. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Pelosse

    Full Text Available Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

  12. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curt

  13. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. PMID:19341603

  14. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  15. Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Alyson; Dhingra, Radhika; Chang, Howard H; Bisanzio, Donal; Liu, Yang; Remais, Justin V

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions. PMID:25072884

  16. Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Lorenz

    Full Text Available Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions.

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Negev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  19. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  20. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

  1. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KyuSung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

  2. The Interaction between Vector Life History and Short Vector Life in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P C; Rock, Kat S; Keeling, Matt J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological modelling has a vital role to play in policy planning and prediction for the control of vectors, and hence the subsequent control of vector-borne diseases. To decide between competing policies requires models that can generate accurate predictions, which in turn requires accurate knowledge of vector natural histories. Here we highlight the importance of the distribution of times between life-history events, using short-lived midge species as an example. In particular we focus on the distribution of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) which determines the time between infection and becoming infectious, and the distribution of the length of the gonotrophic cycle which determines the time between successful bites. We show how different assumptions for these periods can radically change the basic reproductive ratio (R0) of an infection and additionally the impact of vector control on the infection. These findings highlight the need for detailed entomological data, based on laboratory experiments and field data, to correctly construct the next-generation of policy-informing models. PMID:27128163

  3. High-throughput vector-borne disease environmental surveillance by polymerase chain reaction according to international accreditation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnlen, Marty K; Crimmins, Stephen L; Clugston, Andrew S; Gruhn, Nina; Gomez, Carlos J; Cross, Michael E; Statham, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    Although vector-borne diseases are specific to the region of the host, there is a necessity for surveillance or reference laboratories to perform standardized, high-throughput testing capable of meeting the needs of a changing military environment and response efforts. The development of standardized, high-throughput, semiquantitative real-time and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods allows for the timely dissemination of data to interested parties while providing a platform in which long-term sample storage is possible for the testing of new pathogens of interest using a historical perspective. PCR testing allows for the analysis of multiple pathogens from the same sample, thus reducing the workload of entomologists in the field and increasing the ability to determine if a pathogen has spread beyond traditionally defined locations. US Army Public Health Command Region-Europe (USAPHCR-Europe) Laboratory Sciences (LS) has standardized tests for 9 pathogens at multiple life stages. All tests are currently under international accreditation standards. Using these PCR methods and laboratory model, which have universal Department of Defense application, the USAPHCR-Europe LS will generate quality data that is scientifically sound and legally defensible to support force health protection for the US military in both deployed and garrison environments.

  4. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  5. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen Jamie; Harrison Stanley; Birney Ian; Wilkerson Richard C; Foley Desmond H; Rueda Leopoldo M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Result...

  6. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters...

  7. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Wang

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm, and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  8. The ecological foundations of transmission potential and vector-borne disease in urban landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon L LaDeau; Allan, Brian F.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Michael Z Levy

    2015-01-01

    Urban transmission of arthropod-vectored disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding and managing transmission potential in urban landscapes requires integration of sociological and ecological processes that regulate vector population dynamics, feeding behavior, and vector-pathogen interactions in these unique ecosystems. Vectorial capacity is a key metric for generating predictive understanding about transmission potential in systems with obligate vector transmission. This review ...

  9. Social exclusion modifies climate and deforestation impacts on a vector-borne disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Chaves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL has been associated with changes in the relationship between people and forests, leading to the view that forest ecosystems increase infection risk and subsequent proposal that deforestation could reduce re-emergence of this disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed county-level incidence rates of ACL in Costa Rica (1996-2000 as a function of social and environmental variables relevant to transmission ecology with statistical models that incorporate breakpoints. Once social marginality was taken into account, the effect of living close to a forest on infection risk was small, and diminished exponentially above a breakpoint. Forest cover was associated with the modulation of temporal effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO at small spatial scales, revealing an additional complex interplay of environmental forces and disease patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social factors, which previously have not been evaluated rigorously together with environmental and climatic factors, appear to play a critical role that may ultimately determine disease risk.

  10. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  11. Climate Change and Spatiotemporal Distributions of Vector-Borne Diseases in Nepal--A Systematic Synthesis of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs, namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change.A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on climate change and the spatiotemporal distribution of VBDs in Nepal from the published literature until December 2014 following providing items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines.We found 12 studies that analysed the trend of climatic data and are relevant for the study of VBDs, 38 studies that dealt with the spatial and temporal distribution of disease vectors and disease transmission. Among 38 studies, only eight studies assessed the association of VBDs with climatic variables. Our review highlights a pronounced warming in the mountains and an expansion of autochthonous cases of VBDs to non-endemic areas including mountain regions (i.e., at least 2,000 m above sea level. Furthermore, significant relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors are found in short-term studies.Taking into account the weak health care systems and difficult geographic terrain of Nepal, increasing trade and movements of people, a lack of vector control interventions, observed relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors and the establishment of relevant disease vectors already at least 2,000 m above sea level, we conclude that climate change can intensify the risk of VBD epidemics in the mountain regions of Nepal if other non-climatic drivers of VBDs remain constant.

  12. Predicting and Mitigating Outbreaks of Vector-Borne Disease Utilizing Satellite Remote Sensing Technology and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Sue M.

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety. The program elements of the NASA Applied Sciences Program are: Agricultural Efficiency, Air Quality, Climate, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Water Resources, Weather, and Public Health.

  13. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted...... at eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates...

  14. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Jing He; Lijuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Ehrlichia canis (E. canis), Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) (canine heartworm), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 26 dogs in Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. The samples were tested using a commercial ELISA rapid diagnostic assay kit (SNAP® 4Dx®; IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. U.S.A.). Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) recommended by WHO was conducted to detect IgG to A. phagocytophilum. Two methods were analyzed and compared. Results: The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was only 2 which was from Hainan province and none of the 26 dogs responded positive for E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi by ELISA rapid diagnostic method. The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was 13 (50%) by IFA method. Data of the two methods were analyzed by statistical software and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  15. Host group formation decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a 'hotspot' of West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Newman, Christina M; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2014-12-01

    Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution hypothesis using the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a common host species for the West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne pathogen. By using sentinel hosts (house sparrows, Passer domesticus) caged in naturally occurring communal roosts in the suburbs of Chicago, we assessed sentinel host risk of WNV exposure inside and outside of roosts. We also estimated per capita host exposure to infected vectors inside roosts and outside of roosts. Sentinel birds caged inside roosts seroconverted to WNV more slowly than those outside of roosts, suggesting that social groups decrease per capita exposure to infected mosquitoes. These results therefore support the encounter-dilution hypothesis in a vector-borne disease system. Our results suggest that disease-related selective pressures on sociality may depend on the mode of disease transmission. PMID:25339722

  16. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Soo; Ejov Mikhail; Dash Aditya P; Ameneshewa Birkinesh; Mnzava Abraham; Soares Agnes; Hii Jeffrey; van den Berg Henk; Matthews Graham; Yadav Rajpal S; Zaim Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countri...

  17. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  18. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Christopher Nieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural

  19. Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

  20. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  1. Equine travellers to the Olympic Games in Hong Kong 2008: a review of worldwide challenges to equine health, with particular reference to vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, C; Füssel, A-E; Timoney, P; Schwermer, H; Bruckner, L; Leadon, D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10-20 years have seen exponential growth in the volume of trade in horses and equine germplasm; and the extent of global horse movements has increased significantly in the last 4 years. In preparing for the transport of elite Olympic horses to Hong Kong in 2008, it will be very important to be as fully informed as possible of the disease situation in both the exporting and importing country, import and re-entry requirements, as well as having a vaccination strategy to protect against particular diseases. In this context the review describes the equine vector-borne disease situation in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America and provides estimates of the number of horse movements between these countries, as well as information on import requirements and vaccination strategies. PMID:18083666

  2. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  3. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a

  4. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Abd-Ella

    Full Text Available Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low

  5. 气候变暖对虫媒传染病影响的研究进展%Research progress on effect of climate warming on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维琪; 曾强

    2012-01-01

    The effect of global warming on insect vector mainly includes changing the regional distribution of insect vectors, increasing the reproductive speed and invasiveness of insect vectors, and shortening the external incubation period of pathogens. Many studies show that the distribution of many tropical insects is expanding continually under the effect of global wanning, and the vector-borne infectious diseases which had only occurred in the tropical area in the past have frequently happened in the subtropical area. The incidence rate of vector-borne diseases increases in the global, outbreaks of some old vector-borne infectious diseases occurred again, and the epidemic range of new vector-borne infectious diseases is continuously expanding. The vector-borne infectious diseases that are influenced by climate change include malaria, schistosomiasis, plague, dengue fever and other new vector-borne infectious diseases. In face of global warming, it is important to slow down and control temperature rise, protect natural environment , improve the study of relationship between climate and vector-borne infectious diseases, and implement the prevention and control of vector-borne infectious diseases.%全球气候变暖对虫媒的影响主要表现在改变虫媒的地区分布,增加虫媒繁殖速度与侵袭力和缩短病原体的外潜伏期.大量资料显示,全球气候变暖的趋势使得许多热带生物不断扩大分布范围,过去仅在热带地区出现的虫媒传染病,也频频出现在亚热带地区.媒介生物性疾病近年在全球呈上升趋势,一些原有的虫媒传染病再度暴发,新的虫媒传染病流行范围不断扩大.受气候变化影响较大的虫媒传染病包括疟疾、血吸虫病、鼠疫、登革热和其他及新发虫媒传染病.提示要面对气候变暖的趋势,努力减缓和控制地球气温的上升,保护好自然环境,加强气候与虫媒传染病传播关系的研究,做好虫媒传染疾病的预防控制工作.

  6. Assessing the Mismatch Between Incubation and Latent Periods for Vector-Borne Diseases: The Case of Sharka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Dallot, Sylvie; Delaunay, Agnès; Borron, Sonia; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    The relative durations of the incubation period (the time between inoculation and symptom expression) and of the latent period (the time between inoculation and infectiousness of the host) are poorly documented for plant diseases. However, the extent of asynchrony between the ends of these two periods (i.e., their mismatch) can be a key determinant of the epidemic dynamics for many diseases and consequently it is of primary interest in the design of disease management strategies. In order to assess this mismatch, an experimental approach was developed and applied using sharka, a severe disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) affecting trees belonging to the genus Prunus. Leaves of infected young peach trees were used individually as viral sources in aphid-mediated transmission tests carried out at different time points postinoculation in order to bracket symptom onset. By fitting a nonlinear logistic model to the obtained transmission rates, we demonstrated that the first symptoms appear on leaves 1 day before they rapidly become infectious. In addition, among symptomatic leaves, symptom intensity and transmission rate are positively correlated. These results strengthen the conclusion that, under our experimental conditions, incubation and latent periods of PPV infection are almost synchronous. PMID:26512749

  7. Emerging vector-borne diseases and environmental change : The rise of Lyme borreliosis in Western-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Tim

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the last decade several infectious diseases started to emerge in Western-Europe. At the same time numerous environmental factors were changing. One of the diseases that apparently emerged is Lyme borreliosis (LB). This thesis aims to incre

  8. Emerging vector-borne diseases and environmental change: The rise of Lyme borreliosis in Western-Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Huitema, Tim

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the last decade several infectious diseases started to emerge in Western-Europe. At the same time numerous environmental factors were changing. One of the diseases that apparently emerged is Lyme borreliosis (LB). This thesis aims to incre

  9. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A. R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expa...

  10. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  11. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  13. Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Remais Justin; Kazura James; Tisch Daniel; Bockarie Moses; Gambhir Manoj; Spear Robert; Michael Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical ev...

  14. Two step male release strategy using transgenic mosquito lines to control transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danilo Oliveira; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current increase in mean global temperature and changing sea level interfere with precipitation frequency and some other climatic conditions which, in general, influence the rate of development of insects and etiologic agents causing acceleration as the temperature rises. The most common strategy employed to combat target mosquito species is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which comprises the use of multiple activities and various approaches to preventing the spread of a vector in infested areas. IVM programmes are becoming ineffective; and the global scenario is threatening, requiring new interventions for vector control and surveillance. Not surprisingly, there is a growing need to find alternative methods to combat the mosquito vectors. The possibility of using transgenic mosquitoes to fight against those diseases has been discussed over the last two decades and this use of transgenic lines to suppress populations or to replace them is still under investigation through field and laboratory trials. As an alternative, the available transgenic strategies could be improved by coupling suppression and substitution strategies. The idea is to first release a suppression line to significantly reduce the wild population, and once the first objective is reached a second release using a substitution line could be then performed. Examples of targeting this approach against vectors of malaria and dengue are discussed. PMID:24513036

  15. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  16. Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remais Justin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the

  17. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  18. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  19. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    Monitor i ng in f ectio n s in v ect o rs su c h as m osquit o es, s a nd fl i es, tsetse fl i es, a nd ticks to i denti f y hu m a n path o gens m a y s e r v e as a n ear l y w arn i ng det e ction system t o dir e ct loc a l g o v er n ment dise a se pr e v en t i v e m easu r e s . One major hurdle i n de t ection is the abi l i t y to scre e n l arge n u mbers of v e c t ors for h uman patho g ens w i thout t h e u s e of ge n o t y pe - s p ecific m o lecu l ar tec h nique s . N e x t genera t ion s equ e nc i ng (NG S ) pr o v i des a n unbi a sed p latfo r m capab l e of identi f y i ng k n o w n a n d unk n o w n p ath o ge n s circula t ing w i thin a v e ctor p opul a tion, but utili z ing t h is te c h nolo g y i s tim e - con s u ming a n d cos t l y for v ecto r -b o rne disease su r v e illan c e pr o gra m s. T o addr e s s this w e d e v e lop e d cos t -eff e ct i v e Ilumina(r) R NA- S eq l i bra r y p r epara t ion m e thodol o gies i n con j u n ction w i t h an automa t ed c ompu t at i onal a n a l y sis pipel i n e to ch a racter i ze t h e microbial popula t ions c ircula t i n g in Cu l e x m o squit o e s (Cul e x qui n quef a s c iatu s , C ul e x quinq u efasc i atus / pip i ens co m pl e x h y bri d s, and C u l e x ta r salis ) t hroug h out Californ i a. W e assembled 2 0 n o vel a n d w e l l -do c ume n ted a r b o v i ruses repres e nting mem b e rs of B u n y a v ir i da e , F l a v i virid a e, If a virida e , Meson i v i rida e , Nid o v iri d ae, O rtho m y x o virid a e, Pa r v o v iri d ae, Re o virid a e, R h a b d o v i rid a e, T y m o v iri d ae, a s w ell as s e v e r al u n assi g n e d v irus e s . In addit i o n, w e m app e d mRNA s pecies to d i vergent s peci e s of t r y panos o ma a nd pl a s modium eu k a r yotic parasit e s and cha r a c terized t he p r oka r yot i c microb i al c o mposit i on to i d enti f y bacteri a l tran s c r ipts der i v ed from wolba c hia, clo s tridi u m, m y c oplas m a, fusoba c

  20. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  1. Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases: present status and strategies%新发和重现虫媒病:流行现状及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海婴; 马红梅; 刘明斌; 蒋洪

    2011-01-01

    Following the warming of climate, globalization, urbanization, insect drug-resistant as well as other social and environmental changing factors, malaria, dengue fever, West Nile fever and other vectorborne diseases emerge and re-emerge continuously. The threats of vectors and vector-borne diseases are increasing. However, owing to the environmental protection policies, more and more pesticides are forbidden, control of vectors and vector-borne diseases are facing with severe challenges. The research development and epidemic status of several important vector-borne diseases were reviewed in this paper. The framework of vector management stratogy,intervention of governments and sustainable vector control technologies were also introduced in the paper.%气候变暖、全球化和城市化推进、媒介昆虫抗药性等因素导致疟疾、登革热、莱姆病、西尼罗热、基孔肯雅热、巴尔通体感染等新出现和再次肆虐的虫媒病流行,全球媒介生物和虫媒病的威胁持续上升.由于环保的要求,可以选择的卫生杀虫剂品种逐渐减少,媒介生物和虫媒病的控制面临严重的挑战.该文综述了近年来全球新发和重现的重要虫媒病的研究进展和流行现状,并阐述了媒介生物综合治理全球策略框架、政府干预措施及媒介生物可持续控制技术等应对策略.

  2. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  3. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  4. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  5. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations, and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases.A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma an

  6. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or dimi

  7. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, W.; Yadav, R. S.; M.Zaim

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or diminish the effectiveness of interventions. Strategies for strengthening the management of public health pesticides, from manufacture to disposal, should be evaluated to propose future directions. Met...

  8. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  9. Molecular study on selected vector-borne infections in urban stray colony cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2014-08-01

    Feline vector-borne diseases can be caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. Many of these infections have zoonotic implications, and stray cats are potential sentinels for human and pet health. This study investigated the prevalence of selected vector-borne infections in stray colony cats in Milan. Blood samples from 260 stray cats were evaluated, using conventional polymerase chain reaction tests (cPCRs), for the presence of DNA associated with Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia species. Positive cPCR results occurred in 127/260 subjects (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.7-58.1), with a prevalence of 31.9% (83/260, 95% CI = 25.4-39.6) for Rickettsia species, 17.7% (46/260, 95% CI= 13.0-23.6) for A phagocytophilum, and 5.4% (14/260, 95% CI = 2.9-9.0) for Ehrlichia species. There was no statistical association between a positive PCR test for vector-borne infections surveyed and colony location, age, gender, body condition score or complete blood count abnormalities, nor feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus or Toxoplasma gondii status. The only variable linked to positive PCR results was detection of signs of ocular infection and PCR positivity for Rickettsia species (P = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.4, P = 0.02). There is a significant prevalence of vector-borne infections with zoonotic potential in urban stray cats in Milan. Thus, dogs and pet cats with outdoor access should be monitored and treated for ectoparasites on a regular basis to minimise risks of disease and the potential transmission of zoonotic agents to people. PMID:24319060

  10. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. PMID:27270383

  11. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  12. Modelling transmission of vector-borne pathogens shows complex dynamics when vector feeding sites are limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Kershenbaum

    Full Text Available The relationship between species richness and the prevalence of vector-borne disease has been widely studied with a range of outcomes. Increasing the number of host species for a pathogen may decrease infection prevalence (dilution effect, increase it (amplification, or have no effect. We derive a general model, and a specific implementation, which show that when the number of vector feeding sites on each host is limiting, the effects on pathogen dynamics of host population size are more complex than previously thought. The model examines vector-borne disease in the presence of different host species that are either competent or incompetent (i.e. that cannot transmit the pathogen to vectors as reservoirs for the pathogen. With a single host species present, the basic reproduction ratio R(0 is a non-monotonic function of the population size of host individuals (H, i.e. a value [Formula: see text] exists that maximises R(0. Surprisingly, if [Formula: see text] a reduction in host population size may actually increase R(0. Extending this model to a two-host species system, incompetent individuals from the second host species can alter the value of [Formula: see text] which may reverse the effect on pathogen prevalence of host population reduction. We argue that when vector-feeding sites on hosts are limiting, the net effect of increasing host diversity might not be correctly predicted using simple frequency-dependent epidemiological models.

  13. La reforma del sector salud, descentralización, prevención y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores Health system, decentralization, and the control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Schmunis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Con las nuevas macropolíticas mundiales, la salud en América Latina ha sufrido importante transición en direción a la decentralización, sin compatibilizar la salud pública con la lógica de las economías de mercado. Con esto, el control decentralizado de las enfermedades endémicas presenta dificultades políticas y operativas. Aunque la decentralización se justifica por los presupuestos teóricos, no hay tradición de este control en los niveles municipales, lo que dificulta la simple o burocrática transferencia de encargos para estos niveles. La falta de expertise, el turn-over político y la corrupción son dificultades adicionales, conllevando a una extinción de varias instituiciones y programas. La falta de efectividad en el enfrentamiento del dengue, de la malaria y de la enfermedad de Chagas son algunos ejemplos. Requierese una modernización con responsabilidad, con una transición compartida entre los niveles y garantizada por acciones continuadas. Sugierese mantener estructuras regionales para referencia, consolidación epidemiológica, normatización, capacitación y supervisión, incluso con reserva técnica para acciones finalísticas supletivas.Economic policies are changing Latin American health programs, particularly promoting decentralization. Numerous difficulties thus arise for the control of endemic diseases, since such activities traditionally depend on vertical, and centralized structures. Theoretical arguments in favor of decentralization notwithstanding, no such tradition exists at the county level. The lack of program expertise at peripheral levels, intensive staff turnover, and even corruption are additional difficulties. Hence, the simple bureaucratic transfer of activities from the Federal to county level is often irresponsible. The loss of priority for control of endemic diseases in Latin America may mean the inexorable extinction of traditional control services. Malaria, dengue fever, and Chagas disease

  14. The role of human movement in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Stoddard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human movement is a key behavioral factor in many vector-borne disease systems because it influences exposure to vectors and thus the transmission of pathogens. Human movement transcends spatial and temporal scales with different influences on disease dynamics. Here we develop a conceptual model to evaluate the importance of variation in exposure due to individual human movements for pathogen transmission, focusing on mosquito-borne dengue virus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We develop a model showing that the relevance of human movement at a particular scale depends on vector behavior. Focusing on the day-biting Aedes aegypti, we illustrate how vector biting behavior combined with fine-scale movements of individual humans engaged in their regular daily routine can influence transmission. Using a simple example, we estimate a transmission rate (R(0 of 1.3 when exposure is assumed to occur only in the home versus 3.75 when exposure at multiple locations--e.g., market, friend's--due to movement is considered. Movement also influences for which sites and individuals risk is greatest. For the example considered, intriguingly, our model predicts little correspondence between vector abundance in a site and estimated R(0 for that site when movement is considered. This illustrates the importance of human movement for understanding and predicting the dynamics of a disease like dengue. To encourage investigation of human movement and disease, we review methods currently available to study human movement and, based on our experience studying dengue in Peru, discuss several important questions to address when designing a study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human movement is a critical, understudied behavioral component underlying the transmission dynamics of many vector-borne pathogens. Understanding movement will facilitate identification of key individuals and sites in the transmission of pathogens such as dengue, which then may provide

  15. An antivector vaccine protects against a lethal vector-borne pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labuda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  16. An Antivector Vaccine Protects against a Lethal Vector-Borne Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  17. Prospects for controlling trypanosomosis : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Vale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control : sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little.

  18. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than a million species, including insects, shrimp, spiders, mite and tiny worms. It lives and reproduces ... dengue virus. Releasing more Wolbachia into the mosquito population or finding and introducing the Wolbachia genes that ...

  19. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight...... of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two...... scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario...

  20. Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Kelsey M; Koop, Jennifer A H; Alexandre, Nicolas M; Johnston, Lauren R; Whiteman, Noah K

    2016-07-01

    Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across two legume host tree species (Senegalia greggii and Prosopis velutina) in the Sonoran desert using microsatellites. Consistent with host race formation, we found strong host-associated genetic structure in sympatry, little genetic variation due to geographic site and weak isolation by distance. We hypothesize that genetic differentiation results from differences in the timing of mistletoe flowering by host species, as we found initial flowering date of individual mistletoes correlated with genetic ancestry. Hybrids with intermediate ancestry were detected genetically. Individuals likely resulting from recent, successful establishment events following dispersal between the host species were detected at frequencies similar to hybrids between host races. Therefore, barriers to gene flow between the host races may have been stronger at mating than at dispersal. We also found higher inbreeding and within-host individual relatedness values for mistletoes on the more rare and isolated host species (S. greggii). Our study spanned spatial scales to address how interactions with both vectors and hosts influence parasitic plant structure with implications for parasite virulence evolution and speciation.

  1. STUDY ON RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT FOR IMPORTED VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VECTORS ON BORDER PORTS:RISK ANALYSIS%国境口岸输入性虫媒传染病及媒介生物风险分析和风险管理系统研究: 风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鑫; 方志强; 张晓龙; 马立新; 赵彤言

    2012-01-01

    为在口岸传染病防控方面探索新的思路和方法,建立科学的风险评估机制,采用澳大利亚和新西兰联合开发的风险管理标准,对境外的虫媒传染病及其媒介生物传入我国口岸的风险建立评估方法和体系.结果显示,通过对国际国内传染病疫情进行有效评估,分析传染病传播模式和趋势,确定输入输出风险等级和主要防控环节,及时发出预警信息,然后有针对性地在重点地区口岸和重点环节采取措施,能够有效控制媒介生物以及携带病原体的传播.引入风险分析理论,建立风险评估机制,对有效减少传染病疫情所带来的危害,保障我国口岸公共卫生安全十分必要.%To explore the new ideas and methods and establish the scientific risk assessment mechanism using in prevention and control of infectious diseases at the ports, the methods and systems basing on the risk management standards jointly developed by Australia and New Zealand and its application assessing the risk of imported vector-borne infectious diseases and vectors were used. The results showed that according to the effective evaluation of the international and domestic epidemic situation and the analysis of infectious diseases spreading tendency, we determine the input and output risk grade and prevention and control of main parts, publish warning information and take measures in the targeted areas, ports and parts in order to effectively control the vectors and pathogens spreading. It is necessary to introduce the risk analysis theory and build the risk assessment mechanism, which are beneficial in reducing the harm caused by infectious diseases and protecting port safety.

  2. Vector-Borne Bacterial Plant Pathogens: Interactions with Hemipteran Insects and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla-Henao, Laura M; Casteel, Clare L

    2016-01-01

    Hemipteran insects are devastating pests of crops due to their wide host range, rapid reproduction, and ability to transmit numerous plant-infecting pathogens as vectors. While the field of plant-virus-vector interactions has flourished in recent years, plant-bacteria-vector interactions remain poorly understood. Leafhoppers and psyllids are by far the most important vectors of bacterial pathogens, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of their feeding behavior, salivary secretions, and plant responses as compared to important viral vectors, such as whiteflies and aphids. Even with an incomplete understanding of plant-bacteria-vector interactions, some common themes have emerged: (1) all known vector-borne bacteria share the ability to propagate in the plant and insect host; (2) particular hemipteran families appear to be incapable of transmitting vector-borne bacteria; (3) all known vector-borne bacteria have highly reduced genomes and coding capacity, resulting in host-dependence; and (4) vector-borne bacteria encode proteins that are essential for colonization of specific hosts, though only a few types of proteins have been investigated. Here, we review the current knowledge on important vector-borne bacterial pathogens, including Xylella fastidiosa, Spiroplasma spp., Liberibacter spp., and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.'. We then highlight recent approaches used in the study of vector-borne bacteria. Finally, we discuss the application of this knowledge for control and future directions that will need to be addressed in the field of vector-plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:27555855

  3. Blocking the Transmission of a Noncirculative Vector-Borne Plant Pathogenic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroussaa, Fabien; Zeilinger, Adam R; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2016-07-01

    The successful control of insect-borne plant pathogens is often difficult to achieve due to the ecologically complex interactions among pathogens, vectors, and host plants. Disease management often relies on pesticides and other approaches that have limited long-term sustainability. To add a new tool to control vector-borne diseases, we attempted to block the transmission of a bacterial insect-transmitted pathogen, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, by disrupting bacteria-insect vector interactions. X. fastidiosa is known to attach to and colonize the cuticular surface of the mouthparts of vectors; a set of recombinant peptides was generated and the chemical affinities of these peptides to chitin and related carbohydrates was assayed in vitro. Two candidates, the X. fastidiosa hypothetical protein PD1764 and an N-terminal region of the hemagglutinin-like protein B (HxfB) showed affinity for these substrates. These proteins were provided to vectors via an artificial diet system in which insects acquire X. fastidiosa, followed by an inoculation access period on plants under greenhouse conditions. Both PD1764 and HxfAD1-3 significantly blocked transmission. Furthermore, bacterial populations within insects over a 10-day period demonstrated that these peptides inhibited cell adhesion to vectors but not bacterial multiplication, indicating that the mode of action of these peptides is restricted to limiting cell adhesion to insects, likely via competition for adhesion sites. These results open a new venue in the search for sustainable disease-control strategies that are pathogen specific and may have limited nontarget effects. PMID:27049684

  4. Disentangling Vector-Borne Transmission Networks: A Universal DNA Barcoding Method to Identify Vertebrate Hosts from Arthropod Bloodmeals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Ruiz, Santiago;

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector......-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vector species. Therefore, ascertaining the potential afforded by DNA barcoding tools in other vector-host systems...... of human and veterinary importance would represent a major advance in tracking pathogen life cycles and hosts. Here, we show the applicability of a novel and efficient molecular method for the identification of the vertebrate host’s DNA contained in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods. To this end, we...

  5. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.T.W.; Smit, de A.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from

  6. 'ANOTHER VECTOR BORNE CHALLENGE TO COMBAT- ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAKS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Maria; Faraz, Ahmad; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It is known to transmit to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito which is also known to carry dengue, chikungunya & yellow fever virus. Transmission is anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) during outbreaks, Perinatally in utero, sexually and via infected blood transfusion. It is mild and self-limiting infection lasting for several days to a week. However, it is suspected as a cause of Guillain Barre Syndrome. There is a teratogenic association of Zika virus causing congenital birth defects like microcephaly and neurologic abnormalities. Treatment is generally supportive and for symptomatic relief. No specific antiviral treatment or vaccine is yet available for Zika virus disease. It highlights importance of preventive public health measures at the community level and avoids travelling to the endemic areas. PMID:27323600

  7. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.

  8. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  9. Exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vascellari, Marta; Ravagnan, Silvia; Carminato, Antonio; Cazzin, Stefania; Carli, Erika; Da Rold, Graziana; Lucchese, Laura; Natale, Alda; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast Italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. Little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. This work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast Italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine bloo...

  10. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on...

  11. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. PMID:27266811

  12. Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases.

  13. Triatomine infestation and vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in northwest and central Paraná, Brazil Infestação triatomínica e transmissão vetorial da doença de Chagas no noroeste e centro do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Falavigna-Guilherme

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine infestation, prevalence of T. cruzi antibodies in humans and domestic animals, and variables potentially associated with the presence of triatomines in a rural domiciliary unit (DU were investigated in nine municipalities and one district of Paraná, Brazil, from June 1996 to February 2000. DUs were defined as all houses and annexes on a given piece of property. Blood samples from human volunteers, dogs, and cats were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence. An epidemiological form was completed for each DU. A logistic model was adopted in order to identify associations. Seven out of nine municipalities were positive for triatomines. T. infestans was not captured, but T. sordida, P. megistus, and R. neglectus were. Different variables were considered decisive for the presence of triatomines across the municipalities: proximity to residual wooded areas, i.e. either scrub forest (capoeira or islands of residual forest (slightly dense vegetation, longer time of residence, existence of inhabited houses, and past DU infestation. In order to ensure proper continuation of the recommended Chagas disease control program, entomo-epidemiological surveillance measures need to be maintained.Avaliou-se a infestação por triatomíneos, a prevalência sorológica para T. cruzi em humanos e em animais domésticos, e a pesquisa de variáveis que poderiam estar associadas à presença de triatomíneos na unidade domiciliar (UD em área rural de nove municípios e um distrito do Paraná, Brasil, junho/1996 a fevereiro/2000. Uma UD foi definida como todas as casas e anexos existentes na propriedade. Amostras de sangue de voluntários humanos, cachorros e gatos foram submetidos à imunoflorescência indireta. Uma ficha epidemiológica foi preenchida para cada UD pesquisada. Foi adotado um modelo logístico para identificar associações. Sete dos nove municípios foram positivos para triatomíneos. T. infestans não foi capturado. T. sordida, P

  14. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  15. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovats, R. S.; Campbell-Lendrum, D H; McMichael, A. J.; Woodward, A; Cox, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Shifts in the distribution and behaviour of insect and bird species indicate that biological systems are already responding to this change. It is well established that climate is an important determinant of the spatial and temporal distribution of vectors and pathogens. In theory, a change in climate would be expected to cause changes in the geographical range, seasonality (intra-annual variability), and in the incidence...

