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Sample records for affected sibling pairs

  1. Linkage of the VNTR/insulin-gene and type I diabetes mellitus: Increased gene sharing in affected sibling pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owerbach, D.; Gabbay, K.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ninety-six multiplex type I diabetic families were typed at the 5' flanking region of the insulin gene by using a PCR assay that better resolves the VNTR into multiple alleles. Affected sibling pairs shared 2, 1, and 0 VNTR alleles - identical by descent - at a frequency of .47, .45, and .08, respectively, a ratio that deviated from the expected 1:2:1 ratio (P<.001). These results confirm linkage of the chromosome 11p15.5 region with type I diabetes mellitus susceptibility. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. A genome-wide scan in affected sibling pairs with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage suggests genetic linkage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Astrid Marie; Nielsen, H S; Moltke, Ida

    2011-01-01

    Previously, siblings of patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM) have been shown to have a higher risk of miscarriage. This study comprises two parts: (i) an epidemiological part, in which we introduce data on the frequency of miscarriage among 268 siblings of 244 patients with IRM...

  3. Familiality of factor analysis-derived YBOCS dimensions in OCD-affected sibling pairs from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Pinto, Anthony; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Samuels, Jack; Fyer, Abby J; Pauls, David; Knowles, James A; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A; Rauch, Scott L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Willour, Virginia L; Grados, Marco A; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Wang, Ying; Ronquillo, Jonne; Nestadt, Gerald; Murphy, Dennis L

    2007-03-01

    Identification of familial, more homogenous characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may help to define relevant subtypes and increase the power of genetic and neurobiological studies of OCD. While factor-analytic studies have found consistent, clinically meaningful OCD symptom dimensions, there have been only limited attempts to evaluate the familiality and potential genetic basis of such dimensions. Four hundred eighteen sibling pairs with OCD were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) Symptom Checklist and Severity scales. After controlling for sex, age, and age of onset, robust sib-sib intraclass correlations were found for two of the four YBOCS factors: Factor IV (hoarding obsessions and compulsions (p = .001) and Factor I (aggressive, sexual, and religious obsessions, and checking compulsions; p = .002). Smaller, but still significant, familiality was found for Factor III (contamination/cleaning; p = .02) and Factor II (symmetry/ordering/arranging; p = .04). Limiting the sample to female subjects more than doubled the familiality estimates for Factor II (p = .003). Among potentially relevant comorbid conditions for genetic studies, bipolar I/II and major depressive disorder were strongly associated with Factor I (p sibling pairs with OCD are familial with some gender-dependence, exhibit relatively specific relationships to comorbid psychiatric disorders and thus may be useful as refined phenotypes for molecular genetic studies of OCD.

  4. Ophthalmic findings in Frank-ter Haar syndrome: report of a sibling pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta C; Bauer, Mislen; Puerta, Herminia S; Greenberg, Matthew B; Cavuoto, Kara M

    2017-12-01

    Frank-ter Haar syndrome (FTHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormalities that affect the development of bone, heart, and eyes. We report a sibling pair with FTHS caused by a homozygous, novel mutation pLys133Glnfs*13 in the SH3PXD2B gene: one sibling had bilateral ocular hypertension and unilateral colobomas of iris, choroid and retina; the other, unilateral myelinated nerve fiber layer of the optic disk and papilledema due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Both children had refractive amblyopia and megalocornea. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Multipoint Method for Detecting Genotyping Errors and Mutations in Sibling-Pair Linkage Data

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Julie A.; Boehnke, Michael; Lange, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    The identification of genes contributing to complex diseases and quantitative traits requires genetic data of high fidelity, because undetected errors and mutations can profoundly affect linkage information. The recent emphasis on the use of the sibling-pair design eliminates or decreases the likelihood of detection of genotyping errors and marker mutations through apparent Mendelian incompatibilities or close double recombinants. In this article, we describe a hidden Markov method for detect...

  6. Differential environmental factors in anorexia nervosa: a sibling pair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies have explored differences in psychosocial and familial factors between women who develop anorexia nervosa and those who do not. However, these studies have generally used between-group comparisons. This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not. A paired design was used to compare anorexic women with an unaffected sister on a number of background variables, including sibling interaction, parental care, peer group characteristics and other events unique to the individual. The Sibling Inventory of Differential Experience (SIDE) was used to determine non-shared environment. Out of an initial sample of 148 women with past or current anorexia nervosa, 28 were identified who had sisters with no reported history of eating disorders and who also consented to complete the questionnaire. Anorexic sisters perceived more maternal control and reported more antagonism towards and jealousy of their sisters than did unaffected sisters. In addition, anorexic women reported having had fewer friends and boyfriends than their sisters. These results confirm the perceived differences in background environment between women with and women without anorexia nervosa. These issues are discussed in relation to behavioural genetics, family dynamics and psychosexual development.

  7. Mathematical analysis of endothelial sibling pair cell-cell interactions using time-lapse cinematography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L M; Ryan, U S; Absher, M; Olazabal, B M

    1982-01-01

    The sibling pairs from two different endothelial cell cultures were analysed by time-lapse cinematography. It was shown that wounded and regular (low density seeded) cultures differed in the behaviour patterns of their siblings. The cultures differed most significantly in the minimum interdivision time (IDT) which was 27% lower for the wounded culture. In the wounded culture there was a greater correlation of IDT values between sibling pairs. IDT values recorded both for paired and for unpaired cells were shorter for the wounded than for the regular culture. The mean IDT for unpaired cells was longer than the mean IDT for paired cells in the regular culture. Thus paired cells in the regular culture, had shorter IDTs, but not as short as in the wounded culture. It was significant that in the wounded culture the first generation of siblings were very close (less than 150 microns apart) at division. Overall the behaviour differences between the two cultures resulted in a higher rate of increase in cell numbers, and thus faster repair, of the wounded monolayer.

  8. Examining the role of communication on sibling relationship quality and interaction for sibling pairs with and without a developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities.

  9. Childhood intelligence, educational attainment and adult body mass index: findings from a prospective cohort and within sibling-pairs analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, D A; Clark, H; Davey Smith, G; Leon, D A

    2006-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying the observed association of childhood intelligence with body mass index (BMI) are unclear and few studies of this association have been prospective in design. Prospective study in a birth cohort of 5467 individuals who were born in Aberdeen, Scotland between 1950 and 1956 and who responded to a follow-up survey in 2001. Comparison of associations within sibling pairs of the same family to associations between different families in 643 sibling pairs (1286 individuals) who are participants in the main cohort. Childhood intelligence (age 7 years) and educational attainment were both inversely associated with adult BMI (mean age 48 years): the sex- and age-adjusted mean change in adult BMI per s.d. of intelligence was -0.35 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.49, -0.21 kg/m(2)) and per unit increase in educational category (seven categories) was -0.28 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.34, -0.22). On adjustment for education the association between childhood intelligence and adult BMI attenuated to the null (-0.03 kg/m(2) (-0.19, 0.13 kg/m(2))); other potential confounding or mediating factors had little or only modest effects on this association. The association between education and adult BMI was not affected by adjustment for childhood intelligence or other potential covariates. The within sibling-pair effect of education on adult BMI (-0.06 kg/m(2) (95% CI: -0.26, 0.14)) was weaker than the effect between different families (-0.37 kg/m(2) (95%CI: -0.58, -0.17)), P-value for difference of within sibling and between family effect=0.03. The association of childhood intelligence with adult BMI is attenuated to the null on adjustment for educational attainment, whereas the association of educational attainment with adult BMI appears to be independent of childhood intelligence and other measured covariates. However, our family analyses suggest that fixed family and neighbourhood factors, which are closely matched in siblings of a similar age, explain much of the association

  10. Examining the Role of Communication on Sibling Relationship Quality and Interaction for Sibling Pairs with and without a Developmental Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…

  11. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and the Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity in Singleton Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Liisa; Korkeila, Jyrki; Gissler, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk for psychiatric morbidity. We further studied this with Finnish siblings to control for genetic/familial factors. Methods: From the Finnish Medical Birth Register, sibling pairs were selected as the first two children born 1987–1995 to the same mother (n = 150 168 pairs), along with information on maternal smoking (no smoking/smoking). Information on the children’s psychiatric diagnoses related to outpatient care visits (1998–2013) and inpatient care (1987–2013), and the mothers’ psychiatric morbidity (1969–2013) was derived from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The first pair analysis compared siblings of mothers who only smoked in the first pregnancy (Quitters, 4.7%) and mothers who smoked in both pregnancies (Smokers, 9.6%); the second analysis included mothers who smoked only in the second pregnancy (Starters, 3.3%) and mothers who did not smoke in either pregnancy (Nonsmokers, 77.5%). Smoking information was missing for 5.0% of pairs. Psychiatric morbidity of the siblings and mother was included in the statistical analyses. Results: The risk of psychiatric diagnoses was significantly lower for the second child of quitters (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.72–0.83) compared to the risk among smokers. A higher risk for psychiatric diagnoses was found for the second child of starters (1.39, 1.30–1.49) compared to the risk among nonsmokers. The effect of smoking was more robust for externalizing diagnoses. Conclusions: Maternal smoking was independently associated with a higher risk for psychiatric morbidity in children, even when controlling thoroughly for genetic and familial factors. Implications: Maternal smoking during pregnancy has an independent effect on the risk of psychiatric morbidity in children, even after controlling for non-measurable genetic/familial factors by using a sibling pair design. The effect of maternal smoking was robust

  12. Older Siblings Affect Gut Microbiota Development in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Zachariassen, Gitte; Bahl, Martin Iain

    .006) at 18 months. Further, having older siblings was associated with increased relative abundance of several bacterial taxa at both 9 and 18 months of age. Compared to the effect of having siblings, presence of household furred pets and early life infections had less pronounced effects on the gut microbiota....... Gut microbiota characteristics were not significantly associated with cumulative occurrence of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during the first three years of life. Conclusions: Presence of older siblings is associated with increased gut microbial diversity and richness during early childhood, which...... could contribute to the substantiation of the hygiene hypothesis. However, no associations were found between gut microbiota and atopic symptoms of eczema and asthmatic bronchitis during early childhood and thus further studies are required to elucidate whether sibling-associated gut microbial changes...

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Violent Behavior and Participation in Football during Adolescence: Findings From a Sample of Sibling Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Barnes, J. C.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association between playing high school football and involvement in violent behaviors in sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed that youth who played high school football self-reported more violence than those youth who did not play football.…

  14. Intrauterine growth and intelligence within sibling pairs: findings from the Mater-University study of pregnancy and its outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake M

    2005-04-01

    To examine the association between intrauterine growth and intelligence. Population based birth cohort study of sibling pairs born within a maximum of three years of each other. Mater-University women and children's hospital, Brisbane, Australia. 235 (470 children) sibling pairs. Among one randomly selected sibling from each pair verbal comprehension at age 5, general intelligence at age 14, and reading ability at age 14 increased linearly with increasing gestational age and sex standardised birth weight z scores. With adjustment for maternal age, race, and smoking during pregnancy, birth order, family income, and parental education the associations with verbal comprehension at age 5 and general intelligence at age 14 remained, whereas the association with reading ability at age 14 was attenuated to the null. Within sibling pairs, differences in intrauterine growth were positively associated with differences in verbal comprehension at age 5 (test score difference per one unit difference in birth weight z score = 1.52 (0.11 to 3.26)) and general intelligence at age 14 (1.09 (0.01 to 2.18)), but not with reading ability at age 14. Socioeconomic position or other fixed maternal characteristics do not seem to explain the positive association between intrauterine growth and childhood intelligence.

  15. Similarities and bi-directional influences regarding alcohol consumption in adolescent sibling pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Meeus, W.H.J.; Dekoviç, M.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Ample studies have established that parents as well as peers function as role models in the development of adolescents' alcohol use. The role of siblings, however, has been largely neglected despite the long-term nature of a sibling relationship. The present study examined the impact of siblings on

  16. Super Mario brothers and sisters: Associations between coplaying video games and sibling conflict and affection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Jensen, Alexander C; Smith, Nathan J; Erickson, Daniel H

    2016-02-01

    Video games can be played in many different contexts. This study examined associations between coplaying video games between siblings and levels of affection and conflict in the relationship. Participants were 508 adolescents (M age = 16.31 years of age, SD = 1.08) who completed questionnaires on video game use and sibling relationships. Participants were recruited from a large Northwestern city and a moderate city in the Mountain West of the United States. Video games played between siblings were coded by an independent sample to assess levels of physical aggression and prosocial behavior in each game. Playing video games with a sibling was associated with higher levels of sibling affection for both boys and girls, but higher levels of conflict for boys only. Playing a violent video game with a brother was associated with lower levels of conflict in the sibling relationship, whereas playing a prosocial video game was not related to any sibling outcome. The value of video games in sibling relationships will be discussed, with a focus on the type of game and the sex of the adolescent. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive subtypes in non-affected siblings of schizophrenia patients: characteristics and profile congruency with affected family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P.J.; Alizadeh, BZ; Aleman, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although cognitive subtypes have been suggested in schizophrenia patients, similar analyses have not been carried out in their non-affected siblings. Subtype classification may provide more insight into genetically driven variation in cognitive function. We investigated cognitive

  18. Affected sib pair tests in inbred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Weir, B S

    2004-11-01

    The affected-sib-pair (ASP) method for detecting linkage between a disease locus and marker loci was first established 50 years ago, and since then numerous modifications have been made. We modify two identity-by-state (IBS) test statistics of Lange (Lange, 1986a, 1986b) to allow for inbreeding in the population. We evaluate the power and false positive rates of the modified tests under three disease models, using simulated data. Before estimating false positive rates, we demonstrate that IBS tests are tests of both linkage and linkage disequilibrium between marker and disease loci. Therefore, the null hypothesis of IBS tests should be no linkage and no LD. When the population inbreeding coefficient is large, the false positive rates of Lange's tests become much larger than the nominal value, while those of our modified tests remain close to the nominal value. To estimate power with a controlled false positive rate, we choose the cutoff values based on simulated datasets under the null hypothesis, so that both Lange's tests and the modified tests generate same false positive rate. The powers of Lange's z-test and our modified z-test are very close and do not change much with increasing inbreeding. The power of the modified chi-square test also stays stable when the inbreeding coefficient increases. However, the power of Lange's chi-square test increases with increasing inbreeding, and is larger than that of our modified chi-square test for large inbreeding coefficients. The power is high under a recessive disease model for both Lange's tests and the modified tests, though the power is low for additive and dominant disease models. Allowing for inbreeding is therefore appropriate, at least for diseases known to be recessive.

  19. An initial look at sibling reports on children's behavior: comparisons with children's self-reports and relations with siblings' self-reports and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epkins, C C; Dedmon, A M

    1999-10-01

    The authors examined siblings' reports of children's depression, anxiety, and aggression, and their reports of the sibling relationship, and compared them with children's self-reports. In two samples, including 169 sibling pairs (age M = 9.98 years, SD = 1.51), no significant differences emerged in the levels of depression and anxiety found in siblings' reports of children's behavior and children's self-reports, although siblings reported children to have significantly higher levels of aggression than the children self-reported. Age, the difference in ages between siblings, sex, and sibling sex were not related to siblings' reports of children's behavior. The relations between children's and siblings' reports of children's behavior were significant, yet moderate (average r = .22). Both siblings' self-reports of internalizing behavior and their perceptions of aspects of the sibling relationship (affection, rivalry, hostility, and satisfaction with the sibling relationship) explained significant, and unique, variance in siblings' reports of children's internalizing behavior. The findings for aggressive behavior were similar, although siblings' perceptions of affection in the sibling relationship were not significantly related to their reports of children's aggression. The potential uses and benefits of sibling reports of children's behavior, and sibling and family relationships, are discussed.

  20. Family Perspectives on Siblings' Conflict Goals in Middle Childhood: Links to Hierarchical and Affective Features of Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Witwit, Ma-ab

    2017-01-01

    This study examined parents' and children's descriptions of older and younger siblings' conflict goals in the late preschool and middle childhood years, and how these attributions were related to sibling relationship quality. Parents and 4- to 10-year-old children from 62 families were interviewed separately about siblings' motivations in two…

  1. Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome. Update and report on two affected siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, W.; Grill, F.

    1988-07-01

    Two siblings (male, 29 years, and female, 13 years) with the rare autosomal recessive osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome are reported in detail. All essential signs and symptoms of the full clinical picture were present and are documented by impressive X-ray pictures. Some aspects of our patients are compared with relevant findings of previous reports. Collagen studies (skin biopsies) failed to reveal any significant disorder of the main collagen types composition. Striking similarities with established genetic disorders of collagen (like the osteogenesis imperfecta group and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) suggest, however, that the OPS could be a primary collagen disorder. Genetic counselling and devoted socio-medical care for these handicapped children is presently the only help which can be offered.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Reading Difficulties: DeFries-Fulker Analysis of Reading Performance Data from Twin Pairs and Their Non-Twin Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to…

  3. Allgrove syndrome: an Egyptian family with two affected siblings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ola H. Gebril

    2013-11-15

    Nov 15, 2013 ... The neurological symptoms are variable and may affect the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system [4,5]. Seri- ous reported neurological manifestations include dementia,. Wernicke's encephalopathy [6], optic atrophy, cerebellar atax- ia, and Parkinsonism [7]. The syndrome has been mapped to ...

  4. Neural correlates of emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia and non-affected siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette van der Meer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia often experience problems regulating their emotions. Non-affected relatives show similar difficulties, although to a lesser extent, and the neural basis of such difficulties remains to be elucidated. In the current paper we investigated whether schizophrenia patients, non-affected siblings and healthy controls (HC exhibit differences in brain activation during emotion regulation. METHODS: All subjects (n = 20 per group performed an emotion regulation task while they were in an fMRI scanner. The task contained two experimental conditions for the down-regulation of emotions (reappraise and suppress, in which IAPS pictures were used to generate a negative affect. We also assessed whether the groups differed in emotion regulation strategies used in daily life by means of the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ. RESULTS: Though the overall negative affect was higher for patients as well as for siblings compared to HC for all conditions, all groups reported decreased negative affect after both regulation conditions. Nonetheless, neuroimaging results showed hypoactivation relative to HC in VLPFC, insula, middle temporal gyrus, caudate and thalamus for patients when reappraising negative pictures. In siblings, the same pattern was evident as in patients, but only in cortical areas. CONCLUSIONS: Given that all groups performed similarly on the emotion regulation task, but differed in overall negative affect ratings and brain activation, our findings suggest reduced levels of emotion regulation processing in neural circuits in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, this also holds for siblings, albeit to a lesser extent, indicating that it may be part and parcel of a vulnerability for psychosis.

  5. Cognitive and affective empathy among adolescent siblings of children with a physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Pęczkowski, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    This study is a continuation of research on possible psychosocial benefits resulting from exposure to sibling with disability present in the family system. The issue seems to be especially important in Poland because of growing number of children with a disability and inconsistent results of previously performed studies. The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in the intensity of cognitive and affective empathy in adolescents who either have or do not have siblings with physical disability. The authors hypothesized that the increased exposure to individual with disability should result in positive attitude towards such people and this tendency should be manifested in elevated empathy and compassion. The study was carried out between September and November 2016. To meet the goals set to the study, a sample of 292 students from public middle and high schools were assessed using self-report demographic questionnaire and measure of empathy (IRI). The participants were between 13 and 19 years old. Among them 128 had a disabled sibling (Group T) and 164 constituted a comparative group (Group C). Interpretation of results is based on descriptive statistics. Participants having a disabled sibling showed significantly higher scores related both to cognitive and affective empathy. Some significant differences were also noted in relation to participants' gender and age. Exposure to individuals with physical disability in family context may facilitate development of positive psychosocial traits including elevated empathy and compassion in nondisabled siblings. Data analysis also showed significantly greater empathic and altruistic tendencies in females that in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic and environmental etiologies of reading difficulties: DeFries-Fulker analysis of reading performance data from twin pairs and their nontwin siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Astrom, Raven L.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Reading performance data from 254 pairs of identical (MZ) and 420 pairs of fraternal (DZ) twins, 8.0 to 20.0 years of age, were subjected to multiple regression analyses. An extension of the DeFries-Fulker (DF) analysis (DeFries & Fulker, 1985, 1988) that facilitated inclusion of data from 303 of their nontwin siblings was employed. In addition to providing estimates of heritability, this analysis yields a test of the difference between shared environmental influences for twins versus sibling...

  7. Does having an asthmatic sibling affect the quality of life in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Özge; Türkeli, Ahmet; Karaca, Özlem; Yüksel, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Yılmaz Ö, Türkeli A, Karaca Ö, Yüksel H. Does having an asthmatic sibling affect the quality of life in children? Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 274-280. Chronic illness in a family member leads to deterioration of quality of life in other members of that family. We aimed to investigate the influence of having an asthmatic sibling on a child`s quality of life (QoL). We enrolled 2-12 year aged healthy children with an asthmatic sibling in the study group and healthy children with a healthy sibling in the control group of this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic characteristics of children and disease severity characteristics of asthmatic siblings were recorded. All parents filled in Turkish generic PedsQLTM short form appropriate for the child`s age group. Study and control groups had 114 children each. Total PedsQLTM scores were not significantly different in any of the age groups (p=0.23, p=0.13, p= 0.11 respectively). Emotional PedsQLTM sub-scores in children with an asthmatic sibling were significantly worse (83.0±16.5 vs 91.6±10.9 in the 2-4 year age group, 72.0±17.8 vs 92.2±11.6 in the 5-7 year age group, 73.7±24.1 vs 88.7±14.8 in the 8-12 year age group respectively, p≤0.002 for all). Similarly, psychosocial sub-score was significantly lower in the 2-4 and 5-7-year-olds but not the 8-12 year old groups (p=0.01, p=0.01, p=0.08 respectively). In conclusion, healthy children with asthmatic siblings have significantly lower emotional QoL and this needs to investigated for other chronic diseases in further research.

  8. Peer deviance, alcohol expectancies, and adolescent alcohol use: explaining shared and nonshared environmental effects using an adoptive sibling pair design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret A; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-07-01

    Previous research suggests adolescent alcohol use is largely influenced by environmental factors, yet little is known about the specific nature of this influence. We hypothesized that peer deviance and alcohol expectancies would be sources of environmental influence because both have been consistently and strongly correlated with adolescent alcohol use. The sample included 206 genetically related and 407 genetically unrelated sibling pairs assessed in mid-to-late adolescence. The heritability of adolescent alcohol use (e.g., frequency, quantity last 12 months) was minimal and not significantly different from zero. The associations among peer deviance, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use were primarily due to shared environmental factors. Of special note, alcohol expectancies also significantly explained nonshared environmental influence on alcohol use. This study is one of few that have identified specific environmental variants of adolescent alcohol use while controlling for genetic influence.

  9. Genetic modification of risk assessment based on staging of preclinical type 1 diabetes in siblings of affected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrena, S; Savola, K; Kulmala, P; Reijonen, H; Ilonen, J; Akerblom, H K; Knip, M

    2003-06-01

    We set out to study the association between human leukocyte antigen-defined genetic disease susceptibility and the stage of preclinical type 1 diabetes and whether genetic predisposition affects the natural course of preclinical diabetes in initially nondiabetic siblings of affected children. A total of 701 initially unaffected siblings were graded into four stages of preclinical type 1 diabetes based on the initial number of disease-associated autoantibodies detectable close to the time of diagnosis of the index case: no prediabetes (no antibodies), early (one antibody specificity), advanced (two antibodies), and late prediabetes (three or more antibodies). Another classification system covering 659 siblings was based on a combination of the initial number of antibodies and the first-phase insulin response (FPIR) to iv glucose: no prediabetes (no antibodies), early (one antibody specificity, normal FPIR), advanced (two or more antibodies, normal FPIR), and late prediabetes (at least one antibody, reduced FPIR). Genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes was defined by human leukocyte antigen identity and DR and DQ genotypes. There was a higher proportion of siblings with late prediabetes initially among those with strong genetic disease susceptibility than among those with decreased genetic predisposition (16.7% vs. 0.5%; P siblings with no signs of prediabetes among those with genotypes conferring decreased risk (91.2% vs. 70.4% among those with high-risk DQB1 genotypes; P siblings than when combined with genetic susceptibility. Genetic susceptibility played a role in whether the initial prediabetic stage progressed (progression in 29.6% of the high-risk siblings compared with 6.6% of the siblings with DQB1 genotypes conferring decreased risk; P siblings of affected children.

  10. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrall, M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    In a recent letter, Greenberg et al. aired their concerns that the affected-sib-pair (ASP) approach was becoming excessively popular, owing to misconceptions and ignorance of the properties and limitations of both the ASP and the classic LOD-score approaches. As an enthusiast of using the ASP approach to map susceptibility genes for multifactorial traits, I would like to contribute a few comments and explanatory notes in defense of the ASP paradigm. 18 refs.