  16. Climate Change and Vector-borne Diseases: An Economic Impact Analysis of Malaria in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Wu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A semi-parametric econometric model is used to study the relationship between malaria cases and climatic factors in 25 African countries. Results show that a marginal change in temperature and precipitation levels would lead to a significant change in the number of malaria cases for most countries by the end of the century. Consistent with the existing biophysical malaria model results, the projected effects of climate change are mixed. Our model projects that some countries will see an increase in malaria cases but others will see a decrease. We estimate projected malaria inpatient and outpatient treatment costs as a proportion of annual 2000 health expenditures per 1,000 people. We found that even under minimal climate change scenario, some countries may see their inpatient treatment cost of malaria increase more than 20%.

  17. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesbøll, K; Sumner, T; Enøe, C; Christiansen, L E; Gubbins, S

    2016-04-01

    In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptions of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater sensitivity to the level of vaccine uptake and has lower variability compared with a kernel-based model. However, a model using a transmission kernel requires less detailed data and is often faster. PMID:25056842

  18. Global Trends in the Use of Insecticides to Control Vector-Borne Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Zaim, M.; Yadav, R.S.; Soares, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Mnzava, A.; Hii, J.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on insecticide use for vector control are essential for guiding pesticide management systems on judicious and appropriate use, resistance management, and reduction of risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We studied the global use and trends of insecticide use for co

  19. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Sumner, T.; Enøe, Claes;

    2016-01-01

    of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater...

  20. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  1. Public health applications of remote sensing of vector borne and parasitic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the potential application of remote sensing to various fields of public health are presented. Specific topics discussed include: detection of snail habitats in connection with the epidemiology of schistosomiasis; the detection of certain Anopheles breeding sites, and location of transient human populations, both in connection with malaria eradication programs; and detection of overwintering population sites for the primary screwworm (Cochliomyia americana). Emphasis was placed on the determination of ground truth data on the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of ground waters which would or would not support the growth of significant populations of mosquitoes.

  2. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  3. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  4. Temporal and spatial scaling of the genetic structure of a vector-borne plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2014-02-01

    The ecology of plant pathogens of perennial crops is affected by the long-lived nature of their immobile hosts. In addition, changes to the genetic structure of pathogen populations may affect disease epidemiology and management practices; examples include local adaptation of more fit genotypes or introduction of novel genotypes from geographically distant areas via human movement of infected plant material or insect vectors. We studied the genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa populations causing disease in sweet orange plants in Brazil at multiple scales using fast-evolving molecular markers (simple-sequence DNA repeats). Results show that populations of X. fastidiosa were regionally isolated, and that isolation was maintained for populations analyzed a decade apart from each other. However, despite such geographic isolation, local populations present in year 2000 were largely replaced by novel genotypes in 2009 but not as a result of migration. At a smaller spatial scale (individual trees), results suggest that isolates within plants originated from a shared common ancestor. In summary, new insights on the ecology of this economically important plant pathogen were obtained by sampling populations at different spatial scales and two different time points. PMID:24397266

  5. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  6. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  7. Opportunities for Improved Chagas Disease Vector Control Based on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Rosecrans; Gabriela Cruz-Martin; Ashley King; Eric Dumonteil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a sequence of qualitative...

  8. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  9. Wetland cover dynamics drive hemorrhagic disease patterns in white-tailed deer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brett S; Magori, Krisztian; Perofsky, Amanda C; Stallknecht, David E; Park, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    While vector-borne diseases are known to be particularly influenced by environmental factors, the impact of land-cover change on vector-borne wildlife disease patterns is poorly understood, largely due to the paucity of data on disease occurrence at extensive spatial and temporal scales. Widespread and rapid anthropogenic land-cover change, especially urbanization, has transformed the US landscape during the last century. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue tongue virus, vectored by Culicoides biting midges, are two RNA viruses in the Orbivirus genus that cause severe hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We examine the spatial dynamics of HD affecting white-tailed deer in the contiguous United States in two periods covering 1980 to 2007 in connection with land-cover change over the same time. Using spatial statistical modeling, wetland cover emerges as a critical driver of HD morbidity, whereas the drivers of mortality patterns are more complex. Increasing wetland cover is positively associated with HD morbidity, which is consistent with the ecologic requirements of the Culicoides vector. Wetland cover is inherently dynamic due to its importance to biodiversity and water quality as well as its utility for other purposes when drained. Accordingly this analysis helps in understanding the consequences of changing wetlands on vector-borne disease patterns, to identify disease hotspots in a large landscape, and to forecast the spatial spread of HD and related diseases. PMID:23778598

  10. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although

  11. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  12. Emerging Vector borne zoonoses: eco-­epidemiology and public health implications in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C Dhiman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from Western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non- endemic areas of JE like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs and human beings (like BSL4 which has been established in NIV, Pune, awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic and mapping of disease specific vulnerable areas, mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario, are needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in south East Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  13. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pdescription of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

  14. Importance of vector-borne infections in different production systems: bovine trypanosomosis and the innovation dynamics of livestock producers in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, F; Bouyer, J; Seck, M T; Sall, B; Dicko, A H; Lancelot, R; Chia, E

    2015-04-01

    In Senegal, a project has been undertaken to eradicate a population of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) from a prime area for intensifying livestock production--the coastal region of Niayes. The project is intended to remove the constraint of trypanosomosis and allow the ecological intensification of cattle production. A cross-sectional analysis of ten case studies was the inductive phase of an assessment to gauge the impact of removing trypanosomosis on livestock production strategies. The methodology used was comprehensive analysis, with participatory epidemiology tools to understand farmers' rationales. The authors analysed the strategies of three main types of livestock producer (agro-pastoralists, mixed crop/livestock farmers and intensive dairy farmers). The strategies were in line with the farmers' goals and their ability to mobilise the socio-technical network. The risk management of trypanosomosis has been incorporated into livestock management practices through the use of trypanotolerant breeds, medical prophylaxis or placing livestock in low-risk areas. Removing the risk of disease would therefore have a major impact on decisions about the composition and strategic direction of herds. This change in the animal health environment would steer livestock production along different routes of intensification in a highly competitive environment. The indicators of innovation capacity revealed by this study will be used to quantitatively monitor various change scenarios, taking livestock producers' reasoning into account, in order to assess the socio-economic impact of eradicating the tsetse fly population in this area. The methodology presented in the study can be used to understand the impact of controlling other vector-borne infections on the innovation dynamics of livestock producers. PMID:26470458

  15. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  16. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  17. Environmental temperature affects prevalence of blood parasites of birds on an elevation gradient: implications for disease in a warming climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Zamora-Vilchis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising global temperature is predicted to expand the distribution of vector-borne diseases both in latitude and altitude. Many host communities could be affected by increased prevalence of disease, heightening the risk of extinction for many already threatened species. To understand how host communities could be affected by changing parasite distributions, we need information on the distribution of parasites in relation to variables like temperature and rainfall that are predicted to be affected by climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined relations between prevalence of blood parasites, temperature, and seasonal rainfall in a bird community of the Australian Wet Tropics along an elevation gradient. We used PCR screening to investigate the prevalence and lineage diversity of four genera of blood parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Trypanosoma in 403 birds. The overall prevalence of the four genera of blood parasites was 32.3%, with Haemoproteus the predominant genus. A total of 48 unique lineages were detected. Independent of elevation, parasite prevalence was positively and strongly associated with annual temperature. Parasite prevalence was elevated during the dry season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low temperatures of the higher elevations can help to reduce both the development of avian haematozoa and the abundance of parasite vectors, and hence parasite prevalence. In contrast, high temperatures of the lowland areas provide an excellent environment for the development and transmission of haematozoa. We showed that rising temperatures are likely to lead to increased prevalence of parasites in birds, and may force shifts of bird distribution to higher elevations. We found that upland tropical areas are currently a low-disease habitat and their conservation should be given high priority in management plans under climate change.

  18. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  19. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  20. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation. PMID:27646278

  1. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  2. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products a

  3. knowledge, attitudes and practices study in relation to entomophobia and its application in vector-borne-diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faranak Firoozfar; Nahid norjah; Mojgan Baniardalani; Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to determine the knowledge, believe and practice of students about insects for forthcoming research due to tropical medicine. Its application to tropical medicine is acceptable. Methods: The study was conducted among 300 students by pre-trained interviewers using a pre-test questionnaire in secondary, high school, and university in the Tehran city from June 2008 to May 2009. All statistics analysis was carried out the spss ver 11.5 EPI6, stata 80, chi-square and fisher exact test. Results: Significantly, 82.3% of the interviewers had problem when expose to insects (P<0.05). Domestic animals and unhygienic human habitant most importantly incriminate to present of insects. Out of 73.8% of the respondents believed the association between entomophobia and human habitat. Entomophobia was significantly associated with density and size of insects (P<0.05). Out of 37% of the respondents agree with killing of insects pest (P<0.05). Significantly steers was the common sign of entomophobia among the respondents (P<0.05). Out of %49.7 of audiences belived to association between entomophobia and age.Conclusion: In conclusion important the education and communication messages against entomophobia take in to consideration the local practice.

  4. Engaging scientists: An online survey exploring the experience of innovative biotechnological approaches to controlling vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Boëte, C; Beisel, U.; Reis Castro, L.; Césard, N.; Reeves, R

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background Pioneering technologies (e.g., nanotechnology, synthetic biology or climate engineering) are often associated with potential new risks and uncertainties that can become sources of controversy. The communication of information during their development and open exchanges between stakeholders is generally considered a key issue in their acceptance. While the attitudes of the public to novel technologies have been widely considered there has been relatively little investigati...

  5. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    the surveillance on periods and areas with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction...

  6. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit; Græsbøll, Kaare;

    with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction factor is obtained that may...

  7. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs living together with other pets than that for a dog without other dogs or cats. PMID:26350379

  8. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs living together with other pets than that for a dog without other dogs or cats.

  9. The importance of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases: recognition, monitoring and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst communicable diseases mainly affect the developing world, new and emerging diseases have re-awakened the developed countries to the importance of these infections. Concern has been raised that climate change and other man-made changes to the environment could provide conditions for diseases to increase their range and affect countries where they have not normally been a problem. The zoonoses, infections naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans, present considerable difficulties because eradication is almost impossible and control is problematic. However, control of many zoonoses can be affordable and reduction in human morbidity needs to become a priority task in many countries and regions. Many global, regional or locally occurring emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases are caused by zoonoses, including both vector-borne and non-vector borne diseases. Molecular biology has been instrumental in providing an understanding of zoonotic infections in relation to their transmission, epidemiology, clinical and pathological effects, treatment, development of vaccines and diagnosis and control. Examples of zoonoses in which molecular tools have helped decisively are mentioned in this review and examples are given on how molecular markers may help in the assessment and control of zoonotic diseases as illustrated in the insect vector-borne protozoan zoonosis, Chagas' disease and a snail-borne helminthic zoonosis, fascioliasis. Finally, emphasis is placed on the need to increase studies on animal reservoirs, to improve teaching and understanding of 'old-fashioned' disciplines such as medical malacology and entomology, as well as training and technology transfer and to actively pursue field work. Only by investing in these disciplines will we be in a position to go to the field, perform surveys, and acquire the data that will enable us to determine the presence of emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. (author)

  10. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  11. Lyme Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weil, M L

    1989-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. The clinical presentation varies depending on the stage of the illness: early disease includes erthyma migrans, early disseminated disease includes multiple erythema migrans, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies and carditis; late disease is primarily arthritis. The symptoms and signs of infection resolve in the vast majority of patients after appropriate treatment with antimicr...

  12. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Announcement (FOA) CK13-001, initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person...

  13. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  14. A probabilistic model in cross-sectional studies for identifying interactions between two persistent vector-borne pathogens in reservoir populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Vaumourin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In natural populations, individuals are infected more often by several pathogens than by just one. In such a context, pathogens can interact. This interaction could modify the probability of infection by subsequent pathogens. Identifying when pathogen associations correspond to biological interactions is a challenge in cross-sectional studies where the sequence of infection cannot be demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we modelled the probability of an individual being infected by one and then another pathogen, using a probabilistic model and maximum likelihood statistics. Our model was developed to apply to cross-sectional data, vector-borne and persistent pathogens, and to take into account confounding factors. Our modelling approach was more powerful than the commonly used Chi-square test of independence. Our model was applied to detect potential interaction between Borrelia afzelii and Bartonella spp. that infected a bank vole population at 11% and 57% respectively. No interaction was identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The modelling approach we proposed is powerful and can identify the direction of potential interaction. Such an approach can be adapted to other types of pathogens, such as non-persistents. The model can be used to identify when co-occurrence patterns correspond to pathogen interactions, which will contribute to understanding how organism communities are assembled and structured. In the long term, the model's capacity to better identify pathogen interactions will improve understanding of infectious risk.

  15. Chagas Disease: No Longer Exotic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-03

    This podcast is designed to inform health care providers about Chagas disease, diagnosis, and treatment and to assist in identifying infected patients.  Created: 4/3/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/8/2008.

  16. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  17. Tick-Associated Diseases: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alice; Chaney, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are eleven tick-associated diseases prevalent in the United States. Most commonly diagnosed are Lyme disease, anaplasmosis (ehrlichiosis) and babeisois, with Lyme disease being the most common vector-borne disease in the country. In southeastern states, studies have shown the…

  18. Affected by Inflammatory Diseases: Diagnostic and Pathogenetic Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pontillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human glycolytic enzyme α-enolase was associated with human diseases and with inflammation. An ELISA test was developed to measure anti-α-enolase AAE IgG and AAE IgA in the serum from patients affected by inflammatory diseases with the purpose to evaluate it as a novel diagnostic marker. 80 healthy blood donors and 194 paediatric patients affected by Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, celiac disease (CD, Crohn's Disease (CrD, hereditary periodic fever (HPF, and PFAPA syndrome were included in the study. HPF patients showed high levels of AAE antibodies, whereas JIA, CD, and CrD presented only partial results. Benign fevers such as PFAPA were almost negative for AAE Abs. These findings suggested that the genetic dysfunction of inflammasome associated with HPF could lead to the formation of AAE Abs that could be used for an early and easy diagnosis.

  19. What Teachers Need to Know about Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lysandra

    2009-01-01

    Although widely misunderstood, Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector borne disease in the United States. Children are the most at-risk group for Lyme disease, which can impact every system in the body. It can produce the musculo-skeletal, neurologic, psychiatric, opthalmologic, and cardiac symptoms. The symptoms of Lyme disease can have a…

  20. Caregiver roles in families affected by Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røthing, Merete; Malterud, Kirsti; Frich, Jan C

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this study was to explore family caregivers' experiences with the impact of Huntington's disease (HD) on the family structure and roles in the family. METHODOLOGY: We interviewed 15 family caregivers in families affected by HD, based on a semi-structured interview guide....... The participants were recruited through hospital departments and a lay organisation for HD in Norway. Data from the interviews were analysed with systematic text condensation. RESULTS: Huntington's disease could have a substantial impact on the family system, the shape of roles among family members......: Huntington's disease has a major impact on family systems. Caregiver roles are shaped by impairments in the affected family member and corresponding dynamic adoption and change in roles within the family. Making assessments of the family structure and roles, professionals may understand more about how...

  1. Status of Legislation and Regulatory Control of Public Health Pesticides in Countries Endemic with or at Risk of Major Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, G.; M.Zaim; Yadav, R. S.; Soares, A.; Hii, J.; Ameneshewa, B.; Mnzava, A.; A.P. Dash; Ejov, M.; S. H. Tan; Berg, van den, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Legislation and regulation of pesticides used in public health are essential for reducing risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We assessed the global situation on legislation and regulatory control of public health pesticides. Methods: A peer-reviewed and field-tested questionnaire was distributed to 142 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO); 113 states completed the questionnaire. Results: Legislation on public health pesticides was absent in 25% o...

  2. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hii, J.; Soares, A.; Mnzava, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.; Tan, S.H.; Matthews, G.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods: A questionna

  3. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease,smoking, duration of Crohn's disease before surgery,prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants),anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and postoperative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of 'short' among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants.Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non

  4. Is Chad Affected by Dutch or Nigerian Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kablan, Sandrine; Loening, Josef

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of the ‘natural resource curse’ on Chad and find little evidence for Dutch disease. Structural vector auto-regression suggests that changes in domestic output and prices are overwhelmingly determined by aggregate demand and supply shocks, and while oil production and high international prices negatively affect agricultural output, the effects are small. Consistent with empirical evidence for neighbouring Cameroon, we observe minimal impact on Chad’s manufacturing sector...

  5. Diseases affecting the peribronchovascular interstitium: CT findings and pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañer, Eva; Gallardo, Xavier; Pallardó, Yolanda; Branera, Jordi; Cabezuelo, María Angeles; Mata, Josep María

    2005-01-01

    Central bronchi and pulmonary arteries are surrounded and enveloped by a strong connective-tissue sheath termed the peribronchovascular interstitium, extending from the level of the pulmonary hila into the peripheral lung. Thickening of the peribronchovascular interstitium can be seen in a wide variety of diseases. The CT appearance can be smooth, nodular, or irregular depending on the underlying cause. Many of the diseases affecting the peribronchovascular interstitium are entities that show a predilection for lymphatic routes, such as sarcoidosis, pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis, silicosis, and lymphoproliferative disorders. There are other entities that mainly affect the peribronchovascular interstitium without a predominant perilymphatic distribution, such as hydrostatic pulmonary edema, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, interstitial pulmonary emphysema, and interstitial hemorrhage. Although there is an overlap in radiologic features, some CT findings are useful in differentiating among these entities. When CT shows mainly peribronchovascular abnormality, the differential diagnosis is considerably reduced, and it is generally possible to reach the correct diagnosis by considering the clinical context. We illustrate the CT findings and pathologic correlation for a number of different disorders that mainly affect the peribronchovascular interstitium.

  6. Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Epidemiological studies in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C. Cao (Wu Chun)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRickettsial diseases are vector-borne zoonoses caused by obligate intracellular bacteria within the order Rickettsiales, which was previously described as short, Gram-negative rod bacteria that retained basic fuchsin when stained by the method of Gimenez. As development in molecular tech

  7. Prion protein polymorphisms affect chronic wasting disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Analysis of the PRNP gene in cervids naturally infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD suggested that PRNP polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of deer to infection. To test this effect, we orally inoculated 12 white-tailed deer with CWD agent. Three different PRNP alleles, wild-type (wt; glutamine at amino acid 95 and glycine at 96, Q95H (glutamine to histidine at amino acid position 95 and G96S (glycine to serine at position 96 were represented in the study cohort with 5 wt/wt, 3 wt/G96S, and 1 each wt/Q95H and Q95H/G96S. Two animals were lost to follow-up due to intercurrent disease. The inoculum was prepared from Wisconsin hunter-harvested homozygous wt/wt animals. All infected deer presented with clinical signs of CWD; the orally infected wt/wt had an average survival period of 693 days post inoculation (dpi and G96S/wt deer had an average survival period of 956 dpi. The Q95H/wt and Q95H/G96S deer succumbed to CWD at 1,508 and 1,596 dpi respectively. These data show that polymorphisms in the PRNP gene affect CWD incubation period. Deer heterozygous for the PRNP alleles had extended incubation periods with the Q95H allele having the greatest effect.

  8. Prion protein polymorphisms affect chronic wasting disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J; Herbst, Allen; Duque-Velasquez, Camilo; Vanderloo, Joshua P; Bochsler, Phil; Chappell, Rick; McKenzie, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the PRNP gene in cervids naturally infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) suggested that PRNP polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of deer to infection. To test this effect, we orally inoculated 12 white-tailed deer with CWD agent. Three different PRNP alleles, wild-type (wt; glutamine at amino acid 95 and glycine at 96), Q95H (glutamine to histidine at amino acid position 95) and G96S (glycine to serine at position 96) were represented in the study cohort with 5 wt/wt, 3 wt/G96S, and 1 each wt/Q95H and Q95H/G96S. Two animals were lost to follow-up due to intercurrent disease. The inoculum was prepared from Wisconsin hunter-harvested homozygous wt/wt animals. All infected deer presented with clinical signs of CWD; the orally infected wt/wt had an average survival period of 693 days post inoculation (dpi) and G96S/wt deer had an average survival period of 956 dpi. The Q95H/wt and Q95H/G96S deer succumbed to CWD at 1,508 and 1,596 dpi respectively. These data show that polymorphisms in the PRNP gene affect CWD incubation period. Deer heterozygous for the PRNP alleles had extended incubation periods with the Q95H allele having the greatest effect.

  9. Emerging Arboviral Disease%新出现的虫媒病毒病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John S Mackenzie

    2002-01-01

    @@ Emerging Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Viruses Laboratory, School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, The University of Queens land, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia Emerging diseases are usually defined as either new, previously unrecognized diseases that have appeared for the first time, or diseases known to exist but which are increasing in geographic range and/or incidence.

  10. Prediction of disease-related mutations affecting protein localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurila Kirsti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells contain numerous compartments, which have different protein constituents. Proteins are typically directed to compartments by short peptide sequences that act as targeting signals. Translocation to the proper compartment allows a protein to form the necessary interactions with its partners and take part in biological networks such as signalling and metabolic pathways. If a protein is not transported to the correct intracellular compartment either the reaction performed or information carried by the protein does not reach the proper site, causing either inactivation of central reactions or misregulation of signalling cascades, or the mislocalized active protein has harmful effects by acting in the wrong place. Results Numerous methods have been developed to predict protein subcellular localization with quite high accuracy. We applied bioinformatics methods to investigate the effects of known disease-related mutations on protein targeting and localization by analyzing over 22,000 missense mutations in more than 1,500 proteins with two complementary prediction approaches. Several hundred putative localization affecting mutations were identified and investigated statistically. Conclusion Although alterations to localization signals are rare, these effects should be taken into account when analyzing the consequences of disease-related mutations.

  11. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  12. Factors affecting larval tick feeding success: host, density and time

    OpenAIRE

    Cami R Jones; Brunner, Jesse L.; Scoles, Glen A.; Jeb P Owen

    2015-01-01

    Background Ectoparasites rely on blood-feeding to sustain activity, support development and produce offspring. Blood-feeding is also a route for transmission of diverse vector-borne pathogens. The likelihood of successfully feeding is thus an important aspect of ectoparasite population dynamics and pathogen transmission. Factors that affect blood-feeding include ectoparasite density, host defenses, and ages of the host and ectoparasite. How these factors interact to affect feeding success is ...

  13. Renal replacement therapy for rare diseases affecting the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wühl, Elke; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Wanner, Christoph;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, increased efforts have been undertaken to address the needs of patients with rare diseases by international initiatives and consortia devoted to rare disease research and management. However, information on the overall prevalence of rare diseases within the end......-stage renal disease (ESRD) population is limited. The aims of this study were (i) to identify those rare diseases within the ERA-EDTA Registry for which renal replacement therapy (RRT) is being provided and (ii) to determine the prevalence and incidence of RRT for ESRD due to rare diseases, both overall...... and separately for children and adults. METHODS: The Orphanet classification of rare disease was searched for rare diseases potentially causing ESRD, and these diagnosis codes were mapped to the corresponding ERA-EDTA primary renal disease codes. Thirty-one diagnoses were defined as rare diseases causing ESRD...

  14. Cascading effect of economic globalization on human risks of scrub typhus and tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lee, Pei-Lung; Kelt, Douglas A; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

    2012-09-01

    The increase in global travel and trade has facilitated the dissemination of disease vectors. Globalization can also indirectly affect vector-borne diseases through the liberalization of cross-border trade, which has far-reaching, worldwide effects on agricultural practices and may in turn influence vectors through the modification of the ecological landscape. While the cascading effect of economic globalization on vector-borne diseases, sometimes acting synergistically with regional agricultural policy, could be substantial and have significant economic, agricultural, and public health implications, research into this remains very limited. We evaluated how abandonment of rice paddies in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization, along with periodic plowing, an agricultural policy to reduce farm pests in abandoned fields can unexpectedly influence risks to diseases transmitted by ticks and chiggers (larval trombiculid mites), which we collected from their small-mammal hosts. Sampling was limited to abandoned (fallow) and plowed fields due to the challenge of trapping small mammals in flooded rice paddies. Striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) are the main hosts for both vectors. They harbored six times more ticks and three times more chiggers in fallow than in plowed plots. The proportion of ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. (etiologic agent of spotted fever) was three times higher in fallow plots, while that of Orientia tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus) in chiggers was similar in both treatments. Fallow plots had more ground cover and higher vegetation than plowed ones. Moreover, ticks and chiggers in both field types were dominated by species known to infest humans. Because ticks and chiggers should exhibit very low survival in flooded rice paddies, we propose that farm abandonment in Taiwan, driven by globalization, may have inadvertently led to increased risks of spotted fever and scrub typhus. However, periodic plowing can unintentionally mitigate vector

  15. The biological control of disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  16. Molecular entomology: analyzing tiny molecules to answer big questions about disease vectors and their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomologists at the Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit at USDA-Agricultural Research Service are tasked with protecting the nation’s livestock from domestic, foreign and emerging vector-borne diseases. To accomplish this task, a vast array of molecular techniques are being used in pr...

  17. 78 FR 58316 - Complex Issues in Developing Medical Devices for Pediatric Patients Affected by Rare Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Patients Affected by Rare Diseases; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Devices for Pediatric Patients Affected by Rare Diseases.'' This public workshop is organized by the... ``Complex Issues in Developing Drug and Biological Products for Rare Diseases.'' The purpose of the...

  18. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  19. Disease painting or painting disease: how does illness and hospitalisation affect children's artistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakci, Benan; Forouz, Aria; Sahin, Ahmet B; Abali, Mustafa; Aliyeva, Gyulten Z

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous speculations about famous artists and how their perception was affected by their medical conditions. In this study, we examined how illness and hospitalisation affect children's art. A total of 157 paintings by 122 hospitalised children were interpreted by three reputed artists. Works of ill children were compared with those of a control group from an international art exhibition. We also comment on how diseases influenced the technique of famous artists to further examine the possible impact of illness on the artistry of hospitalised children. Developmental delay in painting was evident in the study group. Use of ready-made schemas was a common practice (55%). 56% of the work from patients older than eight years failed in perspective and site perception. The theme in 89% of the drawings had no human figures. Projection of self sufferings, prominent elementary lines, and reflection of distorted perception could be clearly recognised in various study materials; anxiety about assigned surgery was exhibited by scribbling. There exists a close relationship between medicine and humanities. The interpretation of fine art from a medical perspective may help to increase our appreciation of the suffering of an individual. It is obvious that diseases change the artistic style and inner perspective. The question is how do healthcare specialists view this? PMID:20120269

  20. Bovine Ephemeral Fever As A Disease Related To Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF is one of arbovirus diseases infecting in ruminants especially cattle and buffaloes, which is transmitted by mosquito vectors. In general, vector borne disease is also related to climate change, that mosquito as a vector will significantly increase when the environment temperature increases. The disease was found in many countries in Asia, Africa and Australia. The clinical sign of the disease such as fever to paralysis causes economical impact to the farmer, eventhough the mortality is very low. This review will discuss the disease in relation to climate change, which affects vector population that spread the disease. The more population of vector is the higher chance of animal to be infected. This condition describes that the spread of BEF will depend on some factors included the increase of vectors, the availability of susceptible host and vector media facilities, climate condition and supportive ecology. This paper will discuss the feature of BEF, mode of transmission, the impact of environment and climate change, disease prevention and control, and other aspects to prevent further economical impact. It will also discuss how to the transmission, prevention and control of disease BEF. The information can be taken as an input for policy makers to prevent BEF infection in Indonesia.

  1. Neural activities during affective processing in people with Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Tatia M. C.; Sun, Delin; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chu, Leung-Wing; Keysers, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined brain activities in people with Alzheimer's disease when viewing happy, sad, and fearful facial expressions of others. A functional magnetic resonance imaging and a voxel-based morphometry methodology together with a passive viewing of emotional faces paradigm were employed to co

  2. Semantic Trouble Sources and Their Repair in Conversations Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika; Bloch, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dysarthria arising from Parkinson's disease may affect intelligibility in conversational interaction. Research has also shown that Parkinson's disease may affect cognition and cause word-retrieval difficulties and pragmatic problems in the use of language. However, it is not known whether or how these…

  3. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  4. Major viral diseases affecting fish aquaculture in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S I; Rodríguez, S

    1997-06-01

    The number of viruses isolated from fish has grown in the last few years as a reflection of the increasing interest in fish diseases, particularly those occurring in aquaculture facilities. Of all the described viruses, only a few are considered to be of serious concern and economic importance; they are described in this review, drawing special attention to the four families of viruses (Birnaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae and Reoviridae) that have been reported in Spanish aquaculture. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, a member of the first family, is the most spread virus with a prevalence of 39%. Viral diseases are untreatable and because effective and safe vaccines for fish are not yet commercially available, a great care needs to be exercised when moving fish or eggs from one site or country to another. Some fish health control regulations have been legislated in Europe and USA.

  5. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  6. Factors affecting splanchnic haemodynamics in Crohn's disease: a prospective controlled study using Doppler ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Maconi, G; Parente, F.; Bollani, S; Imbesi, V.; Ardizzone, S; Russo, A.; G. Porro

    1998-01-01

    Background—Current knowledge on splanchnic haemodynamics in Crohn's disease is limited. 
Aims—To investigate which features of Crohn's disease affect splanchnic haemodynamics, and to establish whether portal vein (PV) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood supply reflects clinical or biochemical activity of Crohn's disease. 
Methods—Seventy nine patients with Crohn's disease and 40 controls were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound (US). The mean velocity of PV and SMA flow, ...

  7. Girls’ Diets Affect Puberty,Later Disease Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钦虢

    2000-01-01

    本刊上期刊登了吴春拂选注的一篇文章,题目是:Dieting May HarmGirl’s IQs。该文标题中的Dieting的意思是“节食”,节食,会降低女孩的智商;而本文标题中的Diets却是“饮食”的意思。本文的主题句就亮出一个或多或少与前文相左的意见: Young girls who consume diets rich in animal protein and fat may be eatingtheir way to an early puberty(青春期)and possibly increasing their risk for chronicdisease later in life. 女孩如果多吃富含动物蛋白质和动物脂肪的食物将过早进入青春期,并可能日后患上慢性疾病的风险。 根据专家的意见,女孩的“健康饮食”应该是:to reduce intakes of saturated(饱和的)fat and red meat and excess calories and to increase fruit/vegetable intakesin children. 如此饮食,其收效是:result in lower breast cancer rates,along with otherhealth benefits. 也许读者不会料到,如此饮食同样存在着“负面作用”:but the risk ofosteoporosis,and perhaps of other diseases,might increase. 两文并读,或者就单读此文,读者朋友就会深感左右为难,无所适从。 其实,深入一步想,这些意见并不矛盾,世界上许多事情都应该一分为二地去看,去思考。

  8. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental changes affecting circulation of neglected tropical diseases in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Naga, Iman F

    2015-11-01

    Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. PMID:26614986

  9. Wilson disease: changes in methionine metabolism and inflammation affect global DNA methylation in early liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Shibata, Noreene M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Woods, Rima; Liu, Sarah; Engelberg, Jesse A.; Devaraj, Sridevi; Török, Natalie J.; Jiang, Joy X.; Havel, Peter J.; Lönnerdal, Bo; Kim, Kyoungmi; Halsted, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic methionine metabolism may play an essential role in regulating methylation status and liver injury in Wilson disease (WD) through the inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) by copper (Cu) and the consequent accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). We studied the transcript levels of selected genes related to liver injury, levels of SAHH, SAH, DNA methyltransferases genes (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b) and global DNA methylation in the tx-j mouse (tx-j), an animal model of WD. Findings were compared to those in control C3H mice, and in response to Cu chelation by penicillamine (PCA) and dietary supplementation of the methyl donor betaine to modulate inflammatory and methylation status. Transcript levels of selected genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid synthesis, and fatty acid oxidation were down-regulated at baseline in tx-j mice, further down-regulated in response to PCA, and showed little to no response to betaine. Hepatic Sahh transcript and protein levels were reduced in tx-j mice with consequent increase of SAH levels. Hepatic Cu accumulation was associated with inflammation, as indicated by histopathology and elevated serum ALT and liver tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α) levels. Dnmt3b was down-regulated in tx-j mice together with global DNA hypomethylation. PCA treatment of tx-j mice reduced Tnf-α and ALT levels, betaine treatment increased S-adenosylmethionine and up-regulated Dnmt3b levels, and both treatments restored global DNA methylation levels. Conclusion: reduced hepatic Sahh expression was associated with increased liver SAH levels in the tx-j model of WD, with consequent global DNA hypomethylation. Increased global DNA methylation was achieved by reducing inflammation by Cu chelation or by providing methyl groups. We propose that increased SAH levels and inflammation affect widespread epigenetic regulation of gene expression in WD. PMID:22945834

  10. Delays reducing waterborne and water-related infectious diseases in China under climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Maggie; Belle, Jessica H.; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Liang, Song; Li, Huazhong; Luo, Wei; Freeman, Matthew C.; Liu, Yang; Gao, Yang; Hess, Jeremy J.; Justin V. Remais

    2014-01-01

    Despite China’s rapid progress improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) access, in 2011, 471 million people lacked access to improved sanitation and 401 million to household piped water. Because certain infectious diseases are sensitive to changes in both climate and WSH conditions, we projected impacts of climate change on WSH-attributable diseases in China in 2020 and 2030 by coupling estimates of the temperature sensitivity of diarrheal diseases and three vector-borne diseases, temper...

  11. Decision Aids for Multiple-Decision Disease Management as Affected by Weather Input Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many disease management decision support systems (DSS) rely, exclusively or in part, on weather inputs to calculate an indicator for disease hazard. Error in the weather inputs, typically due to forecasting, interpolation or estimation from off-site sources, may affect model calculations and manage...

  12. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Karnik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO, environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of allergens and impact of air pollution. A major emphasis of this review was on climatic impact on a variety of infectious diseases, particularly the interplay between ‘global warming’ and its effects on transmission of infectious diseases across the world. An analysis of vector borne disease transmission, infectious disease transmission modeling, in the backdrop of global warming, the concept of ‘one health’ and the effects of rising sea levels, which are purported to be due to global warming, were some of the highlighted issues addressed in this review. Towards the end, attention was drawn towards the limitations of addressing vector disease transmission related insufficient studies particularly studies which conduct predictive modeling of infectious disease transmission, which were marred by lack of innovation.

  13. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  14. Discrimination and evocation of affectively intoned speech in patients with right parietal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D M; Watson, R T; Heilman, K M

    1977-10-01

    Patients with right parietal disease have disturbed comprehension of affective speech. Ability to discriminate affective speech (make same/different discriminations) and ability to repeat emotionally bland sentences with affective tones were tested in three groups of subjects--patients with right parietal dysfunction and neglect, conduction aphasics with left hemispheric lesions, and patients without intracranial disease. Patients with right parietal dysfunction performed significantly poorer than did aphasic controls on both a recognition and discrimination task. Patients with right parietal dysfunction also scored poorer on the evocative task than the nonaphasic controls. PMID:561908

  15. Wolbachia: A biological control strategy against arboviral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Ipsita; Rath, Animesha; Mahapatra, Namita; Hazra, Rupenangshu K

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases particularly those transmitted by mosquitoes like Dengue are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in human population. There are no effective vaccines or treatment against dengue fever till date and the control methods are limited. So, new approaches are urgently in need to reverse these trends. Vector control is currently the primary intervention tool. Strategies that reduce or block pathogen transmission by mosquitoes have been proposed as a means of augmenting current control measures to reduce the growing burden of vector-borne diseases. Wolbachia an endosymbiont of arthropod vectors is being explored as a novel ecofriendly control strategy. Studies in Drosophila have shown that Wolbachia can confer resistance to diverse RNA viruses and protect flies from virus-induced mortality. This review was focused on biology of the Wolbachia and its implication as a control measure for arboviral diseases mainly Dengue and Chikungunya. PMID:27681542

  16. A Novel Statistical Model to Estimate Host Genetic Effects Affecting Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Garcia-Cortés, Luis Alberto; Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that genetic diversity can affect the spread of diseases, potentially affecting plant and livestock disease control as well as the emergence of human disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, even though computational tools can guide the control of infectious diseases, few epidemiological models can simultaneously accommodate the inherent individual heterogeneity in multiple infectious disease traits influencing disease transmission, such as the frequently modeled propensity to become infected and infectivity, which describes the host ability to transmit the infection to susceptible individuals. Furthermore, current quantitative genetic models fail to fully capture the heritable variation in host infectivity, mainly because they cannot accommodate the nonlinear infection dynamics underlying epidemiological data. We present in this article a novel statistical model and an inference method to estimate genetic parameters associated with both host susceptibility and infectivity. Our methodology combines quantitative genetic models of social interactions with stochastic processes to model the random, nonlinear, and dynamic nature of infections and uses adaptive Bayesian computational techniques to estimate the model parameters. Results using simulated epidemic data show that our model can accurately estimate heritabilities and genetic risks not only of susceptibility but also of infectivity, therefore exploring a trait whose heritable variation is currently ignored in disease genetics and can greatly influence the spread of infectious diseases. Our proposed methodology offers potential impacts in areas such as livestock disease control through selective breeding and also in predicting and controlling the emergence of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:26405030

  17. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  18. Training Systems Modelers through the Development of a Multi-scale Chagas Disease Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Stevens-Goodnight, S.; Kulkarni, S.; Bustamante, D.; Fytilis, N.; Goff, P.; Monroy, C.; Morrissey, L. A.; Orantes, L.; Stevens, L.; Dorn, P.; Lucero, D.; Rios, J.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of our NSF-sponsored Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences grant is to create a multidisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit models of vector-borne disease risk using Chagas disease as our model. Chagas disease is a parasitic disease endemic to Latin America that afflicts an estimated 10 million people. The causative agent (Trypanosoma cruzi) is most commonly transmitted to humans by blood feeding triatomine insect vectors. Our objectives are: (1) advance knowledge on the multiple interacting factors affecting the transmission of Chagas disease, and (2) provide next generation genomic and spatial analysis tools applicable to the study of other vector-borne diseases worldwide. This funding is a collaborative effort between the RSENR (UVM), the School of Engineering (UVM), the Department of Biology (UVM), the Department of Biological Sciences (Loyola (New Orleans)) and the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology (Universidad de San Carlos). Throughout this five-year study, multi-educational groups (i.e., high school, undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral) will be trained in systems modeling. This systems approach challenges students to incorporate environmental, social, and economic as well as technical aspects and enables modelers to simulate and visualize topics that would either be too expensive, complex or difficult to study directly (Yasar and Landau 2003). We launch this research by developing a set of multi-scale, epidemiological models of Chagas disease risk using STELLA® software v.9.1.3 (isee systems, inc., Lebanon, NH). We use this particular system dynamics software as a starting point because of its simple graphical user interface (e.g., behavior-over-time graphs, stock/flow diagrams, and causal loops). To date, high school and undergraduate students have created a set of multi-scale (i.e., homestead, village, and regional) disease models. Modeling the system at multiple spatial scales forces recognition that

  19. Normal and mutant HTT interact to affect clinical severity and progression in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, N A; Jurgens, C K; Landwehrmeyer, G B;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene (HTT). We aimed to assess whether interaction between CAG repeat sizes in the mutant and normal allele could affect disease severity and progression. METHODS: Using...... with less severe symptoms and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing CAG repeat size in normal HTT diminishes the association between mutant CAG repeat size and disease severity and progression in Huntington disease. The underlying mechanism may involve interaction of the polyglutamine domains of normal...

  20. PARKINSON'S DISEASE PATIENTS WITH DOMINANT HEMIBODY AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE RELY MORE ON VISION TO MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.

  1. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis. Case: A 61-year old man with chronic ethanolic hepatitis was admitted to a provincial hospit...

  2. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  3. Silencing the odorant receptor co-receptor RproOrco affects the physiology and behavior of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Thiago A; Oliveira, Daniele S; Moreira, Monica F; Leal, Walter S; Melo, Ana C A

    2016-02-01

    Olfaction is one of the main sensory modalities that allow insects to interpret their environment. Several proteins, including odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs), are involved in this process. Odorant receptors are ion channels formed by a binding unit OR and an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco). The main goal of this study was to characterize the Orco gene of Rhodnius prolixus (RproOrco) and to infer its biological functions using gene silencing. The full-length RproOrco gene sequence was downloaded from VectorBase. This gene has 7 introns and is located in the genome SuperContig GL563069: 1,017,713-1,023,165. RproOrco encodes a protein of 473 amino acids, with predicted 7 transmembrane domains, and is highly expressed in the antennae during all R. prolixus developmental stages. The RNAi technique effectively silenced RproOrco, reducing the gene's expression by approximately 73%. Interestingly, the effect of gene silencing persisted for more than 100 days, indicating a prolonged effect of dsRNA that was maintained even after molting. The phenotypic effects of silencing involved the following: (1) loss of the ability to find a vertebrate host in a timely manner, (2) decreased ingested blood volume, (3) delayed and decreased molt rate, (4) increased mortality rate, and (5) decreased egg laying. Our data strongly suggest that dsOrco disrupts R. prolixus host-finding behavior, which is further reflected in the blood ingestion, molting, mortality, and egg laying data. This study clearly demonstrates that Orco is an excellent target for controlling triatomine populations. Thus, the data presented here open new possibilities for the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25747010

  4. Launching the first postgraduate diploma in medical entomology and disease vector control in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, H R; Mnzava, A; Bile, K M; Hafeez, A; Zaman, S

    2010-01-01

    The Health Services Academy has launched a 12-month postgraduate diploma course in medical entomology and disease vector control. The objective is to create a core of experts trained to prevent and control vector-borne diseases. The course is a response to the serious health and socioeconomic burden caused by a number of vector-borne diseases in Pakistan. The persistence, emergence and re-emergence of these diseases is mainly attributed to the scarcity of trained vector-control experts. The training course attempts to fill the gap in trained manpower and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, resulting in incremental gains to public health. This paper aims to outline the steps taken to establish the course and the perceived challenges to be addressed in order to sustain its future implementation.

  5. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  6. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGISHI, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ta...

  7. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  8. Disease ecology, biodiversity, and the latitudinal gradient in income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Matthew H; Dobson, Andrew P; Keenan, Donald C

    2012-01-01

    While most of the world is thought to be on long-term economic growth paths, more than one-sixth of the world is roughly as poor today as their ancestors were hundreds of years ago. The majority of the extremely poor live in the tropics. The latitudinal gradient in income is highly suggestive of underlying biophysical drivers, of which disease conditions are an especially salient example. However, conclusions have been confounded by the simultaneous causality between income and disease, in addition to potentially spurious relationships. We use a simultaneous equations model to estimate the relative effects of vector-borne and parasitic diseases (VBPDs) and income on each other, controlling for other factors. Our statistical model indicates that VBPDs have systematically affected economic development, evident in contemporary levels of per capita income. The burden of VBDPs is, in turn, determined by underlying ecological conditions. In particular, the model predicts it to rise as biodiversity falls. Through these positive effects on human health, the model thus identifies measurable economic benefits of biodiversity.

  9. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  10. Fecal calprotectin is equally sensitive in Crohn's disease affecting the small bowel and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Dam; Kjeldsen, Jens; Nathan, Torben

    2011-01-01

    The utility of fecal calprotectin (fCal) in small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) remains to be clarified. The primary aim of this study was to determine levels of fCal in CD restricted to the small bowel compared with CD affecting the colon, in patients undergoing their first diagnostic work...

  11. Remote sensing, land cover changes, and vector-borne diseases: use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map the risk of occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghardaïa, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garni, Rafik; Tran, Annelise; Guis, Hélène; Baldet, Thierry; Benallal, Kamel; Boubidi, Said; Harrat, Zoubir

    2014-12-01

    Ghardaïa, central Algeria, experienced a major outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in 2005. Two Leishmania species occur in this region: Leishmania major (MON-25) and Leishmania killicki (MON-301). The two species are transmitted respectively by the sandflies Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti and probably involve rodent reservoirs with different ecologies, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns and distribution areas. The aims of this study were to establish risk maps for each Leishmania species in Ghardaïa, taking into account the specificities of their vectors and reservoirs biotopes, using land cover and topographical characteristics derived from remote sensing imagery. Using expert and bibliographic knowledge, habitats of vectors and reservoirs were mapped. Hazard maps, defined as areas of presence of both vectors and reservoirs, were then combined with vulnerability maps, defined as areas with human presence, to map the risk of CL occurrence due to each species. The vector habitat maps and risk maps were validated using available entomological data and epidemiological data. The results showed that remote sensing analysis can be used to map and differentiate risk areas for the two species causing CL and identify palm groves and areas bordering the river crossing the city as areas at risk of CL due to L. major, whereas more limited rocky hills on the outskirts of the city are identified as areas at risk of CL due to L. killicki. In the current context of urban development in Ghardaïa, this study provides useful information for the local authorities on the respective risk areas for CL caused by both parasites, in order to take prevention and control measures to prevent future CL outbreaks.

  12. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M Stone; Lindsay, Steve W; Nakul Chitnis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between th...

  13. Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis and their vectors in Europe. New distribution trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eMorchón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002-2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10 years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs towards central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out.

  14. Climate change & infectious diseases in India: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, V Ramana; Schramm, Paul J; Luber, George

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in India, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive health care strategies with their patients.

  15. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande se...

  16. Climate, deer, rodents, and acorns as determinants of variation in lyme-disease risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostfeld, Richard S.; Canham, Charles D.; Kelly Oggenfuss; Winchcombe, Raymond J; Felicia Keesing

    2006-01-01

    Risk of human exposure to vector-borne zoonotic pathogens is a function of the abundance and infection prevalence of vectors. We assessed the determinants of Lyme-disease risk (density and Borrelia burgdorferi-infection prevalence of nymphal Ixodes scapularis ticks) over 13 y on several field plots within eastern deciduous forests in the epicenter of US Lyme disease (Dutchess County, New York). We used a model comparison approach to simultaneously test the importance of ambient growing-season...

  17. How infectious disease outbreaks affect community-based primary care physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkimainen, R. Liisa; Bondy, Susan J.; Parkovnick, Meredith; Barnsley, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare how the infectious disease outbreaks H1N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) affected community-based GPs and FPs. Design A mailed survey sent after the H1N1 outbreak compared with the results of similar survey completed after the SARS outbreak. Setting Greater Toronto area in Ontario. Participants A total of 183 randomly selected GPs and FPs who provided office-based care. Main outcome measures The perceptions of GPs and FPs on how serious infectious disease outbreaks affected their clinical work and personal lives; their preparedness for a serious infectious disease outbreak; and the types of information they want to receive and the sources they wanted to receive information from during a serious infectious disease outbreak. The responses from this survey were compared with the responses of GPs and FPs in the greater Toronto area who completed a similar survey in 2003 after the SARS outbreak. Results After the H1N1 outbreak, GPs and FPs still had substantial concerns about the effects of serious infectious disease outbreaks on the health of their family members. Physicians made changes to various office practices in order to manage and deal with patients with serious infectious diseases. They expressed concerns about the effects of an infectious disease on the provision of health care services. Also, physicians wanted to quickly receive accurate information from the provincial government and their medical associations. Conclusion Serious community-based infectious diseases are a personal concern for GPs and FPs, and have considerable effects on their clinical practice. Further work examining the timely flow of relevant information through different health care sectors and government agencies still needs to be undertaken. PMID:25316747

  18. Prioritizing genes of potential relevance to diseases affected by sex hormones: an example of Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Stephen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 5% of western populations are afflicted by autoimmune diseases many of which are affected by sex hormones. Autoimmune diseases are complex and involve many genes. Identifying these disease-associated genes contributes to development of more effective therapies. Also, association studies frequently imply genomic regions that contain disease-associated genes but fall short of pinpointing these genes. The identification of disease-associated genes has always been challenging and to date there is no universal and effective method developed. Results We have developed a method to prioritize disease-associated genes for diseases affected strongly by sex hormones. Our method uses various types of information available for the genes, but no information that directly links genes with the disease. It generates a score for each of the considered genes and ranks genes based on that score. We illustrate our method on early-onset myasthenia gravis (MG using genes potentially controlled by estrogen and localized in a genomic segment (which contains the MHC and surrounding region strongly associated with MG. Based on the considered genomic segment 283 genes are ranked for their relevance to MG and responsiveness to estrogen. The top three ranked genes, HLA-G, TAP2 and HLA-DRB1, are implicated in autoimmune diseases, while TAP2 is associated with SNPs characteristic for MG. Within the top 35 prioritized genes our method identifies 90% of the 10 already known MG-associated genes from the considered region without using any information that directly links genes to MG. Among the top eight genes we identified HLA-G and TUBB as new candidates. We show that our ab-initio approach outperforms the other methods for prioritizing disease-associated genes. Conclusion We have developed a method to prioritize disease-associated genes under the potential control of sex hormones. We demonstrate the success of this method by prioritizing the genes

  19. Efficacy of risedronate in a post-menopausal woman affected by osteoporosis and inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Palomba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a skeletal disease that can be asymptomatic and is sometimes underdiagnosed and undertreated. Post-menopausal osteoporosis can be associated with fractures and consequent impaired quality of life and increase of health care costs. Bisphosphonates are a therapeutic choice, because they proved to be effective in preventing bone loss. The current case report shows the efficacy of six-month risedronate administration in a post-menopausal woman affected by osteoporosis and inflammatory bowel disease in reducing biochemical bone turnover markers and increasing bone mineral density.

  20. Factors affecting poor nutritional status after small bowel resection in patients with Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ki Ung; Yu, Chang Sik; Lim, Seok-Byung; Park, In Ja; Yoon, Yong Sik; Kim, Chan Wook; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-07-01

    In Crohn disease, bowel-preserving surgery is necessary to prevent short bowel syndrome due to repeated operations. This study aimed to determine the remnant small bowel length cut-off and to evaluate the clinical factors related to nutritional status after small bowel resection in Crohn disease.We included 394 patients (69.3% male) who underwent small bowel resection for Crohn disease between 1991 and 2012. Patients who were classified as underweight (body mass index bowel length cut-offs were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Variables associated with poor nutritional status were assessed retrospectively using Student t tests, chi-squared tests, Fisher exact tests, and logistic regression analyses.The mean follow-up period was 52.9 months and the mean patient ages at the time of the last bowel surgery and last follow-up were 31.2 and 35.7 years, respectively. The mean remnant small bowel length was 331.8 cm. Forty-three patients (10.9%) underwent ileostomy, 309 (78.4%) underwent combined small bowel and colon resection, 111 (28.2%) had currently active disease, and 105 (26.6%) underwent at least 2 operations for recurrent disease. The mean body mass index and modified nutritional risk index were 20.6 and 100.8, respectively. The independent factors affecting underweight status were remnant small bowel length ≤240 cm (odds ratio: 4.84, P bowel length ≤230 cm (odds ratio: 2.84, P = 0.012), presence of ileostomy (odds ratio: 3.36, P = 0.025), and currently active disease (odds ratio: 4.90, P bowel length ≤230 cm are risk factors affecting the poor nutritional status of patients with Crohn disease after small bowel resection. PMID:27472702

  1. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Pycnopodia helianthoides (Asteroidea) Affected by Sea Star Wasting Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudenkauf, Brent M; Hewson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease (SSWD) describes a suite of symptoms reported in asteroids of the North American Pacific Coast. We performed a metatranscriptomic survey of asymptomatic and symptomatic sunflower star (Pycnopodia helianthoides) body wall tissues to understand holobiont gene expression in tissues affected by SSWD. Metatranscriptomes were highly variable between replicate libraries, and most differentially expressed genes represented either transcripts of associated microorganisms (particularly Pseudomonas and Vibrio relatives) or low-level echinoderm transcripts of unknown function. However, the pattern of annotated host functional genes reflects enhanced apoptotic and tissue degradation processes and decreased energy metabolism, while signalling of death-related proteins was greater in asymptomatic and symptomatic tissues. Our results suggest that the body wall tissues of SSWD-affected asteroids may undergo structural changes during disease progression, and that they are stimulated to undergo autocatalytic cell death processes.

  2. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Pycnopodia helianthoides (Asteroidea Affected by Sea Star Wasting Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M Gudenkauf

    Full Text Available Sea star wasting disease (SSWD describes a suite of symptoms reported in asteroids of the North American Pacific Coast. We performed a metatranscriptomic survey of asymptomatic and symptomatic sunflower star (Pycnopodia helianthoides body wall tissues to understand holobiont gene expression in tissues affected by SSWD. Metatranscriptomes were highly variable between replicate libraries, and most differentially expressed genes represented either transcripts of associated microorganisms (particularly Pseudomonas and Vibrio relatives or low-level echinoderm transcripts of unknown function. However, the pattern of annotated host functional genes reflects enhanced apoptotic and tissue degradation processes and decreased energy metabolism, while signalling of death-related proteins was greater in asymptomatic and symptomatic tissues. Our results suggest that the body wall tissues of SSWD-affected asteroids may undergo structural changes during disease progression, and that they are stimulated to undergo autocatalytic cell death processes.

  3. Arthropod borne diseases in Italy: from a neglected matter to an emerging health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In medical entomology, "Arthropod Borne Diseases", or "Vector Borne Diseases" (VBD are intended as a group of human and animal infections caused by different pathogen organisms (protozoa, helminthes, bacteria and viruses transmitted by the bite of a bloodsucking insect or arachnid. It is commonly known that the infectious diseases transmitted by Arthropods are mainly affecting tropical and subtropical countries, nevertheless some of them were or are still common also in the northern hemisphere, where they are usually maintained under control. VBD still represent some of the most important public health problems in the endemic areas but are becoming source of concern for developed countries too. Since the last decades of the past century, a number of VBD has been spreading geographically, being recorded for the first time in areas outside their original range. This phenomenon is strictly related to the peculiar epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, that are considered the most susceptible to climatic, environmental and socioeconomic changes. This article is a short overview of the VBD endemic and emerging in Italy. The possibility that some exotic vectors and/or pathogens could be introduced and become established in Italy is also discussed.

  4. Surgical infrainguinal revascularization for peripheral arterial disease: factors affecting patency rate

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarian, Ali; Elyasinia, Fezzeh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Farham; Parsaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease is a source of morbidity and mortality. Surgical vascular reconstruction is a treatment option but probability of failure and complications are important concerns. In this study, we evaluated outcome of surgical infrainguinal reconstruction and factors affecting graft patency for a period of one year. Methods: In this cohort study, 85 consecutive patients with chronic ischemia who underwent lower extremity surgical vascular reconstruction (including 52 ...

  5. Circadian affective, cardiopulmonary, and cortisol variability in depressed and nondepressed individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Roth, Walton T.; Spiegel, David; Taylor, C. Barr

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps mediated by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis or vagal dysregulation. We investigated circadian mood variation and HPA-axis and autonomic function in older (≥55 years) depressed and nondepressed volunteers at risk for CVD by assessing diurnal positive and negative affect (PA, NA), cortisol, and cardiopulmonary variables in 46 moderately depressed and 19 nondepressed volunteers with elevated CVD risk. Participants sat...

  6. Does coral disease affect symbiodinium? Investigating the impacts of growth anomaly on symbiont photophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Henrik Robert Burns

    Full Text Available Growth anomaly (GA is a commonly observed coral disease that impairs biological functions of the affected tissue. GA is prevalent at Wai 'ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai 'i Island. Here two distinct forms of this disease, Type A and Type B, affect the coral, Montiporacapitata. While the effects of GA on biology and ecology of the coral host are beginning to be understood, the impact of this disease on the photophysiology of the dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium spp., has not been investigated. The GA clearly alters coral tissue structure and skeletal morphology and density. These tissue and skeletal changes are likely to modify not only the light micro-environment of the coral tissue, which has a direct impact on the photosynthetic potential of Symbiodinium spp., but also the physiological interactions within the symbiosis. This study utilized Pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry (PAM to characterize the photophysiology of healthy and GA-affected M. capitata tissue. Overall, endosymbionts within GA-affected tissue exhibit reduced photochemical efficiency. Values of both Fv/Fm and ΔF/ Fm' were significantly lower (p<0.01 in GA tissue compared to healthy and unaffected tissues. Tracking the photophysiology of symbionts over a diurnal time period enabled a comparison of symbiont responses to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR among tissue conditions. Symbionts within GA tissue exhibited the lowest values of ΔF/Fm' as well as the highest pressure over photosystem II (p<0.01. This study provides evidence that the symbionts within GA-affected tissue are photochemically compromised compared to those residing in healthy tissue.

  7. Food, nutrients and nutraceuticals affecting the course of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranga, José Antonio; López-Miranda, Visitación; Lombó, Felipe; Abalo, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease) are debilitating relapsing inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, with deleterious effect on quality of life, and increasing incidence and prevalence. Mucosal inflammation, due to altered microbiota, increased intestinal permeability and immune system dysfunction underlies the symptoms and may be caused in susceptible individuals by different factors (or a combination of them), including dietary habits and components. In this review we describe the influence of the Western diet, obesity, and different nutraceuticals/functional foods (bioactive peptides, phytochemicals, omega 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics and prebiotics) on the course of IBD, and provide some hints that could be useful for nutritional guidance. Hopefully, research will soon offer enough reliable data to slow down the spread of the disease and to make diet a cornerstone in IBD therapy. PMID:27267792

  8. Opportunities for improved chagas disease vector control based on knowledge, attitudes and practices of communities in the yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Rosecrans

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding Chagas disease, triatomines and vector control in three rural communities. Our combined data show that community members are well aware of triatomines and are knowledgeable about their habits. However, most have a limited understanding of the transmission dynamics and clinical manifestations of Chagas disease. While triatomine control is not a priority for community members, they frequently use domestic insecticide products including insecticide spray, mosquito coils and plug-in repellents. Families spend about $32 US per year on these products. Alternative methods such as yard cleaning and window screens are perceived as desirable and potentially more effective. Screens are nonetheless described as unaffordable, in spite of a cost comparable to the average annual spending on insecticide products. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Further education campaigns and possibly financing schemes may lead families to redirect their current vector control spending from insecticide products to window screens. Also, synergism with mosquito control efforts should be further explored to motivate community involvement and ensure sustainability of Chagas disease vector control.

  9. Identification of histological patterns in clinically affected and unaffected palm regions in dupuytren's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo-Andrés Alfonso-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Dupuytren's disease is a fibro-proliferative disease characterized by a disorder of the extracellular matrix (ECM and high myofibroblast proliferation. However, studies failed to determine if the whole palm fascia is affected by the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze several components of the extracellular matrix of three types of tissues-Dupuytren's diseased contracture cords (DDC, palmar fascia clinically unaffected by Dupuytren's disease contracture (NPF, and normal forehand fascia (NFF. Histological analysis, quantification of cells recultured from each type of tissue, mRNA microarrays and immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin (SMA, fibrillar ECM components and non-fibrillar ECM components were carried out. The results showed that DDC samples had abundant fibrosis with reticular fibers and few elastic fibers, high cell proliferation and myofibroblasts, laminin and glycoproteins, whereas NFF did not show any of these findings. Interestingly, NPF tissues had more cells showing myofibroblasts differentiation and more collagen and reticular fibers, laminin and glycoproteins than NFF, although at lower level than DDC, with similar elastic fibers than DDC. Immunohistochemical expression of decorin was high in DDC, whereas versican was highly expressed NFF, with no differences for aggrecan. Cluster analysis revealed that the global expression profile of NPF was very similar to DDC, and reculturing methods showed that cells corresponding to DDC tissues proliferated more actively than NPF, and NPF more actively than NFF. All these results suggest that NPF tissues may be affected, and that a modification of the therapeutic approach used for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease should be considered.

  10. Affective disturbance in rheumatoid arthritis: psychological and disease-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Finan, Patrick H; Zautra, Alex J

    2016-09-01

    In addition to recurrent pain, fatigue, and increased rates of physical disability, individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased prevalence of some mental health disorders, particularly those involving affective or mood disturbances. This narrative Review provides an overview of mental health comorbidities in RA, and discusses how these comorbidities interact with disease processes, including dysregulation of inflammatory responses, prolonged difficulties with pain and fatigue, and the development of cognitive and behavioural responses that could exacerbate the physical and psychological difficulties associated with RA. This article describes how the social context of individuals with RA affects both their coping strategies and their psychological responses to the disease, and can also impair responses to treatment through disruption of patient-physician relationships and treatment adherence. Evidence from the literature on chronic pain suggests that the resulting alterations in neural pathways of reward processing could yield new insights into the connections between disease processes in RA and psychological distress. Finally, the role of psychological interventions in the effective and comprehensive treatment of RA is discussed. PMID:27411910

  11. Outbreak detection algorithms for seasonal disease data: a case study using ross river virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatton Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of outbreaks is an important part of disease surveillance. Although many algorithms have been designed for detecting outbreaks, few have been specifically assessed against diseases that have distinct seasonal incidence patterns, such as those caused by vector-borne pathogens. Methods We applied five previously reported outbreak detection algorithms to Ross River virus (RRV disease data (1991-2007 for the four local government areas (LGAs of Brisbane, Emerald, Redland and Townsville in Queensland, Australia. The methods used were the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS C1, C2 and C3 methods, negative binomial cusum (NBC, historical limits method (HLM, Poisson outbreak detection (POD method and the purely temporal SaTScan analysis. Seasonally-adjusted variants of the NBC and SaTScan methods were developed. Some of the algorithms were applied using a range of parameter values, resulting in 17 variants of the five algorithms. Results The 9,188 RRV disease notifications that occurred in the four selected regions over the study period showed marked seasonality, which adversely affected the performance of some of the outbreak detection algorithms. Most of the methods examined were able to detect the same major events. The exception was the seasonally-adjusted NBC methods that detected an excess of short signals. The NBC, POD and temporal SaTScan algorithms were the only methods that consistently had high true positive rates and low false positive and false negative rates across the four study areas. The timeliness of outbreak signals generated by each method was also compared but there was no consistency across outbreaks and LGAs. Conclusions This study has highlighted several issues associated with applying outbreak detection algorithms to seasonal disease data. In lieu of a true gold standard, a quantitative comparison is difficult and caution should be taken when interpreting the true positives, false positives

  12. Population Structure of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Foley, Erica A.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Naquira, Cesar; Brisson, Dustin; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a vector-borne disease endemic in Latin America. Triatoma infestans, a common vector of this disease, has recently expanded its range into rapidly developing cities of Latin America. We aim to identify the environmental features that affect the colonization and dispersal of T. infestans in an urban environment. We amplified 13 commonly used microsatellites from 180 T. infestans samples collected from a sampled transect in the city of Arequipa, Peru, in 2007 and 2011. We assessed the clustering of subpopulations and the effect of distance, sampling year, and city block location on genetic distance among pairs of insects. Despite evidence of genetic similarity, the majority of city blocks are characterized by one dominant insect genotype, suggesting the existence of barriers to dispersal. Our analyses show that streets represent an important barrier to the colonization and dispersion of T. infestans in Arequipa. The genetic data describe a T. infestans infestation history characterized by persistent local dispersal and occasional long-distance migration events that partially parallels the history of urban development. PMID:25646757

  13. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Laboratory-Confirmed Autochthonous Cases of Zika Virus Disease in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Corona, Maria Eugenia; De la Garza Barroso, Ana Lucía; Rodriguez Martínez, Jose Cruz; Luna Guzmán, Norma Irene; Ruiz Matus, Cuitláhuac; Díaz Quiñonez, José Alberto; Lopez Martinez, Irma; Kuri Morales, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2014, autochthonous circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was detected (Easter Island, Chile). In May 2015, Brazil confirmed autochthonous ­­transmission and in October of that year Colombia reported their first  cases. Now more than 52 countries have reported cases, including Mexico. To deal with this contingency in Mexico, several surveillance systems, in addition to systems for vector-borne diseases were strengthened with the participation of all health insti...