  11. Mothers' Perceptions of the Quality of Childhood Sibling Relationships Affected by Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Melissa; Campbell, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the sibling relationship has an important role in the development of psychosocial skills throughout childhood. While the literature suggests that the significance of sibling relationships is heightened when one sibling has a disability, empirical findings about the quality of these relationships are few and inconsistent. The present…

  12. Older/Younger Sibling Pairs in the Context of a Community Outreach Children's Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, William E.; Byrnes, Suzanne R.; Aycock, Sylvia R.

    2018-01-01

    This article was designed to explore the behaviors observed and document the interactions of older and younger siblings in a children's choir rehearsal environment. Observations by a music education student observer, the director/teacher of the group, and some parent recollections indicate that the sibling interactions do have a primarily positive…

  13. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  14. Pantothenate kinase 2 mutation with classic pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration without 'eye-of-the-tiger' sign on MRI in a pair of siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolkipli, Zarazuela; Surtees, Robert; Dahmoush, Hisham; Saunders, Dawn E.; Kling Chong, W.K.

    2006-01-01

    It has been postulated that all patients with pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) mutations causing pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) are associated with the 'eye-of-the-tiger' sign on MRI. We report a pair of siblings who presented with dystonia and who have been found to be homozygous for 104C>A, S35X mutation, confirming the diagnosis of PKAN. They do not have the typical iron deposition in the globi pallida or substantia nigra on MR imaging. (orig.)

  15. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation.

  16. Affective Qualities of Sibling Disputes, Mothers' Conflict Attitudes, and Children's Theory of Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Angela C.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2009-01-01

    Preschoolers' theory of mind (ToM) was examined in relation to emotional features of their conflicts with siblings, using mothers as privileged informants. Fifty-four children aged 3 to 5 years and their 54 mothers took part. Children were given 10 standard false belief tasks and a standardized language test. Mothers completed questionnaires,…

  17. Cross-Lagged Analysis of Interplay Between Differential Traits in Sibling Pairs: Validation and Application to Parenting Behavior and ADHD Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Arden; Verhulst, Brad; McKee, Kevin; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to behavioral traits is a complex task, and partitioning variance into latent genetic and environmental components is a useful beginning, but it should not also be the end. Many constructs are influenced by their contextual milieu, and accounting for background effects (such as gene-environment correlation) is necessary to avoid bias. This study introduces a method for examining the interplay between traits, in a longitudinal design using differential items in sibling pairs. The model is validated via simulation and power analysis, and we conclude with an application to paternal praise and ADHD symptoms in a twin sample. The model can help identify what type of genetic and environmental interplay may contribute to the dynamic relationship between traits using a cross-lagged panel framework. Overall, it presents a way to estimate and explicate the developmental interplay between a set of traits, free from many common sources of bias.

  18. Training parents to mediate sibling disputes affects children's negotiation and conflict understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie; Ross, Hildy

    2007-01-01

    The effects of training parents to use formal mediation procedures in sibling disputes were examined in 48 families with 5- to 10-years-old children, randomly assigned to mediation and control conditions. Children whose parents were trained in mediation were compared with those whose parents intervened normally. Parents reported that children used more constructive conflict resolution strategies, compromised more often, and controlled the outcomes of conflicts more often in mediation families than in control families. Observations indicated less negativity in children's independent negotiations of recurrent conflicts, better understanding of the role of interpretation in assessing blame, and better knowledge of their siblings' perspectives in the mediation group. Thus, both social and social-cognitive gains resulted from experience with constructive conflict resolution.

  19. TEMPORAL ORDER OF DISEASE PAIRS AFFECTS SUBSEQUENT DISEASE TRAJECTORIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Mette K; Westergaard, David; Jensen, Anders Boeck

    2016-01-01

    order of appearance. We discuss these different types of disease co-occurrences, and use the two diseases "sleep apnea" and "diabetes" to showcase the approach which otherwise can be applied to any disease pair. We benefit from seven million electronic medical records covering the entire population...... of Denmark for more than 20 years. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder and it has previously been shown to be bidirectionally linked to diabetes, meaning that each disease increases the risk of acquiring the other. We confirm that there is no significant temporal relationship......, as approximately half of patients with both diseases are diagnosed with diabetes first. However, we also show that patients diagnosed with diabetes before sleep apnea have a higher disease burden compared to patients diagnosed with sleep apnea before diabetes. The study clearly demonstrates that it is not only...

  20. Rapid evolution of chemosensory receptor genes in a pair of sibling species of orchid bees (Apidae: Euglossini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Philipp; Ramírez, Santiago R; Leese, Florian; Quezada-Euan, J Javier G; Tollrian, Ralph; Eltz, Thomas

    2015-08-28

    Insects rely more on chemical signals (semiochemicals) than on any other sensory modality to find, identify, and choose mates. In most insects, pheromone production is typically regulated through biosynthetic pathways, whereas pheromone sensory detection is controlled by the olfactory system. Orchid bees are exceptional in that their semiochemicals are not produced metabolically, but instead male bees collect odoriferous compounds (perfumes) from the environment and store them in specialized hind-leg pockets to subsequently expose during courtship display. Thus, the olfactory sensory system of orchid bees simultaneously controls male perfume traits (sender components) and female preferences (receiver components). This functional linkage increases the opportunities for parallel evolution of male traits and female preferences, particularly in response to genetic changes of chemosensory detection (e.g. Odorant Receptor genes). To identify whether shifts in pheromone composition among related lineages of orchid bees are associated with divergence in chemosensory genes of the olfactory periphery, we searched for patterns of divergent selection across the antennal transcriptomes of two recently diverged sibling species Euglossa dilemma and E. viridissima. We identified 3185 orthologous genes including 94 chemosensory loci from five different gene families (Odorant Receptors, Ionotropic Receptors, Gustatory Receptors, Odorant Binding Proteins, and Chemosensory Proteins). Our results revealed that orthologs with signatures of divergent selection between E. dilemma and E. viridissima were significantly enriched for chemosensory genes. Notably, elevated signals of divergent selection were almost exclusively observed among chemosensory receptors (i.e. Odorant Receptors). Our results suggest that rapid changes in the chemosensory gene family occurred among closely related species of orchid bees. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that strong divergent selection

  1. Having Older Siblings is Associated with Less Severe Social Communication Symptoms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Zukerman, Gil; Zachor, Ditza A

    2016-11-01

    Among typically developing children, having sibling relationships promotes the development of social skills. This is a retrospective study of the effect of having sibling/s on the severity of the clinical presentation of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The study included 112 children, 99 males and 15 females, mean age 29.6 ± 9.2 months, diagnosed with ASD. The study population was composed of a group of children with ASD who had older typically developing sibling/s (n = 56) pair-matched for age and cognitive level to a group of children with ASD without sibling/s. Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment using standardized tests. The group with older sibling/s had less severe observed social deficits (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Social Affect calibrated severity scales [ADOS-SA-CSS]) and fewer reported non-verbal communication impairments (Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised [ADI-R]). Regression analyses revealed that, for the ADOS-SA-CSS, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe observed social affect deficits. This model explained 32.0 % of the variance. For the ADI-R communication scores, older age, higher cognitive level and having older sibling/s were associated with less severe reported non-verbal communication impairments. This model explained 33.0 % of the variance. The main finding in this study is that a familial factor, specifically having older sibling/s, was associated with better social communication abilities in children with ASD, in addition to age and cognitive ability. Having sibling/s may offer opportunities for the child with ASD to experience social interactions with children and to acquire communication skills.

  2. Does the number of siblings affect health in midlife? Evidence from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baranowska-Rataj

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many societies, growing up in a large family is associated with receiving less parental time, attention, and financial support. As a result, children with a large number of siblings may have worse physical and mental health outcomes than children with fewer siblings. Objective: Our objective is to examine the long-term causal effects of sibship size on physical and mental health in modern Sweden. Methods: We employ longitudinal data covering the entire Swedish population from the Multigenerational Register and the Medical Birth Register. This data includes information on family size and on potential confounders such as parental background. We use the Prescribed Drug Register to identify the medicines that have been prescribed and dispensed. We use instrumental variable models with multiple births as instruments to examine the causal effects of family size on the health outcomes of children, as measured by receiving medicines at age 45. Results: Our results indicate that in Sweden, growing up in a large family does not have a detrimental effect on physical and mental health in midlife. Contribution: We provide a systematic overview of the health-related implications of growing up in a large family. We adopt a research design that gives us the opportunity to make causal inferences about the long-term effects of family size. Moreover, our paper provides evidence on the links between family size and health outcomes in the context of a developed country that implements policies oriented towards reducing social inequalities in health and other living conditions.

  3. Impact of maternal obesity on inhaled corticosteroid use in childhood: a registry based analysis of first born children and a sibling pair analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Lowe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that maternal obesity during pregnancy may increase the risk that the child develops allergic disease and asthma, although the mechanisms underpinning this relationship are currently unclear. We sought to assess if this association may be due to confounding by genetic or environmental risk factors that are common to maternal obesity and childhood asthma, using a sibling pair analysis. METHODS: The study population comprised a Swedish national cohort of term children born between 1992 and 2008 to native Swedish parents. Maternal body mass index (BMI was measured at 8-10 weeks gestation. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to determine if maternal obesity was associated with increased risk of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS in 431,718 first-born children, while adjusting for potential confounders. An age-matched discordant sib-pair analysis was performed, taking into account shared genetic and environmental risk factors. RESULTS: Maternal over-weight and obesity were associated with increased risk that the child would require ICS (for BMI≥35 kg/m(2, aOR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.52 compared with normal weight mothers in children aged 6-12 years. Similar effects were seen in younger children, but in children aged 13-16 years, maternal obesity (BMI≥30 was related to increased risk of ICS use in girls (aOR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.07-1.53 but not boys (OR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.87-1.26. The sib-pair analysis, which included 2,034 sib-pairs older than six years who were discordant for both ICS use and maternal BMI category, failed to find any evidence that increasing maternal weight was related to increased risk of ICS use. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of childhood ICS use up to approximately 12 years of age, but only in girls after this age. These effects could not be confirmed in a sib pair analysis, suggesting either limited statistical power, or the effects

  4. Parental Differential Treatment of Siblings in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental differential treatment is an important feature of non-shared family environment which contributes to the development of behavioural differences between siblings growing up in the same family. To investigate the frequency, direction, and patterns of parental differential treatment of siblings in Slovene families, mothers and fathers of 93 sibling-pairs in early/middle childhood provided self-reports in a two-wave longitudinal study. Most of the parents reported on low levels of differential treatment, predominantly expressing somewhat more affection and control towards the older than towards the younger sibling. Over a one-year time period, the average frequency of parental differential treatment did not change significantly, whereas the stability was estimated as moderate for maternal and low for paternal assessments. Maternal and paternal self-ratings were moderately correlated. However, the mothers reported on somewhat higher levels of differential control and (only in wave 1 affection than the fathers. Nearly half of the families were characterized by a congruent pattern of parental differential treatment indicating that both parents showed more affection and control towards the older of the two siblings. A complementary family pattern reflecting an opposite direction of maternal and paternal differential treatment emerged in approximately a quarter of the participating families.

  5. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Zhou, K.; Anney, R. J. L.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.; Ebstein, R.; Gill, M.; Altink, M.; Arnold, R.; Boer, F.; Brookes, K.; Buschgens, C.; Butler, L.; Cambell, D.; Chen, W.; Christiansen, H.; Feldman, L.; Fleischman, K.; Fliers, E.; Howe-Forbes, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Heise, A.; Gabrieels, I.; Johansson, L.; Lubetzki, I.; Marco, R.; Medad, S.; Minderaa, R.; Mulas, F.; Müller, U.; Mulligan, A.; Neale, B.; Rijsdijk, F.; Rabin, K.; Rommelse, N.; Sethna, V.; Sorohan, J.; Uebel, H.; Psychogiou, L.; Weeks, A.; Barrett, R.; Xu, X.; Banaschewski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Eisenberg, J.; Manor, I.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R. D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.; Steinhausen, H-C; Taylor, E.; Thompson, M.; Faraone, S. V.

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage

  6. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Zhou, K.; Anney, R. J. L.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.; Ebstein, R.; Gill, M.; Altink, M.; Arnold, R.; Boer, F.; Brookes, K.; Buschgens, C.; Butler, L.; Cambell, D.; Chen, W.; Christiansen, H.; Feldman, L.; Fleischman, K.; Fliers, E.; Howe-Forbes, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Heise, A.; Gabriëls, I.; Johansson, L.; Lubetzki, I.; Marco, R.; Medad, S.; Minderaa, R.; Mulas, F.; Müller, U.; Mulligan, A.; Neale, B.; Rijsdijk, F.; Rabin, K.; Rommelse, N.; Sethna, V.; Sorohan, J.; Uebel, H.; Psychogiou, L.; Weeks, A.; Barrett, R.; Xu, X.; Banaschewski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Eisenberg, J.; Manor, I.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R. D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.; Steinhausen, H.-C.; Taylor, E.; Thompson, M.; Faraone, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage

  7. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Zhou, K.; Anney, R.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Ebstein, R.P.; Gill, M.; Altink, M.E.; Arnold, R.; Boer, F.; Brookes, K.; Buschgens, C.J.M.; Butler, L.; Cambell, D.; Chen, W.; Christiansen, H.; Feldman, L.B.; Fleischman, K.; Fliers, E.A.; Howe-Forbes, R.; Goldfarb, A.; Heise, A.; Gabriels, I.; Johansson, L.; Lubetzki, I.; Marco, R.; Medad, S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Mulas, F.; Muller, U.; Mulligan, A.; Neale, B.; Rijsdijk, F.; Rabin, K.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Sethna, V.; Sorohan, J.; Uebel, H.; Psychogiou, L.; Weeks, A.; Barrett, R.; Xu, X.; Banaschewski, T.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Eisenberg, J.; Manor, I.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Taylor, E.; Thompson, M.; Faraone, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage

  8. Intergenerational Solidarity and Support Between Adult Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Using a Dutch national sample containing 1,259 triads (two siblings, one parent), we examined whether practical support and emotional support between siblings are enhanced by intergenerational solidarity and how this differs for brothers and sisters. Sibling support was affected by sibling dyad

  9. Relationship of Sibling Structure and Interaction to Categorization Ability. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G.; And Others

    This study identified behaviors of sibling pairs interacting on a cognitive task and related these behaviors to sibling structure variables (age and sex of each sibling and age spacing between them) and to measure of cognitive abilities of the younger sibling. Subjects were 160 sibling pairs randomly selected from appropriate subpopulations of…

  10. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  11. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  12. Sibling Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Green, Mary J.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, sibling incest, a type of intrafamilial incest, has received notice from mental health professionals; however, many professionals still do not recognize the seriousness of the problem. This article reviews current research on the individual and family dynamics that allow sibling incest to occur, the effects of sibling incest on victims,…

  13. Sibling popularity: A moderator of sibling influence for adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey N

    Sibling substance use is a known correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet, not all siblings are equally influential. Sibling influence has been found to vary by age gap, sex, and birth order. Little research, however, has investigated whether siblings' peer context is also a source of variation. The present study tested whether more popular siblings were more influential for adolescent use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Data were obtained from sibling pairs in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Findings indicate that older siblings have more influence on younger sibling marijuana use when they have more friends. These findings contribute to prior work examining which siblings are more influential and highlight the need to consider siblings as part of a greater peer context.

  14. Differential Parental Treatment, Sibling Relationships and Delinquency in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Kemp, Raymond A. T.; Harakeh, Zeena; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effect of the quality of the sibling relationship on the longitudinal association of parental treatment with theft, vandalism, and violence in adolescence. Participants were 416 sibling pairs which were studied over a one-year period. The younger siblings were aged 13 to 15, the older siblings 14 to 17 at…

  15. The Psychosocial Impact of Cleft Lip and/or Palate on Unaffected Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Stoneman, Katie; Cunniffe, Claire; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-11-01

    Sibling relationships are among the most unique social connections, significantly affecting psychosocial adjustment. Previous reviews in the fields of chronic illness and disability have concluded that unaffected siblings of children with long-term conditions are at risk of poorer psychological functioning as a consequence. Much research has investigated the psychosocial impact of CL/P on affected individuals and their parents, yet comparatively little is known about the impact on other close family members.   To gain a better understanding of the experience of unaffected siblings of children born with CL/P, with a view to informing service provision and support.   Individual qualitative interviews conducted over the telephone/Internet with five siblings and eight parents, including five sibling-parent pairs from the same family.   Thematic analysis identified three key themes applicable across both parent and sibling interviews: perceptions of positive and negative impacts, factors affecting the degree of impact, and support for families.   This study provides insight into a population that is often overlooked in the context of cleft care. The analysis identified a number of sibling support and information needs, along with suggestions of how to incorporate support for siblings in practice. The findings suggest that an inclusive approach to health care encompassing all members of the family is essential for optimal familial adjustment.

  16. Papillon-Lefevre syndrome: A case report of 2 affected siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS is a very rare syndrome of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by palmar-plantar hyperkeratosis and early onset periodontitis, leading to premature loss of both primary and permanent dentitions. Various etiopathogenic factors are associated with the syndrome, but a recent report has suggested that the condition is linked to x mutations of the cathepsin C gene. The purpose of this report is to describe two cases of PLS in the same family who presented to the Department of Dentistry of Dr. R. P. Government Medical College at Tanda, Kangra (Himachal Pradesh with a chief complaint of mobility and rapid loss of teeth. Hyperkeratosis of palms and soles was present. On intraoral examination, there was severe gingival inflammation, abscess formation, and deep periodontal pockets with mobility of teeth. Histopathological examination of the specimen taken from the thickened skin was reported to be consistent with PLS. The dental treatment comprised oral prophylaxis, scaling and root planning, antibiotic therapy, instructions on oral hygiene, restorations, extraction of hopelessly affected teeth, and prosthetic rehabilitation.

  17. Age of Onset in Concordant Twins and Other Relative Pairs With Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sadovnick, A. Dessa; Yee, Irene M.; Guimond, Colleen; Reis, Jacques; Dyment, David A.; Ebers, George C.

    2009-01-01

    The ages of onset in multiple sclerosis cases span more than 7 decades. Data are presented for affected relative pairs from a Canadian population base of 30,000 multiple sclerosis index cases (1993?2008). The effects of genetic sharing, parent of origin, intergenerational versus collinear differences, and gender on the ages of onset were evaluated in the following concordant pairs: monozygotic twins (n?=?29), dizygotic twins (n?=?10), siblings (n?=?614), first cousins (n?=?405), half siblings...

  18. Genetic Linkage and Association Analysis for Loneliness in Dutch Twin and Sibling Pairs Points to a Region on Chromosome 12q23–24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, D.I.; Cacioppo, J.T.; Slagboom, P.E.; Posthuma, D.

    2006-01-01

    We obtained evidence from a large study in Dutch twins (N = 8387) and siblings (N = 2295) that variation in loneliness has a genetic component. The heritability estimate for loneliness, which was assessed as an ordinal trait, was 40% and did not differ between males and females. There were 682

  19. The role of siblings in adoption outcomes and experiences from adolescence to emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Flood, Margaux E; Grotevant, Harold D

    2016-04-01

    In many families, siblings play important roles in shaping each other's outcomes and experiences across development. In adoptive families, siblings may affect adoptees' feelings about adoption and birth family contact. Among "target adoptees" (i.e., 1 participating adopted individual within adoptive families) with siblings who may have also been adopted or the biological children of the adoptive parents, we examined how adoption experiences and individual adjustment from adolescence into emerging adulthood were associated with sibling relationship dynamics. We present 3 studies using longitudinal, mixed method data within the same overarching sample of adoptive families. Study 1 was a follow-up to Berge et al.'s (2006) study of adolescent adoptees and their adopted siblings with birth family contact; we found evidence of changes in the status of contact collectively experienced by 26 adopted sibling pairs when target adoptees were emerging adults. In Study 2, we found that target adoptees (n = 91) with siblings (adopted or not) who were more involved with target adoptees' birth family contact demonstrated more favorable behavioral outcomes than target adoptees who had uninvolved siblings. Finally in Study 3, for target adoptees with siblings who were also adopted (n = 51), results showed that target adoptees felt more positively about their own adoption when siblings expressed similar positive feelings about individual adoption experiences. Implications of our findings are discussed in terms of the enduring contributions of sibling relationships from childhood into adulthood and the unique ways in which adoptive siblings are important in shaping one another's experiences of adoption. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Large-scale linkage analysis of 1302 affected relative pairs with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshere, Marian L; Segurado, Ricardo; Moskvina, Valentina; Nikolov, Ivan; Glaser, Beate; Holmans, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common systematic autoimmune disease and its etiology is believed to have both strong genetic and environmental components. We demonstrate the utility of including genetic and clinical phenotypes as covariates within a linkage analysis framework to search for rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci. The raw genotypes of 1302 affected relative pairs were combined from four large family-based samples (North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium, United Kingdom, European Consortium on Rheumatoid Arthritis Families, and Canada). The familiality of the clinical phenotypes was assessed. The affected relative pairs were subjected to autosomal multipoint affected relative-pair linkage analysis. Covariates were included in the linkage analysis to take account of heterogeneity within the sample. Evidence of familiality was observed with age at onset (p << 0.001) and rheumatoid factor (RF) IgM (p << 0.001), but not definite erosions (p = 0.21). Genome-wide significant evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 6. Genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage was observed on chromosomes 13 and 20 when conditioning on age at onset, chromosome 15 conditional on gender, and chromosome 19 conditional on RF IgM after allowing for multiple testing of covariates. PMID:18466440

  1. Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents’ Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with...

  2. Sensory ataxic neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO) in a sibling pair with a homozygous p.A467T POLG mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, John C

    2012-02-01

    Two siblings who developed fifth-decade-onset, concurrent progressive sensory ataxia, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis were found to be homozygous for the p.A467T mutation of the polymerase gamma (POLG) gene. The clinical course in both subjects was progression to severe disability. The enlarging spectrum of sensory ataxic neuropathies associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) instability and POLG mutations should be recognized and considered in the differential diagnosis of this unusual presentation.

  3. Considerations of Elder Sibling Closeness in Predicting Younger Sibling Substance Use: Social Learning versus Social Bonding Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent siblings are often similar in a variety of adjustment outcomes, yet little is known about the processes that explain sibling influences during adolescence. Two alternative explanations were tested, attachment (based in social bonding theory) and anaclitic identification (based in social learning theory). Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 613 adolescent sibling pairs (206 non-adopted, 407 adopted; elder sibling Mage = 16.1, younger sibling Mage = 13.8) across three sibling contexts (gender composition, age difference, and genetic similarity). Attachment explanations were supported such that the greater the perceived sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, the lower the likelihood of substance use; however, there were considerable moderating effects of sibling gender composition. Anaclitic identification explanations were not supported; closeness and elder sibling substance use did not interact to predict younger sibling substance use. Overall, this research adds to a body of work demonstrating important sibling influences on adolescent substance use. PMID:21988080

  4. Sibling deidentification in the clinic: devil vs. angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, F F

    1985-09-01

    A four-member family structure consisting of two siblings contrasting in personality (sibling deidentification) and each identified with a different parent (split-parent identification) was recently reported (15). In well-functioning families, this tetrad or quadrangle is wide-spread in the first pair of siblings in the family and tends to be more common in same-sex pairs, suggesting that sibling deidentification is designed to mitigate the relatively intense sibling rivalry characteristic of these pairs and hence to maintain family harmony. In this collated case report, deidentification is found to follow the same pattern in 39 clinic first pairs. However, contrasting attributes are varied and nonevaluative in nonclinic pairs but mainly "good-bad" in clinic pairs, with polarization extreme. Results suggest that nonclinic siblings negotiate their identity (being) much as they negotiate about possessions (having) and that negotiations are blocked in clinic pairs, freezing mythic devil or angel identity. Intervention is directed at dislodging this block.

  5. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  6. Does foraging behaviour affect female mate preferences and pair formation in captive zebra finches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeltje J Boogert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful foraging is essential for survival and reproductive success. In many bird species, foraging is a learned behaviour. To cope with environmental change and survive periods in which regular foods are scarce, the ability to solve novel foraging problems by learning new foraging techniques can be crucial. Although females have been shown to prefer more efficient foragers, the effect of males' foraging techniques on female mate choice has never been studied. We tested whether females would prefer males showing the same learned foraging technique as they had been exposed to as juveniles, or whether females would prefer males that showed a complementary foraging technique. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first trained juvenile male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to obtain a significant proportion of their food by one of two foraging techniques. We then tested whether females showed a preference for males with the same or the alternative technique. We found that neither a male's foraging technique nor his foraging performance affected the time females spent in his proximity in the mate-choice apparatus. We then released flocks of these finches into an aviary to investigate whether assortative pairing would be facilitated by birds taught the same technique exploiting the same habitat. Zebra finches trained as juveniles in a specific foraging technique maintained their foraging specialisation in the aviary as adults. However, pair formation and nest location were random with regard to foraging technique. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that zebra finches can be successfully trained to be foraging specialists. However, the robust negative results of the conditions tested here suggest that learned foraging specializations do not affect mate choice or pair formation in our experimental context.