  14. Can non-human primates serve as models for investigating dengue disease pathogenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    KristinaClark; NattawatOnlamoon; GueyPerng

    2013-01-01

    Dengue Virus (DV) infects between 50 and 100 million people globally, with public health costs totaling in the billions. It is the causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), vector-borne diseases that initially predominated in the tropics. Due to the expansion of its mosquito vector, Aedes spp., DV is increasingly becoming a global problem. Infected individuals may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms, spanning from a mild febrile to...

  15. Social Representations and Practices Towards Triatomines and Chagas Disease in Calakmul, México

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Valdez-Tah; Laura Huicochea-Gómez; Judith Ortega-Canto; Austreberta Nazar-Beutelspacher; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (VBTTc) is dependent on the concomitant interaction between biological and environmental hazard over the entire landscape, and human vulnerability. Representations and practices of health-disease-care-seeking and territorial appropriation and use were analyzed for VBTTc in a qualitative ethnographic study in the Zoh-Laguna landscape, Campeche, Mexico. In-depth interviews and participatory observation explored representations and practices regardi...

  16. Sensorineural Hearing Affection In Sickle Cell Disease Patients With Chronic Renal Failure Under Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed MD*, Magdy M El Sharkawy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the problem of hearing loss in patients of chronic renal failure on regular haemodialysis and The factors which affect it. And to study the effect of sickle cell disease on hearing loss. we studied hearing loss in dialysis patients, sickle cell disease patients and patients of sickle cell disease with chronic renal failure under dialysis compared to normal control subjects. Design: !"",include sickle cell disease patients with chronic renal fa"# $%& ' ", i ,nclude ( # #"# $%&'", , ,( #&'", i 9nclude the normal *+&*+' All groups are subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination including neurological and ENT examination, investigations includes Hb, s. creatinine, s.albumen, s.calcium and calculation of kt/v for dialysis patients. Full audiological assessment, using #,-GSI audiometer was done for all groups with special concentration at frequency of - .Results: hearing loss was found in patients with chronic renal failure more than normal control. Patient with sickle cell disease have hearing disorders significantly higher than $/%- .% 0( # #cell disease have significantly. Marked degree of SNHL than those with SCD only. Hearing loss in patients with 12( # * 3 &4 !4! '#"#"patients with chronic renal failure with or without SCD correlate with duration of dialysis , presence of peripheral neuropathy, s. calcium level, efficiency of dialysis marked by kt/v. Conclusion and recommendation: hearing disorder is common in patients with chronic renal failure under regular haemodialysis and it increase with duration of dialysis it should be suspected if there is Peripheral neuropathy. It can be reduced with efficient dialysis, correction of anemia, adjustment of calcium level. Patients with SCD suffer also some degree of hearing loss especially at higher frequency and this degree of hearing loss

  17. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Systematic review of telemedicine services for patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Laura; Zanaboni, Paolo; Masella, Cristina; Ursini, Niccoló

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic literature review focused on telemedicine services for patients affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In particular, it addresses (1) which telemedicine applications and related organizational models have been adopted for patients affected by COPD and (2) the impact of these applications. A computerized literature search was performed utilizing MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases, selecting articles published between 1996 and 2008 using the following combination of keywords: [COPD] AND [telemedicine OR telehealth OR ehealth OR telecare] and after exclusions, 40 articles were considered. The adoption of telemedicine inevitably resulted in the reconfiguration of the existing practices and sociomaterial relationships. These organizational changes must be understood and addressed. PMID:19919194

  19. Can exercise affect the course of inflammatory bowel disease? Experimental and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilski, Jan; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Magierowski, Marcin; Zahradnik-Bilska, Janina; Wójcik, Dagmara; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are defined as idiopathic, chronic and relapsing intestinal disorders occurring in genetically predisposed individuals exposed to environmental risk factors such as diet and microbiome changes. Since conventional drug therapy is expensive and not fully efficient, there is a need for alternative remedies that can improve the outcome in patients suffering from IBD. Whether exercise, which has been proposed as adjunct therapy in IBD, can be beneficial in patients with IBD remains an intriguing question. In this review, we provide an overview of the effects of exercise on human IBD and experimental colitis in animal models that mimic human disease, although the information on exercise in human IBD are sparse and poorly understood. Moderate exercise can exert a beneficial ameliorating effect on IBD and improve the healing of experimental animal colitis due to the activity of protective myokines such as irisin released from working skeletal muscles. CD patients with higher levels of exercise were significantly less likely to develop active disease at six months. Moreover, voluntary exercise has been shown to exert a positive effect on IBD patients' mood, weight maintenance and osteoporosis. On the other hand, depending on its intensity and duration, exercise can evoke transient mild systemic inflammation and enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine release, thereby exacerbating the gastrointestinal symptoms. We discuss recent advances in the mechanism of voluntary and strenuous exercise affecting the outcome of IBD in patients and experimental animal models. PMID:27255494

  20. Elemental analysis of the frontal lobe of 'normal' brain tissue and that affected by Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Normal' brain tissue and brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease has been taken from the frontal lobe of both hemispheres and their elemental compositions in terms of major, minor and trace elements compared. Brain samples were obtained from the MRC Alzheimer's Disease Brain Bank, London. 25 samples were taken from 18 individuals (5 males and 13 females) of mean age 79.9 ± 7.3 years with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease and 26 samples from 15 individuals (8 males and 7 females) of mean age 71.8 ± 13.0 years with no pathological sings of Alzheimer's disease ('normals'). The elemental concentration of the samples were determined by the techniques of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Fe, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Cs were detected by INAA and significant differences in concentrations were found between concentrations in normal and Alzheimer tissue for the elements. Na, Cl, K, Se, Br and Rb, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Zn and Cd were detected by PIXE analysis and significant differences found for the elements P, S, Cl, K and Ca. (author)

  1. Dietary magnesium and copper affect survival time and neuroinflammation in chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy A; Spraker, Terry R; Gidlewski, Thomas; Cummings, Bruce; Hill, Dana; Kong, Qingzhong; Balachandran, Aru; VerCauteren, Kurt C; Zabel, Mark D

    2016-05-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), the only known wildlife prion disease, affects deer, elk and moose. The disease is an ongoing and expanding problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations and is difficult to control in part due to the extreme environmental persistence of prions, which can transmit disease years after initial contamination. The role of exogenous factors in CWD transmission and progression is largely unexplored. In an effort to understand the influence of environmental and dietary constituents on CWD, we collected and analyzed water and soil samples from CWD-negative and positive captive cervid facilities, as well as from wild CWD-endozootic areas. Our analysis revealed that, when compared with CWD-positive sites, CWD-negative sites had a significantly higher concentration of magnesium, and a higher magnesium/copper (Mg/Cu) ratio in the water than that from CWD-positive sites. When cevidized transgenic mice were fed a custom diet devoid of Mg and Cu and drinking water with varied Mg/Cu ratios, we found that higher Mg/Cu ratio resulted in significantly longer survival times after intracerebral CWD inoculation. We also detected reduced levels of inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mice fed a modified diet with a higher Mg/Cu ratio compared to those on a standard rodent diet. These findings indicate a role for dietary Mg and Cu in CWD pathogenesis through modulating inflammation in the brain. PMID:27216881

  2. Effect of dopamine therapy on nonverbal affect burst recognition in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Péron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD provides a model for investigating the involvement of the basal ganglia and mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the recognition of emotions from voices (i.e., emotional prosody. Although previous studies of emotional prosody recognition in PD have reported evidence of impairment, none of them compared PD patients at different stages of the disease, or ON and OFF dopamine replacement therapy, making it difficult to determine whether their impairment was due to general cognitive deterioration or to a more specific dopaminergic deficit. METHODS: We explored the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways in the recognition of nonverbal affect bursts (onomatopoeias in 15 newly diagnosed PD patients in the early stages of the disease, 15 PD patients in the advanced stages of the disease and 15 healthy controls. The early PD group was studied in two conditions: ON and OFF dopaminergic therapy. RESULTS: Results showed that the early PD patients performed more poorly in the ON condition than in the OFF one, for overall emotion recognition, as well as for the recognition of anger, disgust and fear. Additionally, for anger, the early PD ON patients performed more poorly than controls. For overall emotion recognition, both advanced PD patients and early PD ON patients performed more poorly than controls. Analysis of continuous ratings on target and nontarget visual analog scales confirmed these patterns of results, showing a systematic emotional bias in both the advanced PD and early PD ON (but not OFF patients compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results i confirm the involvement of the dopaminergic pathways and basal ganglia in emotional prosody recognition, and ii suggest a possibly deleterious effect of dopatherapy on affective abilities in the early stages of PD.

  3. Lifestyle-Related Diseases Affect Surgical Outcomes after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Yamashita, Tomoya; Kuroda, Yusuke; Ohwada, Tetsuo

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Hyperlipidemia (HL) and hypertension (HT) lead to systemic atherosclerosis. Not only atherosclerosis but also bone fragility and/or low bone mineral density result from diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to examine whether these lifestyle-related diseases affected surgical outcomes after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Methods The subjects comprised 122 consecutive patients who underwent single-level PLIF for degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The clinical results were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery and at 2 years postoperatively. The fusion status was graded as union in situ, collapsed union, or nonunion at 2 years after surgery. The abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) score was assessed using preoperative lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine. Results HL did not significantly affect the JOA score recovery rate. On the other hand, HT and CKD (stage 3 to 4) had a significant adverse effect on the recovery rate. The recovery rate was also lower in the DM group than in the non-DM group, but the difference was not significant. The AAC score was negatively correlated with the JOA score recovery rate. The fusion status was not significantly affected by HL, HT, DM, or CKD; however, the AAC score was significantly higher in the collapsed union and nonunion group than in the union in situ group. Conclusions At 2 years after PLIF, the presence of HT, CKD, and AAC was associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes, and advanced AAC significantly affected fusion status. PMID:26835195

  4. Can Horton Hear the Whos? The Importance of Scale in Mosquito-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    LORD, C. C.; ALTO, B. W.; ANDERSON, S. L.; CONNELLY, C. R.; DAY, J. F.; RICHARDS, S. L.; SMARTT, C. T.; TABACHNICK, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is determined by mechanisms and interactions at different scales of biological organization, from individual-level cellular processes to community interactions between species and with the environment. Most research, however, focuses on one scale or level with little integration between scales or levels within scales. Understanding the interactions between levels and how they influence our perception of vector-borne pathogens is critical. Here two examples of biological scales (pathogen transmission and mosquito mortality) are presented to illustrate some of the issues of scale and to explore how processes on different levels may interact to influence mosquito-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Individual variation in survival, vector competence, and other traits affect population abundance, transmission potential, and community structure. Community structure affects interactions between individuals such as competition and predation, and thus influences the individual-level dynamics and transmission potential. Modeling is a valuable tool to assess interactions between scales and how processes at different levels can affect transmission dynamics. We expand an existing model to illustrate the types of studies needed, showing that individual-level variation in viral dose acquired or needed for infection can influence the number of infectious vectors. It is critical that interactions within and among biological scales and levels of biological organization are understood for greater understanding of pathogen transmission with the ultimate goal of improving control of vector-borne pathogens. PMID:24724278

  5. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  6. The effects of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on skin and skin-related diseases: a message from the International Society of Dermatology Climate Change Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2015-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a complex climate phenomenon occurring in the Pacific Ocean at intervals of 2-7 years. The term refers to fluctuations in ocean temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño [the warm phase of ENSO] and La Niña [the cool phase of ENSO]) and in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific basin (Southern Oscillation). This weather pattern is attributed with causing climate change in certain parts of the world and is associated with disease outbreaks. The question of how ENSO affects skin and skin-related disease is relatively unanswered. We aimed to review the literature describing the effects of this complex weather pattern on skin. El Niño has been associated with increases in the occurrence of actinic keratosis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, miliaria, folliculitis, rosacea, dermatitis by Paederus irritans and Paederus sabaeus, and certain vector-borne and waterborne diseases, such as dengue fever, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, Barmah Forest virus, and leptospirosis, and with decreases in the occurrence of dermatitis, scabies, psoriasis, and papular urticaria. La Niña has been associated with increases in the occurrence of varicella, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and Ross River virus (in certain areas), and decreases in viral warts and leishmaniasis. Reports on the effects of ENSO on skin and skin-related disease are limited, and more studies could be helpful in the future.

  7. Did depressive symptoms affect recognition of emotional prosody in Parkinson’s disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vélez Feijó

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Vélez Feijó1, Carlos RM Rieder3, Márcia LF Chaves21Medical Sciences Post-Graduate Course; 2Internal Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Movement Disorders Clinic Coordinator, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilObjective: Evaluate the influence of depressive symptoms on the recognition of emotional prosody in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, and identify types of emotion on spoken sentences.Methods: Thirty-five PD patients and 65 normal participants were studied. Dementia was checked with the Mini Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and DSM IV. Recognition of emotional prosody was tested by asking subjects to listen to 12 recorded statements with neutral affective content that were read with a strong affective expression. Subjects had to recognize the correct emotion by one of four descriptors (angry, sad, cheerful, and neutral. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was employed to rate depressive symptoms with the cutoff 14.Results: Total ratings of emotions correctly recognized by participants below and above the BDI cutoff were similar among PD patients and normal individuals. PD patients who correctly identified neutral and anger inflections presented higher rates of depressive symptoms (p = 0.011 and 0.044, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the normal group.Conclusions: Depression may modify some modalities of emotional prosody perception in PD, by increasing the perception of non-pleasant emotions or lack of affection, such as anger or indifference.Keywords: emotional prosody, Parkinson’s disease, depression, emotion

  8. Clinical Factors affecting Minor Amputation in Diabetic Foot Disease at Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAKARIA, Zamzuri; AFIFI, Mustaqim; SHARIFUDIN, Mohd Ariff

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic foot disease poses a substantial problem in Malaysian diabetic population. We evaluate the clinical factors affecting minor amputation in diabetic foot disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study enrolling patients admitted to orthopaedic wards of a single tertiary hospital for diabetic foot disease was conducted. Patients who had undergone major amputation or with medical condition above the ankle joint were not included. Clinical data were collected by measurement of ankle brachial systolic index and Semmes-Weinstein 5.07 gauge monofilament test with foot clinical evaluation using King’s classification respectively. Results: The total number of patients included was 138, with mean age of 59.7 years (range 29 to 94 years old). Fifty patients (36.2%) had minor amputations. Poor compliance to diabetic treatment, King’s classification stage 5, low measures of ankle brachial systolic index, sensory neuropathy, high serum C-Reactive protein and high serum creatinine are significant predictive factors for minor amputation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Identifying these risk factors may help in prevention of minor amputation and subsequently reduce limb loss in diabetic foot. PMID:26023294

  9. NOD2 and ATG16L1 polymorphisms affect monocyte responses in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dylan M Glubb; Richard B Gearry; Murray L Barclay; Rebecca L Roberts; John Pearson; Jacqui I Keenan; Judy McKenzie; Robert W Bentley

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether polymorphisms in NOD2 and ATG16L1 affect cytokine responses and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) survival in monocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients.METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients of known genotype for common single nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD2 and ATG16L1 .Monocytes were challenged with MAP and bacterial persistence assessed at subsequent time-points. Cytokine responses were assayed using a Milliplex multi-analyte profiling assay for 13 cytokines.RESULTS: Monocytes heterozygous for a NOD2 polymorphism (R702W, P268S, or 1007fs) were more permissive for growth of MAP (P = 0.045) than those without. There was no effect of NOD2 genotype on subsequent cytokine expression. The T300A polymorphism of ATG16L1 did not affect growth of MAP in our model (P= 0.175), but did increase expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 (P = 0.047) and IL-6 (P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: CD-associated polymorphisms affected the elimination of MAP from ex vivo monocytes (NOD2 ), or expression of certain cytokines (ATG16L1 ), implying independent but contributory roles in the pathogenesis of CD.

  10. Predictive value of social inhibition and negative affectivity for cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J;

    2014-01-01

    Methodological considerations and selected null findings indicate the need to reexamine the Type D construct. We investigated whether associations with cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) involve the specific combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition...

  11. Isotope and radiation research on animal diseases and their vectors. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    To solve the world-wide problems of famine, malnutrition and environmental pollution it is imperative that all techniques and resources for the protection of animals and plants be mobilized. N'gana (animal trypansomiasis) alone profoundly affects the socio-economic development of Africa. Its vector, the tsetse fly, is widespread and prevents agricultural development over much of this continent of 7 million square kilometres. To discuss these problems the symposium was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency from 7 to 11 May 1979. It was an integral part of the IAEA and FAO's effort to promote a greater awareness of the actual and potential application of nuclear techniques in the resolution of problems in the control of arthropod vectors of animal diseases and of animal pathogens, and in pesticide management. A total of 58 participants from 19 countries attended, and 37 papers were presented, which covered a variety of topics, including the sterile insect technique as applied to tsetse flies. Several papers were presented covering its various aspects such as mass rearing, sterility induction, ecology, behavior and computer modelling. Other topics emphasized were pathogenesis and immunology of vector-borne diseases such as trypanosomiasis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and leishmaniasis. Also included were presentations of insect repellents and the biotransformation and degradation of labelled pesticides.

  12. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte; Fernanda Souza Silva; Rejane Kiyomi Furuya; Marcia Aparecida Ciol; Jeanne Marie Hoffman; Rosana Aparecida Spadoti Dantas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - ...

  13. The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease: implications for the force of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medone, Paula; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Parham, Paul E; Figuera, Andreína; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-04-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the most important vector-borne disease in Latin America. The vectors are insects belonging to the Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), and are widely distributed in the Americas. Here, we assess the implications of climatic projections for 2050 on the geographical footprint of two of the main Chagas disease vectors: Rhodnius prolixus (tropical species) and Triatoma infestans (temperate species). We estimated the epidemiological implications of current to future transitions in the climatic niche in terms of changes in the force of infection (FOI) on the rural population of two countries: Venezuela (tropical) and Argentina (temperate). The climatic projections for 2050 showed heterogeneous impact on the climatic niches of both vector species, with a decreasing trend of suitability of areas that are currently at high-to-moderate transmission risk. Consequently, climatic projections affected differently the FOI for Chagas disease in Venezuela and Argentina. Despite the heterogeneous results, our main conclusions point out a decreasing trend in the number of new cases of Tr. cruzi human infections per year between current and future conditions using a climatic niche approach. PMID:25688019

  14. Bipolar affective disorder and Parkinson's disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognized association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, A; Spissu, A; Floris, G L; Congia, S; Saddi, M V; Melis, M; Mascia, M M; Pinna, F; Tuveri, A; Solla, P; Milia, A; Giagheddu, M; Tacconi, P

    2002-09-01

    Five patients (4 women) with Parkinson's disease (PD) and primary major psychiatric disorder (PMPD) meeting DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) were studied. Four patients had early onset PD. Four developed a severe psychiatric disorder a few years after starting dopaminergic therapy in presence of a mild motor disability and a mild cognitive impairment, with no evidence of cerebral atrophy at CT or MRI. Two patients developed a clear manic episode; the other three presented a severe depressive episode (in one case featuring a Cotard syndrome). None showed previous signs of long term L-dopa treatment syndrome (LTS), hallucinosis or other minor psychiatric disorders. The two manic episodes occurred shortly after an increase of dopaminergic therapy and in one case rapid cyclic mood fluctuations were observed. At the onset of psychiatric symptoms, all patients had an unspecific diagnosis of chronic delusional hallucinatory psychosis (CDHP). PMID:12548347

  15. Susceptibility to Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes Is Not Affected in Mice Coinfected with Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Hartmann, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. PMID:26883594

  16. Positive Affect and Survival in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Findings From the Heart and Soul Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; Denollet, Johan; de Jonge, Peter; Whooley, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Positive affect can improve survival, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. We sought to evaluate the association between positive affect and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease and to determine biological and behavioral factors that might e

  17. MSH3 polymorphisms and protein levels affect CAG repeat instability in Huntington's disease mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Tomé

    Full Text Available Expansions of trinucleotide CAG/CTG repeats in somatic tissues are thought to contribute to ongoing disease progression through an affected individual's life with Huntington's disease or myotonic dystrophy. Broad ranges of repeat instability arise between individuals with expanded repeats, suggesting the existence of modifiers of repeat instability. Mice with expanded CAG/CTG repeats show variable levels of instability depending upon mouse strain. However, to date the genetic modifiers underlying these differences have not been identified. We show that in liver and striatum the R6/1 Huntington's disease (HD (CAG∼100 transgene, when present in a congenic C57BL/6J (B6 background, incurred expansion-biased repeat mutations, whereas the repeat was stable in a congenic BALB/cByJ (CBy background. Reciprocal congenic mice revealed the Msh3 gene as the determinant for the differences in repeat instability. Expansion bias was observed in congenic mice homozygous for the B6 Msh3 gene on a CBy background, while the CAG tract was stabilized in congenics homozygous for the CBy Msh3 gene on a B6 background. The CAG stabilization was as dramatic as genetic deficiency of Msh2. The B6 and CBy Msh3 genes had identical promoters but differed in coding regions and showed strikingly different protein levels. B6 MSH3 variant protein is highly expressed and associated with CAG expansions, while the CBy MSH3 variant protein is expressed at barely detectable levels, associating with CAG stability. The DHFR protein, which is divergently transcribed from a promoter shared by the Msh3 gene, did not show varied levels between mouse strains. Thus, naturally occurring MSH3 protein polymorphisms are modifiers of CAG repeat instability, likely through variable MSH3 protein stability. Since evidence supports that somatic CAG instability is a modifier and predictor of disease, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that variable levels of CAG instability associated with

  18. Social-adaptive and psychological functioning of patients affected by Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J

    2010-12-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P personality (P Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety, depression, antisocial behavior, and AD/H problems in a sampling of our male and female patients aged between 18 years and 59 years.

  19. Analysis of optical neural stimulation effects on neural networks affected by neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, M.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Salas-García, I.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    The number of people in risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease increases as the life expectancy grows due to medical advances. Multiple techniques have been developed to improve patient's condition, from pharmacological to invasive electrodes approaches, but no definite cure has yet been discovered. In this work Optical Neural Stimulation (ONS) has been studied. ONS stimulates noninvasively the outer regions of the brain, mainly the neocortex. The relationship between the stimulation parameters and the therapeutic response is not totally clear. In order to find optimal ONS parameters to treat a particular neurodegenerative disease, mathematical modeling is necessary. Neural networks models have been employed to study the neural spiking activity change induced by ONS. Healthy and pathological neocortical networks have been considered to study the required stimulation to restore the normal activity. The network consisted of a group of interconnected neurons, which were assigned 2D spatial coordinates. The optical stimulation spatial profile was assumed to be Gaussian. The stimulation effects were modeled as synaptic current increases in the affected neurons, proportional to the stimulation fluence. Pathological networks were defined as the healthy ones with some neurons being inactivated, which presented no synaptic conductance. Neurons' electrical activity was also studied in the frequency domain, focusing specially on the changes of the spectral bands corresponding to brain waves. The complete model could be used to determine the optimal ONS parameters in order to achieve the specific neural spiking patterns or the required local neural activity increase to treat particular neurodegenerative pathologies.

  20. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  1. Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome in Machado Joseph disease: core clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Neto, Pedro; Pedroso, José Luiz; Alessi, Helena; Dutra, Lívia Almeida; Felício, André Carvalho; Minett, Thaís; Weisman, Patrícia; Santos-Galduroz, Ruth F; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique F; Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas

    2012-06-01

    The cerebellum is no longer considered a purely motor control device, and convincing evidence has demonstrated its relationship to cognitive and emotional neural circuits. The aims of the present study were to establish the core cognitive features in our patient population and to determine the presence of Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome (CCAS) in this group. We recruited 38 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) or Machado–Joseph disease (MJD)-SCA3/MJD and 31 controls. Data on disease status were recorded (disease duration, age, age at onset, ataxia severity, and CAG repeat length). The severity of cerebellar symptoms was measured using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia. The neuropsychological assessment consisted of the Mini-Mental State Examination, Clock Drawing Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color–Word Test, Trail-Making Test, Verbal Paired Associates, and verbal fluency tests. All subjects were also submitted to the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. After controlling for multiple comparisons, spatial span, picture completion, symbol search, Stroop Color–Word Test, phonemic verbal fluency, and Trail-Making Tests A and B were significantly more impaired in patients with SCA3/MJD than in controls. Executive and visuospatial functions are impaired in patients with SCA3/MJD, consistent with the symptoms reported in the CCAS. We speculate on a possible role in visual cortical processing degeneration and executive dysfunction in our patients as a model to explain their main cognitive deficit. PMID:21975858

  2. Factors affecting the success of weaning in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Teke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Weaning failure rate was higher in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and many factors affect it. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors affecting the success of weaning in COPD patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV.Materials and methods: Totally 43 COPD patients who received IMV in intensive care unit were included. Clinical and laboratory results and Acute Physiology Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were recorded and affecting factors on weaning success were investigated.Results: In 43 patients, 25 had successful weaning (58.1%. Patients with high APACHE II score prior to intubation was found as associated with weaning failure. High Glasgow coma scale (GCS scores before entubation and weaning are associated with weaning success. Pre-weaning anxiety, positive endotracheal aspirate culture, pulmonary arterial pressure value, enteral feeding, pre-weaning tachycardia, pre-weaning cuff leaking and FiO2 values were found to be associated with weaning failure. Pre-weaning cortisol levels were associated with weaning success. In successful weaning group, measured NIF and VT in spontaneous mode were found as higher and f/VT ratio was lower compared with unsuccessful group. T-tube during the 15th and 30th minutes of the symptoms of fatigue (sweating assets were associated with weaning failure. IMV duration and longer extubation duration of weaning, and more number of t-tube insertion attempts were found as associated with failure of weaning.Conclusions: Infection in patients with COPD, the presence of anxiety, and hemodynamic and respiratory instability significantly increases the weaning failure.

  3. Changing patterns of wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was not to analyze the effects of global warming on wildlife disease patterns, but to serve as a springboard for future efforts to identify those wildlife diseases, including zoonotic diseases, that could be influenced the most by warming climates and to encourage the development of models to examine the potential effects. Hales et al. (1999) examined the relationship of the incidence of a vector-borne human disease, Dengue fever, and El Nino southern oscillations for South Pacific Island nations. The development of similar models on specific wildlife diseases which have environmental factors strongly associated with transmission would provide information and options for the future management of our wildlife resources.

  4. Exercise mediates the association between positive affect and 5-year mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Versteeg, Henneke; Hansen, Tina B;

    2013-01-01

    Background- Positive affect has been associated with better prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether positive affect predicted time to first cardiac-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality, and whether exercise me...... between positive affect and mortality. Interventions aimed at increasing both positive affect and exercise may have better results with respect to patients' prognosis and psychological well-being than interventions focusing on 1 of these factors alone.......Background- Positive affect has been associated with better prognosis in patients with ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether positive affect predicted time to first cardiac-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality, and whether exercise...... mediated this relationship in patients with established ischemic heart disease. Methods and Results- The sample comprised 607 patients with ischemic heart disease from Holbæk Hospital, Denmark. In 2005, patients completed the Global Mood Scale (GMS) to assess positive affect and a purpose-designed question...

  5. Spectral quality affects disease development of three pathogens on hydroponically grown plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Brown, C. S.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 micromoles m-2 s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  7. Dengue Fever: An Emerging Infectious Disease in The Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Sherrie Valarie

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever is an emerging infectious disease that is increasing in prevalence in many geographic regions, including the Caribbean. It is the most common arboviral (vector-borne) disease in the world, and infects more that 50 million people annually worldwide. The etiological agent of dengue fever is one of four serotypes of the Dengue virus (DENV1 – DENV4). The infection is transmitted via a human-mosquito-human route, when one or more species of the Aedes mosquito takes a blood meal from a...

  8. Disease Management: What Is It? Why Is It Necessary? How Will It Affect Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, Frederic D.

    2008-01-01

    How does one "manage" a disease? For most patients, it feels like the disease manages them. It effects how a person feels, their energy level, healthcare expenditures, doctor appointments, longevity and, ultimately, the individual's quality of life. However, disease management turns the tables on disease and puts patients and their physicians in…

  9. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  10. Structural brain plasticity induced by physical training in adults affected by aging or disease related impairments: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Dhondt, Evy; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Burggraeve, Lieselot; Danneels, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural brain plasticity is observed as a consequence of alterations in input/behavior or of disease. For instance aging is associated with structural decline of the brain, and structural brain alterations have been identified in certain medical pathologies. While physical exercise has a positive impact on function, health status and quality of life in those affected by disease or neurodegenerative related deteriorations, the question remains if structural plasticity of the bra...

  11. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Sawiak

    Full Text Available Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala. Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  12. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L; McLaughlan, Clive J; Bawden, C Simon; Palmer, David N; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene affects inflammatory bowel diseases risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynnette R Ferguson; Claudia Huebner; Ivonne Petermann; Richard B Gearry; Murray L Barclay; Pieter Demmers; Alan McCulloch; Dug Yeo Han

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene play in the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in a New Zealand population, in the context of international studies.METHODS: DNA samples from 388 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis (UC), 27 indeterminate colitis (IC) and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common polymorphisms in the TNF-α receptor:-238 G→A, -308 G→A and -857C→T, using a TaqmanRassay. A meta-analysis was performed on the data obtained on these polymorphisms combined with that from other published studies.RESULTS: Individuals carrying the -308 G/A allele had a significantly (OR = 1.91, x2 = 17.36, P < 0.0001)increased risk of pancolitis, and a 1.57-fold increased risk (OR = 1.57, x2 = 4.34, P = 0.037) of requiring a bowel resection in UC. Carrying the -857 C/T variantdecreased the risk of ileocolonic CD (OR = 0.56, x2 =4.32, P = 0.037), and the need for a bowel resection(OR = 0.59, x2 = 4.85, P = 0.028). The risk of UC was reduced in individuals who were smokers at diagnosis,(OR = 0.48, x2 = 4.86, P = 0.028).CONCLUSION: TNF-α is a key cytokine known to play a role in inflammatory response, and the locus for the gene is found in the IBD3 region on chromosome 6p21, known to be associated with an increased risk for IBD. The -308 G/A SNP in the TNF-α promoter is functional, and may account in part for the increased UC risk associated with the IBD3 genomic region. The-857 C/T SNP may decrease IBD risk in certain groups.Pharmaco- or nutrigenomic approaches may be desir-able for individuals with such affected genotypes.

  14. Effects of the therapist's nonverbal behavior on participation and affect of individuals with Alzheimer's disease during group music therapy sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2010-01-01

    In healthcare settings, medical professionals' nonverbal behavior impacts patients' satisfaction and long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional well-being. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a music therapist's nonverbal behavior, affect and proximity, on participation and affect of 38 individuals with Alzheimer's disease and other related dementia (ADRD) during movement-to-music, singing, and instrument playing. Data indicated 62% of the individuals evinced positive affect when the therapist utilized affect and proximity combined, followed by the affect only condition (53%), proximity only condition (30%), and no affect or proximity condition (28%). A Friedman analysis indicated a significant difference in individuals' affect according to treatment conditions, chi(r)2 (3, 4) = 34.05, p = .001. Nonverbal behavior also impacted individuals' accuracy of participation, with participation at 79% for both affect and proximity combined, 75% for affect only, 71% for no affect or proximity, and 70% for proximity only. A significant difference occurred for participation by treatment conditions, F (3, 111) = 4.05, p = .009, eta2 = .10. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21275336

  15. Identification of viral and phytoplasmal agents responsible for diseases affecting plants of Gaillardia Foug. in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillardia plants exhibiting symptoms characteristic of viral and phytoplasmal diseases were collected at botanical gardens and floriculture farms in Lithuania. Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated from diseased plants exhibiting symptoms characterized stunting, color breaking and malformation of flo...

  16. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Arvaniti, Maria; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Michalski, Dominik; Pinborg, Lars H; Härtig, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Morten S

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the α4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal gyrus from AD patients and found significantly increased PSCA levels (approximately 70%). In contrast, no changes in Lypd6 levels were detected. In concordance with our findings in AD patients, PSCA levels were increased in the frontal cortex of triple transgenic mice with an AD-like pathology harboring human transgenes that cause both age-dependent β-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display β-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting that PSCA-nAChR interactions may be involved in the cognitive dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:25680266

  17. Monoclonal antibody identification of subpopulations of cerebral cortical neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal degeneration is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the paucity of molecular markers available for the identification of neuronal subtypes, the specificity of neuronal loss within the cerebral cortex has been difficult to evaluate. With a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) applied to central nervous system tissues from AD patients, the authors have immunocytochemically identified a population of vulnerable cortical neurons; a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons is recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 in the hippocampus and neocortex, and clusters of multipolar neurons in the entorhinal cortex reactive with mAb 44.1 show selective degeneration. Closely adjacent stellate-like neurons in these regions, identified by mAb 6A2, show striking preservation in AD. The neurons recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 do not comprise a single known neurotransmitter system. mAb 3A4 identifies a phosphorylated antigen that is undetectable in normal brain but accumulates early in the course of AD in somas of vulnerable neurons. Antigen 3A4 is distinct from material reactive with thioflavin S or antibody generated against paired helical filaments. Initially, antigen 3A4 is localized to neurons in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum, later in the association neocortex, and, ultimately in cases of long duration, in primary sensory cortical regions. mAb 3F12 recognizes multiple bands of immunoblots of homogenates of normal and AD cortical tissues, whereas mAb 3A4 does not bind to immunoblots containing neurofilament proteins or brain homogenates from AD patients. Ultrastructurally, antigen 3A4 is localized to paired-helical filaments. Using these mAbs, further molecular characterization of the affected cortical neurons is now possible

  18. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  19. 9 CFR 309.2 - Livestock suspected of being diseased or affected with certain conditions; identifying suspects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the treatment period the animal upon examination is found to be free from disease, it may be released... slaughter, the operator of the official establishment or the owner of the animal shall first obtain... suspected of being affected with anasarca may be set apart and held for treatment under Program or...

  20. In Graves' disease, increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles is primarily caused by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn three patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia, while the other eye looked ahead, into the field of action, or out of the field of action of the muscle that was measured. The affected muscles we

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an effective adjunctive treatment for chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Yen-Wen; Kao, Tseng-Hui; Kao, Hsin-Kuo; Lee, Yu-Chin; Cheng, Jui-Chun; Wang, Jia-Horng

    2014-05-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States, but it is relatively rare in Taiwan. Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotic agents, but approximately 20% of these patients experience persistent or intermittent subjective symptoms, so-called chronic Lyme disease (CLD). The mechanisms of CLD remain unclear and the symptoms related to CLD are difficult to manage. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was applied in CLD therapy in the 1990s. However, reported information regarding the effectiveness of HBOT for CLD is still limited. Here, we present a patient with CLD who was successfully treated with HBOT.

  2. Are there any changes in burden and management of communicable diseases in areas affected by Cyclone Nargis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Pichit

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the situation of communicable diseases under national surveillance in the Cyclone Nargis-affected areas in Myanmar (Burma before and after the incident. Methods Monthly data during 2007, 2008 and 2009 from the routine reporting system for disease surveillance of the Myanmar Ministry of Health (MMOH were reviewed and compared with weekly reporting from the Early Warning and Rapid Response (EWAR system. Data from some UN agencies, NGOs and Tri-Partite Core Group (TCG periodic reviews were also extracted for comparisons with indicators from Sphere and the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. Results Compared to 2007 and 2009, large and atypical increases in diarrheal disease and especially dysentery cases occurred in 2008 following Cyclone Nargis. A seasonal increase in ARI reached levels higher than usual in the months of 2008 post-Nargis. The number of malaria cases post-Nargis also increased, but it was less clear if this reflected normal seasonal patterns or was specifically associated with the disaster event. There was no significant change in the occurrence of other communicable diseases in Nargis-affected areas. Except for a small decrease in mortality for diarrheal diseases and ARI in 2008 in Nargis-affected areas, population-based mortality rates for all other communicable diseases showed no significant change in 2008 in these areas, compared to 2007 and 2009. Tuberculosis control programs reached their targets of 70% case detection and 85% treatment success rates in 2007 and 2008. Vaccination coverage rates for DPT 3rd dose and measles remained at high though measles coverage still did not reach the Sphere target of 95% even by 2009. Sanitary latrine coverage in the Nargis-affected area dropped sharply to 50% in the months of 2008 following the incident but then rose to 72% in 2009. Conclusion While the incidence of diarrhea, dysentery and ARI increased post-Nargis in areas affected by the

  3. Malaria--a disease of travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Pieruń, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    The number of people travelling to regions with hot climate such as Asia, Africa and South America increases steadily every year. The reason for travel varies greatly, from business trips to tourist excursions, the latter definitely prevailing. There has been an increase in travel to destinations where exposure to vector-borne, food- and water-borne, air-borne or sexually transmitted pathogens is common. As one of vector-borne diseases, malaria poses as a serious health hazard to local as well as immigrant populations. Over 40% of the world's inhabitants live in malaria-endemic regions. Although highly developed countries of North America and Europe are generally free from endemic malaria foci, numerous cases of imported infections are observed. Some cases of malaria are also reported in Poland, they are usually brought by persons returning from tropical regions in Africa, Asia, South America, Australia and Oceania. The number of cases depends on the destination as well as on the use or rejection of chemoprophylaxis. The article provides general information on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and diagnosis of malaria. Emphasis has been put on treatment as well as on chemoprophylaxis of the disease, which are changing relatively quickly, what is mainly related to increasing Plasmodium resistance to applied medicines.

  4. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  5. Histopathology of crustose coralline algae affected by white band and white patch diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Quéré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crustose coralline algae (CCA are major benthic calcifiers that play crucial roles in marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Over the past two decades, epizootics have been reported for several CCA species on coral reefs worldwide. However, their causes remain often unknown in part because few studies have investigated CCA pathologies at a microscopic scale. We studied the cellular changes associated with two syndromes: Coralline White Band Syndrome (CWBS and Coralline White Patch Disease (CWPD from samples collected in Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Healthy-looking tissue of diseased CCA did not differ from healthy tissue of healthy CCA. In diseased tissues of both pathologies, the three characteristic cell layers of CCA revealed cells completely depleted of protoplasmic content, but presenting an intact cell wall. In addition, CWBS showed a transition area between healthy and diseased tissues consisting of cells partially deprived of protoplasmic material, most likely corresponding to the white band characterizing the disease at the macroscopic level. This transition area was absent in CWPD. Regrowth at the lesion boundary were sometimes observed in both syndromes. Tissues of both healthy and diseased CCA were colonised by diverse boring organisms. Fungal infections associated with the diseased cells were not seen. However, other bioeroders were more abundant in diseased vs healthy CCA and in diseased vs healthy-looking tissues of diseased CCA. Although their role in the pathogenesis is unclear, this suggests that disease increases CCA susceptibility to bioerosion. Further investigations using an integrated approach are needed to carry out the complete diagnosis of these diseases.

  6. Somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms among patients with heart disease: differences by sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Aparecida Marosti Dessotte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study investigated the association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with sex and age, among patients hospitalized with heart disease. METHOD: this study was a secondary analysis of two previous observational studies totaling 531 patients with heart disease, hospitalized from 2005 to 2011 in two public hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms were assessed using the subscales of the Beck Depression Inventory - I (BDI-I. RESULTS: of 531 participants, 62.7% were male, with a mean age 57.3 years (SD= 13.0 for males and 56.2 years (SD= 12.1 for females. Analyses of variance showed an effect of sex (p<0.001 for somatic and p=0.005 for cognitive-affective symptoms, but no effect of age. Women presented with higher mean values than men in both BDI-I subscales: 7.1 (4.5 vs. 5.4 (4.3 for somatic, and 8.3 (7.9 vs. 6.7 (7.2 for cognitive-affective symptoms. There were no differences by age for somatic (p=0.84 or cognitive-affective symptoms (p=0.84. CONCLUSION: women hospitalized with heart disease had more somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms than men. We found no association of somatic and cognitive-affective symptoms with age. Future research for these patients could reveal whether these differences according to sex continue throughout the rehabilitation process.

  7. A Common Polymorphism in EC-SOD Affects Cardiopulmonary Disease Risk by Altering Protein Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartney, John M.; Stidham, Timothy; Goldstrohm, David A.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Weaver, Michael R.; Valnickova-Hansen, Zuzana; Scavenius, Carsten; Benninger, Richard K.P.; Leahy, Katelyn F.; Johnson, Richard; Gally, Fabienne; Kosmider, Beata; Zimmermann, Angela K.; Enghild, Jan J.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Bowler, Russell P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD; SOD3) is a major antioxidant defense in lung and vasculature. A nonsynonomous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in EC-SOD (rs1799895) leads to an arginine to glycine (Arg->Gly) amino acid substitution at position 213 (R213G) in the heparin-binding domain (HBD). In recent human genetic association studies, this SNP attenuates the risk of lung disease, yet paradoxically increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Capitalizing on the complete sequence homology between human and mouse in the HBD, we created an analogous R213G SNP knockin mouse. The R213G SNP did not change enzyme activity, but shifted the distribution of EC-SOD from lung and vascular tissue to extracellular fluid (e.g. bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma). This shift reduces susceptibility to lung disease (lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury) and increases susceptibility to cardiopulmonary disease (chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension). Conclusions We conclude that EC-SOD provides optimal protection when localized to the compartment subjected to extracellular oxidative stress: thus, the redistribution of EC-SOD from the lung and pulmonary circulation to the extracellular fluids is beneficial in alveolar lung disease but detrimental in pulmonary vascular disease. These findings account for the discrepant risk associated with R213G in humans with lung diseases compared with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25085920

  8. Case report 438: Osteolytic phase of Paget disease affecting the ulna in case 1 and the humerus in case 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M.L.; Ackermann, L.V.; Tsutsumi, Akira

    1987-08-01

    The two cases reported here are examples of monostotic Paget disease occurring in the unusual sites of the humerus and ulna. Sinse biopsy of osteolytic Paget disease may increase the likelihood of fracture, expecially in a weight-bearing long bone, an accurate radiographic diagnosis is important. Observation of a flame-shaped front of osteolysis or other radiographic features of Paget disease may be helpful. Exacerbation of radiographic osteopenia with immobilization, and remineralization with mobilization of the affected extremity, are findings which would also support the diagnosis of Paget disease. If the patient presents with a pathological fracture, as occurred in the two cases described here, a biopsy is appropriate to help establish the diagnosis, and to exclude sarcomatous transformation. A similar histological appearance might be found in patients with hyperparathyroidism, but the absence of the appropriate serological abnormalities and the characteristic radiographic findings in other bones, should exclude that diagnosis. (orig./SHA).

  9. Factors affecting change in glomerular filtration rate after unilateral nephrectomy in living kidney donors and patients with renal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Ok; Back, So Ra; Kim, Euy Nyong; Lee, Jang Han; Yang, Won Seok; Kim, Soon Bae; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated factors affecting change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after unilateral nephrectomy in living kidney donors and patients with renal disease. We retrospectively reviewed the 435 individuals who underwent unilateral nephrectomy in 2006. Among them, we enrolled 141 patients who had performed 99mTc-DTPA scans before and after surgery. The study population consisted of 75 living donors (M=43, F=32) and 66 patients with renal disease (M=46, F=20). We evaluated factors affecting the GFR change by multiple linear regression analysis. The renal disease group was significantly older than the donors at baseline (53.9{+-}12.9 vs. 37.8{+-}11.1yr, P<0.05) and had higher preoperative Cr level (0.95{+-}0.20 vs. 0.85{+-}0.18mg/dL, p<0.05). The mean duration of the follow-up was 7.3{+-}3.3 months, (p<0.05). The disease group and donors significantly increased the GFR after nephrectomy (43.0{+-}9.6 to 48.6{+-}12.8 vs. 46.9{+-}8.4 to 58.1{+-}12.5 ml/min, respectively, P<0.05). The disease group had significantly lesser mean GFR change than the doners. (5.6{+-}7.2 vs. 11.1{+-}8.5 ml/min, respectively, p<0.05). In the renal disease group, multiple regression analysis showed that preop Cr level and age were significantly associated with GFR change ({beta} =-12.53, p=0.003; {beta} =-0.19, p=0.004). In the donor group, age was significantly associated with the GFR change ({beta} =-0.265, p=0.002). But change of GFR was not associated with sex, preop GFR, BMI, duration of follow-up, site of nephrectomy in both groups. Age and preoperative renal function were predictive factors affecting change in GFR after unilateral nephrectomy.

  10. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl S Beckley

    Full Text Available Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B

  11. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Carl S.; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Noh, Susan M.; Futse, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  12. Adaptation and Evaluation of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Model for Lyme Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Gern, Lise; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André; Hongoh, Valérie; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Milord, François; Bélanger, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Designing preventive programs relevant to vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease (LD) can be complex given the need to include multiple issues and perspectives into prioritizing public health actions. A multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) model was previously used to rank interventions for LD prevention in Quebec, Canada, where the disease is emerging. The aim of the current study was to adapt and evaluate the decision model constructed in Quebec under a different epidemiological context, in Switzerland, where LD has been endemic for the last thirty years. The model adaptation was undertaken with a group of Swiss stakeholders using a participatory approach. The PROMETHEE method was used for multi-criteria analysis. Key elements and results of the MCDA model are described and contrasted with the Quebec model. All criteria and most interventions of the MCDA model developed for LD prevention in Quebec were directly transferable to the Swiss context. Four new decision criteria were added, and the list of proposed interventions was modified. Based on the overall group ranking, interventions targeting human populations were prioritized in the Swiss model, with the top ranked action being the implementation of a large communication campaign. The addition of criteria did not significantly alter the intervention rankings, but increased the capacity of the model to discriminate between highest and lowest ranked interventions. The current study suggests that beyond the specificity of the MCDA models developed for Quebec and Switzerland, their general structure captures the fundamental and common issues that characterize the complexity of vector-borne disease prevention. These results should encourage public health organizations to adapt, use and share MCDA models as an effective and functional approach to enable the integration of multiple perspectives and considerations in the prevention and control of complex public health issues such as Lyme disease or other vector-borne

  13. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain.

  14. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain [men 59 (56.2%, women 46 (43.85%]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire for quality of life was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index. However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12 in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale. Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain.

  15. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, D; Seco, J; Echevarría, E; Tijero, B; Abecia, L C; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire for quality of life) was statistically associated with affective dimension of pain (PRIA, affective pain rating index). However, the influence of this dimension on PDQ-39 was different in the specific case of PD patients that experimented a high score (>12) in SCOPA-AUT (Scale for Outcomes in PD-Autonomic scale). Conclusions. These results confirm the effect of affective perception of pain in life quality of PD patients, indicating the critical role of autonomic symptoms in the modulation of the influence of pain on quality of life and showing the possible utility of dysautonomia as clinical prognostic indicator of quality of life in PD patients affected by pain. PMID:27239367

  16. Simulating infectious disease risk based on climatic drivers: from numerical weather prediction to long term climate change scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Ndione, J. A.; Diallo, M.; MacLeod, D.; Faye, O.; Ba, Y.; Dia, I.; Medlock, J. M.; Leach, S.; McIntyre, K. M.; Baylis, M.; Morse, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant health and socioeconomic impacts. In particular, vector born diseases are the most likely to be affected by climate; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the surrounding environmental conditions. Disease risk models of various complexities using different streams of climate forecasts as inputs have been developed within the QWeCI EU and ENHanCE ERA-NET project frameworks. This work will present two application examples, one for Africa and one for Europe. First, we focus on Rift Valley fever over sub-Saharan Africa, a zoonosis that affects domestic animals and humans by causing an acute fever. We show that the Rift Valley fever outbreak that occurred in late 2010 in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania might have been anticipated ten days in advance using the GFS numerical weather prediction system. Then, an ensemble of regional climate projections is employed to model the climatic suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito for the future over Europe. The Asian tiger mosquito is an invasive species originally from Asia which is able to transmit West Nile and Chikungunya Fever among others. This species has spread worldwide during the last decades, mainly through the shipments of goods from Asia. Different disease models are employed and inter-compared to achieve such a task. Results show that the climatic conditions over southern England, central Western Europe and the Balkans might become more suitable for the mosquito (including the proviso that the mosquito has already been introduced) to establish itself in the future.

  17. How virtual admission affects coping – telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emme, Christina; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Østergaard, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    To describe what characterises chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' coping of physical, emotional and social problems before, during and after virtual admission, in interaction with health professionals and relatives....

  18. How does disease location affect acute phase reactants in ulcerative colitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: CRP, ESR, WBC, PLT counts and albumin levels are of limited value in determining disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients, especially in those with proctitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1589-1593

  19. MR findings in acute Lyme disease affecting the knee. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report a case with primarily unspecific arthralgia after surgical therapy of hallux valgus deformity and consecutive reflex sympathetic dystrophy in which MR led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (orig.)

  20. MR findings in acute Lyme disease affecting the knee. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, A.; Harrer, T.; Richter, H.; Bautz, W.; Fellner, F.A. [Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we report a case with primarily unspecific arthralgia after surgical therapy of hallux valgus deformity and consecutive reflex sympathetic dystrophy in which MR led to the diagnosis of Lyme disease. (orig.)

  1. Identification of Cellular Genes Affecting the Infectivity of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maria E. Piccone; Feng, Yanan; Chang, Annie C. Y.; Mosseri, Ronen; Lu, Quan; Gerald F. Kutish; Lu, Zhiqiang; Burrage, Thomas G.; Gooch, Christina; Rock, Daniel L.; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces one of the most infectious of all livestock diseases, causing extensive economic loss in areas of breakout. Like other viral pathogens, FMDV recruits proteins encoded by host cell genes to accomplish the entry, replication, and release of infectious viral particles. To identify such host-encoded proteins, we employed an antisense RNA strategy and a lentivirus-based library containing approximately 40,000 human expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to rand...

  2. Factors affecting the age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, J.; Munoz, D.; Merskey, H.; HACHINSKI, V.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the role of cerebrovascular disease, sex, education, occupation, year of birth, leukoaraiosis, congophilic angiopathy, family history, and other demographic factors on the reported age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS—Analysis of data from the University of Western Ontario Dementia Study, a prospective longitudinal study of dementia patients with clinical and 6 monthly psychometric follow up to postmortem based in a univer...

  3. Identification of Novel Mutations in HEXA Gene in Children Affected with Tay Sachs Disease from India

    OpenAIRE

    Mehul Mistri; Tamhankar, Parag M; Frenny Sheth; Daksha Sanghavi; Pratima Kondurkar; Swapnil Patil; Susan Idicula-Thomas; Sarita Gupta; Jayesh Sheth

    2012-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thala...

  4. Affect work and infected bodies: biosecurity in an age of emerging infectious disease

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Major

    2008-01-01

    The movement of viruses is, in part, enabled when frontline workers straddle the sites of where illness meets health or where mobile bodies meet those that are fixed. Using the 2003 SARS outbreak in Toronto as a lens, this paper explores the neoliberalisms and managerialism that render nurses and hotel housekeepers vulnerable, then turns attention to how their affective immaterial labour was simultaneously demanded and dismissed during the outbreak. I argue the affective labour of both nurses...

  5. Affective Disorders, Psychosis and Dementia in a Community Sample of Older Men with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P.; McCaul, Kieran; Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia and affective and psychotic symptoms are commonly associated with Parkinson’s disease, but information about their prevalence and incidence in community representative samples remains sparse. Methods We recruited a community-representative sample 38173 older men aged 65–85 years in 1996 and used data linkage to ascertain the presence of PD, affective disorders, psychotic disorders and dementia. Diagnoses followed the International Classification of Disease coding system. Age was recorded in years. Follow up data were available until December 2011. Results The mean age of participants was 72.5 years and 333 men (0.9%) had PD at study entry. Affective and psychotic disorders and dementia were more frequent in men with than without PD (respective odds ratios: 6.3 [95%CI = 4.7, 8.4]; 14.2 [95%CI = 8.4, 24.0] and 18.2 [95%CI = 13.4, 24.6]). Incidence rate ratios of affective and psychotic disorders were higher among men with than without PD, although ratios decreased with increasing age. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of an affective episode associated with PD was 5.0 (95%CI = 4.2, 5.9). PD was associated with an age-adjusted HR of 8.6 (95%CI = 6.1, 12.0) for psychotic disorders and 6.1 (95%CI = 5.5, 6.8) for dementia. PD and dementia increased the HR of depressive and psychotic disorders. Conclusions PD increases the risk of affective and psychotic disorders, as well as dementia, among community dwelling older men. The risk of a recorded diagnosis of affective and psychotic disorders decreases with increasing age. PMID:27689715

  6. Drug therapies and presence of coronary artery disease may affect aortic stiffness in Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bektaş O

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Osman Bektaş,1 Zeki Yüksel Günaydin,1 Ahmet Karagöz,2 Ahmet Kaya1 1Ordu University, Department of Cardiology, Ordu, 2Giresun University, Department of Cardiology, Giresun, TurkeyWe have read the original research entitled "Altered diastolic function and aortic stiffness in Alzheimer’s disease" by Çalık et al1 which was published in the July 2014 issue of Clinical Interventions in Aging, with great interest. We would like to touch on some points about this article.View original paper by Çalık and colleagues

  7. Drug therapies and presence of coronary artery disease may affect aortic stiffness in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bektaş O; Günaydın ZY; Karagöz A; Kaya A

    2015-01-01

    Osman Bektaş,1 Zeki Yüksel Günaydin,1 Ahmet Karagöz,2 Ahmet Kaya1 1Ordu University, Department of Cardiology, Ordu, 2Giresun University, Department of Cardiology, Giresun, TurkeyWe have read the original research entitled "Altered diastolic function and aortic stiffness in Alzheimer’s disease" by Çalık et al1 which was published in the July 2014 issue of Clinical Interventions in Aging, with great interest. We would like to touch on some points about thi...

  8. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C

    2016-08-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:27525653

  9. Short-term teriparatide treatment does not affect NT-proBNP, a marker of cardiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Schwarz, Peter; Hansen, Ann Caroline;

    2012-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is seen in PHPT patients. The N-terminal fragment of the pro-peptide of Brain Natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a risk marker of CVD, has been shown to be elevated in PHPT patients, indicating that continuously high concentrations of PTH affect the heart. Therefore the aim...... of this study was to investigate whether teriparatide treatment is associated with changes in plasma NT-proBNP....

  10. Differential serologic response to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini in lambs affected with chronic respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; Lopez-Virella, J; Kaeberle, M L

    1999-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the levels of antibodies to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini in lambs with chronic respiratory disease. Sera were obtained from lambs in several flocks at various stages of the clinical disease and tested with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated M. ovipneumoniae and M. arginini whole cells and a crude capsular extract of M. ovipneumoniae as the antigens. There were low levels of antibody to M. ovipneumoniae in flocks sampled at the early stages of infection, whereas increased levels of antibody were present in lambs from flocks that had apparently recovered from the clinical disease. Slowly rising titers of circulating antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were confirmed by sequential bleeding of lambs during the course of the clinical disease. However, antibody levels of M. arginini were more likely to increase earlier in the disease process. There was significant cross-reactivity between the 2 SDS-treated antigens in both the ELISA test and western immunoblotting. In contrast, the crude capsular extract was specific for detecting antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae.

  11. Identification of seven loci affecting mean telomere length and their association with disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Veryan; Nelson, Christopher P; Albrecht, Eva; Mangino, Massimo; Deelen, Joris; Buxton, Jessica L; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Fischer, Krista; Esko, Tõnu; Surakka, Ida; Broer, Linda; Nyholt, Dale R; Mateo Leach, Irene; Salo, Perttu; Hägg, Sara; Matthews, Mary K; Palmen, Jutta; Norata, Giuseppe D; O'Reilly, Paul F; Saleheen, Danish; Amin, Najaf; Balmforth, Anthony J; Beekman, Marian; de Boer, Rudolf A; Böhringer, Stefan; Braund, Peter S; Burton, Paul R; de Craen, Anton J M; Denniff, Matthew; Dong, Yanbin; Douroudis, Konstantinos; Dubinina, Elena; Eriksson, Johan G; Garlaschelli, Katia; Guo, Dehuang; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Henders, Anjali K; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Kananen, Laura; Karssen, Lennart C; Kettunen, Johannes; Klopp, Norman; Lagou, Vasiliki; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Madden, Pamela A; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Männistö, Satu; McCarthy, Mark I; Medland, Sarah E; Mihailov, Evelin; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peters, Annette; Pollard, Helen; Pouta, Anneli; Prokopenko, Inga; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Suchiman, H Eka D; Valdes, Ana M; Verweij, Niek; Viñuela, Ana; Wang, Xiaoling; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Margaret J; Xia, Kai; Xiao, Xiangjun; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Catapano, Alberico L; Tobin, Martin D; Hall, Alistair S; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; van Gilst, Wiek H; Zhu, Haidong; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Talmud, Philippa J; Pedersen, Nancy L; Perola, Markus; Ouwehand, Willem; Kaprio, Jaakko; Martin, Nicholas G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hovatta, Iiris; Gieger, Christian; Metspalu, Andres; Boomsma, Dorret I; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Slagboom, P Eline; Thompson, John R; Spector, Tim D; van der Harst, Pim; Samani, Nilesh J

    2013-04-01

    Interindividual variation in mean leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with cancer and several age-associated diseases. We report here a genome-wide meta-analysis of 37,684 individuals with replication of selected variants in an additional 10,739 individuals. We identified seven loci, including five new loci, associated with mean LTL (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Five of the loci contain candidate genes (TERC, TERT, NAF1, OBFC1 and RTEL1) that are known to be involved in telomere biology. Lead SNPs at two loci (TERC and TERT) associate with several cancers and other diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, a genetic risk score analysis combining lead variants at all 7 loci in 22,233 coronary artery disease cases and 64,762 controls showed an association of the alleles associated with shorter LTL with increased risk of coronary artery disease (21% (95% confidence interval, 5-35%) per standard deviation in LTL, P = 0.014). Our findings support a causal role of telomere-length variation in some age-related diseases. PMID:23535734

  12. Genetic risk factors affecting mitochondrial function are associated with kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, E J; Salem, R M; Sandholm, N; Tarnow, L; Rossing, P; Lajer, M; Groop, P H; Maxwell, A P; McKnight, A J

    2015-01-01

    polymorphisms (SNPs) in nuclear genes affecting mitochondrial function were found to be associated with diabetic kidney disease. The highlighted SNPs were within the genes implicated in regulation of epigenetic processes. Further research to explore the interactions between hyperglycaemia, uraemia and epigenetic modifications of the genome could shed new light on how these nuclear genome SNPs are associated with kidney disease. PMID:25819010

  13. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-01

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas. PMID:15573951

  14. Genetic factors that affect nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic clinical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Tyler J; Besur, Siddesh; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate roles of genetic polymorphisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) onset, severity, and outcome through systematic literature review. METHODS: The authors conducted both systematic and specific searches of PubMed through December 2015 with special emphasis on more recent data (from 2012 onward) while still drawing from more historical data for background. We identified several specific genetic polymorphisms that have been most researched and, at this time, appear to have the greatest clinical significance on NAFLD and similar hepatic diseases. These were further investigated to assess their specific effects on disease onset and progression and the mechanisms by which these effects occur. RESULTS: We focus particularly on genetic polymorphisms of the following genes: PNPLA3, particularly the p. I148M variant, TM6SF2, particularly the p. E167K variant, and on variants in FTO, LIPA, IFNλ4, and iron metabolism, specifically focusing on HFE, and HMOX-1. We discuss the effect of these genetic variations and their resultant protein variants on the onset of fatty liver disease and its severity, including the effect on likelihood of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. While our principal focus is on NAFLD, we also discuss briefly effects of some of the variants on development and severity of other hepatic diseases, including hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease. These results are briefly discussed in terms of clinical application and future potential for personalized medicine. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms and genetic factors of several genes contribute to NAFLD and its end results. These genes hold keys to future improvements in diagnosis and management. PMID:27547017

  15. Impact of radiation therapy for benign diseases; Role de la radiotherapie dans les affections benignes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantor, G. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Fondation Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Van Houtte, P.; Beauvois, S.; Roelandts, M. [Institut Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Radiation therapy of benign diseases represent a wide panel of indications. Some indications are clearly identified as treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVM), hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, postoperative heterotopic bone formations or keloid scars. Some indications are under evaluation as complications induced by neo-vessels of age-related macular degeneration or coronary restenosis after angioplasty. Some indications remain controversial with poor evidence of efficiency as treatment of bursitis, tendinitis or Dupuytren`s disease. Some indications are now obsolete such as warts, or contra-indicated as treatment of infant and children. (authors)

  16. Periodontal Health and Caries Prevalence Evaluation in Patients Affected by Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cicciù

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder related to the loss or absence of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These deficits result in slowness of movement, tremor, rigidity, and dysfunction of behaviour. These symptoms negatively influence the patient’s capability to carry out the daily oral hygiene manoeuvres. The aim of this work is to record the oral health condition of PD patients evaluated at the IRCSS Bonino-Puleio in Messina. The oral health of 45 consecutive PD patients (study group with neurologic diagnosis based on United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria has been compared with that of another 45 no PD patients of the same age (control group. The evaluation of the general oral condition was recorded underlining tooth loss, active periodontal disease, and presence of untreated caries. The frequency of untreated caries, periodontal diseases, and missing teeth of the study group was significantly higher than in control group. Based on the data results, clinicians should direct high attention to the oral hygiene of patients with PD, above all at the early stages of the caries or periodontal disease, in order to prevent serious evolution of those pathologic dental conditions that may finally result in the tooth extraction event.