  7. Older Siblings Influence Younger Siblings' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah E.; Nuzzo, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Evidence exists for two competing theories about the effects of having an older sibling on development. Previous research has found that having an older sibling has both advantages and disadvantages for younger siblings' development. This study examined whether and how older siblings influenced the onset of their own younger siblings' motor…

  8. Siblings exposed to intimate partner violence: linking sibling relationship quality & child adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  10. And What About Siblings? A Longitudinal Analysis of Sibling Effects on Youth's Intergroup Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Katharina; Šerek, Jan; Noack, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Within the process of political socialization, the family is of particular importance. Apart from parents, however, little is known about the role of other close family members. The present study examined if siblings affect each other's intergroup attitudes (i.e., intolerance towards immigrants, social dominance orientation). Drawing on a sample of 362 sibling dyads (older siblings: M age  = 17.77, 53.6% female; younger siblings: M age  = 13.61, 61.3% female), the results showed that older siblings' intergroup attitudes predicted younger siblings' attitudes, but this effect was moderated by gender. Specifically, older siblings' intolerance and social dominance orientation were only found to affect their younger sisters, yet not their younger brothers. Although younger siblings' intergroup attitudes had no main effect on older siblings, a significant moderation by age indicated that younger siblings affected older siblings' social dominance orientation with increasing age. These moderation effects of age and gender were not mediated by the quality of family relationships. The findings also remained the same when parental intergroup attitudes were taken into account. While siblings were generally identified as an important agent of political socialization in youth, the results also highlight the necessity to further examine the mechanism that either facilitate or hinder sibling effects.

  11. Reply to Farrall. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, D.A. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Hodge, S.E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Vieland, V.J. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Spence, M.A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Farrall, in his comments about our previous letter, eloquently points out some of the advantages of affected-sib-pair (ASP) analysis. It may surprise him to learn that we do not disagree with most of his comments, but we do feel that a few of them could be potentially misleading. Farrall says that {open_quotes}ASP tests are nonparametric{close_quote} in the limited sense that the investigator does not have to declare (or have prior knowledge of) an explicit set of genetic parameters before undertaking a meaningful analysis. He could have added that one does not have the option of changing genetic parameters. One does not have to declare genetic parameters, because the design of the test is such that certain assumptions are inherent in the method. These assumptions are not obvious - and even may not be known - in the nonparametric methods. However, they are still there. 4 refs.

  12. Linkage analysis in nuclear families. 2: Relationship between affected sib-pair tests and lod score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M; Seuchter, S A; Baur, M P

    1994-01-01

    It is believed that the main advantage of affected sib-pair tests is that their application requires no information about the underlying genetic mechanism of the disease. However, here it is proved that the mean test, which can be considered the most prominent of the affected sib-pair tests, is equivalent to lod score analysis for an assumed recessive mode of inheritance, irrespective of the true mode of the disease. Further relationships of certain sib-pair tests and lod score analysis under specific assumed genetic modes are investigated.

  13. Assessment of intrafamilial clinical variability of poikiloderma with neutropenia by a 10-year follow-up of three affected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concolino, Daniela; Sestito, Simona; Falvo, Francesca; Romano, Giusy; Ceravolo, Miriam; Anastasio, Elisa; Pensabene, Licia; Colombo, Elisa A; Larizza, Lidia

    2018-05-23

    Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia is a well-defined nosological entity, but despite a remarkable number of clinical reports, no long term follow-up data has been presented to date regarding patients with this rare condition. Here we describe the results of clinical follow-up of three siblings, one male (Patient 1) and two females (Patients 2 and 3), subsequent to their first clinical and then molecular diagnosis of Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia syndrome due to mutation of USB1gene. Patient 1 always expressed the most severe phenotype, while patients 2 and 3 showed an intermediate and mild phenotype, respectively, as observed since their first clinical evaluation. None of the patients developed skin cancer and/or myelodysplastic disorders considering the peripheral haematological findings. Lens opacity, never reported before, was found in two of the three patients. The long term follow-up observations confirm the stability over time of the pronounced intra-familial heterogeneity of clinical manifestations observed prior to and upon molecular diagnosis. We conclude that prolonged follow-up is an adjunct tool to monitor intra-familial variability of PN clinical spectrum which may favour surveillance of more serious complications of the disease among siblings, when a patient-specific clinical expressivity is present. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Young Children's Personal Accounts of Their Sibling Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne E.; Smith, Melissa D.; Ross, Hildy S.; Ross, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We investigated children's personal representations of significant sibling conflicts. Forty pairs of siblings were interviewed separately about the same disputes. Although they described the same episodes, both older (M age = 7.0) and younger (M age = 4.4) siblings ascribed more serious transgressions to their opponents than to themselves. They…

  15. Effects of Sibling Structure and Interaction on Children's Categorization Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G.

    1973-01-01

    One hundred sixty sibling pairs from two child families were sampled for sibling interaction behaviors as they relate to measures of categorization style. The study provides additional evidence of the importance of a child's siblings to his cognitive development. (Editor/RK)

  16. The role of older siblings in infant motor development

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Hayley; Hill, EL

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings, but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling, or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings, along with parent reports and standardised assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings’ motor skills and the sibling rela...

  17. Risk of maltreatment for siblings: Factors associated with similar and different childhood experiences in a dyadic sample of adult siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Susanne; Fegert, Jörg M; Walper, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    Siblings share the same environment and thus potentially a substantial number of risk factors for child maltreatment. Furthermore, the number of siblings and the sibling constellation itself might pose a risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about the likelihood that more than one child in a family is maltreated and which factors increase the risk. This study sought to investigate similarities and differences in maltreatment in siblings and risk factors associated with the maltreatment of more than one child from the same family. Data on maltreatment during childhood and adolescence, family background, and sibling constellation were collected from 870 pairs of siblings. In the dyadic analyses, siblings reported similar maltreatment experiences, especially when any type of maltreatment was considered. Parents' mental health problems were significant predictors for maltreatment of at least one sibling. Father's mental health problems were predictive of maltreatment of both or only the younger sibling, mother's mental health problems of both or only the older sibling. Closeness in age and same gender of siblings did not emerge as a consistent predictor. The increasing number of siblings was a risk factor for any type of maltreatment of both siblings. The results highlight the need for preventive measures for families with a large number of children and with parents with mental health problems as well as a repeated risk assessment of all siblings in a family when one sibling was maltreated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "Who Said You Could Wear My Sweater?" Adolescent Siblings' Conflicts and Associations with Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2010-01-01

    A new measure of sibling conflict was used to identify 2 types of conflicts in 115 adolescent sibling pairs (older siblings, M = 15.59, SD = 2.01 years; younger siblings, M = 13.02, SD = 2.06 years). Conflicts overall were more frequent than intense and more likely to involve the invasion of the personal domain than conflicts involving equality…

  19. Genetic Mediation of the Home Environment during Infancy: A Sibling Adoption Study of the HOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braungart, Julia M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The home environment of nonadoptive and adoptive sibling pairs was assessed using the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment when each sibling was one and two years of age. Correlations between home environment scores for nonadoptive siblings were greater than those for adoptive siblings. (BC)

  20. Understanding Adolescent Delinquency: The Role of Older Siblings' Delinquency and Popularity with Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Jessica L.; Tanaka,Teri A.; Nishina, Adrienne; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined delinquency concordance and the moderating effects of younger sibling perceptions of older sibling popularity in a sample of 587 adolescent sibling pairs. Using a social learning framework and taking dyad composition into account, perceptions of popularity were hypothesized to strengthen siblings' concordance for…

  1. "Saviour siblings".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, M; Savulescu, J

    2002-10-01

    The Victorian Infertility Treatment Authority has given permission to allow tissue typing in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis. This is a new application of IVF. Not only will it allow parents to select an embryo free from serious genetic disease it will allow them to simultaneously select for a match so that the umbilical cord blood of the resulting baby can provide stem cells to treat an existing sibling who has a disease.

  2. Social isolation affects partner-directed social behavior and cortisol during pair formation in marmosets, Callithrix geoffroyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Birnie, Andrew K; French, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-24

    Pair-bonded relationships form during periods of close spatial proximity and high sociosexual contact. Like other monogamous species, marmosets form new social pairs after emigration or ejection from their natal group resulting in periods of social isolation. Thus, pair formation often occurs following a period of social instability and a concomitant elevation in stress physiology. Research is needed to assess the effects that prolonged social isolation has on the behavioral and cortisol response to the formation of a new social pair. We examined the sociosexual behavior and cortisol during the first 90-days of cohabitation in male and female Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) paired either directly from their natal group (Natal-P) or after a prolonged period of social isolation (ISO-P). Social isolation prior to pairing seemed to influence cortisol levels, social contact, and grooming behavior; however, sexual behavior was not affected. Cortisol levels were transiently elevated in all paired marmosets compared to natal-housed marmosets. However, ISO-P marmosets had higher cortisol levels throughout the observed pairing period compared to Natal-P marmoset. This suggests that the social instability of pair formation may lead to a transient increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity while isolation results in a prolonged HPA axis dysregulation. In addition, female social contact behavior was associated with higher cortisol levels at the onset of pairing; however, this was not observed in males. Thus, isolation-induced social contact with a new social partner may be enhanced by HPA axis activation, or a moderating factor. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Pharmacological treatments in asthma-affected horses: A pair-wise and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetta, L; Roncada, P; di Cave, D; Bonizzi, L; Urbani, A; Pistocchini, E; Rogliani, P; Matera, M G

    2017-11-01

    Equine asthma is a disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation following exposure of susceptible horses to specific airborne agents. Although clinical remission can be achieved in a low-airborne dust environment, repeated exacerbations may lead to irreversible airway remodelling. The available data on the pharmacotherapy of equine asthma result from several small studies, and no head-to-head clinical trials have been conducted among the available medications. To assess the impact of the pharmacological interventions in equine asthma and compare the effect of different classes of drugs on lung function. Pair-wise and network meta-analysis. Literature searches for clinical trials on the pharmacotherapy of equine asthma were performed. The risk of publication bias was assessed by funnel plots and Egger's test. Changes in maximum transpulmonary or pleural pressure, pulmonary resistance and dynamic lung compliance vs. control were analysed via random-effects models and Bayesian networks. The results obtained from 319 equine asthma-affected horses were extracted from 32 studies. Bronchodilators, corticosteroids and chromones improved maximum transpulmonary or pleural pressure (range: -8.0 to -21.4 cmH 2 O; Ptherapies. Long-term treatments were more effective than short-term treatments. Weak publication bias was detected. This study demonstrates that long-term treatments with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β 2 -AR agonists may represent the first choice for treating equine asthma. Further high quality clinical trials are needed to clarify whether inhaled bronchodilators should be preferred to inhaled corticosteroids or vice versa, and to investigate the potential superiority of combination therapy in equine asthma. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Reproductive interference and fecundity affect competitive interactions of sibling species with low mating barriers: experimental and theoretical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebiola, M; Kelly, S E; Velten, L; Zug, R; Hammerstein, P; Giorgini, M; Hunter, M S

    2017-12-01

    When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient. We set up laboratory population cage experiments to evaluate the outcome of the interaction between ES and EG in two pairwise combinations: iES vs EG and cured ES (cES, where Cardinium was removed with antibiotics) vs EG. We also built a theoretical model aimed at exploring the role of life-history differences and asymmetric mating on competitive outcomes. In three of four cages in each treatment, ES dominated the interaction. We found evidence for reproductive interference, driven by asymmetric mating preferences, that gave a competitive edge to ES, the species that better discriminated against heterospecifics. However, we did not find the fecundity cost previously shown to be associated with Cardinium infection in iES. The model largely supported the experimental results. The finding of only a slight competitive edge of ES over EG in population cages suggests that in a more heterogeneous environment the species could coexist. This is supported by evidence that the two species coexist in sympatry, where preliminary data suggest reproductive character displacement may have reinforced postzygotic isolation.

  5. Sibling negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rufus A. Johnstone; Alexandre Roulin

    2003-01-01

    Current discussions of offspring begging typically assume either that it is a signal directed at parents or that it represents a form of scramble competition to gain access to them. However, offspring might also display to inform nest mates that they will contest the next food item to be delivered; in other words, begging (possibly in the absence of parents) might serve purely as a form of negotiation among siblings. Here, we develop a game-theoretical model of this possibility. We assume tha...

  6. Reducing sibling conflict in maltreated children placed in foster homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-02-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N = 22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n = 13) or a comparison (n = 9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5-11 years placed together in a foster home. The siblings, parent, and joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73 %. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre- and postintervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At postintervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p conflict during play (p conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p conflict and promote parental mediation, which together may reduce sibling aggression in the foster home.

  7. Pair housing differentially affects motivation to self-administer cocaine in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Christel; Perry, Adam N; Becker, Jill B

    2013-09-01

    Female rats exhibit greater intake and motivation to self-administer cocaine. In females but not males, isolation by itself is a stressor, which could lead to increased drug intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that social housing would buffer against stress and reduce the motivation to self-administer cocaine primarily in females. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually or in same-sex pairs. The individually housed rats and one of each pair were allowed to self-administer (SA) a low dose of cocaine (0.2 mg/kg/inf) on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule for one week. Motivation for cocaine SA was measured for an additional 2 weeks on a progressive ratio schedule. Isolated females had greater cocaine-intake on the FR1 schedule and greater motivation to take cocaine than males. Pair-housing in females, but not males, attenuated the motivation to take cocaine. Isolated females, but not males, showed escalation of their motivation to take cocaine, which was attenuated by pair housing of females. Concluding, the motivation to take cocaine escalates in females but not males, and pair-housing of females attenuates this escalation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between unequal parental treatment and the sibling relationship in Finland: The difference between full and half-siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2015-06-24

    Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  9. The Association between Unequal Parental Treatment and the Sibling Relationship in Finland: The Difference between Full and Half-Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkka Danielsbacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults, we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206 from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  10. Neurodevelopmental Outcome and Treatment Efficacy of Benzoate and Dextromethorphan in Siblings with Attenuated Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Kendra J; Swanson, Michael A; Coughlin, Curtis R; Christodoulou, John; Tan, Ee S; Fergeson, Mark; Dyack, Sarah; Ahmad, Ayesha; Friederich, Marisa W; Spector, Elaine B; Creadon-Swindell, Geralyn; Hodge, M Antoinette; Gaughan, Sommer; Burns, Casey; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of sodium benzoate and dextromethorphan treatment on patients with the attenuated form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Families were recruited with 2 siblings both affected with attenuated nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Genetic mutations were expressed to identify residual activity. The outcome on developmental progress and seizures was compared between the first child diagnosed and treated late with the second child diagnosed at birth and treated aggressively from the newborn period using dextromethorphan and benzoate at dosing sufficient to normalize plasma glycine levels. Both siblings were evaluated with similar standardized neurodevelopmental measures. In each sibling set, the second sibling treated from the neonatal period achieved earlier and more developmental milestones, and had a higher developmental quotient. In 3 of the 4 sibling pairs, the younger sibling had no seizures whereas the first child had a seizure disorder. The adaptive behavior subdomains of socialization and daily living skills improved more than motor skills and communication. Early treatment with dextromethorphan and sodium benzoate sufficient to normalize plasma glycine levels is effective at improving outcome if used in children with attenuated disease with mutations providing residual activity and when started from the neonatal period. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pretense of parentage by siblings in immigration: Polesky's paradox reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Robert E; Shao, Alison

    2014-02-01

    Older and younger siblings occasionally attempt to impersonate parent and child to expedite immigration under US family-based visa policies. The rate with which full siblings escape detection by current relationship tests is unknown. Retrospective study of full-sibling immigrant pairs was undertaken to determine the proportion that show insufficient genetic evidence to exclude parentage. Sibship and parentage indices (SI and PI) were compared/case in unexcluded sibling cases and true parent-child cases. Alleles shared per short-tandem-repeat locus were compared in sibling and parent-child pairs. The proportion of successful parentage fraud by siblings was estimated from the parentage exclusion rate among immigrants and the proportion of sibships without genetic inconsistencies (GIs). When 11 to 25 independent loci were tested per two-sibling case to verify or refute parentage, tests failed to demonstrate any GI in 9% and PI was greater than SI in seven of 10 of these cases. Another 29% of full-sibling pairs demonstrated insufficient evidence (fewer than two GIs) to exclude parentage. Thus, 0.4% of sibling pairs could falsely claim a parent-child relationship and show no GIs. Another 1.4% could make that false claim and not present sufficient evidence to be excluded. At present, with no evidence of parentage exclusion in a full-sibling pair, the relative magnitudes of PI and SI are misleading relationship indicators because too few loci are examined and rates of sharing one and two alleles/locus vary greatly in parentage and sibling pairs. Only evidence of exclusion ascertains false parentage claims by siblings. Nevertheless, the expected rate of successful fraud is quite low. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. The etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior as determined from full- and half-sibling pairs: an evaluation of the validity of the twin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Lönn, S L; Maes, H H; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2015-07-01

    Twin studies have shown that criminal behavior (CB) is influenced by both genetic and shared environmental factors. Could these results be replicated using full-siblings and half-siblings? In 911 009 full-siblings reared together (FSRT), 41 872 half-siblings reared together (HSRT) and 52 590 half-siblings reared apart (HSRA), CB was assessed from the Swedish Crime Register. Modeling, including testing for age differences and rearing status, was performed using the OpenMx package. Five sibling models were fitted examining FSRT and HSRT 0-2 years different in age, and both FSRT and HSRT, and FSRT, HSRT and HSRA 0-10 years different in age with and without a specified shared environment indexing age differences. Heritability estimates for CB ranged from 33 to 55% in females and 39 to 56% in males, similar to those found in our prior twin study on the same population. Estimates for the shared environment varied from 1 to 14% in females and 10 to 23% in males, lower than those estimated in the twin study. The specified shared environment indexed by sibling age differences was significant in all models tested. Heritability estimates for CB from full- and half-siblings closely approximated those found from twins in the same population, validating the twin method. Shared environmental estimates were lower, suggesting the presence of shared environmental factors for CB specific to twins. When rearing status can be assessed, full- and half-siblings offer an additional method for assessing the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders. However, age differences in siblings may need to be included in the models.

  13. Sibling Family Practices: Guidelines for Healthy Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Toni Cavanagh; Huang, Bevan Emma; Simpson, Pippa M.

    2009-01-01

    A questionnaire was given to 500 mental health and child welfare professionals asking for maximum acceptable ages for siblings to engage jointly in certain family practices related to hygiene, affection, and privacy. A large proportion of respondents felt it was never acceptable for siblings to take showers together (40%), kiss on the mouth (37%),…

  14. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  15. Sibling relationship quality and psychosocial outcomes among adult siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and individuals with intellectual disability without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeny, Theodore S; Ellis, Brandi M; Rankin, James A; Barry, Tammy D

    2017-03-01

    Research on adult typically-developing (TD) siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities remains limited, and outcomes for TD siblings appear to vary widely. For the current study, 82 adult TD siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) completed questionnaires about themselves and their affected sibling. Results of this study suggest that the attitudes possessed by adult TD siblings are important to consider when understanding adult TD sibling outcomes. Specifically, data indicate that higher levels of positive sibling relationship attitudes are related to TD siblings providing more aid/support to their sibling with a disability, along with having higher levels of general life satisfaction, and negatively related to levels of stress and depressive symptoms among TD siblings. Consistent with previous child research, siblings of individuals with ASD reported fewer positive sibling relationship attitudes compared to siblings of individuals with ID. Finally, group membership related to aid provided, depressive symptoms, and stress of TD siblings indirectly through sibling relationship attitudes. Overall, results indicate that sibling relationship attitudes may be particularly important to consider when conceptualizing sibling relationships when one sibling has an intellectual or developmental disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing Sibling Conflict in Maltreated Children Placed in Foster Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family systems, social learning theory, and a conflict mediation perspective. In this pilot study, sibling pairs (N=22) and their foster parent were randomized into a three-component intervention (n=13) or a comparison (n=9) group. Promoting Sibling Bonds (PSB) is an 8-week prevention intervention targeting maltreated sibling pairs ages 5–11 years placed together in a foster home. The Siblings, Parent, and Joint components were delivered in a program package at the foster agency by a trained two-clinician team. Average attendance across program components was 73%. Outcomes in four areas were gathered at pre-and post-intervention: observed sibling interaction quality (positive and negative) including conflict during play, and foster parent reports of mediation strategies and sibling aggression in the foster home. At post-intervention, adjusting for baseline scores and child age, intervention pairs showed higher positive (p<.001) and negative (p<.05) interaction quality, and lower sibling conflict during play (p <.01) than comparison pairs. Foster parents in the intervention group reported a higher number of conflict mediation strategies than those in the comparison group (p <.001). Foster parents in the intervention group reported lower sibling physical aggression from the older toward the younger child than those in the comparison group (p <.05). Data suggest that the PSB intervention is a promising approach to reduce conflict and promote parental mediation which together may reduce

  17. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-...

  18. Tensions among siblings in parent care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashewicz, Bonnie; Keating, Norah

    2009-06-01

    From a place of "genealogical equivalence" as children of their parents, siblings spend a lifetime developing separate identities. As parents near the end of their lives, issues of sibling equivalence are renegotiated in the face of equal obligations to provide care and equal entitlement to parent assets. In this paper, we hypothesize how unresolved issues of rivalry for parent affection/attention among siblings may be reasserted when parents need care. Data are drawn from a project about how parent care and assets are shared. In-depth interviews with three sibling groups experiencing conflict over sharing parent care and assets along with six Canadian legal case portrayals of disputes among siblings over how parent care and assets were shared are examined. Findings are that disputes occur when siblings perceive others as dominating parent care and assets through tactics such as separating the parent from other siblings and preventing other siblings from being engaged in decisions about care and assets. Discussion is focused on paradoxes faced by siblings given expectations for equity in parent relationships alongside perceived pre-eminence in care and asset decisions.

  19. Novel rare missense variations and risk of autism spectrum disorder: whole-exome sequencing in two families with affected siblings and a two-stage follow-up study in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Egawa

    Full Text Available Rare inherited variations in multiplex families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are suggested to play a major role in the genetic etiology of ASD. To further investigate the role of rare inherited variations, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES in two families, each with three affected siblings. We also performed a two-stage follow-up case-control study in a Japanese population. WES of the six affected siblings identified six novel rare missense variations. Among these variations, CLN8 R24H was inherited in one family by three affected siblings from an affected father and thus co-segregated with ASD. In the first stage of the follow-up study, we genotyped the six novel rare missense variations identified by WES in 241 patients and 667 controls (the Niigata sample. Only CLN8 R24H had higher mutant allele frequencies in patients (1/482 compared with controls (1/1334. In the second stage, this variation was further genotyped, yet was not detected in a sample of 309 patients and 350 controls (the Nagoya sample. In the combined Niigata and Nagoya samples, there was no significant association (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.1-29.6. These results suggest that CLN8 R24H plays a role in the genetic etiology of ASD, at least in a subset of ASD patients.

  20. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents’ Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with an attenuated relation between self-blame and anxiety. A paradoxical moderating effect was found for negative interactions; for both younger and older siblings, a relation between self-blame and anxiety was weakened in the presence of sibling negativity. Results offered support for theorized benefits of sibling relationship quality in helping early adolescents adjust to conflict between parents. PMID:24244080

  2. Sibling relationship quality moderates the associations between parental interventions and siblings' independent conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-08-01

    This study extends research on sibling conflict strategies and outcomes by examining unique and interactive associations with age, relative birth order, sibling relationship quality, and caregivers' interventions into conflict. Each of 62 sibling dyads (older sibling mean age = 8.39 years; younger sibling mean age = 6.06 years) discussed 1 recurring conflict alone (dyadic negotiation) and a 2nd conflict with their primary parental caregiver (triadic negotiation). Negotiations were coded for children's conflict strategies, outcomes, and caregiver interventions; each family member provided ratings of sibling relationship quality. Results revealed that age was associated with siblings' constructive strategies, particularly in the dyadic negotiation. With age controlled, younger siblings referred more frequently to their own perspective. Caregivers' future orientation in the triadic negotiation was associated with children's future orientation in the dyadic negotiation; however, this association was most evident when sibling relationship quality was high. Similarly, caregivers' past orientation was positively associated with dyadic compromise, especially when relationship quality was high. Results reveal the value of simultaneously considering associations among parental, affective, and developmental correlates of sibling conflict strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Sibling Gender Composition and Preferences for STEM Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila

    2017-01-01

    of the younger siblings' gender allows me to estimate the causal effect of having an opposite compared to same sex sibling. Overall, having an opposite sex sibling makes educational choices more gender-stereotypical for both genders. Having an opposite sex sibling reduces women's probability to enroll in any......-parent interactions. Parents with mixed sex children gender-specialize their parenting more and spend more quality time with their same sex child than parents with same sex children. Moreover, I show that young boys with an opposite sex sibling are exposed to more gender-stereotypical behavior within the family than......This paper studies how sibling gender composition affects preferences for education within Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). To identify the causal effect of sibling gender, I focus on a sample of firstborn children who all have a younger biological sibling. The randomness...