  17. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertius Abraham Kohn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB (n = 9 or Vastus lateralis (VL (n = 8 were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10. All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%. Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%. In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients.

  18. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Mikkelsen, Jens D.; Arvaniti, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes...

  19. McArdle disease does not affect skeletal muscle fibre type profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Tertius Abraham; Noakes, Timothy David; Rae, Dale Elizabeth; Rubio, Juan Carlos; Santalla, Alfredo; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Pinós, Tomas; Martín, Miguel A; Arenas, Joaquin; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from glycogen storage disease V (McArdle disease) were shown to have higher surface electrical activity in their skeletal muscles when exercising at the same intensity as their healthy counterparts, indicating more muscle fibre recruitment. To explain this phenomenon, this study investigated whether muscle fibre type is shifted towards a predominance in type I fibres as a consequence of the disease. Muscle biopsies from the Biceps brachii (BB) (n = 9) or Vastus lateralis (VL) (n = 8) were collected over a 13-year period from male and female patients diagnosed with McArdle disease, analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content using SDS-PAGE, and compared to healthy controls (BB: n = 3; VL: n = 10). All three isoforms were expressed and no difference in isoform expression in VL was found between the McArdle patients and healthy controls (MHC I: 33±19% vs. 43±7%; MHC IIa: 52±9% vs. 40±7%; MHC IIx: 15±18% vs. 17±9%). Similarly, the BB isoform content was also not different between the two groups (MHC I: 33±14% vs. 30±11%; MHC IIa: 46±17% vs. 39±5%; MHC IIx: 21±13% vs. 31±14%). In conclusion, fibre type distribution does not seem to explain the higher surface EMG in McArdle patients. Future studies need to investigate muscle fibre size and contractility of McArdle patients. PMID:25432515

  20. In Utero Cigarette Smoke Affects Allergic Airway Disease But Does Not Alter the Lung Methylome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Prenatal and postnatal cigarette smoke exposure enhances the risk of developing asthma. Despite this as well as other smoking related risks, 11% of women still smoke during pregnancy. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal development generates long lasting differential methylation altering transcriptional activity that correlates with disease. In a house dust mite (HDM model of allergic airway disease, we measured airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and airway inflammation between mice exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (CS or filtered air (FA. DNA methylation and gene expression were then measured in lung tissue. We demonstrate that HDM-treated CS mice develop a more severe allergic airway disease compared to HDM-treated FA mice including increased AHR and airway inflammation. While DNA methylation changes between the two HDM-treated groups failed to reach genome-wide significance, 99 DMRs had an uncorrected p-value < 0.001. 6 of these 99 DMRs were selected for validation, based on the immune function of adjacent genes, and only 2 of the 6 DMRs confirmed the bisulfite sequencing data. Additionally, genes near these 6 DMRs (Lif, Il27ra, Tle4, Ptk7, Nfatc2, and Runx3 are differentially expressed between HDM-treated CS mice and HDM-treated FA mice. Our findings confirm that prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is sufficient to modify allergic airway disease; however, it is unlikely that specific methylation changes account for the exposure-response relationship. These findings highlight the important role in utero cigarette smoke exposure plays in the development of allergic airway disease.

  1. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of 1995-1997 and 2008-2010. Demonstration Pond was comprised of mature fine tailings capped with natural surface water, while South Bison Pond was formed at a site surrounded by overburden or lean oil sands. Disease surveys were conducted at these experimental ponds and also at Mildred, Sucker, and Kimowin Lakes. External white nodular lesions, characteristic of lymphocystis disease were observed on perch at all sites except Kimowin Lake. The identity of the virus was confirmed by DNA extraction and PCR with genotype generic major capsid protein gene primers. The presence of lymphocystis disease virus in perch was confirmed through sequencing of PCR results. The viral genotype appeared to be different from any previously isolated viral genotype. During the course of the study, there was an increasing incidence of the disease at Demonstration Pond and a decreasing incidence at the South Bison Pond. The intensity of the disease was found to be proportional to the incidence, which was positively correlated with changes in naphthenic acid concentration.

  2. Immunosuppression Adversely Affects TST but Not IGRAs in Patients with Psoriasis or Inflammatory Musculoskeletal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Tavast

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs and tuberculin skin test (TST was reviewed retrospectively in patients with psoriasis, inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases, or miscellaneous inflammatory conditions. The study was carried out over a 22-month period using 109 records of patients with psoriasis (=21, musculoskeletal disease (=74, or other inflammatory conditions (=14. Forty-four (48% of 109 patients were on immunosuppressive therapy and 38/109 (35% on systemic glucocorticoid therapy. The agreement between the IGRAs was substantial (=0.71 whilst that between the IGRAs and TST was low (=0.32. Logistic regression models revealed that IGRAs associated with risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection better than TST. TST was influenced by age, BCG vaccination, sex, and glucocorticoid therapy. We found that IGRAs performed equally well with low level of indeterminate results (1-2%. IGRAs were superior to TST because the latter was influenced by BCG-vaccination status and immunosuppressive therapy.

  3. MICA∗078: A novel allele identified in a Moroccan individual affected by celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piancatelli, Daniela; Oumhani, Khadija; Benelbarhdadi, Imane; Del Beato, Tiziana; Colanardi, Alessia; Sebastiani, Pierluigi; Tessitore, Alessandra; El Aouad, Rajae; Essaid, Abdellah

    2015-06-01

    A novel MICA allele, MICA(∗)078, has been identified during HLA/MICA high resolution typing of Moroccan patients with celiac disease. MICA(∗)078 shows an uncommon variation at a highly conserved nucleotide position (nt 493, G → A), resulting in one amino acid change at codon 142 (V → I) of MICA gene (compared to MICA(∗)002:01), located in the α2-domain, in which V142 is the common residue.

  4. Dopaminergic therapy affects learning and impulsivity in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nole M. Hiebert; Seergobin, Ken N.; Vo, Andrew; Ganjavi, Hooman; MacDonald, Penny A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim was to examine the effect of dopaminergic medication on stimulus-response learning versus performing decisions based on learning. Method To see the effect of dopaminergic therapy on stimulus-response learning and response selection, participants with Parkinson’s disease (PD) were either tested on and/or off their prescribed dose of dopaminergic therapy during different testing days. Forty participants with PD and 34 healthy controls completed the experiment on consecutive da...

  5. Dopamine Does Not Appear to Affect Mental Rotation in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crucian, Gregory P.; Sheyan Armaghani; Avan Armaghani; Foster, Paul S.; Burks, David W.; Barry Skoblar; Valeria Drago; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often have deficits with mental rotation (MR). The neuropathological factors underlying these deficits, however, remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that dopamine depletion in nigro-striatal systems adversely influences MR. Another hypothesis suggests that deterioration of cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal basal ganglia) networks that mediate this function are responsible for this deficit. The goal of this study was to test the dop...

  6. The effect of cognitive status and visuospatial performance on affective theory of mind in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    McKinlay A; Albicini M; Kavanagh PS

    2013-01-01

    Audrey McKinlay,1,2 Michelle Albicini,2 Phillip S Kavanagh31Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; 2Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University Clayton, VIC, Australia; 3School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, ADL, AustraliaAbstract: It is now well accepted that theory of mind (ToM) functioning is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, what remain unknown are the functions t...

  7. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases

  8. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  9. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  10. ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

    2014-11-01

    Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders.

  11. Factors Affecting Changes in the Glomerular Filtration Rate after Unilateral Nephrectomy in Living Kidney Donors and Patients with Renal Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye Ok; Chae, Sun Young; Back, Sora; Moon, Dae Hyuk [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We evaluated the factors affecting changes in the postoperative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after unilateral nephrectomy in living kidney donors and patients with renal disease. We studied 141 subjects who underwent living donor nephrectomy for renal transplantation (n=75) or unilateral nephrectomy for renal diseases (n=66). The GFR of the individual kidney was determined by Tc-99m DTPA scintigraphy before and after nephrectomy. By performing multiple linear regression analysis, we evaluated the factors that are thought to affect changes in GFR, such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI), preoperative GFR, preoperative creatinine level, operated side, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), presence of hypertension (HTN), and duration of follow-up. In both the donor nephrectomy and the disease nephrectomy groups, GFR increased significantly after nephrectomy (46.9{+-}8.4 to 58.1{+-}12.5 vs. 43.0{+-}9.6 to 48.6{+-}12.8 ml/min, p<0.05). In the donor nephrectomy group, age was significantly associated with change in GFR ({beta}=-0.3, P<0.005). In the disease nephrectomy group, HTN, preoperative creatinine level, and age were significantly associated with change in GFR ({beta}=-6.2, p<0.005; {beta}=-10.9, p<0.01; {beta}=-0.2, p<0.01, respectively). This compensatory change in GFR was not significantly related to sex, duration of follow-up, or operated side in either group. The compensatory change in the GFR of the remaining kidney declined with increasing age in both living kidney donors and patients with renal disease.

  12. A genome-screen experiment to detect quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to facial eczema disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, S H; Dodds, K G; Morris, C A; Henry, H M; Beattie, A E; Garmonsway, H G; Towers, N R; Crawford, A M

    2009-02-01

    Facial eczema (FE) is a secondary photosensitization disease arising from liver cirrhosis caused by the mycotoxin sporidesmin. The disease affects sheep, cattle, deer and goats, and costs the New Zealand sheep industry alone an estimated NZ$63M annually. A long-term sustainable solution to this century-old FE problem is to breed for disease-resistant animals by marker-assisted selection. As a step towards finding a diagnostic DNA test for FE sensitivity, we have conducted a genome-scan experiment to screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting this trait in Romney sheep. Four F(1) sires, obtained from reciprocal matings of FE resistant and susceptible selection-line animals, were used to generate four outcross families. The resulting half-sib progeny were artificially challenged with sporidesmin to phenotype their FE traits measured in terms of their serum levels of liver-specific enzymes, namely gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase. In a primary screen using selective genotyping on extreme progeny of each family, a total of 244 DNA markers uniformly distributed over all 26 ovine autosomes (with an autosomal genome coverage of 79-91%) were tested for linkage to the FE traits. Data were analysed using Haley-Knott regression. The primary screen detected one significant and one suggestive QTL on chromosomes 3 and 8 respectively. Both the significant and suggestive QTL were followed up in a secondary screen where all progeny were genotyped and analysed; the QTL on chromosome 3 was significant in this analysis.

  13. Stigma associated with onchocercal skin disease among those affected near the Ofiki and Oyan Rivers in western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Oshiname, F O; Ososanya, O O

    1998-10-01

    Skin diseases have been a major source of social stigma, whether they be infectious or not. The potential stigamtizing effect of skin disease associated with onchocerciasis is currently receiving attention because half of the 17 million victims of onchocerciasis in Africa live where the non-blinding form of the disease is prevalent. Some reports are available that onchocercal skin disease (OSD) is associated with social stigma including problems in finding a marriage partner. Previous studies have also implied positive effects of ivermectin treatment on OSD. Therefore a multi-country trial of ivermectin is underway to test the hypothesis that ivermectin treatment might affect perceptions of stigma associated with OSD. This paper presents the baseline stigma findings from the study site located in southwestern Nigeria. A total of 1032 persons living in villages near the Ofiki and Oyan Rivers were screened and interviewed and 500 (48%) were found to have an onchocercal skin lesion. A 13-item, 39-point stigma scale was used in interviews with affected persons. A mean score of 16.8 was obtained. No personal characteristics or disease factors were found to be associated with stigma score. The highest ranking items focused on issues of self-esteem such as feeling embarrassed, feelings of being pitied, thinking less of oneself, feeling that scratching annoys others, feeling that others thought less of the person and feeling that others had avoided the person. During the interviews it was discovered that only about half of those clinically diagnosed as having OSD labeled their own condition as onchocerciasis. Those who said their lesion was OSD had a lower stigma score than those who did not, conforming with previous studies wherein affected persons perceived less stigma from OSD than those without the disease. A broader community perspective on OSD was obtained through 50 interviews using paired comparisons of five skin-related local illnesses. Onchocerciasis placed

  14. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  15. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea046 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying HTT gene CAG expansion of 45 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 92% Oct4, 75% Tra1–60 and 99% SSEA4 and demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  16. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea091 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea091 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 40 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 92% of cells expressed Nanog, 97% Oct4, 79% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 38.36, Novelty of 1.35. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  17. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea089 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea089 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 41 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 91% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 90% Tra1–60 and 100% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 39.28, Novelty of 1.2. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  18. Entomological factors affecting the low endemicity of Chagas disease in Nazca, Southwestern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Esquivel, Claudia; Lecaros, Emilio; Aguliar-Rosales, Mauro; Acosta, Hilda Solis; Castellanos, Pedro

    2010-05-01

    Chagas disease is prevalent in Peru. The province of Nazca, in the southwestern region of the country, shows a high intradomiciliary infestation rate of Triatoma infestans bugs. Although the vector is present, the number of Chagas disease cases appears to be much lower than those reported in the neighboring region of Arequipa. We examined 624 T. infestans from Nazca to determine the current Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates, and found that no bugs were infected with this parasite. These results contrast with those found in Arequipa, where 19-30% triatomines have been reported infected. To compare their vectorial capacity, we infected 30 T. infestans specimens, selected both from Nazca and Arequipa, by feeding bugs on T. cruzi-infected mice. The parasites developed all stages expected in the vector; furthermore, the infective stage, metacyclic trypomastigote, was found in both insect populations from the second week after infection. In addition, those insects that accepted to be fed with mice blood defecated immediately after finishing blood meal, indicating that they might be efficient vectors. We maintain that differences observed in infection rates between vectors from Nazca and Arequipa may be explained by differences in host availability. In Arequipa hosts are mainly small animals, whereas in Nazca the main blood source comes from birds, which are refractory to the infection.

  19. Analysis of factors affecting the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It is a retrospective study designed to evaluate the early therapeutic outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and determine whether the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyreo-stasis, therapeutic dosage, 131I uptake, age, sex, and absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. Methods: One year after treatment, 342 patients were divided into two groups according to whether there was hypothyroidism, t test and x2 test were used to compare the variable parameters between the two groups. Results: 92.1% were cured with a single dose of 131I, and 21.2% contracted hypothyroidism at 12 months after treatment. The outcome of treatment at 12 months depended on the volume of thyroid and the absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. And pretreatment with thyreo-stasis did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of 131I in hyperthyroidism if antithyroid drugs were discontinued at least 3 days before 131I treatment. Conclusions: Since most hypothyroidism occurred in patients whose thyroid volume is small, appropriate reduction of target dose is recommended here for those patients

  20. Do malignant diseases affect semen quality? Sperm parameters of men with cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponecchia, L; Cimino, G; Sacchetto, R; Fiori, C; Sebastianelli, A; Salacone, P; Marcucci, I; Tomassini, S; Rago, R

    2016-04-01

    The advent of modern treatments together with the improvement of the surgical techniques has significantly increased 5-year survival rates of young patients with cancer. Although the deleterious effects of chemotherapy and radiation are well documented, controversies exist about the effect of cancer itself on semen parameters before treatment. We collected data on 236 patients representative of different types of cancers reoffered at our institution for sperm cryopreservation with the aim to correlate the pre-freeze semen parameters with type of cancer, disease stage and with semen quality of 102 fertile and healthy men. The median baseline semen parameters of all our patients with cancer are placed above the 5th percentile of the World Health Organization reference value, but the type of cancer may impact the sperm parameters. In testicular tumours and in Hodgkin lymphoma, we show a semen concentration statistically lower than in the fertile population, while in patients with other cancers, there is no difference with the healthy men. We found no correlation between semen quality and disease stage. Eighty-six per cent of our patients do not have children at the time of semen cryopreservation, and the only established clinical option for preserving fertility of these men is cryopreservation of spermatozoa. PMID:26173956

  1. Toll-like receptor 7 affects the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sokho; Park, Surim; Kim, Bumseok; Kwon, Jungkee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a possible link between toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and liver disease was suggested, although it was limited to fibrosis. Based on this report, we investigated whether TLR7 has a pivotal role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The TLR7 signaling pathway, which is activated by imiquimod (TLR7 ligand) naturally, induced autophagy and released insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) into medium from hepatocytes. Lipid accumulation induced by unsaturated fatty acid (UFA; arachidonic acid:oleic acid = 1:1) in hepatocytes, was attenuated in TLR7 and autophagy activation. Interestingly, TLR7 activation attenuated UFA-induced lipid peroxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal (4-HNE). To clarify a possible pathway between TLR7 and lipid peroxidation, we treated hepatocytes with MDA and 4-HNE. MDA and 4-HNE induced 2-folds lipid accumulation in UFA-treated hepatocytes via blockade of the TLR7 signaling pathway’s IGF-1 release compared to only UFA-treated hepatocytes. In vivo experiments carried out with TLR7 knockout mice produced results consistent with in vitro experiments. In conclusion, TLR7 prevents progression of NAFLD via induced autophagy and released IGF-1 from liver. These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27279075

  2. Prevalence and factors affecting occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singal Ashwani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2 is more common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD in general and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in particular. We aimed to determine the prevalence and factors affecting the occurrence of DM-2 in Saudi patients with CLD. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study at the King Fahd Central Hospital (KFCH, Gizan, Saudi Arabia. A total of 277 patients with either cirrhosis (CH or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC were analyzed for patient demographics, severity of liver disease, HBsAg, and anti-HCV, associated diseases including DM-2, and presence of HCC. The prevalence of DM-2 was also estimated in 400 age- and sex-matched Saudi patients admitted for various nonliver diseases (control group. Chi-square test, univariate analysis, and multivariate regression. Results: Prevalence of DM-2 in patients with CH was higher than in controls (19.2 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.001. Although those with HCC had a higher prevalence, the difference was not significant (10.9 vs. 9.2%; P = 0.5. Seventy-six percent of patients with HCC had associated CH. On multivariate analysis, age and hypertension were more common in diabetics. Although patients with HCV-related disease had a higher prevalence of DM-2 compared to HBV-related disease, the difference was not significant (26.3 vs. 15.7%; P > 0.05. Conclusions: DM-2 occurred more frequently in CLD patients, particularly in cirrhotics. Age and hypertension predicted the occurrence of DM-2. Small sample size of patients with HCV-related CH probably precluded higher prevalence of DM-2 in them.

  3. Multi-micronucleus cells related with viral diseases, detected in the study of children affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells with multiple chromosome aberrations have been observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Different explanation have proposed, included hot particle induction in persons related to the Chernobyl accident. The frequency of chromosome aberration and micronuclei were established in 14 Ukrainian children with different hematological disorders. They arrived in Cuba thanks to the program by means of which medical attention is offered to children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At least 500 metaphases and bi-nucleate cells were analyzed in each case. The detection of 4 cells with 7-11 micronuclei in a 14 year old boy with cat scratch disease was the most significant cytogenetical finding. The viral origin of the cat scratch disease has been reported, this suggested a viral etiology of the cells with multiple micronuclei. No rogue cells were detected. Cells with multiple micronuclei or rogue cells were not found in other patients from this group. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Not all sounds sound the same: Parkinson's disease affects differently emotion processing in music and in speech prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Garrett, Carolina; Castro, São Luís

    2013-01-01

    Does emotion processing in music and speech prosody recruit common neurocognitive mechanisms? To examine this question, we implemented a cross-domain comparative design in Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-four patients and 25 controls performed emotion recognition tasks for music and spoken sentences. In music, patients had impaired recognition of happiness and peacefulness, and intact recognition of sadness and fear; this pattern was independent of general cognitive and perceptual abilities. In speech, patients had a small global impairment, which was significantly mediated by executive dysfunction. Hence, PD affected differently musical and prosodic emotions. This dissociation indicates that the mechanisms underlying the two domains are partly independent.

  5. Dysautonomia Differentially Influences the Effect of Affective Pain Perception on Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rada, D.; Seco, J.; Echevarría, E.; B. Tijero; Abecia, L. C.; J. C. Gómez-Esteban

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our aim was to evaluate the real effect of dysautonomic symptoms on the influence of affective pain perception on quality of life in PD patients. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was carried out using 105 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients of the Movement Disorders Unit, Hospital de Cruces (Bilbao, Spain) [men 59 (56.2%), women 46 (43.85%)]. Statistical analysis was made in order to evaluate the possible association of pain with life quality. Results. Quality of life...

  6. Factors affecting illness in the developing world: chronic disease, mental health and traditional medicine cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthit, Nathan T; Astatk, Hailemariam Alemu

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 24-year-old Ethiopian woman with a medical history of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. She suffers from chronic liver failure and portal hypertension. She has been hospitalised for 'hysteria' in the past but did not receive follow-up, outpatient treatment or psychiatric evaluation. After discontinuing her medications and leaving her family to use holy water, a religious medicine used by many Ethiopians, she was found at a nearby monastery. She was non-communicative and difficult to arouse. The patient was rushed to nearby University of Gondar Hospital where she received treatment for hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Her illness is the result of neglected tropical disease, reliance on traditional medicine as opposed to biomedical services and the poor state of psychiatric care in the developing world. PMID:27485874

  7. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea017 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea017 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 40 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, genetic analysis confirmed a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 87% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 88% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, gave a PluriTest pluripotency score of 34.74, novelty of 1.27, demonstrated alkaline phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  8. Derivation of Huntington Disease affected Genea018 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, carrying Htt gene CAG expansion of 46 repeats, indicative of Huntington Disease. Following ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders, karyotype was confirmed as 46, XX by CGH and STR analysis demonstrated a female Allele pattern. The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 75% of cells expressed Nanog, 91% Oct4, 73% Tra1-60 and 96% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest pluripotency score of 31.12, Novelty of 1.45, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  9. El Portal Latino Alzheimer's Project: model program for Latino caregivers of Alzheimer's disease-affected people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Maria P; Villa, Valentine M; Trejo, Laura; Ramírez, Rosa; Ranney, Martha

    2003-04-01

    The article describes the El Portal Latino Alzheimer's Project--a dementia-specific outreach and services program targeting Latino caregivers in the Los Angeles County area. The project is an example of an interorganizational community-based collaborative developed to provide an array of coordinated, ethnic-sensitive services to Latino dementia-affected adults and their family caregivers, using culturally specific outreach and services delivery strategies. Results of an evaluation of service utilization indicate a reduction in barriers to care and an increase in services utilization. Los Angeles County provides a natural urban laboratory to study the special needs and circumstances of older Latinos dealing with chronic and debilitating illnesses. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  10. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Extraembryonic Tissues of Fetuses Affected by Monogenic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalieri, Paola; Talarico, Rosa V; Botta, Annalisa; Murdocca, Michela; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Orlandi, Augusto; Giardina, Emiliano; Santoro, Massimo; Brancati, Francesco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Sangiuolo, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from an autologous extraembryonic fetal source is an innovative personalized regenerative technology that can transform own-self cells into embryonic stem-like ones. These cells are regarded as a promising candidate for cell-based therapy, as well as an ideal target for disease modeling and drug discovery. Thus, hiPSCs enable researchers to undertake studies for treating diseases or for future applications of in utero therapy. We used a polycistronic lentiviral vector (hSTEMCCA-loxP) encoding OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC genes and containing loxP sites, excisible by Cre recombinase, to reprogram patient-specific fetal cells derived from prenatal diagnosis for several genetic disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), β-thalassemia (β-Thal), lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LDS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), cystic fibrosis (CF), as well as from wild-type (WT) fetal cells. Because cell types tested to create hiPSCs influence both the reprogramming process efficiency and the kinetics, we used chorionic villus (CV) and amniotic fluid (AF) cells, demonstrating how they represent an ideal cell resource for a more efficient generation of hiPSCs. The successful reprogramming of both CV and AF cells into hiPSCs was confirmed by specific morphological, molecular, and immunocytochemical markers and also by their teratogenic potential when inoculated in vivo. We further demonstrated the stability of reprogrammed cells over 10 and more passages and their capability to differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers, as well as into neural cells. These data suggest that hiPSCs-CV/AF can be considered a valid cellular model to accomplish pathogenesis studies and therapeutic applications. PMID:26474030

  11. TREM-1 deficiency can attenuate disease severity without affecting pathogen clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1 is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune reactions. While TREM-1-amplified responses likely aid an improved detection and elimination of pathogens, excessive production of cytokines and oxygen radicals can also severely harm the host. Studies addressing the pathogenic role of TREM-1 during endotoxin-induced shock or microbial sepsis have so far mostly relied on the administration of TREM-1 fusion proteins or peptides representing part of the extracellular domain of TREM-1. However, binding of these agents to the yet unidentified TREM-1 ligand could also impact signaling through alternative receptors. More importantly, controversial results have been obtained regarding the requirement of TREM-1 for microbial control. To unambiguously investigate the role of TREM-1 in homeostasis and disease, we have generated mice deficient in Trem1. Trem1(-/- mice are viable, fertile and show no altered hematopoietic compartment. In CD4(+ T cell- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced models of colitis, Trem1(-/- mice displayed significantly attenuated disease that was associated with reduced inflammatory infiltrates and diminished expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Trem1(-/- mice also exhibited reduced neutrophilic infiltration and decreased lesion size upon infection with Leishmania major. Furthermore, reduced morbidity was observed for influenza virus-infected Trem1(-/- mice. Importantly, while immune-associated pathologies were significantly reduced, Trem1(-/- mice were equally capable of controlling infections with L. major, influenza virus, but also Legionella pneumophila as Trem1(+/+ controls. Our results not only demonstrate an unanticipated pathogenic impact of TREM-1 during a viral and parasitic infection, but also indicate that therapeutic blocking of TREM-1 in distinct inflammatory disorders holds considerable promise by blunting excessive inflammation while preserving the

  12. Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul Mistri

    Full Text Available Tay Sachs disease (TSD is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients. Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K, c.964 G>A (p.D322N, c.964 G>T (p.D322Y, c.1178C>G (p.R393P and c.1385A>T (p.E462V, c.1432 G>A (p.G478R and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W. The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V.

  13. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Dopamine Does Not Appear to Affect Mental Rotation in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Crucian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD often have deficits with mental rotation (MR. The neuropathological factors underlying these deficits, however, remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that dopamine depletion in nigro-striatal systems adversely influences MR. Another hypothesis suggests that deterioration of cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal basal ganglia networks that mediate this function are responsible for this deficit. The goal of this study was to test the dopamine hypothesis by determining if dopamine abstinence negatively influences MR performance. MethodsThirty three non-demented right-handed individuals with PD were assess for their ability to perform a pencil and paper MR test while “on” and “off” dopaminergic medications. Dopamine abstinence followed the typical overnight withdrawal procedures. ResultsNo differences in mental rotation abilities were found between “on” and “off” dopaminergic medications. ConclusionsThese results suggest that other neuropathological factors, such as cortical-basal ganglia neurodegeneration, or dysfunction of other neurotransmitters systems, might account for these cognitive deficits and future research will have to test these alternative hypotheses.

  15. The distribution of parasite strains among hosts affects disease spread in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Yuko; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Social insects present highly interesting and experimentally amenable systems for the study of disease transmission because they naturally live in dense groups of frequently interacting individuals. Using experimental inoculations of five trypanosomatid strains into groups of its natural host, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, we investigate the effects of the initial parasite strain distribution across group members on the establishment and transmission success of the different strains to new hosts. For a given number of parasite strains circulating within a host group, transmission to new hosts was increased when the strains were initially inoculated as mixed infections (as opposed to separate single infections), presumably because mixed infections generally favored fast replicating strains. In contrast, separate single infections reduced transmission at least in part through a precedence effect, whereby weak strains appeared to persist by making their host unavailable to superinfection. These results suggest that host groups could benefit from 'compartmentalizing' infections by different parasite strains across different group members, which might be achieved in social insects, for example, by division of labor. PMID:25858120

  16. Heterozygous nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 mutations affect monocyte maturation in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of monocytes in Crohn's disease (CD) patients and to correlate this with diseaseassociated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) gene variants.METHODS: Monocytes from 47 consecutively referred CD patients and 9 healthy blood donors were cultured with interleukin (IL)-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or muramyldipeptide (MDP), the putative ligand of NOD2.RESULTS: We found that monocytes from CD patients differentiated in vitro to mature dendritic cells (DCs), as determined by immunophenotype and morphology.NOD2 genotype was assessed in all subjects, and we observed high CD86 expression on immature and LPS-stimulated DCs in NOD2 mutated CD patients, as compared with wtNOD2 CD patients and controls. By contrast, CD86 expression levels of DCs induced to maturity with MDP derived from NOD2-mutated subjects were comparable to those of normal subjects. The amount of IL-12p70 in patient-cell cultures was larger than in controls after LPS treatment, but not after treatment with MDP.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that DCs obtained from patients with mutations in the NOD2 gene display an activated phenotype characterized by high CD86 expression, but have a diminished response to MDP when compared to the terminal differentiation phase. We speculate that the altered differentiation of monocytes might lead to an imbalance between inflammation and the killing ability of monocytes, and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of CD.

  17. SIRT1 gene polymorphisms affect the protein expression in cardiovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkan Kilic

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, the leading cause of death worldwide, is related to gene-environment interactions due to epigenetic factors. SIRT1 protein and its downstream pathways are critical for both normal homeostasis and protection from CVD-induced defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SIRT1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs7895833 A>G in the promoter region, rs7069102 C>G in intron 4 and rs2273773 C>T in exon 5 silent mutation and SIRT1 and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression as well as total antioxidant status (TAS, total oxidant status (TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI in CVD patients as compared to controls. The frequencies of mutant genotypes and alleles for rs7069102 and rs2273773 were significantly higher in patients with CVD compared to control group. The risk for CVD was increased by 2.4 times for rs7069102 and 1.9 times for rs2273773 in carriers of mutant allele compared with carriers of wild-type allele pointing the protective role of C allele for both SNPs against CVD. For rs7895833, there was no significant difference in genotype and allele distributions between groups. SIRT1 protein, TAS, TOS and OSI levels significantly increased in patients as compared to control group. In contrast, level of eNOS protein was considerably low in the CVD patients. An increase in the SIRT1 expression in the CVD patients carrying mutant genotype for rs7069102 and heterozygote genotype for all three SNPs was observed. This is the first study reporting an association between SIRT1 gene polymorphisms and the levels of SIRT1 and eNOS expressions as well as TAS, TOS and OSI.

  18. Expression of the CD44 Protein in the Heart Valves Affected with Rheumatic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The primary aim was to study the expression of CD44 protein in the heart valves removed surgically for either stenosis or regurgitation and to study the morphology of valves using histochemical staining. Approach: We studied 107 valves which were collected from the International Centre for Cardio Thoracic and Vascular Diseases. Results: Aortic and mitral valves were obtained from the centre and processed in research pathology lab. CD44 protein is a receptor for the ligand hyaluronic acid which causes inflammation in the heart valves. A total of 107 valves were studied. Of the 61 mitral valves studied 38 (62.2% showed CD44 positivity as brownish granules within the cytoplasm. Of the 46 aortic valves studied 19 (41.3% showed CD44 positivity as brownish granules within the cytoplasm. The valves showed evidence of past inflammation showing thick and thin walled blood vessels and lymphocytes. CD44 protein increased in 62.2% of mitral valves, of which 60.5% were from patients presenting when they were less than 40 years old. CD44 protein increased in 41.3% of aortic valves, of which 63.15% were from patients presenting when they were less than 40 years old. CD44 positivity was seen in 57 valves as brownish granules within the cytoplasm of the cell. CD44 protein increased in 53.27% of mitral and aortic valves, of which 63.15% were from the males patients. CD44 protein increased in 53.27% of mitral and aortic valves, of which 36.84% were from the females patients. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed CD44 is over expressed in the heart valves removed surgically for stenosis or regurgitation where the hyaluronic acid content is high.

  19. Meteorological factors affect the hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic in Qingdao, China, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F C; Yang, F; Chen, L; Jia, J; Han, Y L; Hao, B; Cao, G W

    2016-08-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused public health concerns worldwide. We aimed to investigate the effect of meteorological factors on the HFMD epidemic in Qingdao, a port city in China. A total of 78641 cases were reported in Qingdao between January 2007 and December 2014. Of those, 71084 (90·39%) occurred in children aged 0-5 years, with an incidence of 1691·2/100000. The incidence increased from early spring, peaked between spring and summer, and decreased in late summer. Aetiological agents in all severe cases and selected mild cases were characterized by examining throat swabs. Except for enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), other EVs caused >50% of the HFMD cases between 2011 and 2014. EV71 was more frequent in the off-peak months than in the peak months and prone to causing more severe cases compared to CA16 (χ 2 = 46·3, P < 0·001). CA10 caused more severe HFMD than did CA6 (χ 2 = 20·49, P < 0·001) and all non-CA10 EVs (χ 2 = 41·01, P < 0·001). Community-derived HFMD cases accounted for 65·11%. Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that HFMD incidence in children aged 0-5 years was positively correlated with atmospheric temperature (r s = 0·77, P < 0·001), relative humidity (r s = 0·507, P < 0·001), and precipitation (r s = 0·328, P < 0·001). Climate changes and CA10 surveillance in communities should be integrated into the current prophylactic programme. PMID:27018924

  20. Dopamine depletion affects communicative intentionality in Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence from action kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate communication is at the heart of successful, healthy social interactions in humans. Deficits in social communication are a hallmark of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Yet, very little research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying these issues. It has been suggested that dopamine is a candidate neurotransmitter system involved in stimulating communication in individuals that are not highly motivated to communicate. A typical model to study dopaminergic dysfunctions in humans is represented by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, who show motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of social communication on actions in non-demented PD patients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the communicative intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. In two main conditions, participants were requested to reach towards, grasp an object, and either simply lift it (individual condition) or lift it with the intent to communicate a meaning to a partner (communicative condition). Movements' kinematics was recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. The results indicate that kinematics is sensitive to communicative intention and that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating communicative intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients. Although the to-be-grasped object remained the same both the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'individual' and the 'communication' conditions. The PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. We contend that social and communicative impairments are associated with abnormalities in

  1. Does Cognitive Impairment Affect Rehabilitation Outcome in Parkinson’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzoli, Davide; Ortelli, Paola; Maestri, Roberto; Bera, Rossana; Giladi, Nir; Ghilardi, Maria Felice; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cognitive status is generally considered as a major determinant of rehabilitation outcome in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No studies about the effect of cognitive impairment on motor rehabilitation outcomes in PD have been performed before. Objective: This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of cognitive decline on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with PD. Methods: We retrospectively identified 485 patients with PD hospitalized for a 4-week Multidisciplinary Intensive Rehabilitation Treatment (MIRT) between January 2014 and September 2015. According to Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), patients were divided into: group 1—normal cognition (score 27–30), group 2—mild cognitive impairment (score 21–26), group 3—moderate or severe cognitive impairment (score ≤ 20). According to Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), subjects were divided into patients with normal (score ≥13.8) and pathological (score Disability Scale (PDDS), Six Minutes Walking Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results: All scales had worse values with the increase of cognitive impairment and passing from normal to pathological executive functions. After rehabilitation, all the outcome measures improved in all groups (p < 0.0001). Between groups, the percentage of improvement was significantly different for total UPDRS (p = 0.0009, best improvement in normal MMSE group; p = 0.019, best improvement in normal FAB group), and BBS (p < 0.0001, all pairwise comparisons significant, best improvement in patients with worse MMSE score; p < 0.0001, best improvement in patients with pathological FAB). TUG (p = 0.006) and BBS (p < 0.0001) improved in patients with pathological FAB score, more than in those with normal FAB score. Conclusions: Patients gain benefit in the rehabilitative outcomes, regardless of cognition. Our data suggest that rehabilitation could be effective also in Parkinsonian subjects with cognitive impairment, as well as with

  2. Thresholds for opportunistic disease in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed to oil sand process-affected waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, N.; Van Den Heuvel, M. [Prince Edward Island Univ., Charlottetown, PE (Canada); Van Meer, T.; Mackinnon, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Reclaimed oil sands wetlands will contain process-affected materials with elevated salt, naphthenic acids (NA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Mature fine tailings may also be placed at the bottom of reclaimed lakes. This study investigated the effects of oil sands-impacted aquatic systems on the health of perch stocked in 2 experimental lakes between 1995 and 1997. A demonstration pond was constructed in 1989 and contained 70,000 m{sup 3} of mature fine tailings capped with 70,000 m{sup 3} of surface water. The South Bison pond was formed in a natural depression in an area where unrecovered bitumen was deposited. The area surrounding the pond was reclaimed for pasture in 1996. Two disease pathologies were observed in perch stocked in both lakes, notably fin erosion caused by an unidentified pathogen, and lymphocystis. The pathologies were initially more prevalent in the South Bison pond. Later studies confirmed that the diseases were substantially more prevalent in the demonstration pond. The study showed that while NA decreased over time in the South Bison pond, NA was doubled in the demonstration pond as a result of tailings densification. The study suggested that temporal changes in NA correlate with the incidence of disease pathologies.

  3. The negative bone effects of the disease and of chronic corticosteroid treatment in premenopausal women affected by rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fassio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a well-known extra-articular complication in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The chronic corticosteroid treatment, the functional impairment associated with RA and the disease itself appear to be the most relevant determinants. Most of the previous studies involved postmenopausal women, in whom the estrogenic deficiency might amplify the negative effect towards bone of both RA and corticosteroid therapy. We decided to evaluate bone health in a cohort of premenopausal RA patients. The study population includes 47 premenopausal women attending our outpatient clinic for RA and twice as many healthy age-matched control women selected from the hospital personnel. The bone density at the spine and femoral neck were significantly lower in patients with RA as compared with controls. When spine bone mineral density (BMD values were adjusted for the cumulative glucocorticoid (GC dose alone and for the cumulative GC dose plus body mass index (BMI the mean differences between two groups decreased but they remained statistically significant. We found no difference when the spine BMD was adjusted for cumulative GC dose, BMI and health assessment questionnaire. The difference in femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant also after all the same adjustments. In conclusion, our study shows that a BMD deficiency is frequent also in premenopausal women affected by RA, especially at femoral site and that the main determinants of this bone loss are not only the disease-related weight loss, corticosteroid therapy and functional impairment, but also the systemic effects of the disease itself.

  4. Physical Factors Affecting in Vitro Replication of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (Serotype “O”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taslim Ghori*, Khushi Muhammad and Masood Rabbani1

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH and UV light on replicating ability of “O” type of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD virus on Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK cell line was determined. The freshly grown FMD virus containing 106 units of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50 was divided into aliquots. Each of the 9 virus aliquots was exposed to 37, 57 or 77C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes, respectively. Each of the 5 virus aliquots was mixed with MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11. Similarly, each of the 3 aliquots having 1 mm depth of the medium was exposed to ultraviolet light (252.7 nm wavelength: one foot distance for 15, 30 or 45 minutes. Each of the virus aliquot exposed to either of the temperature, pH or ultraviolet light (UV for either of the interaction time was inoculated to 8 wells of the 96-well cell culture plate containing complete monolayer of BHK cell line. One row of 8 wells served as virus control and other row of 8 wells served as control for monolayer of the BHK-21 cell line. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. It was observed that temperature of 57 and 77C inactivated the virus within 15 minutes. The virus when admixed in the MEM-199 maintenance medium having pH 3, 5, 9 or 11, of the medium inactivated the virus while pH 7 did not show any detrimental effect on its survival. The ultraviolet light for 15, 30 or 45 minutes showed undetectable effect on survival of the virus as either of the virus aliquot exposed to the UV light for either of the interaction time showed cytopathogenic effects (CPE. It was concluded that the temperature of 57°C or higher for 15 minutes, acidic pH (below 5 or basic pH (more than 9 may inactivate the FMD virus.

  5. Host-Seeking Behavior and Dispersal of Triatoma infestans, a Vector of Chagas Disease, under Semi-field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Barbu, Corentin M.; Salazar, Renzo; Borrini, Katty; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease affects millions of people in Latin America. The control of this vector-borne disease focuses on halting transmission by reducing or eliminating insect vector populations. Most transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, involves insects living within or very close to households and feeding mostly on domestic animals. As animal hosts can be intermittently present it is important to understand how host availability can modify transmission risk to humans and to characterize the host-seeking dispersal of triatomine vectors on a very fine scale. We used a semi-field system with motion-detection cameras to characterize the dispersal of Triatoma infestans, and compare the behavior of vector populations in the constant presence of hosts (guinea pigs), and after the removal of the hosts. The emigration rate – net insect population decline in original refuge – following host removal was on average 19.7% of insects per 10 days compared to 10.2% in constant host populations (p = 0.029). However, dispersal of T. infestans occurred in both directions, towards and away from the initial location of the hosts. The majority of insects that moved towards the original location of guinea pigs remained there for 4 weeks. Oviposition and mortality were observed and analyzed in the context of insect dispersal, but only mortality was higher in the group where animal hosts were removed (p-value vector control. Removing domestic animals in infested areas increases vector dispersal from the first day of host removal. The implications of these patterns of vector dispersal in a field setting are not yet known but could result in movement towards human rooms. PMID:25569228

  6. Disease-associated PrP in the enteric nervous system of scrapie-affected Suffolk sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Ragna; González, Lorenzo; Press, Charles McL; Gunnes, Gjermund; Espenes, Arild; Jeffrey, Martin

    2003-05-01

    Disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of 20- to 24-month-old Suffolk sheep in the late subclinical and early clinical phase of scrapie was studied. Sites in the alimentary tract extending from the forestomachs and abomasum to the colon from scrapie-affected sheep (PrP(ARQ/ARQ)) and scrapie-resistant sheep (PrP(ARR/ARQ) and PrP(ARR/ARR)) were examined. PrP(d) was found only in scrapie-affected sheep and was most prominent in the ENS when abundant deposits of PrP(d) were also present in adjacent lymphoid nodules. Immunolabelling with the nerve fibre markers PgP 9.5 and neuron-specific enolase and the satellite cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein revealed the extensive ganglionated networks of the myenteric and submucosal plexi. Fewer nerve fibres were present in the lamina propria, T-cell dominated interfollicular areas and dome regions of Peyer's patches. A substantial network of nerve fibres was detected in many lymphoid nodules of both the scrapie-affected and scrapie-resistant sheep. Nerve fibres were also detected within the capsule of lymphoid nodules. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of nerves in the lymphoid nodules, showing a close association with follicular dendritic cells, lymphocytes and tingible body macrophages. In demonstrating that lymphoid nodules in the Peyer's patches of scrapie-affected sheep possess a substantial network of nerve fibres, the present study shows that nodules provide close contact between nerve fibres and cell populations known to contain abundant PrP(d), including follicular dendritic cells and tingible body macrophages, and that gut-associated lymphoid nodules in sheep may represent an important site for neuroinvasion. PMID:12692300

  7. Spontaneous increase of transforming growth factor beta production by bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with systemic autoimmune diseases affecting the lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The spontaneous increase in the transcription of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) gene in bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune diseases affecting the lung has been shown by northern blot assay and a nuclear run on transcription assay. Transcription of the TGF beta gene in bronchoalveolar mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune diseases affecting the lung was increased 10 times compared with normal healthy subjects or patients with bronchial asthma ...

  8. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  9. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  10. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Maimuna S.; Santillana, Mauricio; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Denise P. McGinnis; Khan, Kamran; John S Brownstein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. Objective: In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R0) and o...

  11. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Maimuna S.; Santillana, Mauricio; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Denise P. McGinnis; Khan, Kamran; John S Brownstein

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. Objective In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R 0) and ob...

  12. From slavery to incarceration: social forces affecting the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in the rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James C

    2006-07-01

    The high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the southeastern United States have been shaped by historic and contemporary social forces. More than other regions of the country, the South was defined by slavery, an extremely hierarchical relationship between whites and blacks. Emancipation left much of the racial hierarchy intact with whites as farm owners and blacks as hired workers or sharecroppers. Agricultural policies that favored mechanization caused blacks to leave farm work and move into segregated towns, leading to the advent of the rural ghetto. Post-World War II mass migration, mostly by young men, to the industrial north altered the sex ratio and social capital of the southern towns left behind. The cocaine epidemic of the 1990s, followed by the high incarceration rates of the "War on Drugs," disproportionately affected low-income blacks. Each of these forces led to sexual and care-seeking behaviors that favor transmission of STDs.

  13. A mouse model of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: focus on pharmacological interventions targeting affective dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eBonito Oliva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disorders, are increasingly recognized as a major challenge in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These ailments, which often appear in the early stage of the disease, affect a large number of patients and are only partly resolved by conventional antiparkinsonian medications, such as L-DOPA. Here, we investigated non-motor symptoms of PD in a mouse model based on bilateral injection of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA in the dorsal striatum. This model presented only subtle gait modifications, which did not affect horizontal motor activity in the open-field test. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion also impaired olfactory discrimination, in line with the anosmia typically observed in early stage parkinsonism. The effect of 6-OHDA was then examined for mood-related dysfunctions. Lesioned mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, two behavioral paradigms of depression. Moreover, the lesion exerted anxiogenic effects, as shown by reduced time spent in the open arms, in the elevated plus maze test, and by increased thigmotaxis in the open-field test. L-DOPA did not modify depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, which were instead counteracted by the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole. Reboxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was also able to prevent the depressive and anxiogenic effects produced by the lesion with 6-OHDA. Interestingly, pre-treatment with desipramine prior to injection of 6-OHDA, which is commonly used to preserve noradrenaline neurons, did not modify the effect of the lesion on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, in the present model, mood-related conditions are independent of the reduction of noradrenaline caused by 6-OHDA. Based on these findings we propose that the anti-depressive and anxiolytic action of reboxetine is mediated by promoting dopamine transmission through blockade of dopamine uptake from residual

  14. [Caring for a person affected by Alzheimer's disease: specific aspects of grief in family caregivers and their social support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne; Pierrot, Marylène

    2007-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (DTA) leads to some behavioural, physical and psychic modifications in the patient that the natural helper (family-spouse-child) will have to face throughout the course of the disease. The authors have tried to identify the nature of losses experienced by helpers so as to bring out some preventive and curative support tracks. This preparatory research-action was conducted with 27 families through semi-directive conversations which enabled to reveal their difficulties (somatic-emotional-affective-organizational), their reactions of adaptation in echo with the losses of the patient along the course of the DTA as well as the elements enabling to maintain or not the ill person's family/close relation link. The analysis of obtained results is proposed according to the concepts of adaptation, affection and separation, systemic approach and coping. The comments and behaviours of helpers are put in relation with the symptoms of mourning as well as with the medical interactions, helper or not. Five chronological times were identified (before diagnosis-moment of the diagnosis-keeping at home-admission in institution-life in institution). The period of white mourning (connected to the loss of the recognition of his/her close relations by the patient) is mainly felt as a vector of suffering. As part of the dynamics of social support, the proposed tracks of nursing interventions mainly target the admission and life in institution; their aim is to offer an adapted support to natural helpers, whether they make the choice or not to support their close patients throughout the institutionalization. In appendices, all the key ideas helping to track down the elements contributing to maintain the ill person's helper/close relation link or accelerating his/her breaking down.

  15. Assembly of the genome of the disease vector Aedes aegypti onto a genetic linkage map allows mapping of genes affecting disease transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Juneja

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait.

  16. Assembly of the Genome of the Disease Vector Aedes aegypti onto a Genetic Linkage Map Allows Mapping of Genes Affecting Disease Transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Juneja, Punita

    2014-01-30

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti transmits some of the most important human arboviruses, including dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. It has a large genome containing many repetitive sequences, which has resulted in the genome being poorly assembled - there are 4,758 scaffolds, few of which have been assigned to a chromosome. To allow the mapping of genes affecting disease transmission, we have improved the genome assembly by scoring a large number of SNPs in recombinant progeny from a cross between two strains of Ae. aegypti, and used these to generate a genetic map. This revealed a high rate of misassemblies in the current genome, where, for example, sequences from different chromosomes were found on the same scaffold. Once these were corrected, we were able to assign 60% of the genome sequence to chromosomes and approximately order the scaffolds along the chromosome. We found that there are very large regions of suppressed recombination around the centromeres, which can extend to as much as 47% of the chromosome. To illustrate the utility of this new genome assembly, we mapped a gene that makes Ae. aegypti resistant to the human parasite Brugia malayi, and generated a list of candidate genes that could be affecting the trait. © 2014 Juneja et al.

  17. A tribute to Charlie Chaplin: Induced positive affect improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Richard eRidderinkhof

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We hypothesized that such decision-learning deficits are alleviated by induced positive affect, which is thought to incur transient boosts in midbrain and striatal dopaminergic activity. Computational measures of probabilistic reward-based decision-learning were determined for 51 patients diagnosed with PD. Previous work has shown these measures to rely on the nucleus caudatus (outcome evaluation during the early phases of learning and the putamen (reward prediction during later phases of learning. We observed that induced positive affect facilitated learning, through its effects on reward prediction rather than outcome evaluation. Viewing a few minutes of comedy clips served to remedy dopamine-related problems in putamen-based frontostriatal circuitry and, consequently, in learning to predict which actions will yield reward.

  18. Comparative cardiac pathological changes of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) affected with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousaf, Muhammad Naveed; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2013-01-01

    The heart is considered the powerhouse of the cardiovascular system. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI), cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) and pancreas disease (PD) are cardiac diseases of marine farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) which commonly affect the heart in addition to the skeletal...... muscle, liver and pancreas. The main findings of these diseases are necrosis and inflammatory cells infiltrates affecting different regions of the heart. In order to better characterize the cardiac pathology, study of the inflammatory cell characteristics and cell cycle protein expression was undertaken...

  19. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Subtle changes in bone mineralization density distribution in most severely affected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misof, B M; Roschger, P; Jorgetti, V; Klaushofer, K; Borba, V Z C; Boguszewski, C L; Cohen, A; Shane, E; Zhou, H; Dempster, D W; Moreira, C A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with low aBMD as measured by DXA and altered microstructure as assessed by bone histomorphometry and microcomputed tomography. Knowledge of bone matrix mineralization is lacking in COPD. Using quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBEI), we assessed cancellous (Cn.) and cortical (Ct.) bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in 19 postmenopausal women (62.1 ± 7.3 years of age) with COPD. Eight had sustained fragility fractures, and 13 had received treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids. The BMDD outcomes from the patients were compared with healthy reference data and were correlated with previous clinical and histomorphometric findings. In general, the BMDD outcomes for the patients were not significantly different from the reference data. Neither the subgroups of with or without fragility fractures or of who did or did not receive inhaled glucocorticoid treatment, showed differences in BMDD. However, subgroup comparison according to severity revealed 10% decreased cancellous mineralization heterogeneity (Cn.CaWidth) for the most severely affected compared with less affected patients (p=0.042) and compared with healthy premenopausal controls (p=0.021). BMDD parameters were highly correlated with histomorphometric cancellous bone volume (BV/TV) and formation indices: mean degree of mineralization (Cn.CaMean) versus BV/TV (r=0.58, p=0.009), and Cn.CaMean and Ct.CaMean versus bone formation rate (BFR/BS) (r=-0.71, p50th percentile) BV/TV. The normality in most of the BMDD parameters and bone formation rates as well as the significant correlations between them suggests unaffected mineralization processes in COPD. Our findings also indicate no significant negative effect of treatment with inhaled glucocorticoids on the bone mineralization pattern. However, the observed concomitant occurrence of relatively lower bone volumes with lower bone matrix mineralization will both contribute to the reduced a

  1. IN SITU IMMUNE RESPONSE EVALUATION VIA IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response in skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABD is not well characterized. Aim: Our investigation attempts to immunophenotype cells in lesional skin in several ABD, utilizing immunohistochemistry (ICH. Methods: We tested by IHC for CD4, CD8, CD19, CD20, CD45, CD56/NCAM, PAX-5, granzyme B, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, LAT and ZAP-70 in patients affected by ABD. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the EPF endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABD, including 30 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: We found a predominantly CD8 positive/CD45 positive T cell infiltrate in all ABD. Our skin biopsies demonstrated consistently positive staining for myeloperoxidase, but negative staining for neutrophil elastase. Most ABD biopsies displayed negative staining for CD4 and B cell markers; natural killer cell markers were also rarely seen. ZAP-70 and LAT were frequently detected. In El Bagre-EPF, a significant fragmentation of T cells in lesional skin was noted, as well as autoreactivity to lymph nodes. Conclusions: The documented T cell and myeloperoxidase staining are indicative of the role of T lymphocytes and neutrophils in lesional biopsies in patients with ABD, in addition to previously documented deposition of B cells, immunoglobulins and complement in situ. In El Bagre-EPF, T cells could also target lymph nodes; however, further studies are needed to confirm this possibility.

  2. The early Kraepelin´s dichotomy of schizophrenia and affective disorder - Evidence of separate diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Häfner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Testing Kraepelin´s dichotomy model, we studied the separability of schizophrenia and affective disorders by their symptoms and course. Methods: To this end symptoms and illness course were assessed retrospectively in individually matched untreated probands with schizophrenia and depression (n=130 each from first admission back to illness onset in comparison with 130 "healthy" controls. In a second study these same variables were studied prospectively in 107 patients with schizophrenia over a homogenised follow-up of 134 months (11.2 years. The actual mean length of the follow-up period was 12.3 years. Results: The symptom most frequently marking the onset of both schizophrenia and depression was depressive mood. Both disorders exhibited the same prodromal core syndrome. It was not until the emergence of positive symptoms that the disorders became separable by the international classification systems. Depression remained the most frequent syndrome over the course of schizophrenia. Conclusions: Obviously, depression does not represent comorbidity, but an integral part of psychosis. A dimensional disease model based on (successively emerging hierarchical symptom patterns of the human brain with increasing brain dysfunction in the course of schizophrenia and several neuro-degenerative disorders, not unknown to the later Kraepelin, is offered as an explanation.

  3. Dialysis methods may affect carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhanqin; Zhu, Ming; Guan, Jianming; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Shaoming; Song, Xuequan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular morbidity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early independent predictor of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to compare the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and the maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) for carotid IMT in Chinese ESRD patients. A total of 72 CAPD patients, 92 MHD patients, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Dialysis patients were divided into five subgroups according to dialysis duration: 3-6, 7-12, 13-59, 60-119, and 120-179 months. Carotid IMT and carotid plaques were detected for each patient. The carotid IMT and total plaque detection rate in the CAPD and MHD groups were considerably higher than in the healthy control group (p  0.05). However, after stratification by dialysis duration, the total carotid IMT in the CAPD subgroup was higher than in the MHD subgroup in dialysis duration of 60-119 and 120-179 months (p  0.05). Our study showed that both CAPD and MHD affect carotid IMT in Chinese ESRD patients, and the degree of atherosclerosis in CAPD patients might be higher than that in MHD patients after 5 years of dialysis.

  4. The effects of city streets on an urban disease vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin M Barbu

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization vector-borne diseases are quickly developing in cities, and urban control strategies are needed. If streets are shown to be barriers to disease vectors, city blocks could be used as a convenient and relevant spatial unit of study and control. Unfortunately, existing spatial analysis tools do not allow for assessment of the impact of an urban grid on the presence of disease agents. Here, we first propose a method to test for the significance of the impact of streets on vector infestation based on a decomposition of Moran's spatial autocorrelation index; and second, develop a Gaussian Field Latent Class model to finely describe the effect of streets while controlling for cofactors and imperfect detection of vectors. We apply these methods to cross-sectional data of infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Our Moran's decomposition test reveals that the distribution of T. infestans in this urban environment is significantly constrained by streets (p<0.05. With the Gaussian Field Latent Class model we confirm that streets provide a barrier against infestation and further show that greater than 90% of the spatial component of the probability of vector presence is explained by the correlation among houses within city blocks. The city block is thus likely to be an appropriate spatial unit to describe and control T. infestans in an urban context. Characteristics of the urban grid can influence the spatial dynamics of vector borne disease and should be considered when designing public health policies.

  5. Disease and health conditions affecting camel production in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities of northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-02-01

    herds in Tanzania. These diseases deserve further research attention owing to its potential impact on meat, milk production affecting food security.

  6. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  7. Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ePublications > Our ePublications > Lung disease fact sheet ePublications Lung disease fact sheet This information in Spanish (en ... disease? More information on lung disease What is lung disease? Lung disease refers to disorders that affect ...

  8. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  9. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair M Boag

    Full Text Available Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH, CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH, CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016. Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037. Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015 and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017 were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  10. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Alisdair M; Christie, Michael R; McLaughlin, Kerry A; Syme, Harriet M; Graham, Peter; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH), CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH), CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc) and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD) were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation). Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016). Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037). Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015) and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017) were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  11. Factors affecting the accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP in assessing hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sik Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP can measure hepatic steatosis. However, factors affecting its accuracy have not been described yet. This study investigated predictors of discordance between liver biopsy (LB and CAP. METHODS: A total of 161 consecutive patients with chronic liver disease who underwent LB and CAP were enrolled prospectively. Histological steatosis was graded as S0 (66% of hepatocytes. Cutoff CAP values were calculated from our cohort (250, 301, and 325 dB/m for ≥ S1, ≥ S2, and S3. Discordance was defined as a discrepancy of at least two steatosis stages between LB and CAP. RESULTS: The median age (102 males and 59 females was 49 years. Repartition of histological steatosis was as follows; S0 26.1% (n = 42, S1 49.7% (n = 80, S2 20.5% (n = 33, and S3 3.7% (n = 6. In multivariate linear regression analysis, CAP value was independently associated with steatosis grade along with body mass index (BMI and interquartile range/median of CAP value (IQR/MCAP (all P<0.05. Discordance was identified in 13 (8.1% patients. In multivariate analysis, histological S3 (odd ratio [OR], 9.573; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.207-75.931; P = 0.033 and CAP value (OR, 1.020; 95% CI, 1.006-1.034; P = 0.006 were significantly associated with discordance, when adjusting for BMI, IQR/MCAP, and necroinflammation, reflected by histological activity or ALT level. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high grade steatosis or high CAP values have a higher risk of discordance between LB and CAP. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy of CAP interpretation, especially in patients with higher CAP values.

  12. Biallelic mutations in huntington disease: A new case with just one affected parent, review of the literature and terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Milunsky, Jeff M; Nicholson, Jane M; Albin, Roger L

    2015-05-01

    Patients with biallelic mutations for Huntington disease (HD) are rare. We present a 46-year-old female with two expanded Huntingtin (HTT) alleles with just one known affected parent. This is the first reported patient with molecular studies performed to exclude HTT uniparental disomy (UPD). The proband had biparental inheritance of HTT alleles (42/44 CAG repeats). Given the negative UPD results, the proband's unaffected mother either had a reduced penetrance allele that expanded into the full mutation range during transmission to our patient or an unknown full HTT mutation and died before symptom onset, unlikely given no family history of HD and asymptomatic at age 59. We made the novel observation in our literature review that most patients with biallelic HD did not have two full HTT mutations. Most had one HTT allele that was in the intermediate or reduced penetrance ranges or 40 CAG repeats, the lowest limit of the full mutation range. Although the number of patients is small, when an allele in these size ranges was present, generally the age of HD onset was in the 50s. If the second HTT allele had >45 repeats, then onset was typically 20s-30s. While similar ages of onset have been reported for patients with one or two HTT mutations, patients with biallelic mutations may have later onset if an expanded HTT allele has ≤40 CAG repeats. Finally, we propose that "biallelic mutations" or "compound heterozygosity" are more accurate descriptive terms than "homozygosity" when there are two non-identical expanded HTT alleles.

  13. Renal replacement therapy for rare diseases affecting the kidney: an analysis of the ERA-EDTA Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuhl, E.; Stralen, K.J. van; Wanner, C.; Ariceta, G.; Heaf, J.G.; Bjerre, A.K.; Palsson, R.; Duneau, G.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Ravani, P.; Schaefer, F.; Jager, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, increased efforts have been undertaken to address the needs of patients with rare diseases by international initiatives and consortia devoted to rare disease research and management. However, information on the overall prevalence of rare diseases within the end-stage ren

  14. Lifestyle factors affecting gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a cross-sectional study of healthy 19864 adults using FSSG scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamichi Nobutake

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a very common disorder worldwide, comprised of reflux esophagitis (RE and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD. As more than half of GERD patients are classified into the NERD group, precise evaluation of bothersome epigastric symptoms is essential. Nevertheless, compared with many reports targeting endoscopic reflux esophagitis, large-scale studies focusing on GERD symptoms have been very scarce. Methods To elucidate lifestyle factors affecting GERD symptoms, 19,864 healthy adults in Japan were analyzed. Sub-analyses of 371 proton pump inhibitor (PPI users and 539 histamine H2-receptor antagonist (H2RA users were also performed. Using the FSSG (Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD score as a response variable, 25 lifestyle-related factors were univariately evaluated by Student's t-test or Pearson's correlation coefficient, and were further analyzed with multiple linear regression modelling. Results Average FSSG scores were 4.8 ± 5.2 for total subjects, 9.0 ± 7.3 for PPI users, and 8.2 ± 6.6 for H2RA users. Among the total population, positively correlated factors and standardized coefficients (β for FSSG scores are inadequate sleep (β = 0.158, digestive drug users (β = 0.0972 for PPI, β = 0.0903 for H2RA, and β = 0.104 for others, increased body weight in adulthood (β = 0.081, dinner just before bedtime (β = 0.061, the habit of midnight snack (β = 0.055, lower body mass index (β = 0.054, NSAID users (β = 0.051, female gender (β = 0.048, lack of breakfast (β = 0.045, lack of physical exercise (β = 0.035, younger age (β = 0.033, antihyperglycemic agents non-users (β = 0.026, the habit of quick eating (β = 0.025, alcohol drinking (β = 0.025, history of gastrectomy (β = 0.024, history of cardiovascular disease (β = 0.020, and smoking (β = 0.018. Positively correlated factors for PPI users are female gender (β = 0.198, inadequate sleep (β = 0.150, lack of breakfast

  15. Identification and Complete Genome of Seneca Valley Virus in Vesicular Fluid and Sera of Pigs Affected with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, F A; Linhares, D C L; Barcellos, D E S N; Lam, H C; Collins, J; Marthaler, D

    2015-12-01

    Numerous, ongoing outbreaks in Brazilian swine herds have been characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute losses of neonatal piglets. The complete genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) was identified in vesicular fluid and sera of sows, providing evidence of association between SVV and vesicular disease and viraemia in affected animals.