  4. Bullying among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Skew, Alexandra J

    2012-01-01

    Parents are often concerned about repeated conflicts between their daughters and sons. However, there is little empirical research of sibling bullying. To conduct a review of existing studies of sibling bullying. Are there any associations between sibling bullying and peer bullying at school? What are the consequences of sibling bullying? Is there good justification why sibling bullying has been so neglected in research? Studies of sibling relationships were reviewed. Four quantitative studies were identified that report on both sibling and peer bullying. Sibling bullying is frequent with up to 50% involved in sibling bullying every month and between 16% and 20% involved in bullying several times a week. Experience of sibling bullying increases the risk of involvement in bullying in school. Both, bullying between siblings and school bullying make unique contributions to explaining behavioral and emotional problems. There is a clear dose-effect relationship of involvement of bullying at home and at school and behavioral or emotional problems. Those involved in both have up to 14 times increased odds of behavioral or emotional problems compared to those involved in only one context or not at all. The empirical evidence is limited and studies are mostly cross-sectional studies. Nevertheless, the review suggests that for those victimized at home and at school behavioral and emotional problems are highly increased. Sibling relationships appear to be a training ground with implications for individual well-being. Strengthening families and parenting skills and increasing sibling support is likely to reduce bullying and increase well-being.

  5. The Association of Sibling Relationship and Abuse with Later Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amber L.; Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Kelly, David B.

    2010-01-01

    This study of 59 undergraduate men and 85 undergraduate women explored how defining emotional and physical sibling abuse affected the frequency of reported sibling abuse. In addition, the current study examined how the emotional context of the sibling relationship (i.e., rivalry and conflict) moderated the relationship between sibling abuse and…

  6. Sibling fairy tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brunori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a reflection on sibling relationships starting from fairy tales. Their archetypical meaning and educative value are particularly analyzed. A selection of fairy tales having sibling relationships as their central theme is discussed.

  7. Does early use of enzyme replacement therapy alter the natural history of mucopolysaccharidosis I? Experience in three siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraway, Sarah; Breen, Catherine; Mercer, Jean; Jones, Simon; Wraith, James E

    2013-07-01

    Enzyme replacement therapy is widely used as treatment for mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I), and there is evidence that this produces improvement in certain clinical domains. There does appear to be variation in the response of clinical features to treatment once these are established. In a reported sibling pair, when enzyme replacement therapy was commenced pre-symptomatically in the younger child, the natural history of the condition appeared to be affected. We present data from three siblings treated with enzyme replacement therapy at different ages which supports this finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relational Aggression in Sibling and Peer Relationships during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Crick, Nicki R.; Stauffacher, Kirstin

    2006-01-01

    The role of siblings ("N" = 50) in the display of physical and relational aggression among peers during early childhood was explored. Specifically, sibling pairs' rates of physical and relational aggression were assessed in their independent social contexts. Findings indicated low to moderate levels of intercorrelation between physical and…

  9. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  10. Personality and Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…

  11. "We Got to Figure It out": Information-Sharing and Siblings' Negotiations of Conflicts of Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Avigail; Ross, Hildy

    2008-01-01

    Given the importance of mutual understanding for constructive conflict resolution, this study investigated the influence of information-sharing on siblings faced with conflicts of interests. Thirty-two sibling dyads (ages 4.5 to 8) participated. Siblings were asked to negotiate the division of five toys between themselves. Half of the pairs first…

  12. Using Twins to Better Understand Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katharine M; Pike, Alison; Latham, Rachel M; Oliver, Bonamy R

    2017-03-01

    We compared the nature of the sibling relationship in dyads of varying genetic relatedness, employing a behavioural genetic design to estimate the contribution that genes and the environment have on this familial bond. Two samples were used-the Sisters and Brothers Study consisted of 173 families with two target non-twin children (mean ages = 7.42 and 5.22 years respectively); and the Twins, Family and Behaviour study included 234 families with two target twin children (mean age = 4.70 years). Mothers and fathers reported on their children's relationship with each other, via a postal questionnaire (the Sisters and Brothers Study) or a telephone interview (the Twins, Family and Behaviour study). Contrary to expectations, no mean level differences emerged when monozygotic twin pairs, dizygotic twin pairs, and non-twin pairs were compared on their sibling relationship quality. Behavioural genetic analyses also revealed that the sibling bond was modestly to moderately influenced by the genetic propensities of the children within the dyad, and moderately to substantially influenced by the shared environment common to both siblings. In addition, for sibling negativity, we found evidence of twin-specific environmental influence-dizygotic twins showed more reciprocity than did non-twins. Our findings have repercussions for the broader application of results from future twin-based investigations.

  13. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...

  14. Longitudinal associations among parental acceptance, familism values, and sibling intimacy in Mexican-origin families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Rodríguez de Jésus, Sue A; McHale, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Prospective associations among parent-adolescent acceptance and familism values in early and middle adolescence and sibling intimacy in late adolescence and young adulthood were assessed in 246 Mexican-origin families. Older sibling gender and sibling gender constellation were investigated as moderators of these associations. Sibling intimacy was stable over time and younger siblings with older sisters reported higher levels of sibling intimacy than those with older brothers. As predicted, stronger familism values were associated with greater sibling intimacy, but this link was evident only for older sisters and for girl-girl dyads. The links from mother- and father-acceptance to sibling intimacy also depended on the gender constellation of the sibling dyad: Higher levels of maternal warmth were associated with greater sibling intimacy for older sisters and girl-girl sibling pairs but higher levels of paternal warmth were linked to greater sibling intimacy only for older siblings in mixed-gender sibling dyads. Findings are consistent with prior research on the role of gender in family relationships but extend this work to encompass the effects of both parents' and siblings' gender, as well as the role of sociocultural values in parents' socialization influences. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  15. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  16. “Life Still Isn't Fair”: Parental Differential Treatment of Young Adult Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Alexander C.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Birditt, Kira S.

    2013-01-01

    Parental differential treatment has been linked to individual well-being and sibling relationship quality in childhood, adolescence, and middle adulthood, but has not been examined in young adulthood. Data were collected from 151 pairs of young adult siblings (N = 302, Mean age = 23.90, SD = 5.02). Two siblings in each family reported on treatment from mothers and fathers, depressive symptoms, and sibling relationship quality. Using multi-level modeling, analyses examined the role of favoriti...

  17. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  18. The role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M L; Branje, Susan J T; VanderValk, Inge E; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the role of siblings on identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood, using a three-wave longitudinal design. Measures of identity formation were filled out by 498 sibling dyads. Sibling effects differed as a function of age and gender configuration within the dyads. Controlled for age, earlier-born siblings reported the most advanced levels of identity formation, and later-born siblings the lowest. Positive relations between siblings' identity and changes in identity of respondents provided support for modeling processes between siblings. The identity of earlier-born same-sex siblings, in particular, tends to be important in influencing identity formation. Contrary to the expectations, differentiation processes between siblings did not appear to influence identity formation. It is apparent from this study that both the gender and birth order of siblings affect whether their own identity formation processes influence those of adolescents and emerging adults.

  19. Risk factor studies of age-at-onset in a sample ascertained for Parkinson disease affected sibling pairs: a cautionary tale

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Jemma B; Lash, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset arising from case-only studies, however, may also reflect secular trends in the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor. Comparisons of age-at-onset associated with risk factors are commonly performed in case series enrolled for genetic linkage analysis of late onset diseases. W...

  20. Risk factor studies of age-at-onset in a sample ascertained for Parkinson disease affected sibling pairs: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Jemma B; Lash, Timothy L

    2007-04-04

    An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset arising from case-only studies, however, may also reflect secular trends in the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor. Comparisons of age-at-onset associated with risk factors are commonly performed in case series enrolled for genetic linkage analysis of late onset diseases. We describe how the results of age-at-onset studies of environmental risk factors reflect the underlying structure of the source population, rather than an association with age-at-onset, by contrasting the effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on Parkinson disease age-at-onset with the effects on age-at-enrollment in a population based study sample. Despite earlier evidence to suggest a protective association of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking with Parkinson disease risk, the age-at-onset results are comparable to the patterns observed in the population sample, and thus a causal inference from the age-at-onset effect may not be justified. Protective effects of multivitamin use on PD age-at-onset are also shown to be subject to a bias from the relationship between age and multivitamin initiation. Case-only studies of age-at-onset must be performed with an appreciation for the association between risk factors and age and ageing in the source population.

  1. Risk factor studies of age-at-onset in a sample ascertained for Parkinson disease affected sibling pairs: a cautionary tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An association between exposure to a risk factor and age-at-onset of disease may reflect an effect on the rate of disease occurrence or an acceleration of the disease process. The difference in age-at-onset arising from case-only studies, however, may also reflect secular trends in the prevalence of exposure to the risk factor. Comparisons of age-at-onset associated with risk factors are commonly performed in case series enrolled for genetic linkage analysis of late onset diseases. We describe how the results of age-at-onset studies of environmental risk factors reflect the underlying structure of the source population, rather than an association with age-at-onset, by contrasting the effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on Parkinson disease age-at-onset with the effects on age-at-enrollment in a population based study sample. Despite earlier evidence to suggest a protective association of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking with Parkinson disease risk, the age-at-onset results are comparable to the patterns observed in the population sample, and thus a causal inference from the age-at-onset effect may not be justified. Protective effects of multivitamin use on PD age-at-onset are also shown to be subject to a bias from the relationship between age and multivitamin initiation. Case-only studies of age-at-onset must be performed with an appreciation for the association between risk factors and age and ageing in the source population.

  2. The early development of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: Characteristics of sibling interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warreyn, Petra; Van der Paelt, Sara; Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Although sibling interactions play an important role in children’s early development, they are rarely studied in very young children with an older brother or sister with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study used a naturalistic, observational method to compare interactions between 18-month-old infants and their older sibling with ASD (n = 22) with a control group of 18-month-old infants and their typically developing (TD) older sibling (n = 29). In addition, role (a)symmetry and the influence of gender were evaluated. Sibling interactions in ASD-dyads were characterized by higher levels of negativity. Although somewhat less pronounced in ASD-dyads, role asymmetry was present in both groups, with the older child taking the dominant position. Finally, siblings pairs with an older sister were characterized by more positive behaviours. Since differences in sibling interactions may alter the developmental trajectories of both siblings, these early relationships should be taken into account in future ASD research and interventions. PMID:29543814

  3. Variability of age at onset in siblings with familial Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Barquero, M Sagrario; Barón, Manuel; Sainz, M Jose; Manzano, Sagrario; Payno, Maria; Ros, Raquel; Almaraz, Carmen; Gómez-Garré, Pilar; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano

    2007-12-01

    Variability of age at onset (AO) of Alzheimer disease (AD) among members of the same family is important as a biological clue and because of its clinical effects. To evaluate which clinical variables influence the discrepancy in AO among affected relatives with familial AD. Clinical genetic project of Spanish kindred with AD conducted by 4 academic hospitals in Madrid, Spain. Age at onset of AD in 162 families and discrepancy in AO in intragenerational and intergenerational affected pairs were analyzed in relation to age, sex, maternal or paternal transmission, pattern of inheritance, and apolipoprotein E genotype. Maternal transmission of AD was significantly more frequent than paternal transmission (P patient was 65 years old. Discrepancy in AO among siblings was within 5 years in 44% of the families, 6 to 10 years in 29%, and more than 10 years in 27% (range, 0-22). This discrepancy was independent of the sex of the sibling pairs and was significantly lower with maternal transmission of AD (P = .02). Segregation analysis showed no differences in the inheritance pattern between families with low (5 years) AO discrepancy. Age at onset in carriers of the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele was slightly younger. However, among siblings, an extra apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele was not consistently associated with earlier onset of AD. Eighty percent of patients, independent of sex or mode of transmission, were already affected at their parents' reported AO. There is a wide discrepancy in AO in affected siblings that is not clearly explained by a single clinical variable or apolipoprotein E genotype. The interaction of many factors probably determines AO in each affected individual. However, maternal transmission of AD seems to result in a similar AO in offspring, and the risk of developing dementia after the parent's reported AO decreases significantly.

  4. The role of older siblings in infant motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that infant motor skills may be affected by older siblings but has not considered whether this is due to specific characteristics of the older sibling or of the quality of the sibling relationship. The current study used a longitudinal diary method to record infant motor milestones from 23 infants with older siblings along with parent reports and standardized assessments of motor skills. Parent reports of the older siblings' motor skills and the sibling relationship were also collected until the infants were 18months old. The motor skills, age, and sex of the older siblings were not significantly related to any measure of infant motor development. A significant correlation was revealed between perceived agonism between siblings and infant fine motor skills at 18months, suggesting the importance of considering reciprocal effects of motor development on sibling relationships. Overall, the suggestion that older siblings may provide a good model of motor skills for infants is not supported by the current data. In the future, it will be important to assess the dynamic interactions between different factors in predicting infant motor development, allowing early identification of motor difficulties, which could affect other areas of cognitive development and health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotion Regulation in Context: The Jealousy Complex between Young Siblings and Its Relations with Child and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Miller, Alison L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between sibling jealousy and child and family characteristics in families with toddler and preschool-age siblings. Found that positive marital relationship was particularly strong predictor of older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy in sessions with mothers. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers related to child's…

  6. [The sibling status effects and the personality scales of the MMPI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, H; Mine, H; Mine, H; Matsuyama, Y

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out if the personalities of siblings are similar or different. Subjects used were Doshisha University students and members of their families, provided those families had only two children. Altogether 29 pairs of boys and their younger brothers, 47 pairs of boys and their younger sisters, 44 pairs of girls and their younger brothers, and 51 pairs of girls and their younger sisters were given the MMPI individually. Sibling status effects were found in many of the MMPI scores according to the type of sibling dyads and birth order, especially for the sibling dyad of elder brother and younger sister. Personality relationships between the first and second child showed that there were significant correlations in many MMPI scales: L, K, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, Conflict resolution, Manifest anxiety, Repression-Sensitization, and Hostility. Among the four types of sibling dyad, the pairs of girls and their younger brothers showed the highest correlation in their personality.

  7. Performance analysis of deciduous morphology for detecting biological siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M

    2015-08-01

    Family-centered burial practices influence cemetery structure and can represent social group composition in both modern and ancient contexts. In ancient sites dental phenotypic data are often used as proxies for underlying genotypes to identify potential biological relatives. Here, we test the performance of deciduous dental morphological traits for differentiating sibling pairs from unrelated individuals from the same population. We collected 46 deciduous morphological traits for 69 sibling pairs from the Burlington Growth Centre's long term Family Study. Deciduous crown features were recorded following published standards. After variable winnowing, inter-individual Euclidean distances were generated using 20 morphological traits. To determine whether sibling pairs are more phenotypically similar than expected by chance we used bootstrap resampling of distances to generate P values. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots were used to evaluate the degree of clustering among sibling pairs. Results indicate an average distance between siblings of 0.252, which is significantly less than 9,999 replicated averages of 69 resampled pseudo-distances generated from: 1) a sample of non-relative pairs (P < 0.001), and 2) a sample of relative and non-relative pairs (P < 0.001). MDS plots indicate moderate to strong clustering among siblings; families occupied 3.83% of the multidimensional space on average (versus 63.10% for the total sample). Deciduous crown morphology performed well in identifying related sibling pairs. However, there was considerable variation in the extent to which different families exhibited similarly low levels of phenotypic divergence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  9. "No! The Lambs Can Stay Out Because They Got Cozies": Constructive and Destructive Sibling Conflict, Pretend Play, and Social Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Jennings, Melissa; Petrakos, Harriet

    2002-01-01

    Investigated associations among constructive and destructive sibling conflict, pretend play, internal state language, and sibling relationship quality among sibling pairs with one kindergarten-age child. Found that specific resolution strategies were associated with conflict issues, aggression and internal state language, and that conflict issues…

  10. Changes in siblings after the death of a child from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terrah L; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru; Davies, Betty; Dietrich, Mary S; Fairclough, Diane L; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined changes in siblings after the death of a brother or sister, particularly from mother, father, and sibling perspectives within the first year after death. This descriptive study identified and assessed the frequency of changes in siblings after a child's death from cancer. Participants were recruited from cancer registries at 3 hospitals in the United States and Canada 3 to 12 months after the child's death. Thirty-six mothers, 24 fathers, and 39 siblings from 40 families were included. Semistructured interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with each parent and sibling separately in the home. Content analysis identified emerging themes, and the McNemar tests compared frequencies between each paired set of reports (sibling vs mother, sibling vs father, mother vs father). Sixty-nine percent of participants reported personal changes in siblings (eg, changes in personality, school work, goals/life perspective, activities/interests). Forty-seven percent noted changes in siblings' relationships with family members and peers. Only 21% of participants reported no changes attributed to the death. Comparisons of frequencies across informants were not significant. Most siblings experienced changes in multiple areas of their lives after the death of a brother or sister to cancer. Some changes reflected siblings that were positively adapting to the death, whereas other changes reflected difficulties. Our findings offer guidance to improve aftercare for bereaved siblings and their families. Additional research is needed to further delineate the needs of bereaved siblings and to develop strategies to promote adaptation to loss.

  11. Concordance of visual and structural features between siblings with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinmiller, Laura J; Holleschau, Ann; Summers, C Gail

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate similarities and differences in visual function and ocular structure between siblings with albinism. The medical records of all siblings diagnosed with albinism were retrospectively reviewed. Comparisons were made using examination at oldest age for younger sibling and examination closest to that age for older siblings. A total of 111 patients from 54 families were studied. Mean age was 12.9 years (range, 2 months to 44.2 years). Mean difference in ages between sibling pair examinations was 11.5 months (range, 0-87 months). Of 45 families, best-corrected visual acuity was equal in 9 (20%), within 1/2 octave in 9 (20%), >1/2 but albinism should be counseled with due caution because visual function is often disparate despite similar structural findings. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sibling differentiation: sibling and parent relationship trajectories in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Cumsille, Patricio

    2003-01-01

    Studied here were the links between sibling differences in trajectories of change in the qualities of parent-child relationships and the qualities of sibling relationships across a 2-year period in adolescence. Participants were first- and second-born siblings (M age = 14.94 years for firstborns and M age = 12.46 years for secondborns) from 185 predominantly White, working and middle-class families. In home interviews, siblings reported on their dyadic family relationships. For reports of parent-child warmth but not parent-child conflict, results were consistent with sibling differentiation theory: Increasing differences between siblings over time in parent-child warmth were linked to trajectories of increasing warmth and decreasing conflict in the sibling relationship as reported by firstborns, and increasing warmth in the sibling relationship as reported by secondborns. The findings support the view that sibling differentiation may be a strategy for managing sibling conflict and rivalry.

  13. Appetite and growth: a longitudinal sibling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Boniface, David; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane

    2014-04-01

    Identifying early markers of future obesity risk can help target preventive interventions. Several studies have shown that a heartier appetite in infancy is a risk factor for more rapid weight gain, but to date no investigations have been able to rule out familial confounding. To use a sibling design (data from same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs) to test the hypothesis that sibling differences in infant appetite predicted differential weight gain during childhood. Gemini is a population-based twin cohort among the general United Kingdom population born between March 1, 2007, and December 15, 2007. Growth trajectories were analyzed from birth to age 15 months. Appetite-discordant pairs were selected from 800 nonidentical, same-sex twin pairs. Appetite during the first 3 months of life was assessed with the food responsiveness (FR) and satiety responsiveness (SR) subscales from the Baby Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Discordance was defined as a within-pair difference of at least 1 SD. A mean of 11.5 weight measurements per child were available between birth and age 15 months. Multilevel models, adjusted for sex and birth weight, compared growth curves for the higher-appetite vs lower-appetite twins. In total, 172 pairs were discordant for SR and 121 pairs for FR. Within-pair analyses showed that those with higher FR and those with lower SR grew faster than their sibling. At age 6 months, those with higher FR were 654 (95% CI, 395-913) g heavier and at age 15 months were 991 (95% CI, 484-1498) g heavier. For sibling pairs discordant for SR, the weight differences between siblings were 637 (95% CI, 438-836) g at age 6 months and 918 (95% CI, 569-1267) g at age 15 months. A heartier appetite (indexed with higher FR or lower SR) in early infancy is prospectively associated with more rapid growth up to age 15 months in a design controlling for potential familial confounding, supporting a causal role for appetite in childhood weight gain. Appetite could be an early marker

  14. Perceptions of sibling relationships during middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrmester, D; Furman, W

    1990-10-01

    Children in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12 were administered the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire. Relationships were rated as progressively more egalitarian across the 4 grade groups, with adolescents reporting less dominance and nurturance by their older siblings than younger participants. Adolescents also reported less companionship, intimacy, and affection with siblings than younger participants reported. Levels of perceived conflict with younger siblings were moderately high across all 4 grades, whereas ratings of conflict with older siblings were progressively lower across the 4 grades. The findings suggested that sibling relationships: (a) become more egalitarian and less asymmetrical with age, (b) become less intense with age, and (c) encompass experiences that are partially determined by the child's standing in the family constellation.

  15. Siblings Promote a Type 1/Type 17-oriented immune response in the airways of asymptomatic neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Chawes, Bo L.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.

    2016-01-01

    -related mediators. This was supported by the PCA showing a highly significant difference between children with vs. without siblings: p...BACKGROUND: Siblings have been shown to reduce the risk of later asthma and allergy, but the mechanism driving this association is unknown. The objective was to study whether siblings affect the airway immune response in healthy neonates. We hypothesized that siblings exert immune modulatory......-cohort (COPSAC2010). The association between airway mediator levels and presence of siblings was investigated using conventional statistics and principle component analyses (PCA). RESULTS: Neonates with siblings had an up-regulated level of airway immune-mediators, with predominance of Type 1- and Type 17...

  16. Familial concordance of phenotype and microbial variation among siblings with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Elie; Aviram, Micha; Yahav, Yaakov; Rivlin, Joseph; Blau, Hanna; Bentur, Lea; Avital, Avraham; Villa, Yael; Schwartz, Shepard; Kerem, Batsheva; Kerem, Eitan

    2004-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) is influenced by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) genotype. However, variable courses of the disease were demonstrated among patients with identical genotypes. Since siblings share identical CFTR mutations and environmental factors, they can serve as a model to assess the effect of modifier genes on disease expression, and also to evaluate cross-infection. The aim of this study was to compare disease expression among siblings with CF. All sibling pairs treated at 7 CF centers in Israel were included in the study. Data were collected from patients' medical charts. Fifty families with at least 2 siblings were identified. As expected, the second-born sibling was diagnosed at an earlier age compared to the first-born. The mode of CF presentation at diagnosis showed significant familial concordance. In the families where the first sibling presented with gastrointestinal manifestations, 79% of the second siblings also presented with gastrointestinal manifestations. When gastrointestinal manifestations were absent in the first sibling, only 12% of the second siblings presented with gastrointestinal manifestations (P sibling presented with respiratory symptoms, 60% of the second siblings presented with the similar symptoms. However, when the first sibling presented without respiratory symptoms, only 12% of the second siblings presented with respiratory symptoms (P sibling had MI, 8 (80%) of the subsequent siblings had MI. On the other hand, in the 39 families where the first-born sibling did not have MI, only 2 (5%) subsequent siblings had MI (P siblings. P. aeruginosa grew from sputum in 89% of our study patients. When P. aeruginosa was isolated from the first-born patient, 91% of the second siblings were also positive for P. aeruginosa, whereas when the initial sibling was not a carrier of P. aeruginosa, only 50% of subsequent siblings were positive (P sibling than in the first for the two

  17. Sibling relationship quality and Mexican-origin adolescents' and young adults' familism values and adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: Positive, Negative and Affect-Intense. Links between profiles and youths’ familism values and adjustment were assessed using longitudinal data. Siblings in the Positive profile reported the highest familism values, followed by siblings in the Affect-Intense profile and, finally, siblings in the Negative profile. Older siblings in the Positive and Affect-Intense profiles reported fewer depressive symptoms than siblings in the Negative profile. Further, in the Positive and Negative profiles, older siblings reported less involvement in risky behaviors than younger siblings. In the Negative profile, younger siblings reported greater sexual risk behaviors in late adolescence than older siblings; siblings in opposite-sex dyads, as compared to same-sex dyads, engaged in riskier sexual behaviors. Our findings highlight sibling relationship quality as promotive and risky, depending on sibling characteristics and adjustment outcomes. PMID:28239217

  18. Sibling Socialization: The Effects of Stressful Life Events and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Katherine J.; Stocker, Clare; McGuire, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Stressful life events and experiences may disrupt the typical day-to-day interactions between sisters and brothers that provide the foundation of sibling socialization. This chapter examines four experiences that may affect patterns of sibling interaction: parental marital conflict, parental divorce and remarriage, foster care placement, and a…

  19. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  20. Progeria in siblings: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sowmiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria, also known as Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, is an extremely rare, severe genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. It is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is not seen in siblings of affected children although there are very few case reports of progeria affecting more than one child in a family. Here we are presenting two siblings, a 14-year-old male and a 13-year-old female with features of progeria, suggesting a possible autosomal recessive inheritance.

  1. Siblings of Individuals with Autism or Down Syndrome: Effects on Adult Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael. I.; Seltzer, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In this study, we examine instrumental and affective involvement in the sibling relationship for adults who have a brother or sister with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or Down syndrome (DS). We ask three research questions: (1) How do adult siblings of individuals with ASD differ from siblings of individuals with DS in their…

  2. Brothers and Sisters of Adults with Mental Retardation: Gendered Nature of the Sibling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2000-01-01

    Differences and similarities between 245 brothers and sisters of adults with mental retardation in the sibling relationship were examined. Sisters scored higher in the caregiving, companionship, and positive affect aspects of the sibling relationship. Sibling involvement increased over time, but was dependent upon changes in maternal health.…

  3. Sibling influences on adolescent substance use: the role of modeling, collusion, and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Shortt, Joann Wu; Snyder, James

    2012-02-01

    The longitudinal associations of older sibling substance use as well as dyadic sibling conflict and collusion to younger sibling substance use were examined in a community-based sample of 244 same-sex sibling pairs. Indirect effects of older siblings on younger sibling substance use were hypothesized via younger sibling deviant peer affiliation and conflict with friends. Adolescents, parents, friends, and teachers completed measures of substance use, conflict, and deviant peer involvement. Observational data were used for both measures of collusion and conflict. Findings suggest that older sibling substance use has a direct effect on younger sibling use, but relationship dynamics and reinforcement played a significant role as well. Specifically, collusion and conflict in the sibling relationship both had indirect effects through younger siblings' deviant peer affiliation. Findings validate the powerful socializing role of both siblings and peers, and elucidate the complex mechanisms through which socialization occurs. Furthermore, data underscore the importance of considering how multiple dimensions of socialization operate in the elaboration of antisocial behavior.

  4. Sibling influences on adolescent substance use: The role of modeling, collusion, and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOW, SABINA; SHORTT, JOANN WU; SNYDER, JAMES

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal associations of older sibling substance use as well as dyadic sibling conflict and collusion to younger sibling substance use were examined in a community-based sample of 244 same-sex sibling pairs. Indirect effects of older siblings on younger sibling substance use were hypothesized via younger sibling deviant peer affiliation and conflict with friends. Adolescents, parents, friends, and teachers completed measures of substance use, conflict, and deviant peer involvement. Observational data were used for both measures of collusion and conflict. Findings suggest that older sibling substance use has a direct effect on younger sibling use, but relationship dynamics and reinforcement played a significant role as well. Specifically, collusion and conflict in the sibling relationship both had indirect effects through younger siblings' deviant peer affiliation. Findings validate the powerful socializing role of both siblings and peers, and elucidate the complex mechanisms through which socialization occurs. Furthermore, data underscore the importance of considering how multiple dimensions of socialization operate in the elaboration of antisocial behavior. PMID:22293010

  5. Relationships between adult siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents learning in private relationships between adult siblings. A concept of a family as microculture is presented, which is a source for giving explanation for random and opportunist learning. The author has used a biographic method of research. Using thematic life stories, which she has familiarized herself with through thematicalbiographical interviews is a basis to establish which events have served for learning in relationships between siblings.

  6. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants ...

  7. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy John

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family history and twins studies suggest an inherited component to ischemic stroke risk. Candidate gene association studies have been performed but have limited capacity to identify novel risk factor genes. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS aims to conduct a genome-wide scan in sibling pairs concordant or discordant for ischemic stroke to identify novel genetic risk factors through linkage analysis. Methods Screening at multiple clinical centers identifies patients (probands with radiographically confirmed ischemic stroke and a family history of at least 1 living full sibling with stroke. After giving informed consent, without violating privacy among other family members, the proband invites siblings concordant and discordant for stroke to participate. Siblings then contact the study coordinating center. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke in potentially concordant siblings is confirmed by systematic centralized review of medical records. The stroke-free status of potentially discordant siblings is confirmed by validated structured telephone interview. Blood samples for DNA analysis are taken from concordant sibling pairs and, if applicable, from 1 discordant sibling. Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines are created, and a scan of the human genome is planned. Discussion Conducting adequately powered genomics studies of stroke in humans is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the stroke phenotype and the difficulty of obtaining DNA samples from clinically well-characterized members of a cohort of stroke pedigrees. The multicentered design of this study is intended to efficiently assemble a cohort of ischemic stroke pedigrees without invoking community consent or using cold-calling of pedigree members.

  8. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.

  9. Still the Favorite? Parents’ Differential Treatment of Siblings Entering Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined within-family stability in parents’ differential treatment of siblings from adolescence to young adulthood and the effect of differential treatment in young adulthood on grown siblings’ relationship quality. The author used longitudinal data on parent – child and sibling relations from the sibling sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,470 sibling dyads). Within-dyad fixed effects regression models revealed that the adolescent sibling who was closer to parents went on to be the young adult sibling who was closer to and received more material support from parents. Results from an actor – partner interdependence model revealed that differential parental financial assistance of young adult siblings predicted worse sibling relationship quality. These findings demonstrate the lasting importance of affect between parents and offspring earlier in the family life course and the relevance of within-family inequalities for understanding family relations. PMID:24244050

  10. Comparison of self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahane, Sandeep; Shah, Henal; Nagarale, Vivek; Kamath, Ravindra

    2013-09-01

    To compare self-esteem and maternal attitude between children with learning disability and their unaffected siblings. This cross sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in an urban setting. It comprised of 31 pairs of children with a learning disability, their unaffected siblings and input from their mothers. All children were assessed with Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Mothers were asked to fill Index of parental attitude (IPA) and semi structured proforma with demographic data and questionnaire about her children with a learning disability and his/her unaffected sibling. Self-esteem was found to be lower in children with learning disability. They felt they do not have much to be proud of and have a fewer number of good qualities. They are also inclined to consider themselves as failures. In factors affecting self-esteem, index of parental attitude was found to be unfavorable towards children with learning disability. Mothers felt child was interfering with their activities and was getting on their nerves. In addition, they also felt that they do not understand their child, feel like they do not love their child and wished that child was more like others they know off. More academic failures, academic difficulties and negative school report were also perceived by mother as lowering child's self-esteem. Self-esteem was lower in children with learning disability. In factors affecting self-esteem maternal attitude, academic difficulties, academic failure and negative school reports was found to be unfavorable.

  11. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  12. The experiences of living with a sibling who stutters: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Janet M; Byrnes, Michelle L; Young, Kate N

    2012-06-01

    Stuttering impacts on the child in a variety of ways, notably in terms of communicative impairment and psychosocial impact. In addition, the stuttering disorder has a holistic impact, affecting those with whom the child who stutters lives. Within the family constellation, the closest person to the individual who stutters is often their sibling. This study investigated the experiences of fluent siblings of children who stutter to examine the impact that stuttering may have on their lives. A mixed methods research design incorporated qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative questionnaires. The results of the qualitative investigation revealed four aspects of children's lives that were affected by having a sibling who stuttered: the relationship between siblings, the impact on the fluent sibling, the impact on the parent relationship with both children, and the impact on the sibling's relationship with others. Findings revealed that siblings of children who stutter exhibited strongly negative emotions, and differing levels of responsibility associated with their involvement in the actual stuttering management programme. Furthermore, for the fluent sibling, secondary to having a brother or sister who stuttered, communication with and attention from their parents was variable. The results of the quantitative component of the study revealed children who stutter and their siblings demonstrated significantly greater closeness, and concurrently, increased conflict and status disparity than did the control fluent sibling dyads. The parents of the experimental sibling dyads also demonstrated significantly greater partiality towards a child, namely the child who stuttered, than did the parents of the control sibling dyads. The reader will be able to: (1) identify the themes associated with having a sibling who stutters; (2) identify how the quality of the sibling relationship differs between sibling dyads that do and do not consist of a sibling who stutters; and

  13. Aggressive Behavior between Siblings and the Development of Externalizing Problems: Evidence from a Genetically Sensitive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective links between sibling aggression and the development of externalizing problems using a multilevel modeling approach with a genetically sensitive design. The sample consisted of 780 adolescents (390 sibling pairs) who participated in 2 waves of the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project.…

  14. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict…

  15. Cognitive abilities in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzonio, Valentina; Avanzini, Pietro; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Campi, Cristina; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cognitive profiles of children with autistic spectrum disorder and of their healthy siblings (Siblings). With the term cognitive profile, we indicate the relationship extant among the values of verbal and performance subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. The conducted statistical analyses indicated that, although siblings showed a normal intelligent quotient and did not differ in this aspect from typically developing group, their cognitive profile was amazingly similar to that of their relatives affected by autism. A k-means clustering analysis on the values of single subtests further confirmed this result, showing a clear separation between typically developing children on the one side, and autistics and their siblings on the other. We suggest that the common cognitive profile observed in autistic children and their siblings could represent a marker of liability to autism and, thus, a possible intermediate phenotype of this syndrome.

  16. Caregiving, perceptions of maternal favoritism, and tension among siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitor, J Jill; Gilligan, Megan; Johnson, Kaitlin; Pillemer, Karl

    2014-08-01

    Studies of later-life families have revealed that sibling tension often increases in response to parents' need for care. Both theory and research on within-family differences suggest that when parents' health declines, sibling relations may be affected by which children assume care and whether siblings perceive that the parent favors some offspring over others. In the present study, we explore the ways in which these factors shape sibling tension both independently and in combination during caregiving. In this article, we use data collected from 450 adult children nested within 214 later-life families in which the offspring reported that their mothers needed care within 2 years prior to the interview. Multilevel analyses demonstrated that providing care and perceiving favoritism regarding future caregiving were associated with sibling tension following mothers' major health events. Further, the effects of caregiving on sibling tension were greater when perceptions of favoritism were also present. These findings shed new light on the conditions under which adult children are likely to experience high levels of sibling tension during caregiving. Understanding these processes is important because siblings are typically the individuals to whom caregivers are most likely to turn for support when assuming care of older parents, yet these relationships are often a major source of interpersonal stress. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Project TALENT Twin and Sibling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Carol A; Achorn, Deanna Lyter; Kaiser, Ashley; Mitchell, Lindsey; McArdle, John J; Lapham, Susan J

    2013-02-01

    Project TALENT is a US national longitudinal study of about 377,000 individuals born in 1942-1946, first assessed in 1960. Students in about 1,200 schools participated in a 2-day battery covering aptitudes, abilities, interests, and individual and family characteristics (Flanagan, 1962; www.projectTALENT.org). Follow-up assessments 1, 5, and 11 years later assessed educational and occupational outcomes. The sample includes approximately 92,000 siblings from 40,000 families, including 2,500 twin pairs and 1,200 other siblings of twins. Until recently, almost no behavior genetic research has been conducted with the sample. In the original data collection information was not collected with the intent to link family members. Recently, we developed algorithms using names, addresses, birthdates, and information about family structure to link siblings and identify twins. We are testing several methods to determine zygosity, including use of yearbook photographs. In this paper, we summarize the design and measures in Project TALENT, describe the Twin and Sibling sample, and present our twin-sib-classmate model. In most twin and family designs, the 'shared environment' includes factors specific to the family combined with between-family differences associated with macro-level variables such as socioeconomic status. The school-based sampling design used in Project TALENT provides a unique opportunity to partition the shared environment into variation shared by siblings, specific to twins, and associated with school- and community-level factors. The availability of many measured characteristics on the family, schools, and neighborhoods enhances the ability to study the impact of specific factors on behavioral variation.

  18. Adult sibling experience, roles, relationships and future concerns - a review of the literature in learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature related to adult siblings of learning-disabled people. Siblings of learning-disabled people are often looked upon as next of kin when older parents die; however, there is little research regarding sibling views and wishes. A literature review of published peer-reviewed empirical research was undertaken. Electronic databases and citation tracking were used to collate data using key terms such as adult siblings and learning disability. Relevant articles were analysed, compared and contrasted. Six key themes emerged suggesting a varied impact of learning disability upon sibling lives in areas that include life choices, relationships, identity and future plans. Some siblings report a positive impact upon life, others state their lives are comparable with other adults who do not have a learning-disabled sibling and others still report a negative impact. Sibling roles and relationships are varied. Evidence suggests that sibling roles, relationships and experience are affected by life stage. Parents often have a primary care role for the disabled person, whilst siblings perform a more distant role; however, sibling involvement often rises when parents are no longer able to provide previous levels of support. Many factors appear to affect the sibling experience and uptake of roles including gender, life stage and circumstances, level of disability, health status and relationships between family members. Siblings are concerned about the future, particularly when parents are no longer able to provide support, and many appear to have expectations of future responsibilities regarding their disabled sibling. As siblings of people who have a learning disability are often expected by society to provide support, it is important that health and social care practitioners are aware of issues that may impact on this relationship. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Soli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Although siblings are a fixture of family life, research on sibling relationships lags behind that on other family relationships. To stimulate interest in sibling research and to serve as a guide for future investigations by family scholars, we review four theoretical psychologically oriented perspectives—(a) psychoanalytic-evolutionary, (b) social psychological, (c) social learning, and (d) family-ecological systems—that can inform research on sibling relationships, including perspectives on the nature and influences on developmental, individual, and group differences in sibling relationships. Given that most research on siblings has focused on childhood and adolescence, our review highlights these developmental periods, but we also incorporate the limited research on adult sibling relationships, including in formulating suggestions for future research on this fundamental family relationship. PMID:21731581

  20. Sibling influences on prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; McHarg, Gabrielle; White, Naomi

    2018-04-01

    Sibling relationships are characterized by familiarity and emotional intensity. Alongside frequent shared play, sibling interactions feature complementary interactions (e.g. teaching, caregiving) reflecting age-related asymmetries in socio-cognitive skills. These aspects may underpin sibling influences on prosocial behavior: theoretical accounts of social influences on prosocial behavior highlight emotion sharing, goal alignment, the intrinsically rewarding nature of social interaction, and scaffolding of social norms. Taking a fine-grained approach to prosocial behavior, we examine these processes in relation to sibling influences on children's comforting, sharing, and helping. Emergent themes include: developmental change in the nature of sibling influences on prosocial behavior, the need to consider sibling influences in the wider family context, and the importance of individual differences in the quality of sibling relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene Expression Profiles in Paired Gingival Biopsies from Periodontitis-Affected and Healthy Tissues Revealed by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båge, Tove; Lagervall, Maria; Jansson, Leif; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft tissue and bone that surrounds the teeth. Despite extensive research, distinctive genes responsible for the disease have not been identified. The objective of this study was to elucidate transcriptome changes in periodontitis, by investigating gene expression profiles in gingival tissue obtained from periodontitis-affected and healthy gingiva from the same patient, using RNA-sequencing. Gingival biopsies were obtained from a disease-affected and a healthy site from each of 10 individuals diagnosed with periodontitis. Enrichment analysis performed among uniquely expressed genes for the periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues revealed several regulated pathways indicative of inflammation for the periodontitis-affected condition. Hierarchical clustering of the sequenced biopsies demonstrated clustering according to the degree of inflammation, as observed histologically in the biopsies, rather than clustering at the individual level. Among the top 50 upregulated genes in periodontitis-affected tissues, we investigated two genes which have not previously been demonstrated to be involved in periodontitis. These included interferon regulatory factor 4 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18, which were also expressed at the protein level in gingival biopsies from patients with periodontitis. In conclusion, this study provides a first step towards a quantitative comprehensive insight into the transcriptome changes in periodontitis. We demonstrate for the first time site-specific local variation in gene expression profiles of periodontitis-affected and healthy tissues obtained from patients with periodontitis, using RNA-seq. Further, we have identified novel genes expressed in periodontitis tissues, which may constitute potential therapeutic targets for future treatment strategies of periodontitis. PMID:23029519

  2. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  3. Moving beyond the mother-child dyad: exploring the link between maternal sensitivity and siblings' attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy R; Underwood, Jean D M

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory asserts that secure attachment representations are developed through sensitive and consistent caregiving. If sensitive caregiving is a constant characteristic of the parent, then siblings should have concordant attachment classifications. The authors explored maternal attachment quality assessed by the Attachment Q-Set, maternal sensitivity, and specific mother-child interactions between siblings. Hour-long observations took place in the homes of 9 preschool sibling pairs and their immediate caregivers. The interactions were analyzed using a modified version of Bales' Small Group Analysis. The results reveal attachment discordance in a third of sibling pairs. While maternal sensitivity was higher with older siblings and mothers displayed more positive emotions when interacting with their younger siblings, attachment quality was not associated with birth order. Therefore, a shift toward a more contextual, family-based perspective of attachment is recommended to further understand how attachment strategies are created and maintained within the child's everyday context.

  4. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    Full Text Available The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming 'child household heads'. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings.

  5. School Experiences of Siblings of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Lucy L; Lum, Alistair; Wakefield, Claire E; Nandakumar, Beeshman; Fardell, Joanna E

    Siblings of children with chronic illness have unique experiences that can affect their school functioning, such that they may miss ongoing periods of school, experience difficulties with schoolwork or experience changes in their peer and teacher interactions. This review provides an overview of these siblings' school experiences. Six databases (Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Embase and The Cochrane Library) were systematically searched for studies examining the school experiences and peer relationships of siblings of children with chronic illness, as well as school-based interventions for these siblings. Studies were included if they were published in or after 2000 and were published in English. We identified 2137 articles upon initial search. From these, we identified 28 eligible studies examining the school experiences of >1470 siblings of children with chronic illness. Three key themes were identified throughout the reviewed articles. The literature described 1) the psychological impact on siblings at school; 2) decreases in school attendance and academic functioning, and; 3) changes or perceived differences in peer and teacher interactions. Siblings value teacher and peer support, and this support may contribute to better sibling school functioning. Many siblings are socially resilient, yet overlooked, members of the family who may present with psychological, academic and peer related difficulties at school following diagnosis of a brother or sister with chronic illness. Future research is needed to further delineate the sibling school experience to better facilitate the development of targeted sibling support interventions within the school environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Placement shift, sibling relationship quality, and child outcomes in foster care: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, L Oriana; Li, MiMin; Shrout, Patrick E; Brody, Gene H; Pettit, Gregory S

    2007-12-01

    Sibling unity during family transitions is considered a protective factor for child behavior problems, but there is little empirical support for the widespread child protection policy of placing siblings together in foster care. In a prospective study of 156 maltreated children, siblings were classified in 1 of 3 placement groups: continuously together (n = 110), continuously apart (n = 22), and disrupted placement (siblings placed together were separated; n = 24). Changes in child adjustment as a function of sibling relationship and placement group were examined. Sibling positivity predicted lower child problems at follow-up (about 14 months later), while sibling negativity predicted higher child problems. Placement group did not affect child behavior problems at follow-up; however, compared to siblings in continuous placement (either together or apart), siblings in disrupted placement with high initial behavior problems were rated as having fewer problems at follow-up, while siblings in disrupted placement with low initial behavior problems were rated as having more problems at follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of considering relationships between siblings and the risk that one poses to another before early placement decisions are made.

  7. Analysis of HIV-1 intersubtype recombination breakpoints suggests region with high pairing probability may be a more fundamental factor than sequence similarity affecting HIV-1 recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lei; Li, Lin; Gui, Tao; Liu, Siyang; Li, Hanping; Han, Jingwan; Guo, Wei; Liu, Yongjian; Li, Jingyun

    2016-09-21

    With increasing data on HIV-1, a more relevant molecular model describing mechanism details of HIV-1 genetic recombination usually requires upgrades. Currently an incomplete structural understanding of the copy choice mechanism along with several other issues in the field that lack elucidation led us to perform an analysis of the correlation between breakpoint distributions and (1) the probability of base pairing, and (2) intersubtype genetic similarity to further explore structural mechanisms. Near full length sequences of URFs from Asia, Europe, and Africa (one sequence/patient), and representative sequences of worldwide CRFs were retrieved from the Los Alamos HIV database. Their recombination patterns were analyzed by jpHMM in detail. Then the relationships between breakpoint distributions and (1) the probability of base pairing, and (2) intersubtype genetic similarities were investigated. Pearson correlation test showed that all URF groups and the CRF group exhibit the same breakpoint distribution pattern. Additionally, the Wilcoxon two-sample test indicated a significant and inexplicable limitation of recombination in regions with high pairing probability. These regions have been found to be strongly conserved across distinct biological states (i.e., strong intersubtype similarity), and genetic similarity has been determined to be a very important factor promoting recombination. Thus, the results revealed an unexpected disagreement between intersubtype similarity and breakpoint distribution, which were further confirmed by genetic similarity analysis. Our analysis reveals a critical conflict between results from natural HIV-1 isolates and those from HIV-1-based assay vectors in which genetic similarity has been shown to be a very critical factor promoting recombination. These results indicate the region with high-pairing probabilities may be a more fundamental factor affecting HIV-1 recombination than sequence similarity in natural HIV-1 infections. Our

  8. Dopamine receptor blockade attenuates the general incentive motivational effects of noncontingently delivered rewards and reward-paired cues without affecting their ability to bias action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Sean B; Maidment, Nigel T

    2012-01-01

    Environmental cues affect our behavior in a variety of ways. Despite playing an invaluable role in guiding our daily activities, such cues also appear to trigger the harmful, compulsive behaviors that characterize addiction and other disorders of behavioral control. In instrumental conditioning, rewards and reward-paired cues bias action selection and invigorate reward-seeking behaviors, and appear to do so through distinct neurobehavioral processes. Although reward-paired cues are known to invigorate performance through a dopamine-dependent incentive motivational process, it is not known if dopamine also mediates the influence of rewards and reward-paired cues over action selection. The current study contrasted the effects of systemic administration of the nonspecific dopamine receptor antagonist flupentixol on response invigoration and action bias in Pavlovian-instrumental transfer, a test of cue-elicited responding, and in instrumental reinstatement, a test of noncontingent reward-elicited responding. Hungry rats were trained on two different stimulus-outcome relationships (eg, tone-grain pellets and noise-sucrose solution) and two different action-outcome relationships (eg, left press-grain and right press-sucrose). At test, we found that flupentixol pretreatment blocked the response invigoration generated by the cues but spared their ability to bias action selection to favor the action whose outcome was signaled by the cue being presented. The response-biasing influence of noncontingent reward deliveries was also unaffected by flupentixol. Interestingly, although flupentixol had a modest effect on the immediate response invigoration produced by those rewards, it was particularly potent in countering the lingering enhancement of responding produced by multiple reward deliveries. These findings indicate that dopamine mediates the general incentive motivational effects of noncontingent rewards and reward-paired cues but does not support their ability to bias

  9. Emotion regulation in context: the jealousy complex between young siblings and its relations with child and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; McElwain, Nancy L; Miller, Alison L

    2002-01-01

    Jealousy is a social emotion that has received little attention by developmental researchers. The current study examined sibling jealousy and its relations to child and family characteristics in 60 families with a 16-month-old toddler and an older preschool-age sibling. Sibling jealousy was elicited in social triads consisting of a parent (mother or father) and the two siblings. Positive marital relationship quality (i.e., love and relationship maintenance) was a particularly strong predictor of the older siblings' abilities to regulate jealousy reactions in the mother sessions. Younger siblings' jealous affect with mothers was linked to the child's temperament, whereas older siblings' jealous affect with mothers was related to the child's emotional understanding. Younger siblings displayed more behavioral dysregulation in the mother-sibling triads if there was greater sibling rivalry reported by mothers. Session order (i.e., which sibling was challenged first in the jealousy paradigm) had a strong effect on both the affect and behavioral dysregulation displayed by the older and younger siblings. Results are discussed with respect to the need for future research to consider social relationships as developmental contexts for young children's emotion regulation.