  16. Identification and Complete Genome of Seneca Valley Virus in Vesicular Fluid and Sera of Pigs Affected with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, F A; Linhares, D C L; Barcellos, D E S N; Lam, H C; Collins, J; Marthaler, D

    2015-12-01

    Numerous, ongoing outbreaks in Brazilian swine herds have been characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute losses of neonatal piglets. The complete genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) was identified in vesicular fluid and sera of sows, providing evidence of association between SVV and vesicular disease and viraemia in affected animals. PMID:26347296

  17. Increased muscle tension and reduced elasticity of affected muscles in recent-onset Graves' disease caused primarily by active muscle contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); G. Kommerell (Guntram)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn 3 patients with Graves' disease of recent onset, length-tension diagrams were made during surgery for squint under eyedrop anesthesia. The affected muscles were found to be very stiff when the other eye looked straight ahead. It was expected that these stiff muscles would be able to s

  18. Ecology of parasite-vector interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to be one of the most important determinants affecting human and animal health. Large numbers of people suffer from diseases like malaria, dengue, filariasis and leishmaniasis, especially in the tropics. Whereas these diseases were eradicated from the temperate climate

  19. [Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Vliet, J A; Reusken, C B E M

    2008-04-12

    Climate change is associated with changes in the occurrence of arthropod-borne diseases. It is difficult to foresee which arthropod-borne diseases will appear in the Netherlands due to climate change. Climate change influences the prevalence of ticks and may lead to a further increase in Lyme disease and an increased risk of the introduction of rickettsioses. With further warming of the climate there is a real possibility of settlement of the mosquito Aedes albopictus and introduction of the sandfly in the Netherlands. Whether this will lead to circulation of micro-organisms transmitted by these vectors (e.g. West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Leishmania) is not clear. Continued vigilance is necessary, even for vector-borne diseases that appear to be less relevant for the Netherlands.

  20. Genetic risk factors affecting mitochondrial function are associated with kidney disease in people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swan, E J; Salem, R M; Sandholm, N;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association with diabetic kidney disease of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS: The mitochondrial genome and 1039 nuclear genes that are integral to mitochondrial function were investigated using a case (n = 823...... phenotypes to those of the discovery collection. Association analyses were performed using the plink genetic analysis toolset, with adjustment for relevant covariates. RESULTS: A total of 25 SNPs were evaluated in the mitochondrial genome, but none were significantly associated with diabetic kidney disease...... or end-stage renal disease. A total of 38 SNPs in nuclear genes influencing mitochondrial function were nominally associated with diabetic kidney disease and 16 SNPS were associated with end-stage renal disease, secondary to diabetic kidney disease, with meta-analyses confirming the same direction of...

  1. The innate immune response affects the development of the autoimmune response in Theiler’s virus- induced demyelinating disease

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Julie K.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human CNS autoimmune demyelinating disease. Epidemiological evidence has suggested a role for virus infection in the initiation and/or exacerbation of MS. Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)- induced demyelinating disease serves as a relevant mouse model for MS. TMEV- infected mice develop a demyelinating disease with clinical symptoms beginning around 35 days post infection which is associated with development of myelin- specific, PLP139–151, CD4+ T c...

  2. Compliance of the aorta in two diseases affecting vascular elasticity, familial hypercholesterolemia and diabetes: a MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Laura Hyttinen2, Alpo F Vuorio3, Pekka Keto1, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland; 3Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Arterial elasticity changes in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and diabetes mellitus (DM with different but overlapping mechanisms. We compared aortic elasticity between 19 FH patients with the same mutation, 18 type 2 DM patients, and 30 controls, all aged 48 to 64. They underwent aortic magnetic resonance imaging, risk-factor assessment, and carotid and femoral ultrasound measurements. All patients were on adequate cardiovascular medication including statins and had established coronary heart disease (CHD. FH patients had longer-duration CHD (13.3 ± 7.7 years than did DM patients (5.0 ± 3.1. Aortic compliance in the descending thoracic (DM 0.38 ± 0.14 vs control 0.53 ± 0.19, P = 0.032 and abdominal aorta (DM 0.45 ± 0.20 vs control 0.66 ± 0.25, P = 0.011 was lower in DM patients than in controls, whereas no significant difference existed between FH patients and controls. Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness was greater in FH and DM patients than in controls with no difference between patient groups. Carotid or femoral plaques appeared in 15 (79% FH and in 10 (56% DM patients. One control had a femoral plaque. Five FH patients showed stenosis, occlusion or both in carotid arteries. In our opinion, DM patients’ lower compliance reflect mainly arterial media affecting arteriosclerosis, while FH patients’ plaque status and longer duration of CHD suggest more advanced atherosclerosis. The FH patients may therefore be at increased risk for atherothrombotic events. However, due to small patient material, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI

  3. Genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R affect multiple sclerosis disease risk and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsee, Anthony L.; Bernales, Cecily Q.; Ross, Jay P.; Lee, Joshua D.; Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating neurodegenerative disease with a strong genetic component. Previous studies have associated genetic variants in IL2RA and IL7R in the pathophysiology of the disease. In this study we describe the association between IL2RA (rs2104286) and IL7R (rs6897932) in the Canadian population. Genotyping 1,978 MS patients and 830 controls failed to identify any significant association between these variants and disease risk. However, stratified analysis for family history of disease, and disease course identified a trend towards association for IL2RA in patients without a family history (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 0.77), and a significant association between IL7R and patients who developed progressive MS (PrMS) (p = 0.002; odds ratio = 0.73). Although not statistically significant, the effect of IL2RA (rs2104286) in patients without a family history of MS indicates that the genetic components for familial and sporadic disease are perhaps distinct. This data suggests the onset of sporadic disease is likely determined by a large number of variants of small effect, whereas MS in patients with a family history of disease is caused by a few deleterious variants. In addition, the significant association between PrMS and rs6897932 indicates that IL7R may not be disease-causing but a determinant of disease course. Further characterization of the effect of IL2RA and IL7R genetic variants in defined MS subtypes is warranted to evaluate the effect of these genes on specific clinical outcomes and to further elucidate the mechanisms of disease onset and progression. PMID:24770783

  4. Dengue: recent past and future threats

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores four key questions about statistical models developed to describe the recent past and future of vector-borne diseases, with special emphasis on dengue: (1) How many variables should be used to make predictions about the future of vector-borne diseases? (2) Is the spatial resolution of a climate dataset an important determinant of model accuracy? (3) Does inclusion of the future distributions of vectors affect predictions of the futures of the diseases they transmit? (4) ...

  5. A new multiplex PCR strategy for the simultaneous determination of four genetic polymorphisms affecting HIV-1 disease progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T B; Knudsen, T B; Ohlendorff, S;

    2001-01-01

    The CCR5 Delta32, CCR2 64I, SDF1 3'A, and CCR5 promoter 59029 polymorphisms have been suggested to influence HIV-1 disease progression. Furthermore, the CCR5 Delta32 and the CCR2 64I polymorphisms have been associated with various other diseases. The purpose of the present study was to develop a ...

  6. Flavor of oranges as impacted by abscission zone formation for trees affected by huanglongbing disease and Lasiodiploida infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees affected by Huanglongbing (HLB) exhibit excessive fruit drop, which is exacerbated by secondary infection of the abscission zone by the fungus Lasiodiplodia. ‘Hamlin’ orange trees, both healthy and affected by HLB, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas, determined by Polymerase chain reactio...

  7. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P Ancylostoma. Pit bull heritage and dogfighting are known risk factors for B. gibsoni infection, possibly via blood transmission from bites and vertical transmission. Hemotropic mycoplasmas have a similar risk pattern. Empirical care for dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. PMID:27056107

  8. To what extent has climate change contributed to the recent epidemiology of tick-borne diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Sarah E

    2010-02-10

    There is no doubt that all vector-borne diseases are very sensitive to climatic conditions. Many such diseases have shown marked increases in both distribution and incidence during the past few decades, just as human-induced climate change is thought to have exceeded random fluctuations. This coincidence has led to the general perception that climate change has driven disease emergence, but climate change is the inevitable backdrop for all recent events, without implying causality. Coincidence and causality can be disentangled using tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) as a test case, based on the excellent long-term data for this medically significant European disease system. Detailed analysis of climate records since 1970 has revealed abrupt temperature increases just prior to the dramatic upsurge in TBE incidence in many parts of central and eastern Europe. Furthermore, the seasonal patterns of this temperature change are such as might have favoured the transmission of TBE virus between co-feeding ticks. Nevertheless, the pattern of climate change is too uniform to explain the marked heterogeneity in the timing and degree of TBE upsurge, for example in different counties within each of the Baltic countries. Recent decreases as well as increases in TBE incidence must also be taken into account. Instead of a single cause, a network of interacting factors, acting synergistically but with differential force in space and time, would generate this epidemiological heterogeneity. From analysis of past and present events, it appears that human behavioural factors have played a more significant role than purely biological enzootic factors, although there is an explicit causal linkage from one to the other. This includes a range of abiotic and biotic environmental factors, together with human behaviour determined by socio-economic conditions. Many of the abrupt changes followed from the shift from planned to market economies with the fall of Soviet rule. Comparisons between eight

  9. The importance of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases: Recognition, monitoring and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Whilst communicable diseases mainly affect the developing world, new and emerging diseases have re-awakened the developed countries to the importance of these infections. Zoonoses are of main concern. In these diseases, the animal reservoir is of prime importance for its control, and elimination becomes a task always believed to be far from affordable. Therefore, the greatest efforts are nowadays concentrated on human non-zoonotic diseases. Among zoonoses, there are several usually neglected parasitic diseases, which need to be added to the priority list. These are diseases for which it is very difficult to get funds for research, despite being of high human impact globally, regionally or locally. Most of them are globally or regionally/locally emerging or re-emerging at present, including both vector-borne and non-vector borne diseases. Molecular tools are recently showing that these diseases are more complex than previously believed, explaining the reduced success of control initiatives despite the great efforts carried out. Molecular marker combinations, from high resolution DNA sequencing up to less detailed techniques, are very useful tools for zoonoses. In epidemiology they enable the distinguishing between different strains of the causal agent and their relationships with higher/lower prevalence and intensities in humans and animals, concrete animal species which constitute the reservoirs and infection sources for humans, concrete vector species, climatic factors and environmental characteristics, geographical distribution and spreading capacities. In clinics and pathology, they enable the distinguishing of strain relationships with more or less pathogenicity and immunogenicity. In diagnosis, they are useful for the development of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques to be applied in humans, reservoir animals and vectors. In treatment, they are useful in the characterisation of resistant and susceptible strains, as well as in post

  10. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    OpenAIRE

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydrox...

  11. A systematic review of amyloid-beta peptides as putative mediators of the association between affective disorders and Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, L.; Heegaard, N. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    to the application of different assay formats, study results indicate a potentially altered amyloid-beta metabolism in affective disorder. Limitations: Since most studies used a cross-sectional design, causality is difficult to establish. Moreover, methodological rigor of included studies varied and several studies......-beta concentrations change over time and are associated with cognition as well as affective symptomatology, future research should include prospective, longitudinal studies, implemented in large study populations, where peripheral and central amyloid-p ratios are quantified concomitantly and continuously across...... various affective phases. Also, to enable inter survey comparisons, the use of standardized pre-analytical/analytical procedures is crucial. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Crohn's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory bowel disease. Crohn's can affect any area from the mouth to the anus. It often affects the lower part of the small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease ...

  13. Utilizing Nontraditional Data Sources for Near Real-Time Estimation of Transmission Dynamics During the 2015-2016 Colombian Zika Virus Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, Mauricio; Mekaru, Sumiko R; McGinnis, Denise P; Khan, Kamran; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 40 countries in Central and South America have experienced local vector-born transmission of Zika virus, resulting in nearly 300,000 total reported cases of Zika virus disease to date. Of the cases that have sought care thus far in the region, more than 70,000 have been reported out of Colombia. Objective In this paper, we use nontraditional digital disease surveillance data via HealthMap and Google Trends to develop near real-time estimates for the basic (R0) and observed (Robs) reproductive numbers associated with Zika virus disease in Colombia. We then validate our results against traditional health care-based disease surveillance data. Methods Cumulative reported case counts of Zika virus disease in Colombia were acquired via the HealthMap digital disease surveillance system. Linear smoothing was conducted to adjust the shape of the HealthMap cumulative case curve using Google search data. Traditional surveillance data on Zika virus disease were obtained from weekly Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) epidemiological bulletin publications. The Incidence Decay and Exponential Adjustment (IDEA) model was used to estimate R0 and Robs for both data sources. Results Using the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, we estimated a mean R0 of 2.56 (range 1.42-3.83) and a mean Robs of 1.80 (range 1.42-2.30). The traditional (INS) data yielded a mean R0 of 4.82 (range 2.34-8.32) and a mean Robs of 2.34 (range 1.60-3.31). Conclusions Although modeling using the traditional (INS) data yielded higher R0 estimates than the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data, modeled ranges for Robs were comparable across both data sources. As a result, the narrow range of possible case projections generated by the traditional (INS) data was largely encompassed by the wider range produced by the digital (smoothed HealthMap) data. Thus, in the absence of traditional surveillance data, digital surveillance data can yield similar estimates for key transmission parameters and

  14. Detection and management of Xyleborus glabratus and other vectors of laurel wilt, a lethal disease affecting avocados in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redabay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, carries a phytopathogenic symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of some Lauraceae species. Both X. glabratus and R. lauricola are natives of Asia that recently invaded much of the coastal plain of the sout...

  15. Evidence of major genes affecting bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation for BCWD resistance in our rainbow trout population, and a family-based selection program to improve resistance was initiated at the NCCCWA in 2005. The main objec...

  16. Evidence of major genes affecting resistance to bacterial cold water disease in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of segregation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation for BCWD resistance in our rainbow trout population, and a family-based selection program to improve resistance was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Col...

  17. Frequent Occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cotton Leaf Curl Disease Affected Cotton in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in the Indian subcontinent is associated with several distinct monopartite begomoviruses and DNA satellites. However, only a single begomovirus was associated with breakdown of resistance against CLCuD in previously resistant cotton varieties. The monopartite begomov...

  18. ALS as a distal axonopathy : molecular mechanisms affecting neuromuscular junction stability in the presymptomatic stages of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moloney, Elizabeth B; de Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is being redefined as a distal axonopathy, in that many molecular changes influencing motor neuron degeneration occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) at very early stages of the disease prior to symptom onset. A huge variety of genetic and environmental causes

  19. Markers of bone metabolism are affected by renal function and growth hormone therapy in children with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doyon, Anke; Fischer, Dagmar Christiane; Bayazit, Aysun Karabay;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The extent and relevance of altered bone metabolism for statural growth in children with chronic kidney disease is controversial. We analyzed the impact of renal dysfunction and recombinant growth hormone therapy on a panel of serum markers of bone metabolism in a large pediatric chro...

  20. A tribute to Charlie Chaplin: Induced positive affect improves reward-based decision-learning in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Wouwe, N.C. van; Band, G.P.H.; Wylie, S.A.; Stigchel, S. van der; Hees, P. van; Buitenweg, J.I.V.; Vijver, I. van de; Wildenberg, W.P.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Reward-based decision-learning refers to the process of learning to select those actions that lead to rewards while avoiding actions that lead to punishments. This process, known to rely on dopaminergic activity in striatal brain regions, is compromised in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We hypothesized t

  1. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje

  2. The effect of cognitive status and visuospatial performance on affective theory of mind in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    McKinlay, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Audrey McKinlay,1,2 Michelle Albicini,2 Phillip S Kavanagh31Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; 2Department of Psychology and Psychiatry, Monash University Clayton, VIC, Australia; 3School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, ADL, AustraliaAbstract: It is now well accepted that theory of mind (ToM) functioning is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, what remain unknown are the functio...

  3. Recent trends in infectious diseases for travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A D; Roberts, K I

    2000-11-01

    In the early 1970s medicine was considered to have conquered infectious diseases. The following three decades have shown this optimism to be misplaced, with both traditional infections increasing in prevalence and novel diseases appearing. Many of these diseases have become major problems in developing countries, and coupled with the exponential growth in international traffic now pose a significant risk to the traveller. The threat to the package tourist differs greatly from that to the businessman, soldier or backpacker. The latter groups may have little control over their food and water supplies and be exposed to vector-borne and zoonotic infections normally restricted to remote locations. However the package holidaymaker may be involved in mass outbreaks of food poisoning with novel pathogens or acquire unusual infections from close proximity to other tourists. All groups may be susceptible to diseases transmitted during travel, and these may be more common than is presently recognised. The common factor is that all such infections may be transported around the world within their incubation period, and that any disease can now present to any doctor. Today more than ever before it is incumbent on any practitioner to ask not only 'where have you been?' but also 'what were you doing there?'

  4. Interspecific Contact and Competition May Affect the Strength and Direction of Disease-Diversity Relationships for Directly Transmitted Microparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Suzanne M; Vinson, John E; Park, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of opportunities for transmission is key to the severity of directly transmitted disease outbreaks in multihost communities. Transmission opportunities for generalist microparasites often arise from competitive and trophic interactions. Additionally, contact heterogeneities within and between species either hinder or promote transmission. General theory incorporating competition and contact heterogeneities for disease-diversity relationships is underdeveloped. Here, we present a formal framework to explore disease-diversity relationships for directly transmitted parasites that infect multiple host species, including influenza viruses, rabies virus, distemper viruses, and hantaviruses. We explicitly include host regulation via intra- and interspecific competition, where the latter can be dependent on or independent of interspecific contact rates (covering resource utilization overlap, habitat selection preferences, and temporal niche partitioning). We examine how these factors interact with frequency- and density-dependent transmission along with traits of the hosts in the assemblage, culminating in the derivation of a relationship describing the propensity for parasite fitness to decrease in species assemblages relative to that in single-host species. This relationship reveals that increases in biodiversity do not necessarily suppress frequency-dependent parasite transmission and that regulation of hosts via interspecific competition does not always lead to a reduction in parasite fitness. Our approach explicitly shows that species identity and ecological interactions between hosts together determine microparasite transmission outcomes in multispecies communities. PMID:26655572

  5. Rare Variants in PLD3 Do Not Affect Risk for Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease in a European Consortium Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Rita; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Geerts, Nathalie; Laureys, Annelies; Dillen, Lubina; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Gelpi, Ellen; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santana, Isabel; Tsolaki, Magda; Koutroumani, Maria; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Matej, Radoslav; Rohan, Zdenek; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P; Cras, Patrick; van der Zee, Julie; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Rare variants in the phospholipase D3 gene (PLD3) were associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). We identified a missense mutation in PLD3 in whole-genome sequence data of a patient with autopsy confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and onset age of 50 years. Subsequently, we sequenced PLD3 in a Belgian early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) patient (N = 261) and control (N = 319) cohort, as well as in European EOAD patients (N = 946) and control individuals (N = 1,209) ascertained in different European countries. Overall, we identified 22 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1%, 20 missense and two splicing mutations. Burden analysis did not provide significant evidence for an enrichment of rare PLD3 variants in EOAD patients in any of the patient/control cohorts. Also, meta-analysis of the PLD3 data, including a published dataset of a German EOAD cohort, was not significant (P = 0.43; OR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.60-3.31). Consequently, our data do not support a role for PLD3 rare variants in the genetic etiology of EOAD in European EOAD patients. Our data corroborate the negative replication data obtained in LOAD studies and therefore a genetic role of PLD3 in AD remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Michio; Imahiro, Sawako; Saito, Shoichi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2015-12-01

    Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015) doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2].

  7. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Oguro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015 doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2].

  8. TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASE 1, MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 9, ALPHA-1 ANTITRYPSIN, METALLOTHIONEIN AND UROKINASE TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR RECEPTOR IN SKIN BIOPSIES FROM PATIENTS AFFECTED BY AUTOIMMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors have been described to play a role in autoimmune skin blistering diseases. We studied skin lesional biopsies from patients affected by several autoimmune skin blistering diseases for proteinases and proteinase inhibitors. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate biopsies for alpha-1-antitrypsin, human matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, metallothionein and urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. We tested 30 patients affected by endemic pemphigus, 30 controls from the endemic area, and 15 normal controls. We also tested 30 biopsies from patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus, and 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH. Results: Contrary to findings in the current literature, most autoimmune skin blistering disease biopsies were negative for uPAR and MMP9. Only some chronic patients with El Bagre-EPF were positive to MMP9 in the dermis, in proximity to telocytes. TIMP-1 and metallothionein were positive in half of the biopsies from BP patients at the basement membrane of the skin, within several skin appendices, in areas of dermal blood vessel inflammation and within dermal mesenchymal-epithelial cell junctions.

  9. Can Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Myocardial Scar Features Affect Treatment Decisions for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Failure?*

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong, Raymond Y.

    2009-01-01

    With the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and the increasing average age of the population, coronary artery disease (CAD) has become an escalating health care burden in most western countries. CAD has been the most common cause of death in the U.S. for decades, and in recent years, this pattern has become a worldwide phenomenon (1). Despite the benefits of effective therapies developed in the past decades, the age-adjusted decline in CAD mortality in the U.S. has not been paral...

  10. Invariant Natural Killer T cells are not affected by lysosomal storage in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C

    OpenAIRE

    Speak, Anneliese O; Platt, Nicholas; Salio, Mariolina; te Vruchte, Danielle Taylor; Smith, David A.; Shepherd, Dawn; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Simmons, Louise; Imrie, Jackie; Wraith, James E.; Lachmann, Robin; Hartung, Ralf; Runz, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a specialised subset of T cells that are restricted to the MHC class I like molecule, CD1d. The ligands for iNKT cells are lipids, with the canonical superagonist being α-galactosylceramide, a non-mammalian glycosphingolipid. Trafficking of CD1d through the lysosome is required for the development of murine iNKT cells. Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by dysfunction in either of two lysosomal proteins, NPC1 or...

  11. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  12. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  13. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l) is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26557744

  14. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in cardiac disease and affects patient outcome: Still a myth or a fact that needs exploration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanari, Zaher; Hammami, Sumaya; Hammami, Muhammad Baraa; Hammami, Safa; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that a low vitamin D status may be an important and hitherto neglected factor of cardiovascular disease. This review is an overview of the current body of literature, and presents evidence of the mechanisms through which vitamin D deficiency affects the cardiovascular system in general and the heart in particular. Available data indicate that the majority of congestive heart failure patients have 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, the low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level has a higher impact on hypertension, coronary artery disease an on the occurrence of relevant cardiac events. A serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level below 75 nmol/l (30 ng/l) is generally regarded as vitamin D insufficiency in both adults and children, while a level below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) is considered deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l (20 ng/l) are linked independently to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:26557744

  15. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  16. Corneal Transplantation in Disease Affecting Only One Eye: Does It Make a Difference to Habitual Binocular Viewing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Bandela

    Full Text Available Clarity of the transplanted tissue and restoration of visual acuity are the two primary metrics for evaluating the success of corneal transplantation. Participation of the transplanted eye in habitual binocular viewing is seldom evaluated post-operatively. In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye may remain functionally inactive during binocular viewing due to its suboptimal visual acuity and poor image quality, vis-à-vis the healthy fellow eye.This study prospectively quantified the contribution of the transplanted eye towards habitual binocular viewing in 25 cases with unilateral transplants [40 yrs (IQR: 32-42 yrs and 25 age-matched controls [30 yrs (25-37 yrs]. Binocular functions including visual field extent, high-contrast logMAR acuity, suppression threshold and stereoacuity were assessed using standard psychophysical paradigms. Optical quality of all eyes was determined from wavefront aberrometry measurements. Binocular visual field expanded by a median 21% (IQR: 18-29% compared to the monocular field of cases and controls (p = 0.63. Binocular logMAR acuity [0.0 (0.0-0.0] almost always followed the fellow eye's acuity [0.00 (0.00 --0.02] (r = 0.82, independent of the transplanted eye's acuity [0.34 (0.2-0.5] (r = 0.04. Suppression threshold and stereoacuity were poorer in cases [30.1% (13.5-44.3%; 620.8 arc sec (370.3-988.2 arc sec] than in controls [79% (63.5-100%; 16.3 arc sec (10.6-25.5 arc sec] (p<0.001. Higher-order wavefront aberrations of the transplanted eye [0.34 μ (0.21-0.51 μ] were higher than the fellow eye [0.07 μ (0.05-0.11 μ] (p<0.001 and their reduction with RGP contact lenses [0.09 μ (0.08-0.12 μ] significantly improved the suppression threshold [65% (50-72%] and stereoacuity [56.6 arc sec (47.7-181.6 arc sec] (p<0.001.In unilateral corneal disease, the transplanted eye does participate in gross binocular viewing but offers limited support to fine levels of binocularity. Improvement in the transplanted

  17. An information value based analysis of physical and climatic factors affecting dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Nitin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne diseases are the most dreaded worldwide health problems. Although many campaigns against it have been conducted, Dengue Fever (DF and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF are still the major health problems of Thailand. The reported number of dengue incidences in 1998 for the Thailand was 129,954, of which Sukhothai province alone reported alarming number of 682. It was the second largest epidemic outbreak of dengue after 1987. Government arranges the remedial facilities as and when dengue is reported. But, the best way to control is to prevent it from happening. This will be possible only when knowledge about the relationship of DF/DHF with climatic and physio-environmental agents is discovered. This paper explores empirical relationship of climatic factors rainfall, temperature and humidity with the DF/DHF incidences using multivariate regression analysis. Also, a GIS based methodology is proposed in this paper to explore the influence of physio-environmental factors on dengue incidences. Remotely sensed data provided important data about physical environment and have been used for many vector borne diseases. Information Values (IV method was utilised to derive influence of various factors in the quantitative terms. Researchers have not applied this type of analysis for dengue earlier. Sukhothai province was selected for the case study as it had high number of dengue cases in 1998 and also due to its diverse physical setting with variety of land use/land cover types. Results Preliminary results demonstrated that physical factors derived from remotely sensed data could indicate variation in physical risk factors affecting DF/DHF. A composite analysis of these three factors with dengue incidences was carried out using multivariate regression analysis. Three empirical models ER-1, ER-2 and ER-3 were evaluated. It was found that these three factors have significant relation with DF/DHF incidences and can be related to

  18. Personality and serotonin transporter genotype interact with social context to affect immunity and viral set-point in simian immunodeficiency virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, John P; Abel, Kristina; Mendoza, Sally P; Blozis, Shelley A; McChesney, Michael B; Cole, Steve W; Mason, William A

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, stress has been a suspected contributor to the wide variation seen in disease progression, and some evidence supports this idea. Not all individuals respond to a stressor in the same way, however, and little is known about the biological mechanisms by which variations in individuals' responses to their environment affect disease-relevant immunologic processes. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus/rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we explored how personality (Sociability) and genotype (serotonin transporter promoter) independently interact with social context (Stable or Unstable social conditions) to influence behavioral expression, plasma cortisol concentrations, SIV-specific IgG, and expression of genes associated with Type I interferon early in infection. SIV viral RNA set-point was strongly and negatively correlated with survival as expected. Set-point was also associated with expression of interferon-stimulated genes, with CXCR3 expression, and with SIV-specific IgG titers. Poorer immune responses, in turn, were associated with display of sustained aggression and submission. Personality and genotype acted independently as well as in interaction with social condition to affect behavioral responses. Together, the data support an "interactionist" perspective [Eysenck, H.J., 1991. Personality, stress and disease: an interactionist perspective. Psychol. Inquiry 2, 221-232] on disease. Given that an important goal of HIV treatment is to maintain viral set-point as low as possible, our data suggest that supplementing anti-retroviral therapy with behavioral or pharmacologic modulation of other aspects of an organism's functioning might prolong survival, particularly among individuals living under conditions of threat or uncertainty.

  19. Relationships among alexithymia and pain intensity, pain interference, and vitality in persons with neuromuscular disease: Considering the effect of negative affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Masako; Molton, Ivan R; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Amtmann, Silvia; O'Brien, Sarah; Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu

    2010-05-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to identify or label emotions, has been shown to be associated with pain in patients with a number of chronic pain conditions. We sought to: (1) replicate this association in samples of persons with chronic pain secondary to neuromuscular disease, (2) extend this finding to other important pain-related measures, and (3) to determine whether relationships among alexithymia and study variables existed after controlling for negative affect. One hundred and twenty-nine individuals with muscular dystrophy and chronic pain were administered measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20), pain intensity (0-10 NRS), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory Interference scale), mental health (SF-36 Mental Health scale; as a proxy measure of negative affect) and vitality (SF-36 Vitality scale). Higher TAS scores were associated significantly with higher pain intensity and interference, and less vitality. Although the strengths of these associations were reduced when mental health was used as a control, the associations between the Difficulty Identifying Feelings scale and vitality, and the Externally Oriented Thinking and Total TAS scales and pain intensity remained statistically significant. The findings replicate and extend previous findings concerning the associations between alexithymia and important pain-related variables in a sample of persons with chronic pain and neuromuscular disease. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which the associations are due to (1) a possible causal effect of alexithymia on patient functioning that is mediated via its effects on negative affect or (2) the possibility that alexithymia/outcome relationships reflect response bias caused by general negative affectivity.

  20. Exposure-Specific and Age-Specific Attack Rates for Ebola Virus Disease in Ebola-Affected Households, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Johnson, Sembia; Bangura, Mohamed S.; Kamara, Alie Joshua; Kamara, Osman; Mansaray, Saidu H.; Sesay, Daniel; Turay, Cecilia; Checchi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Using histories of household members of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors in Sierra Leone, we calculated risk of EVD by age and exposure level, adjusting for confounding and clustering, and estimated relative risks. Of 937 household members in 94 households, 448 (48%) had had EVD. Highly correlated with exposure, EVD risk ranged from 83% for touching a corpse to 8% for minimal contact and varied by age group: 43% for children 60% for adults >30 years of age. Compared with risk for persons 20–29 years of age, exposure-adjusted relative risks were lower for those 5–9 (0.70), 10–14 (0.64), and 15–19 (0.71) years of age but not for children <2 (0.92) or 2–4 (0.97) years of age. Lower risk for 5–19-year-olds, after adjustment for exposure, suggests decreased susceptibility in this group. PMID:27144428