  10. Sibling influences on childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J

    1988-03-01

    To summarize the main points concerning sibling influence: 1. That siblings play a causal role in the development of aggressive behavior, in children's style of conflict behavior and in cooperative fantasy play is strongly suggested by recent research. 2. Marked problems in the sibling relationship are indicative of other problems, but a causal role for siblings is not established, other than for aggressive behavior. 3. Family factors are closely involved in the quality of sibling relationships--and thus in sibling influence, namely differential parental behavior, and the emotional climate of the family. That is, it is important not to consider the sibling relationship in isolation from other family relationships. 4. Studies of families under stress indicate heightened importance of these family factors. 5. It is likely, but not yet established, that later-born siblings are influenced by first-born in socio-cognitive development and gender identity. 6. Finally it should be noted that an important theme in current research on siblings is a concern with the question of why siblings develop to be so different from one another. It has been shown that the major source of environmental influence on the development of individual differences is within-family rather than between-family differences in experience (Plomin & Daniels, 1987). The different experiences each sibling may have within their relationship is one potential source of such differential environmental influence. Thus documenting the influence of siblings upon each other takes on added significance: By clarifying the extent and nature of this influence we will gain not only useful clinical information but illumination on a developmental principle of very general significance.

  11. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  12. Sibling risk of anxiety disorders based on hospitalizations in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    This study used nationwide hospital records to examine sibling risk of any type of anxiety disorder in Sweden over a 40-year period. This study, carried out between 1 January 1968 and 31 December 2007, of the entire population of Sweden, linked information on family relationships from the nationwide Multi-Generation Register with information from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register on first diagnosis of anxiety disorder. A total of 42,602 persons hospitalized for anxiety disorders and 2093 affected siblings were identified. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated by comparing risk in siblings of persons hospitalized for anxiety disorders with risk in persons whose siblings had no hospital diagnosis of anxiety disorders. The sibling risk was 2.26, which was independent of sex and age differences between siblings. The SIR was highest in siblings sibling diagnosed with any anxiety disorder resulted in increased risks of a number of disorders; the highest increased risk was of social phobia (SIR 3.68, 95% confidence interval, 1.68-7.69). Risk of panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder was raised in female but not male siblings. Heritable effects likely play an important role in the cause of anxiety disorders, but the extent of their role remains to be established. Important contributions could be made by studies of gene-environment interactions that have sufficient sample sizes to produce reliable results. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  13. Intra-family stressors among adult siblings sharing caregiving for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngangana, Pamela C; Davis, Bertha L; Burns, Dorothy P; McGee, Zina T; Montgomery, Arlene J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a Neuman Systems Model-guided study of perceptions of family stressors experienced by adult siblings who share caregiving for their parents and the influence of these stressors on adult siblings' relationships. The task of providing informal care for disabled parents is often shared by adult siblings. Family stressors experienced as part of caregiving may affect the sibling relationship. A mixed-method study design was used. Data were collected during 2013-2014 from 84 adult sibling caregivers. Seventy-two caregivers provided quantitative data for the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale and the Zarit Burden Scale and 79 provided qualitative data for the open-ended question. Adult siblings experienced mild-to-moderate levels of burden from family stressors when they share parental caregiving. The amount of burden from intra-family stressors was negatively related to the adult sibling relationship. Beneficial and noxious stressors were evident in the participants' responses to an open-ended question. The health of the parents affected the lives of adult siblings in both negative and positive ways. Although the majority of the adult siblings expressed a willingness to care for their parent(s) in an attempt to reciprocate the care, they had received from them, challenges emerged from dealing with family stressors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Double impact: what sibling data can tell us about the long-term negative effects of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2003-01-01

    Most prior research on the adverse consequences of parental divorce has analyzed only one child per family. As a result, it is not known whether the same divorce affects siblings differently. We address this issue by analyzing paired sibling data from the 1994 General Social Survey (GSS) and 1994 Survey of American Families (SAF). Both seemingly unrelated regressions and random effects models are used to study the effect of family background on offspring's educational attainment and marital stability. Parental divorce adversely affects the educational attainment and the probability of divorce of both children within a sibship; in other words, siblings tend to experience the same divorce the same way. However, family structure of origin only accounts for a trivial portion of the shared variance in offspring's educational attainment and marital stability, so parental divorce is only one of many factors determining how offspring fare. These findings were unchanged when controlling for a number of differences both between and within sibships. Also, the negative effects of parental divorce largely do not vary according to respondent characteristics.

  15. Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    Bebbington, Kat; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a su...

  16. The self-esteem and anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, Fatma; Arıkan, Duygu

    2013-11-01

    The study was carried out with the aim of determining the factors affecting and to evaluate anxiety situations and self-esteem of children with and without mentally retarded siblings. The sampling included 227 healthy children: 108 of them have mental retarded sibling and 119 of them do not have mental retarded sibling. The context of this study consisted of 15-18 year of age healthy children with mentally retarded siblings and 15-18 year of aged healthy children having at least one sibling between the dates February 15(st) and June 26(st) 2010. Personal Information Form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Trait Anxiety Scale were used. It was found out that trait anxiety of 17-18 aged of children with mental retarded sibling (47.04 ± 7.3) was higher than that of the children without mental retarded siblings (44.05 ± 11.23) (P self-esteem of children with mentally retarded sibling was not affected from the handicap of their siblings (P > 0.05). Trait anxiety score averages of children with mentally retarded sibling and experience some difficulties due to his or her siblings's handicap (47.00 ± 7.76) were found higher than those of those of the children without any problem with the environment (42.61 ± 7.48) (P self-esteem in both groups were not significant different, score of trait anxiety for children with mentally disabled siblings was higher in comparison. It was concluded that anxiety of children with and without mentally retarded siblings increased as self-esteem of these children decreased.

  17. Sibling Relationships in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Reviews and considers the developmental implications of recent evidence on the nature of sibling interaction from observational studies of preschool children. Argues that, in contrast to complementary interaction, sibling influence is most plausibly associated with reciprocal interaction and with sociocognitive development. (Author/RH)

  18. [Siblings of prepubesecent anorexic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, L; de Maynadier, L

    2014-10-01

    As professionals working in a specialised unit for prepubescent anorexic children, we are very often concerned with the siblings of our young patients who are daily faced with anorexia nervosa. Although it is an undeniable subject of prevention, research on the topic remains scarce. Based on our clinical experience, this article thus proposes to give a few landmarks to health professionals likely to support these siblings in order to prevent anxious and depressive disorders as well as eating disorders. If guided, supported and informed on anorexia nervosa, siblings can adopt adequate coping strategies when confronted to their sibling's anorexic cognitions and behaviours. We also encourage parents to pay close attention to the needs of their other children, especially to remain receptive to the youngest ones or, if unavailable to find adult carers (grandparents, family, friends). We also guide these children, who are eager to help their anorexic sibling, to remain in a brotherly role. Siblings must be informed about anorexia nervosa. Such information enables them to have a better understanding of their sister's thoughts and attitudes. It also leads to a better understanding of the reasons why anorexia has such a significant impact on family routine, among other things by reducing parental availability. Beyond enabling siblings to adopt adequate coping strategies, such provision of support also contributes to the prevention of mental illness and the maintenance of adequate sibling and family relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Children with Autism & Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The parent of the child with autism is faced with many home management challenges, not the least of which is the achievement of intra-family harmony among siblings. Sibling rivalry occurs in all families. However, the presence of a child with autism may, in some instances, intensify this rivalry. In this article, the author provides tips for…

  20. Comparative study of reproductive skew and pair-bond stability using genealogies from 80 small-scale human societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Ryan M; Shenk, Mary K; Bailey, Drew H; Walker, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Genealogies contain information on the prevalence of different sibling types that result from past reproductive behavior. Full sibling sets stem from stable monogamy, paternal half siblings primarily indicate male reproductive skew, and maternal half siblings reflect unstable pair bonds. Full and half sibling types are calculated for a total of 61,181 siblings from published genealogies for 80 small-scale societies, including foragers, horticulturalists, agriculturalists, and pastoralists from around the world. Most siblings are full (61%) followed by paternal half siblings (27%) and maternal half siblings (13%). Paternal half siblings are positively correlated with more polygynous marriages, higher at low latitudes, and slightly higher in nonforagers, Maternal half sibling fractions are slightly higher at low latitudes but do not vary with subsistence. Partible paternity societies in Amazonia have more paternal half siblings indicating higher male reproductive skew. Sibling counts from genealogies provide a convenient method to simultaneously investigate the reproductive skew and pair-bond stability dimensions of human mating systems cross-culturally. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:335-342, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perinatal outcome of singleton siblings born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: Danish national sibling-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Pinborg, Anja; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Vestergaard, Christina; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2011-03-01

    To compare the perinatal outcome of singleton siblings conceived differently. National population-based registry study. Denmark, from 1994 to 2008. Pairs of siblings (13,692 pairs; n = 27,384 children) conceived after IVF, intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo replacement (FER), or spontaneous conception subcategorized into five groups according to succession: [1] IVF-ICSI vs. spontaneous conception (n = 7,758), [2] IVF-ICSI vs. FER (n = 716), [3] FER vs. FER (n = 34), [4] IVF-ICSI vs. IVF-ICSI (n = 2,876), and [5] spontaneous conception vs. spontaneous conception (n = 16,000). Observations were obtained from national registries. Birth weight, gestational age, low birth weight (children compared with their spontaneously conceived siblings. FER children were 167 g (95% CI, 90-244] heavier than siblings born after replacement of fresh embryos. The difference in birth weight between firstborn and second born sibling depended on order of conception method. Higher risk of low birth weight with (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95%CI, 1.1-1.7] and preterm birth (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6] was observed in IVF/ICSI compared with spontaneous conception. When differentiating between order and mode of conception, it seems that assisted reproductive technology plays a role in mean birth weight and risk of low birth weight and preterm birth. Birth weight was higher in siblings born after FER compared with fresh embryos replacement. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is sibling rivalry fatal?: siblings and mortality clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; Walters, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Evidence drawn from nineteenth-century Belgian population registers shows that the presence of similarly aged siblings competing for resources within a household increases the probability of death for children younger than five, even when controlling for the preceding birth interval and multiple births. Furthermore, in this period of Belgian history, such mortality tended to cluster in certain families. The findings suggest the importance of segmenting the mortality of siblings younger than five by age group, of considering the presence of siblings as a time-varying covariate, and of factoring mortality clustering into analyses.

  4. A Closer Look at Siblings of Patients with Schizophrenia: The Association of Depression History and Sex with Cognitive Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Krista M.; Elvevåg, Brita; Gold, James M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Dickinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    Background Siblings of patients with schizophrenia show impaired cognition and an increased prevalence of depression history. Although sex has been shown to moderate cognition in patients, this effect has not been examined in siblings. Here we elucidate how a history of depression and sex influences cognition in siblings unaffected by schizophrenia. Methods Unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia and unrelated healthy controls were evaluated neuropsychologically and completed structured clinical interviews. Participants with a depression history or no psychiatric history were selected for the sample. Cognitive performance of siblings (n = 366) and controls (n = 680) was first examined. Second, cognition of participants with a depression history and those without a psychiatric history was compared while additionally investigating the role of schizophrenia risk and sex. Results Relative to controls, siblings, with and without a psychiatric history, demonstrated significant (p siblings, but not in controls; whereas sex affected cognition in both siblings and controls. In siblings alone, sex significantly interacted with depression history to influence cognition. This interaction revealed that in male - but not female - siblings a history of depression was associated with greater cognitive impairments. Conclusion A history of depression impairs cognition in siblings, but not in controls. Moreover, depression history interacts with sex and demonstrates that only cognition in male siblings is significantly and additionally compromised by a history of depression. This interaction may be an important consideration for future phenotype and genetic association studies. PMID:21030214

  5. The attitudes of typically developing adolescents towards their sibling with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine van der Merwe

    2017-04-01

    Methods: Thirty typically developing adolescents who have siblings with ASD were selected to complete the survey instrument, the Lifespan Sibling Relationship Scale, using a cross-sectional design. Results: Results indicate that the measure has internal consistency within this sample. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to test for significant differences between the mean values for the two self-reported time periods. Friedman analysis of variances (ANOVAs was used to test for significant differences in the three components of attitudes, namely affect, behaviour and cognition. Results indicate that participants held more positive attitudes towards their siblings with ASD as adolescents compared with when they were younger and that adolescents rated their current emotions towards and beliefs about their sibling with ASD to be more positive than their current interaction experiences. Conclusion: As siblings’ attitudes appear to change over time, clinicians should use a lifespan approach to sibling attitudes when designing and implementing supports for siblings of children with ASD.

  6. Ripple effects of developmental disabilities and mental illness on nondisabled adult siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental disabilities and severe mental illness are costly to the affected individual and frequently to their family as well. Little studied are their nondisabled siblings. Here we examine major life course outcomes (education, employment, and marriage) of these siblings in adulthood using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our sample comprises 113 individuals with developmental disabilities and 337 of their nondisabled siblings; 97 individuals with mental illness and 235 of their nondisabled siblings; and 17,126 unaffected comparison group members. We find that siblings of individuals with mental illness have less education and less employment than the unaffected comparison group, whereas those who have a sibling with developmental disabilities had normative patterns of education and employment, but less marriage and more divorce. Robustness tests incorporating genetic data do not change the conclusions based on the nongenetic analyses. PMID:24607704

  7. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  8. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K.; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little…

  9. Sibling Self-Disclosure in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.; Rinaldi, Christina M.; Lehoux, Pascale M.

    2000-01-01

    Studied sibling-directed self-disclosure of 40 preadolescents through interviews, a questionnaire, and subjects' daily diaries. Found that warmth in sibling relationship was most strongly associated with sibling disclosure, but not with rivalry, conflict, or power. Daily sibling disclosures were more strongly associated with reports of unhappy…

  10. Childhood Sibling Relationships of Eminent Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yewchuk, Carolyn R.; Schlosser, Grace A.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared differences between 72 eminent Canadian women who reported close sibling relationships and 72 similar women who reported no close sibling relationships. Those with close siblings expressed their responsibility within the relationship and rivalry within the sibship. Those not close to siblings often blamed this on age…

  11. Psychoeducation for siblings of people with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Jordan, Cheryl D; Barley, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Claire; Norman, Ian

    2015-05-08

    Many people with severe mental illness (SMI) have siblings. Siblings are often both natural agents to promote service users' recovery and vulnerable to mental ill health due to the negative impact of psychosis within the family. Despite a wealth of research evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation for service users with SMI and their family members, in reducing relapse and promoting compliance with treatment, siblings remain relatively invisible in clinical service settings as well as in research studies. If psychoeducational interventions target siblings and improve siblings' knowledge, coping with caring and overall wellbeing, they could potentially provide a cost-effective option for supporting siblings with resulting benefits for service users' outcomes. To assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation compared with usual care or any other intervention in promoting wellbeing and reducing distress of siblings of people affected by SMI.The secondary objective was, if possible, to determine which type of psychoeducation is most effective. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register and screened the reference lists of relevant reports and reviews (12th November 2013). We contacted trial authors for unpublished and specific data on siblings' outcomes. All relevant randomised controlled trials focusing on psychoeducational interventions targeting siblings of all ages (on their own or amongst other family members including service users) of individuals with SMI, using any means and formats of delivery, i.e. individual (family), groups, computer-based. Two review authors independently screened the abstracts and extracted data and two other authors independently checked the screening and extraction process. We contacted authors of trials to ascertain siblings' participation in the trials and seek sibling-specific data in those studies where siblings' data were grouped together with other participants' (most commonly other family members

  12. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  13. Are there shared environmental influences on adolescent behavior? Evidence from a study of adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Jacob P; McGue, Matt; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2009-09-01

    The failure to identify specific non-shared environmental influences on behavior coupled with the belief that shared environmental factors contribute minimally to individual differences in behavior has led to the concern that major environmental determinants of behavior may be idiosyncratic, and therefore undetectable. We used data on adoptive (N = 246) and biologically related (N = 130) same-sex sibling pairs (mean ages = 16.1 years older sibling; 13.8 years younger sibling) from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS) to determine whether non-idiosyncratic environmental factors shared by siblings contributed to individual differences in a diverse set of behavioral outcomes. Evidence for shared environmental influence was sought for eight composite measures covering a wide array of adolescent functioning: Academic Achievement, Total IQ, Substance Use Disorders, Externalizing Disorders, Internalizing Disorders, Peer Groups, Disinhibited Personality, and Negative Emotionality. For six of eight composites, significant shared environmental effects, accounting for 14-22% of the variance, were observed for these same-sex sibling pairs. These findings support the use of adoptive sibling designs to directly estimate shared environmental effects and implicate the existence of systematic environmental influences on behavior that are potentially detectable.

  14. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer...... and their siblings....

  15. The Kinetic Family Drawing with Donor and Nondonor Siblings of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy L.; Crittenden, Mary R.; Fischer, Jodie B. Rieger; Cowan, Morton J.; Long, Janet K.; Gruenert, Carol; Schaeffer, Evonne; Bongar, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes the Kinetic Family Drawings-Revised (KFD-R) to measure siblings' (N=44) feelings and attitudes toward bone marrow transplants. Data from drawings and discussions with siblings underscore that not all children are affected by stress in the same way. How a particular child responds depends on factors such as life history, personality,…

  16. Are there individual and sibling differences in appraisals of interparental conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; George, Melissa W

    2017-10-01

    Despite decades of empirical literature documenting the harmful effects of frequent, intense, violent, and unresolved interparental conflict on children's adjustment, there is considerable variability in the extent to which marital conflict contributes to the development of children's emotional and behavioral problems. Past research has documented links between properties of interparental conflict itself (e.g., intensity, frequency), children's appraisals of conflict, and children's outcomes, yet less is known about the role of individual and family characteristics in predicting children's conflict appraisals. Sibling studies may be especially helpful in understanding these individual differences yet are notably lacking in marital conflict research. The current study examines individual- and family-characteristic predictors of adolescents' appraisals of conflict in a study of 153 adolescents as well as sibling similarities in conflict appraisals in a subsample of 50 pairs of siblings. Controlling for parent reports of the frequency, intensity, and resolution of interparental conflict, parent-child relationship quality and stressful life events predicted conflict appraisals. In addition, there was nonindependence of sibling appraisals of conflict properties, but self-blame and threat appraisals appeared independent across siblings. Greater discrepancies in siblings' conflict appraisals were related to more negative marital conflict and discrepancies in parent-child relationship quality, and were found in mixed-sex sibling dyads. Implications for future studies on factors that impact children's appraisals of conflict and in particular making use of sibling studies to examine shared environmental and individual influences on appraisals is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The role of maternal factors in sibling relationship quality: a multilevel study of multiple dyads per family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-06-01

      Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and (b) this between family variation will be explained by maternal affective climate, operationalized as positive and negative ambient parenting, differential parenting and maternal malaise.   A general population sample of families with single and multiple sibling dyads were visited twice, 2 years apart. Up to 2 children in a family acted as informants; 253 relationships were rated in 118 families. A cross-classified, multilevel model was fit to separate between-family and within-family variance in sibling relationships while simultaneously controlling for informant and partner influences.   Thirty-seven percent of the variance in change in sibling affection and 32% of the variance in change in sibling hostility was between family variance. The measured maternal affective climate including, maternal malaise and maternal ambient and differential hostility and affection explained between family differences.   Sibling relationship quality clusters in families and is partly explained by maternal affective climate. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Naxos Disease in Two Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, G; Prabhavathy, D; Jayakumar, S; Tharini, GK

    2010-01-01

    Naxos disease is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. We report two siblings with Naxos disease with right middle lobe syndrome in one of them. PMID:21188028

  19. Children with PIMD in interaction with peers with PIMD or siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, S; Vlaskamp, C; Maes, B

    2016-01-01

    The complex disabilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) impede their presentation of peer directed behaviours. Interactions with typically developing peers have been observed to be more frequent than those with peers with PIMD. The typically developing peers with whom people with PIMD have frequent contact are their siblings. In this study, the amount of peer directed behaviours was compared between an interaction with a sibling and an interaction with a peer with PIMD. In addition, the attention directing strategies of the siblings, and how these affect the presentation of peer directed behaviours, were examined. Thirteen children and young people with PIMD, who had a typically developing sibling, were identified. For each of these thirteen children, a peer with PIMD and a sibling were selected. The child with PIMD was observed together with a peer with PIMD and together with a sibling. In both conditions, video observations were conducted. A coding scheme for the peer directed behaviours of the children and young people with PIMD and a coding scheme for the attention directing behaviours of the siblings were used. Descriptive, comparative and sequential analyses were conducted. Significantly, more peer directed behaviours of the children with PIMD were observed in the condition with the sibling (30.76%) compared with that of the condition with the peer with PIMD (13.73%). The siblings presented attention directing behaviours in 30% of the time; the most frequently used was nonverbal behaviour. When the siblings presented a combination of verbal and nonverbal attention directing behaviours, they elicited multiple peer directed behaviours in the children and young people with PIMD. Persons with PIMD interact more with their siblings compared with their peers with PIMD. Interacting with siblings may probably be more motivating and encouraging. Presenting a combination of verbal and nonverbal behaviours attracts more attention

  20. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: influences of parenting, family distress, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ketan; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Piotrowski, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal stress, parenting behavior, and sibling adjustment in relation to child trauma symptoms in families with and without a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Maternal report was used to measure maternal stress and child trauma symptoms, whereas parenting behavior was assessed through an observational measure. Participants consisted of mothers with 2 school-age siblings recruited from the community. Results indicated that violent families reported higher levels of maternal stress and sibling trauma symptoms than nonviolent families, although no differences were found in parenting behavior. Sibling trauma symptoms and negative maternal behavior toward a sibling were strong predictors of trauma symptoms in younger siblings exposed to IPV but only modest predictors for older siblings. Moderator analyses showed that in IPV-affected families, the trauma symptoms of older siblings were related to the trauma symptoms of younger siblings when maternal stress was high. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal effects of sibling relationship quality on adolescent problem behavior: a cross-ethnic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Paalman, Carmen H; Branje, Susan J T; Deković, Maja; Reitz, Ellen; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Meeus, Wim H J; Koot, Hans M; Hale, William W

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether adolescents of Moroccan and Dutch origin differ concerning sibling relationship quality and to examine whether the associations between quality of the sibling relationship and level and change in externalizing and internalizing problem behavior are comparable for Moroccan and Dutch adolescents. Five annual waves of questionnaire data on sibling support and conflict as well as externalizing problems, anxiety and depression were collected from 159 ethnic Moroccan adolescents (Mage = 13.3 years) and from 159 ethnic Dutch adolescents (Mage = 13.0 years). Our findings demonstrated significant mean level differences between the Moroccan and Dutch sample in sibling relationship quality, externalizing problems, and depression, with Moroccan adolescents reporting higher sibling relationship quality and less problem behavior. However, effects of sibling relationship quality on externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression were similar for the Moroccan and Dutch samples. Sibling support was not related to level of externalizing problems, nor to changes in externalizing problems, anxiety, and depression. Additionally, more sibling conflict was related to a higher starting level of and faster decreases in problem behaviors. Our results support the ethnic equivalence model, which holds that the influence of family relationships is similar for different ethnic groups. Moreover, sibling support and conflict affect both the level and the fluctuations in problem behavior over time in specific ethnic groups similarly. Implications for future studies and interventions are subsequently discussed.

  2. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wöllert, Anton, E-mail: woellert@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Bauke, Heiko, E-mail: heiko.bauke@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2016-09-10

    Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  3. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wöllert, Anton; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2016-01-01

    Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  4. Non-random X chromosome inactivation in an affected twin in a monozygotic twin pair discordant for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestavik, R.E.; Eiklid, K.; Oerstavik, K.H. [Ulleval Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a syndrome including exomphalos, macroglossia, and generalized overgrowth. The locus has been assigned to 11p15, and genomic imprinting may play a part in the expression of one or more genes involved. Most cases are sporadic. An excess of female monozygotic twins discordant for WBS have been reported, and it has been proposed that this excess could be related to the process of X chromosome inactivation. We have therefore studied X chromosome inactivation in 13-year-old monozygotic twin girls who were discordant for WBS. In addition, both twins had Tourette syndrome. The twins were monochorionic and therefore the result of a late twinning process. This has also been the case in previously reported discordant twin pairs with information on placentation. X chromosome inactivation was determined in DNA from peripheral blood cells by PCR analysis at the androgen receptor locus. The affected twin had a completely skewed X inactivation, where the paternal allele was on the active X chromosome in all cells. The unaffected twin had a moderately skewed X inactivation in the same direction, whereas the mother had a random pattern. Further studies are necessary to establish a possible association between the expression of WBS and X chromosome inactivation. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Using interviews and peer pairs to better understand how school environments affect young children's playground physical activity levels: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Anne-Maree; Yeatman, Heather; Iverson, Don; Russell, Ken

    2012-04-01

    School break times provide a daily opportunity for children to be active; however, research indicates this time is underutilized. Reasons for low children's playground activity levels have primarily focused on physical barriers. This research aimed to contribute to physical environmental findings affecting children's playground physical activity levels by identifying additional variables through the interview process. Thirteen public schools were included in the sample (total 2946 children). Physical activity and environmental data were collected over 3 days. Environmental variables were manually assessed at each of the 13 schools. Observational data were used to determine which three schools were the most and least active. The principal, three teachers and 20 students in Grades 4-6 from these six schools (four lower and two average socioeconomic status) were invited to participate in the interview process. Student interviews involved the paired interview technique. The main themes generated from the school interviews included the effect of non-fixed equipment (including balls), playground markings, playground aesthetics, activity preference, clothing, the amount of break time available for play, teacher playground involvement, gender, bullying, school policies, student confidence in break-time activity and fundamental movement skills. The effect of bullying on playground physical activity levels was concerning.

  6. DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32 polymorphisms independently confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorders and additively predict affected status in male-only affected sib-pair families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettinger Joe A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA modulates executive functions, learning, and emotional processing, all of which are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Our previous findings suggest a role for dopamine-related genes in families with only affected males. Methods We examined two additional genes which affect DA function, the DRD2 and PPP1R1B (DARPP-32 genes, in a cohort of 112 male-only affected sib-pair families. Selected polymorphisms spanning these genes were genotyped and both family-based and population-based tests were carried out for association analysis. General discriminant analysis was used to examine the gene-gene interactions in predicting autism susceptibility. Results There was a significantly increased frequency of the DRD2 rs1800498TT genotype (P = 0.007 in affected males compared to the comparison group, apparently due to over-transmission of the T allele (P = 0.0003. The frequency of the PPP1R1B rs1495099CC genotype in affected males was also higher than that in the comparison group (P = 0.002 due to preferential transmission of the C allele from parents to affected children (P = 0.0009. Alleles rs1800498T and rs1495099C were associated with more severe problems in social interaction (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0016, respectively and communication (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.0046, and increased stereotypic behaviours (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.00072. General discriminant analysis found that the DRD2 and PPP1R1B genes additively predicted ASDs (P = 0.00011; Canonical R = 0.26 and explain ~7% of the variance in our families. All findings remained significant following corrections for multiple testing. Conclusion Our findings support a role for the DRD2 and PPP1R1B genes in conferring risk for autism in families with only affected males and show an additive effect of these genes towards prediction of affected status in our families.

  7. Mahonian pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Sagan, Bruce E.; Savage, Carla D.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a Mahonian pair. Consider the set, P^*, of all words having the positive integers as alphabet. Given finite subsets S,T of P^*, we say that (S,T) is a Mahonian pair if the distribution of the major index, maj, over S is the same as the distribution of the inversion number, inv, over T. So the well-known fact that maj and inv are equidistributed over the symmetric group, S_n, can be expressed by saying that (S_n,S_n) is a Mahonian pair. We investigate various Mahonia...

  8. Association among number, order and type of siblings and adolescent mental health at age 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jufen; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Fujimura, Yuko; Hamanishi, Shimako; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-10-01

    Although the sibling relationship is a unique one, the effects of the number and type of siblings on mental health among adolescents have not been reported. Japanese children (total, 9276; boys, 4654; girls, 4622), all 12 years old, and from the Japanese Toyama Birth Cohort Study, were followed up until 2002. Subject self-reported mental health was obtained from the Japanese version of the Dartmouth Primary Care Co-operative Project (COOP) charts. The associations between number and type of siblings and self-reported mental health were examined. There was a significant difference in mental health between different sibling pairs, with brother pairs and brother/sister pairs having a positive effect on adolescent mental health, compared with those in sister pairs. Girls with brothers had better self-reported mental health than those without. The adjusted OR of good mental health was 1.44 (95%CI:1.00-2.08) for those with an older brother and 1.67 (95%CI: 1.17-2.38) for those with a younger brother compared with those without. Boys with a younger sister had a higher OR of good self-reported health than those without (OR, 1.62; 95%CI: 1.08-2.43). Children with siblings had better mental health status than those without, which has practical implications for Asian countries and worldwide considering the declining fertility. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Books for siblings of children having illness or disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmann, E

    1997-01-01

    A child's disability or acute or chronic illness has an effect on all family members, including siblings of the affected child. Children's books, fiction and non-fiction, can be used to support siblings by providing information, addressing feelings, offering insight, assuring the child that others have had similar problems, and facilitating coping. Nurses can introduce children and their families to useful books by having books or book covers on display that the child can choose from; providing families with lists of books; and/or assessing the child's needs, interests and reading level, and recommending a specific title.

  10. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  11. Quality of life of unaffected siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Pratyaksha; Mishra, Devendra

    2015-06-01

    To study quality of life (QoL) of the siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders. Between 1st August and 30th September, 2013, 50 children aged 12-18 y, whose child sibling was suffering from a chronic neurological disorder, were enrolled (Study group). Fifty age- and sex- matched siblings of apparently non-neurologically affected children were enrolled as controls (Control group). Those with more than one affected child or any affected adult in the family were excluded. QoL was assessed by a validated version of the WHOQOL-BREF in Hindi, and QoL was compared between cases and controls. The disorders in the index cases included cerebral palsy, 18 (15 with epilepsy); autism, 15; mental retardation, 12 and epilepsy, 5. The QoL in all domains was significantly poorer in the study group as compared to the controls. 64% study group children had insufficient knowledge about their sibling's condition. More than 1/4th study subjects faced difficulties in studies, play or work. There was no difference among the groups with regard to number of siblings who had 'dropped from the school'. The QoL of unaffected siblings of children with chronic neurological disorders was significantly impaired. Health-workers may consider including older siblings of neurologically affected children during family-counseling sessions, to provide information and suggest coping strategies. This intervention is likely to improve the functioning of the family unit as a whole.

  12. Mother-Child Relationship in Youths with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Despite impaired mother-child interactions noted in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no such information for their siblings. This study aimed to test whether the affected and unaffected siblings, like youth with ADHD, also encountered impaired mothering and mother-child relationships as compared to typically developing youth (TD). The sample consisted of 122 probands (107 males, 87.7 %), aged 10-16, with DSM-IV ADHD, 44 affected (26 males, 59.1 %) and 78 unaffected (28 males, 35.9 %) siblings, and 122 TD youth. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews (K-SADS-E) about the participants and reported maternal parenting style, mother-child interactions and child behavioral problems at home. Based on both reports, probands with ADHD and affected siblings (only youth report) had more impaired relationships, more behavioral problems at home, and less perceived family support than unaffected siblings and TD youth. Probands with ADHD had higher maternal authoritarian control than unaffected siblings. The findings suggest that impaired mothering, mother-child interactions, and family support are related to the presence of ADHD diagnosis in both probands and their affected siblings.

  13. Bullying among Siblings: The Role of Personality and Relational Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesini, Ersilia; Camodeca, Marina; Nocentini, Annalaura

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate: (1) the influence of gender, sibling age, and sibling gender on sibling bullying and victimization; (2) the links between personality characteristics, quality of the sibling relationship, and sibling bullying/victimization; (3) the association between sibling and school bullying/victimization, and the direct and…

  14. Sibling Relationships: Parent-Child Agreement and Contributions of Siblings with and without ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconnier, Megan L.; Coffman, Marika C.; Kelso, Nicole; Wolf, Julie M.

    2018-01-01

    Research on the experiences of siblings of individuals with ASD and the quality of their sibling relationships has yielded mixed results. The present study examined the significance of parent- versus child-report of both positive and negative behaviors exhibited by siblings and their brothers and sisters with ASD within sibling dyads. Findings…

  15. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  16. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, Wendy; Horsley, Heidi; Davies, Betty; Kramer, Robin

    2006-11-01

    Historically, from a Freudian and medical model perspective, emotional disengagement from the deceased was seen as essential to the successful adaptation of bereavement. A major shift in the bereavement literature has occurred and it is now generally accepted that despite the permanence of physical separation, the bereaved remains involved and connected to the deceased and can be emotionally sustained through continuing bonds. The majority of literature has focused on adults and on the nature of continuing bonds following the death of a spouse. In this article, the authors demonstrate how the continuing bonds concept applies to the sibling relationship. We describe the unique continued relationship formed by bereaved children and adolescents following a sibling loss, highlight the factors that influence the siblings continuing bonds expressions, and offer clinical interventions. In our view, mental health professionals can play an important role in helping parents encourage activities that may facilitate the creation and maintenance of continuing bonds in their children.

  17. Siblings of individuals with first-episode psychosis: understanding their experiences and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Jacqueline; Moone, Nicki; Harris, Paul

    2008-06-01

    The growth of early intervention in psychosis services (EIPS) has prompted needed research to provide a robust evidence base to underpin practice. The typical service model embraces key psychosocial interventions, including family interventions. A literature review revealed a number of relevant studies that recognized the role of siblings in families affected by severe mental illness or mental impairment, but little was found about the impact of first-episode psychosis on siblings. To address this apparent oversight, we conducted a study to gain an understanding of sibling experiences. Ten siblings (ages 16 to 30) with a brother or sister diagnosed with first-episode psychosis took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The key findings were grouped in regard to emotional impact, relationships in the family, and siblings' roles and coping patterns. The study also revealed that families are able to identify positive gains out of a fundamentally negative experience.

  18. The Prevalence and Psychopathological Correlates of Sibling Bullying in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseeb, Umar; McChesney, Gillian; Wolke, Dieter

    2018-07-01

    Using data from a prospective population based study, the prevalence and psychopathological correlates of sibling bullying in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were estimated. There were 475 children with ASD and 13,702 children without ASD aged 11 years. Children with ASD were more likely to be bullied by their siblings compared to those without ASD. They were also more likely than those without ASD to both bully and be bullied by their siblings, which was associated with lower prosocial skills as well as more internalizing and externalizing problems compared to those not involved in any sibling bullying. Interventions to improve social and emotional outcomes in children with ASD should focus on both the affected and the unaffected sibling.

  19. Mothers', fathers', and siblings' perceptions of parents' differential treatment of siblings: Links with family relationship qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2017-10-01

    A family systems perspective directs attention to the potentially different experiences and perspectives of family members. This study examined parents' differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, discrepancies between parent and youth reports of PDT, and their links with relationships between adolescents and their mothers and fathers across three years. Participants were first- (Time 1 M age = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (Time 1 M age = 13.18, SD = 1.29) siblings from 381, predominately white, working and middle class families. Analyses revealed that siblings' perceptions of being favored predicted less conflict with and greater warmth from both mothers and fathers, primarily for secondborn adolescents. Larger discrepancies between maternal and youth reports of differential affection were linked to more maternal conflict and less warmth for firstborns. These findings may suggest a hierarchy within families: parents may serve as referents for firstborns and firstborns as referents for secondborns. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Life Events, Sibling Warmth, and Youths' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Evelyn B.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Sibling warmth has been identified as a protective factor from life events, but stressor-support match-mismatch and social domains perspectives suggest that sibling warmth may not efficiently protect youths from all types of life events. We tested whether sibling warmth moderated the association between each of family-wide, youths' personal, and…

  1. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  2. Relative Power in Sibling Relationships Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Anna K; Campione-Barr, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    During childhood, older siblings typically hold a more powerful position in their relationship with their younger siblings, but these relationships are thought to become more egalitarian during adolescence as siblings begin to prepare for their relationships as adults and as younger siblings become more socially and cognitively competent. Little is known about relationship factors that may explain this shift in power dynamics, however. The present study therefore examined longitudinal changes in adolescents' and their siblings' perceptions of sibling relative power from age 12 to 18 (n = 145 dyads), and examined whether different levels of sibling relationship positivity and negativity, as well as sibling structural variables, indicated different over-time changes in relative power. Multilevel models indicated that adolescents reported significant declines in their siblings' relative power across adolescence, with older siblings relinquishing the most power over time. However, only siblings with less positively involved relationships reported declines in relative power, suggesting that siblings who maintain highly involved relationships may not become more egalitarian during adolescence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  4. Siblings and the Development of Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy; Munn, Penny

    1986-01-01

    Examines the capability and motivation of 18- and 24-month-old infants to share, help, comfort, and cooperate with their older siblings; the frequency of such prosocial behavior by both siblings; and the children's response to sibling distress. The relationship between prosocial and conflict behavior was also studied. (HOD)

  5. Sibling Rivalry: A Parent Education Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calladine, Carole E.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies three styles of sibling rivalry and three parent leadership styles, discussing parental mediation of sibling disputes through contracting and providing examples of group discipline techniques that facilitate development of less negative forms of rivalry and that support positive sibling bonding. (RH)

  6. A sibling based design to quantify genetic and shared environmental effects of venous thromboembolism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Bengt; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Few large studies have examined the heritability of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Moreover, twin studies have been suggested to overestimate heritability. The aim of the present study was to determine the heritability nationwide in the general Swedish population using full siblings and half-siblings. VTE was defined using the Swedish patient register. Full sibling (FS) and half-sibling (HS) pairs born 1950-1990 were obtained from the Swedish Multi-generation Register. A maximum of 5years age difference was allowed. We also required that the individuals within the pair should reside in the same household for at least 8years or not at all (0years) before the youngest turned 16. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, and municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. We assumed three potential sources of liability to VTE: additive genetic (A), shared (or common/familial) environment (C), and unique environment (E) components. Totally 881,206 FS pairs and 95,198 HS pairs were included. The full model predicted heritability for VTE with 47% for males and 40% for females. Environmental factors shared by siblings contributed to 0% of the variance in liability for both sexes, and unique environment (E) components accounted for 53% in males and 60% in females. The high heritability of VTE risk indicates that genetic susceptibility plays a substantial role for VTE in the Swedish general population. Overestimation of heritability from twin studies is not likely. The proportion of the variance attributable to shared familial environment factors is small. Subject codes: Genetics, epidemiology, thrombosis, cardiovascular disease, embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sibling Curves 3: Imaginary Siblings and Tracing Complex Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann

    2009-01-01

    Visualizing complex roots of a quadratic equation has been a quest since the inception of the Argand plane in the 1800s. Many algebraic and numerical methods exist for calculating complex roots of an equation, but few visual methods exist. Following on from papers by Harding and Engelbrecht (A. Harding and J. Engelbrecht, "Sibling curves and…

  8. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  9. A Systematic Review of the Experiences of Siblings of Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Chuan; Mu, Pei-Fan; Sheng, Ching-Ching; Chen, Yi-Wei; Hung, Giun-Yi

    2016-01-01

    When there is a child with cancer in the family, the entire family is affected. Childhood cancer is a highly stressful experience that affects the adaptation of family member to psychosocial tasks. Many of the family stresses and changes that accompany childhood cancer have a severe impact on siblings. An understanding of the experiences and needs of such siblings is vital. The aim of this study was to understand the nature of the overall experiences of a child who has a brother or sister with cancer. Searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Eric, and Chinese electronic periodical services identified 10 qualitative studies that were published between 1960 and 2013. An appraisal of the primary studies was carried out using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Siblings of children with cancer were found to have experienced 4 themes: (1) the disintegration of life, (2) marginalization within their family relationships, (3) self-transcendence during the normalization of family relationships, and (4) maintenance of family integrity and family normality. Siblings of children with cancer experience a great deal of chaos in their family life, and this affects their self-esteem and family intimacy. Being with the sick child may help siblings understand the sick child's suffering and experiences. The findings of this review provide evidence to help health professionals to assess the needs of the siblings to enhance their sense of self within the family. Providing the siblings with suitable resources should result in better adjustment.

  10. What makes siblings different? The development of sibling differences in academic achievement and interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross-lagged links between parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings' grade point averages (GPAs), and cross-lagged links between differences in siblings' GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07), and secondborn youth (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) from 388 European American families on 3 annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings' average grades and prior differences in performance, parents' beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings' relative school performance, however, did not predict parents' beliefs about differences between siblings' competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings' interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Don't forget the siblings: School-aged siblings of children presenting to mental health services show at-risk patterns of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Elliott, Bronwen

    2017-04-01

    Family therapists understand that children presenting for treatment are often bearers of symptoms signalling relational problems within the family system. Rather than addressing the children's symptoms in isolation, family therapists typically take those relational problems as their starting point in therapy. This study used the School-aged Assessment of Attachment (SAA) to assess the self-protective (attachment) strategies of the siblings of children presenting for psychiatric evaluation and also of the siblings of control children drawn from the normative population. Siblings of children in the clinical group were much more likely than siblings of control children to use at-risk self-protective strategies and to have markers suggestive of unresolved loss or trauma. School-aged siblings were found to use a broad range of strategies, and the pattern of change from first born to later born involved either a reversal of strategy or a shift to a more complex strategy. The study highlights that siblings of children presenting to mental health services are significantly affected by family relational stress. A family systems approach to assessment, one that enquires about the wellbeing of all family members, will ensure that the emotional needs of siblings are also addressed during the therapy process.

  12. Bullying in the family: sibling bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Tippett, Neil; Dantchev, Slava

    2015-10-01

    Sibling relationships have a substantial and lasting effect on children's development. Many siblings experience some occasional conflict, however, up to 40% are exposed to sibling bullying every week, a repeated and harmful form of intrafamilial aggression. We review evidence on the precursors, factors relating to peer bullying, and mental health consequences of sibling bullying. Parenting quality and behaviour are the intrafamilial factors most strongly associated with bullying between siblings. Sibling bullying increases the risk of being involved in peer bullying, and is independently associated with concurrent and early adult emotional problems, including distress, depression, and self-harm. The effects appear to be cumulative, with those children bullied by both siblings and peers having highly increased emotional problems compared with those bullied by siblings or peers only, probably because they have no safe place to escape from bullying. The link between sibling and peer bullying suggests interventions need to start at home. Health professionals should ask about sibling bullying and interventions are needed for families to prevent and reduce the health burden associated with sibling bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  14. Does Paired Mentoring Work? A Study of the Effectiveness and Affective Value of Academically Asymmetrical Peer Mentoring in Supporting Disadvantaged Students in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Rachael; Abrahams, Ian; Fotou, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    Background: In England, there is a growing need to improve the lives of secondary school students who are defined as disadvantaged and to support these students in their attainment and attitudes to secondary school science. Purpose: This paper reports on a project designed to support students from disadvantaged backgrounds by pairing them with…

  15. The Development of Siblings of Children with Autism at 4 and 14 Months: Social Engagement, Communication, and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirmiya, Nurit; Gamliel, Ifat; Pilowsky, Tammy; Feldman, Ruth; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To compare siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) and siblings of children with typical development (SIBS-TD) at 4 and 14 months of age. Methods: At 4 months, mother-infant interactional synchrony during free play, infant gaze and affect during the still-face paradigm, and infant responsiveness to a name-calling paradigm were examined (n…

  16. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  17. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy J.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  18. Maternal concern about child weight in a study of weight-discordant siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Compher, Charlene W

    2015-01-01

    This study examined concern about child weight in mothers of weight-discordant siblings and determined the accuracy of maternal self-report versus measured child height, weight, and corresponding body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2) ) z-score. Discordant sibling design. Forty-seven mothers of 5- to 12-year-old, weight-discordant siblings. Mothers self-reported their concern about child weight for each child separately and for a subset of children, self-reported their heights and weights. Siblings' height, weight, waist circumference, and adiposity were measured. The majority (83%) of mothers expressed concern about their overweight/obese child's weight and 20% of mothers expressed concern about their normal-weight child's weight (p concern about child weight were positively associated with difference scores in sibling BMI z-score (r = 0.42; p = .01) and percent body fat (r = 0.56; p concern for their overweight/obese child's weight was greater for sibling pairs who were more discordant in their weight. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-term psychosocial outcomes among bereaved siblings of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Postier, Andrea; Osenga, Kaci; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Neville, Bridget; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The death of a child from cancer affects the entire family. Little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of bereaved siblings. To describe 1) the prevalence of risky health behaviors, psychological distress, and social support among bereaved siblings and 2) potentially modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes. Bereaved siblings were eligible for this dual-center, cross-sectional, survey-based study if they were 16 years or older and their parents had enrolled in one of three prior studies about caring for children with cancer at the end of life. Linear regression models identified associations between personal perspectives before, during, and after the family's cancer experience and outcomes (health behaviors, psychological distress, and social support). Fifty-eight siblings completed surveys (62% response rate). They were approximately 12 years bereaved, with a mean age of 26 years at the time of the survey (SD 7.8). Anxiety, depression, and illicit substance use increased during the year after their brother/sister's death but then returned to baseline. Siblings who reported dissatisfaction with communication, poor preparation for death, missed opportunities to say goodbye, and/or a perceived negative impact of the cancer experience on relationships tended to have higher distress and lower social support scores (P siblings reported that their loss still affected them; half stated that the experience impacted current educational and career goals. How siblings experience the death of a child with cancer may impact their long-term psychosocial well-being. Sibling-directed communication and concurrent supportive care during the cancer experience and the year after the sibling death may mitigate poor long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impossible Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Unique Data Collected on Double Asteroid Antiope Combining precise observations obtained by ESO's Very Large Telescope with those gathered by a network of smaller telescopes, astronomers have described in unprecedented detail the double asteroid Antiope, which is shown to be a pair of rubble-pile chunks of material, of about the same size, whirling around one another in a perpetual pas de deux. The two components are egg-shaped despite their very small sizes. The asteroid (90) Antiope was discovered in 1866 by Robert Luther from Dusseldorf, Germany. The 90th asteroid ever discovered, its name comes from Greek mythology. In 2000, William Merline and his collaborators found that the asteroid was composed of two similarly-sized components, making it a truly 'double' asteroid, one of the very first of this kind in the main belt of asteroids that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ESO PR Photo 18a/07 ESO PR Photo 18a/07 The Antiope Doublet "The way double asteroids have formed in the main belt is still unclear," says Pascal Descamps, from the Paris Observatory and lead-author of the paper presenting the new results. "The Antiope system provides us with a unique opportunity to know more about this class of objects and we decided to study it in detail," he adds. Descamps, with colleague Franck Marchis from the University of California at Berkeley, USA, therefore initiated a large campaign of observations for more than two and a half years starting in January 2003. They used the NACO instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal for the larger part, while using one of the Keck telescopes for some additional observations in 2005. NACO allows the astronomers to perform adaptive optics observations, providing images that are mostly free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. With these, it was always possible to separate clearly the two components of the Antiope system, thereby obtaining a large set of very precise measurements of their positions

  1. Mechanisms of Sibling Socialization in Normative Family Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra, Julia M.; Killoren, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence--sibling deidentification and social learning--that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and…

  2. Personality traits and sibling relationships in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanthier, Richard P

    2007-04-01

    Associations between the Big Five personality traits of siblings and the quality of sibling relationships were examined in a sample of 115 college students and one of their older siblings. Big Five traits, as assessed by Goldberg's 100 adjective markers, predicted a large amount of the variability in sibling Warmth and Conflict. Agreeableness was the most consistent predictor of positive sibling outcomes.

  3. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Love, V.; Richters, L.P.H.; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Machalicek, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. Methods: This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n 44). Sibling relationships were

  4. Morpho-semantic properties of Serbian nouns: Animacy and gender pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether and how the cognitive system uses morphological markedness of animacy and gender pairs. In the Serbian language masculine nouns are marked for animacy (i.e., genitive-accusative syncretism, while for feminine nouns the animacy distinction is purely semantic. Thus, in Experiment 1 we used this natural, linguistic differentiation to test whether morphological markedness of animacy influences lexical processing. In the same experiment, we tested whether the cognitive system is sensitive to the fact that some animate nouns have a sibling in the other gender (e.g., dečak /”boy”/ - devojčica /”girl”/, while others do not have it (e.g., vojnik /”soldier”/ or žirafa /”giraffe”/. We labeled this indicator sibling presence. The analysis did not confirm the effect of animacy, neither between nor within genders. However, animate nouns with a sibling were processed faster than those without a sibling. Since the majority of sibling nouns are morphologically related (like konobar /”waiter”/ - konobarica /”waitress”/, while the rest are not (e.g., petao /”rooster”/ - kokoška /”hen”/, in Experiment 2 we tested whether morphological relatedness contributed to the effect of sibling presence. Results showed that this is not the case: morphologically related and unrelated masculine-feminine pairs of nouns (siblings were processed equally fast. Furthermore, an interaction between the target’s frequency and the frequency of its sibling was observed: nouns with a more frequent sibling benefited more from their own frequency than those with a less frequent sibling. We argue that sibling support is realized through semantic, not morphological relations. Taken together, our findings suggest that morphological markedness is not used in lexical processing, which is in line with an amorphous approach to lexical processing.

  5. The effectiveness of a peer support camp for siblings of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ranita; Passmore, Anne; Baker, David

    2006-10-15

    Siblings of children with cancer have higher levels of psychological stress and adaptational difficulties compared to siblings of healthy children and children with other chronic illness. This is the first study to report on the mental health of Australian siblings of children with cancer and examines the effects of a therapeutic peer support camp-Camp Onwards, as an intervention. A protocol, designed to reduce levels of distress, improve social competence, and improve knowledge about the impact of cancer and its treatment was developed. Siblings (n=26) 8-13 years were assessed using standardised self-report measures pre and post intervention and at -8 weeks follow-up with: the Behaviour Assessment for Children (BASC) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992), Self Perception Profile for Children (SPP-C) (Harter, 1985), Sibling Perception Questionnaire (SPQ) (Carpenter & Sahler, 1991). Change was measured using paired t tests. At pre-test, 40% of the sample demonstrated increased levels of emotional distress when compared to the normal population. Post intervention, siblings reported lower levels of distress demonstrated by decreased anxiety (P=0.01) and positive changes in the Self Report of Personality [BASC] (P=0.00). Improved social competence was noted in the interpersonal domain of the SPQ (P=0.01) and also greater social acceptance scores on the SPP-C (P=0.01). Improved knowledge about the impact of cancer and its treatment was evidenced by significant reductions in the fear of disease domain on the SPQ (P=0.01). Siblings who attended Camp Onwards demonstrated improved mental health outcomes that were sustained at follow-up, demonstrating its effectiveness as an intervention strategy in supporting sibling adjustment. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Sibling solidarity in a polygamous community in the USA. unpacking inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak; Diderich

    2000-03-01

    This pilot study explores the degree of solidarity felt between full and half siblings who are raised in a Mormon Fundamentalist polygamous community. The community under study is unique in that, at the level of official culture, it actively promotes full and half sibling solidarity through an ethos that strives to downplay genetic differences in favor of a harmonious family living together in one household. This community is an ideal cultural setting in which to examine the suitability of inclusive fitness theory for understanding the factors that promote family cohesion, sibling solidarity, and rivalry. Our main question becomes: is the degree of sibling solidarity a manifestation of genetic closeness or a natural byproduct of emotional closeness that arises from being raised together? We found evidence for more solidarity between full siblings than between half siblings. Our data suggest that, despite the force of religious ideals, and notwithstanding the continued close physical proximity of half siblings in the polygamous family, there is a pronounced clustering of feeling and affection in the polygamous family that is consistent with inclusive fitness theory.

  7. Siblings Promote a Type 1/Type 17-oriented immune response in the airways of asymptomatic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsk, H M; Chawes, B L; Følsgaard, N V; Rasmussen, M A; Brix, S; Bisgaard, H

    2016-06-01

    Siblings have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood asthma and allergy, but the mechanism driving this association is unknown. The objective was to study whether siblings affect the airway immune response in healthy neonates, which could represent an underlying immune modulatory pathway. We measured 20 immune mediators related to the Type 1, Type 2, Type 17, or regulatory immune pathways in the airway mucosa of 571 one-month-old asymptomatic neonates from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 birth cohort (COPSAC2010 ). The association between airway mediator levels and presence of siblings was investigated using conventional statistics and principle component analysis (PCA). Neonates with siblings had an upregulated level of airway immune mediators, with predominance of Type 1- and Type 17-related mediators. This was supported by the PCA showing a highly significant difference between children with vs without siblings: P Siblings mediate a Type 1/Type 17-related immune-stimulatory effect in the airways of asymptomatic neonates, also after adjustment for pathogenic bacteria and viruses, indicating that siblings exert a transferable early immune modulatory effect. These findings may represent an in utero immune priming effect of the fetal immune system caused by previous pregnancies as the effect was attenuated with time since last childbirth, or it could relate to the presence of unidentified microbes, but further studies are needed to confirm our findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of Siblings Are Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-Representations in Early Adolescence: Variations in Sibling Similarity by Sex Composition and Sibling Relationship Qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Card, Noel A.; Yu, Jeong Jin

    2010-01-01

    Self-representations play an important role in adolescent development. This study compared self-representations for siblings and explored whether sibling relationship characteristics are associated with similarities or differences in sibling self-concepts. We examined self-representations of 438 adolescent sibling dyads (M age younger sibling =…

  10. Faecalibacterium Gut Colonization Is Accelerated by Presence of Older Siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a highly abundant human gut microbe in healthy individuals, but it is present at reduced levels in individuals with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. It has therefore been suggested to constitute a marker of a healthy gut and is associated with anti......-inflammatory properties. However, factors affecting the colonization of F. prausnitzii in the human gut during early life are very poorly understood. By analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data from three separate infant study populations, we determined the colonization dynamics of Faecalibacterium and factors...... affecting its establishment in the gut. We found that in particular, the presence of older siblings was consistently associated with Faecalibacterium gut colonization during late infancy and conclude that acquisition of Faecalibacterium is very likely to be accelerated through transfer between siblings...

  11. A splice-site mutation affecting the paired box of PAX3 in a three generation family with Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaie, A; Kim, E; Wilcox, E R; Lalwani, A K

    1997-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, pigmentary disturbances and other developmental defects, is the most frequent form of congenital deafness in humans. Mutations in the PAX3 gene, a transcription factor expressed during embryonic development, is associated with WS types I and III. Here we report the identification of a novel acceptor splice site mutation (86-2 A-->G) in the paired domain of the human PAX3 gene causing WS type I in a three generation family.

  12. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  13. Siblings of children with life-limiting conditions: psychological adjustment and sibling relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, J M; Totsika, V; Hain, R; Hastings, R P

    2017-05-01

    This study explored psychological adjustment and sibling relationships of siblings of children with life-limiting conditions (LLCs), expanding on previous research by defining LLCs using a systematic classification of these conditions. Thirty-nine siblings participated, aged 3-16 years. Parents completed measures of siblings' emotional and behavioural difficulties, quality of life, sibling relationships and impact on families and siblings. Sibling and family adjustment and relationships were compared with population norms, where available, and to a matched comparison group of siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), as a comparable 'high risk' group. LLC siblings presented significantly higher levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties, and lower quality of life than population norms. Their difficulties were at levels comparable to siblings of children with ASD. A wider impact on the family was confirmed. Family socio-economic position, time since diagnosis, employment and accessing hospice care were factors associated with better psychological adjustment. Using a systematic classification of LLCs, the study supported earlier findings of increased levels of psychological difficulties in siblings of children with a LLC. The evidence is (i) highlighting the need to provide support to these siblings and their families, and (ii) that intervention approaches could be drawn from the ASD field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Siblings' coping strategies and mental health services: a national study of siblings of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Rose Marie; Lively, Sonja; Rubenstein, Linda M

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the helpfulness of coping strategies and the relative importance of mental health services in coping with schizophrenia from the perspective of siblings. This article presents selected survey data from a national study of 746 respondents that investigated the impact of schizophrenia on siblings' lives. The authors developed the Friedrich-Lively Instrument to Assess the Impact of Schizophrenia on Siblings (FLIISS), a closed-ended questionnaire that included questions about coping strategies and mental health services. Respondents identified services for the ill sibling, including symptom control, adequate housing, and long-term planning, as more important than direct services for themselves. The top-ranked coping strategies were education about schizophrenia, a supportive family, and seeing the ill sibling suffer less because symptoms were controlled. Understanding that families were not to blame for schizophrenia was the most helpful coping strategy for nearly three-fourths of siblings. Siblings had little contact with providers in the past; yet the majority of siblings wanted providers to be available to answer questions and clarify their role in future care. At the time of the study, respondents provided social support and helped with crises, but few coordinated the total care. Siblings identified multiple ways that providers can support and assist them in coping with the impact of schizophrenia. Education and support for siblings without schizophrenia and services for their ill siblings will become increasingly important for the well-being of siblings as they are faced with the responsibility of being the primary caregivers in the future.

  15. Sibling Relationships in Adults Who Have Siblings with or without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairead A.; Hastings, Richard P.; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with…

  16. Multiple Unerupted Teeth with Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Shruthi Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta encompasses a group of inherited abnormalities that are generally considered to primarily affect the formation and/or calcification of enamel. This case report describes the unusual presentation of amelogenesis imperfecta in siblings as multiple unerupted teeth, multiple pulpal calcifications, and multiple dilacerations of roots along with the defect in the enamel. The intent of our report is to highlight a rare co-occurrence of amelogenesis imperfecta with multiple mo...

  17. The prediction of semantic consistency in self-descriptions: characteristics of persons and of terms that affect the consistency of responses to synonym and antonym pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L R; Kilkowski, J M

    1985-01-01

    Subjects described themselves, using an alphabetically ordered list of 191 trait adjectives, which included sets of synonyms and antonyms, half of each type more difficult than the other half. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. In one condition, each adjective was listed with its dictionary definition; in the other condition, only the adjectives were listed. All subjects were administered a battery of demographic, cognitive, and personality measures. We analyzed both the relative consistency elicited by different pairs of terms and the individual differences in semantic consistency displayed by different sorts of subjects. Although the provision of definitions served to increase consistency (especially for the difficult antonyms), it did not decrease the range of consistency values across either synonym or antonym pairs. And, although interpair differences in semantic consistency were as difficult to predict in this study as in previous ones, individual differences were highly predictable. The implications of our many findings are discussed in the context of various hypotheses about semantic inconsistency in self-reports.

  18. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  19. Maternal perceptions of sibling adaptation in Korean families of children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Van Riper, M

    2014-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 500 infants with Down syndrome (DS) are born each year in Korea. DS affects not only these individuals, but family members as well. Some siblings deal successfully with the challenges of living with a child with DS and adapt well while others struggle or fail to adapt. The aims of this descriptive study were to explore how Korean mothers of children with DS perceive the adaptation of their typically developing (TD) children aged 4 to 19 and how family variables contribute to sibling adaptation. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 105 Korean mothers. Most mothers indicated that their TD children were not experiencing psychological or behavioural problems; however, many described problems in the sibling relationship. It was found that family factors (i.e. condition management effort, condition management ability, child's daily life, parental mutuality, family hardiness and social support) were strong predictors of sibling psychological, behavioural and relational adaptation. Demographic characteristics of the child with DS, the mother and the family appeared to significantly influence sibling adaptation. These findings highlight the importance of familial contexts in understanding sibling adaptation. Knowledge of family factors associated with better adaptation in Korean siblings of child with DS will facilitate the development of culturally appropriate interventions for these children and their families. In addition, an awareness of demographic characteristics associated with sibling adaptation will help health care professionals identify siblings who are at increased risk of experiencing difficulties in adapting. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Do Older Siblings Make a Difference? The Effects of Older Sibling Support and Older Sibling Adjustment on the Adjustment of Socially Disadvantaged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Eric D.; Weiss, Christopher C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined role of support from a well-adjusted older sibling for positive adjustment of disadvantaged inner-city adolescents. Found that sibling support was nonsignificantly related to delinquency, academic success, and mental health for younger siblings. Only when accompanied by a positive image of their older sibling was support associated with…

  1. Behavioral problems and parenting style among Taiwanese children with autism and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Ming-Fang; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral problems and parenting style among children with autism and their siblings in an ethnic Chinese population. A total of 151 children with DSM-IV autistic disorder, aged 3-12, 134 siblings without autism, and 113 normally developing controls were recruited. Both parents reported their parenting styles and psychological status and mothers also reported children's behavioral problems. Children with autism had significantly more severe behavioral problems and obtained less affection and more overprotection and authoritarian controlling from their parents than the other two groups. Compared to the controls, unaffected siblings showed some behavioral problems, and obtained less maternal care. Withdrawal and attention, social, and thought problems were the most associated behavioral syndromes to distinguish children with autism from those without. In addition to children with autism, who have a wide range of behavioral problems and impaired parent-child interactions, their siblings may be at risk for such problems.

  2. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Wöllert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  3. Longitudinal pathways linking family factors and sibling relationship qualities to adolescent substance use and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2005-12-01

    This 3-wave, 5-year longitudinal study tested the contributions of family contextual factors and sibling relationship qualities to younger siblings' substance use, sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. More than 220 non-White families participated (67% Latino and 33% African American), all of which involved a younger sibling (133 girls and 89 boys; mean age = 13.6 years at Time 1) and an older sister (mean age = 17 years at Time 1). Results from structural equation latent growth curve modeling indicated that qualities of the sibling relationship (high older sister power, low warmth/closeness, and low conflict) mediated effects from several family risks (mothers' single parenting, older sisters' teen parenting, and family's receipt of aid) to younger sibling outcomes. Model results were generally stronger for sister-sister pairs than for sister-brother pairs. Findings add to theoretical models that emphasize the role of family and parenting processes in shaping sibling relationships, which, in turn, influence adolescent outcomes. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Vaccination Patterns in Children After Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis and in Their Younger Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Modaressi, Sharareh; Goddard, Kristin; Lewis, Edwin; Fireman, Bruce H; Daley, Matthew F; Irving, Stephanie A; Jackson, Lisa A; Donahue, James G; Qian, Lei; Getahun, Darios; DeStefano, Frank; McNeil, Michael M; Klein, Nicola P

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, rates of vaccination have been declining. Whether this phenomenon disproportionately affects children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or their younger siblings is unknown. To investigate if children after receiving an ASD diagnosis obtain their remaining scheduled vaccines according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations and to compare the vaccination patterns of younger siblings of children with ASD with the vaccination patterns of younger siblings of children without ASD. This investigation was a retrospective matched cohort study. The setting was 6 integrated health care delivery systems across the United States within the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Participants were children born between January 1, 1995, and September 30, 2010, and their younger siblings born between January 1, 1997, and September 30, 2014. The end of follow-up was September 30, 2015. Recommended childhood vaccines between ages 1 month and 12 years. The proportion of children who received all of their vaccine doses according to ACIP recommendations. The study included 3729 children with ASD (676 [18.1%] female), 592 907 children without ASD, and their respective younger siblings. Among children without ASD, 250 193 (42.2%) were female. For vaccines recommended between ages 4 and 6 years, children with ASD were significantly less likely to be fully vaccinated compared with children without ASD (adjusted rate ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.85-0.88). Within each age category, vaccination rates were significantly lower among younger siblings of children with ASD compared with younger siblings of children without ASD. The adjusted rate ratios varied from 0.86 for siblings younger than 1 year to 0.96 for those 11 to 12 years old. Parents who had a child with ASD were more likely to refuse at least 1 recommended vaccine for that child's younger sibling and to limit the number of vaccines administered during the younger sibling's first year of life

  5. Sibling Dependence, Uncertainty and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilleør, Helene Bie

    in the educational decision, which is consistent with a human capital portfolio theory of risk diversification and which cannot be explained by sibling rivalry over scarce resources for credit constrained households. The paper thus provides a complementary explanation to why enrolment rates in developing countries......Primary school enrolment rates are continuously low in many developing countries. The main explanation in the economic literature on schooling is focused on credit constraints and child labour, implying that the indirect cost of schooling in terms of foregone earnings is too high. This paper...

  6. Are elder siblings helpers or competitors? Antagonistic fitness effects of sibling interactions in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Aïda; Faurie, Charlotte; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-01-01

    Determining the fitness consequences of sibling interactions is pivotal for understanding the evolution of family living, but studies investigating them across lifetime are lacking. We used a large demographic dataset on preindustrial humans from Finland to study the effect of elder siblings on key life-history traits. The presence of elder siblings improved the chances of younger siblings surviving to sexual maturity, suggesting that despite a competition for parental resources, they may help rearing their younger siblings. After reaching sexual maturity however, same-sex elder siblings' presence was associated with reduced reproductive success in the focal individual, indicating the existence of competition among same-sex siblings. Overall, lifetime fitness was reduced by same-sex elder siblings' presence and increased by opposite-sex elder siblings' presence. Our study shows opposite effects of sibling interactions depending on the life-history stage, and highlights the need for using long-term fitness measures to understand the selection pressures acting on sibling interactions. PMID:23173210

  7. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  8. Prohibitions against Mourning in Childhood Sibling Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Helen

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)

  9. Sibling Kinnections: A Clinical Visitation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire; St. John, Melissa; Cannole, Rebecca Ford; Fischer, Tara; Maluccio, Anthony; Peining, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The growing literature on sibling relationships throughout their lifespans is of great importance to those working in the child welfare system, and in adoption services in particular. Sibling bonds are important to all of us, but they are particularly vital to children from disorganized or dysfunctional families. These relationships assume even…

  10. Grieving the Loss of a Sibling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... roles and responsibilities that may change when a sibling dies. You may take on new responsibilities, such as becoming the oldest child or an only child to whom family members look for leadership. This change can cause you ... cancer. Because you and your siblings share many of the same genes, it is ...

  11. Perceived Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Lempers, Jacques D.

    2004-01-01

    Utilizing longitudinal, 3-wave data collected from multiple informants (fathers, mothers, and target children) in 374 families, the potential effects of sibling relationships on adolescent development across early and middle adolescence were investigated. Adolescents who perceived their sibling relationships more positively at Time 1 tended to…

  12. The Sibling: A Lifelong Journey of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, Victoria D.

    This paper describes the feelings and needs of children who have siblings with disabilities from the point of view of a woman who has a brother with an intellectual disability. Eight lessons that adult siblings can teach professionals about the significant, often forgotten, family role they play are outlined, supported by descriptive quotations…

  13. Young Children's Apologies to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Sara; Ross, Hildy; Ross, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When children apologize, they accept responsibility for wrongdoings and act to reconcile social relationships. Apologies to siblings were coded in 40 families that were observed for 9 h when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years old, and again 2 years later. We found that sibling apologies were rare, generally simple in form, and more frequent after…

  14. Adult Siblings Consider the Future: Emergent Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of adult siblings regarding a future care role and compare with perceived parental wishes as family often provide a key support role in the lives of people who have an intellectual disability. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 adult siblings and an…

  15. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  16. Parental Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laurie; Baron, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Parental appraisals of their children's sibling relationships, and their standards for sibling relationships, were assessed. Although parents reported most concern about their children's Agonism and Rivalry/Competition, the largest discrepancies between parental standards and observations involved behaviors reflecting Warmth. Results endorse…

  17. Relationships between Social Cognition and Sibling Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Barbara L.

    1985-01-01

    First and second born college students (N=178) responded to measures of four social cognition factors. Multivariate analysis of variance identified relationships of social cognition factors with five sibling constellation components: subject's sex, subject's birth order (first or second), adjacent first or second born sibling's sex, spacing…

  18. A DRD1 haplotype is associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders in male-only affected sib-pair families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, Joe A; Liu, Xudong; Schwartz, Charles E; Michaelis, Ron C; Holden, Jeanette J A

    2008-07-05

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have impairments in executive function and social cognition, with males generally being more severely affected in these areas than females. Because the dopamine D1 receptor (encoded by DRD1) is integral to the neural circuitry mediating these processes, we examined the DRD1 gene for its role in susceptibility to ASDs by performing single marker and haplotype case-control comparisons, family-based association tests, and genotype-phenotype assessments (quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests: QTDT) using three DRD1 polymorphisms, rs265981C/T, rs4532A/G, and rs686T/C. Our previous findings suggested that the dopaminergic system may be more integrally involved in families with affected males only than in other families. We therefore restricted our study to families with two or more affected males (N = 112). There was over-transmission of rs265981-C and rs4532-A in these families (P = 0.040, P = 0.038), with haplotype TDT analysis showing over-transmission of the C-A-T haplotype (P = 0.022) from mothers to affected sons (P = 0.013). In addition, haplotype case-control comparisons revealed an increase of this putative risk haplotype in affected individuals relative to a comparison group (P = 0.004). QTDT analyses showed associations of the rs265981-C, rs4532-A, rs686-T alleles, and the C-A-T haplotype with more severe problems in social interaction, greater difficulties with nonverbal communication and increased stereotypies compared to individuals with other haplotypes. Preferential haplotype transmission of markers at the DRD1 locus and an increased frequency of a specific haplotype support the DRD1 gene as a risk gene for core symptoms of ASD in families having only affected males. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Problem solving, contention, and struggle: how siblings resolve a conflict of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, A; Ross, H S

    2001-01-01

    In a laboratory setting, 48 sibling dyads age 4 and 6 or 6 and 8 years negotiated the division of six toys. Findings revealed that, in general, children reached divisions while using a preponderance of constructive problem-solving strategies, rather than contentious tactics. The degree of conflict of interests and the quality of sibling relationships predicted the children's use of problem-solving and contentious negotiation strategies, and was related to the types of resolutions achieved. Dyads experiencing low conflict of interests resolved their differences quickly. High conflict of interests coupled with positive relationships and constructive negotiation resulted in longer negotiations and creative, agreeable resolutions. High conflict of interests coupled with more negative relationships and destructive negotiations resulted in children's failures to reach agreement. Developmental differences indicated that older siblings within the pairs took the lead in negotiation, and benefited slightly more from the divisions. Furthermore, children in older dyads were more sophisticated and other oriented in their negotiations.

  20. Neighborhood disadvantage moderates associations of parenting and older sibling problem attitudes and behavior with conduct disorders in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Ge, Xiaojia; Kim, Su Yeong; Murry, Velma McBride; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Conger, Rand D

    2003-04-01

    Data from 296 sibling pairs (mean ages 10 and 13 years), their primary caregivers, and census records were used to test the hypothesis that African American children's likelihood of developing conduct problems associated with harsh parenting, a lack of nurturant-involved parenting, and exposure to an older sibling's deviance-prone attitudes and behavior would be amplified among families residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods. A latent construct representing harsh-inconsistent parenting and low levels of nurturant-involved parenting was positively associated with younger siblings' conduct disorder symptoms, as were older siblings' problematic attitudes and behavior. These associations were strongest among families residing in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Future research and prevention programs should focus on the specific neighborhood processes associated with increased vulnerability for behavior problems.

  1. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  2. V(D)J recombination frequency is affected by the sequence interposed between a pair of recombination signals: sequence comparison reveals a putative recombinational enhancer element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roch, F A; Hobi, R; Berchtold, M W

    1997-01-01

    respectively, can markedly affect the frequency of V(D)J recombination. We report that the entire Emu, the Emu core as well as its flanking 5' and 3' matrix associated regions (5' and 3' MARs) upregulate V(D)J recombination while the downstream section of the 3' MAR of Emu does not. Also, prokaryotic sequences...

  3. Fix my child: The importance of including siblings in clinical assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnfield, Steve

    2017-07-01

    This study examined concordance in the attachment strategies of school-aged siblings with reference to environmental risk in terms of poverty and maltreatment. It also investigated the effect of child maltreatment and maternal mental illness on children's psychosocial functioning in terms of the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation (DMM) including unresolved trauma and the DMM Depressed modifier. The attachment strategies of 30 sibling pairs, aged 5-14 years, were assessed using the School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA). Unlike most previous studies, this study included siblings from large families of two to six children. The main finding was that as environmental risk increases, the diversity of sibling attachment strategies decreases with greater recourse to the DMM Type A3-6 and A/C strategies. Unlike previous studies, the highest level of concordance was found in sibling pairs with the opposite gender. Boys whose mothers had a history of mental illness were significantly more likely than girls to be assessed with the DMM-depression modifier. As danger increases, children in the same family experience more of the same childhood. Further research should focus on single case, intra-familial studies to build a systemic model of the shared environment. Research should also evaluate the effects of environmental risk compared with size of the sibling group on children's attachment strategies. The clinical implications point to the importance of assessing all children in the family using a model built around functional formulation rather than diagnosing the symptoms of a particular child.

  4. A new lead from genetic studies in depressed siblings: assessing studies of chromosome 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven P

    2011-08-01

    Studies by Breen et al. and Pergadia et al. find evidence for genetic linkage between major depressive disorder and the same region on chromosome 3. The linked region contains the gene GRM7, which encodes a protein for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGluR7). Both studies used affected sibling pairs, and neither was able to replicate its finding using association studies in individuals from larger population-based studies. Other family-based studies have also failed to find a signal in this region. Furthermore, there are some differences in how the phenotype was classified, with Breen et al. finding evidence only in the most severely affected patients. Nonetheless, the finding is not without other substantive support. A meta-analysis of 3,957 case subjects with major depressive disorder and 3,428 control subjects from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D), Genetics of Recurrent Early-onset Depression (GenRED), and the Genetic Association Information Network-MDD (GAIN-MDD) data sets demonstrated a region of association for major depressive disorder within GRM7. Thus, the significance of this finding remains uncertain, although it points to a gene that might hold significant promise for further developments in studying the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder.

  5. Twins and non-twin siblings: different estimates of shared environmental influence in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeppen-Schomerus, Gesina; Spinath, Frank M; Plomin, Robert

    2003-04-01

    Twin studies typically indicate shared environmental influence for cognitive abilities, especially in early childhood. However, across studies, DZ twin correlations tend to be greater than non-twin sibling correlations, suggesting that twin estimates of shared environment are to some extent specific to twins. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of more than 1800 MZ and 1800 same-sex DZ pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a study of twins born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. For this analysis, we obtained comparable data from more than 130 same-sex younger siblings of the twins. Twins and their younger siblings were assessed for language, cognitive abilities and behavior problems by their parents at 2 and 3 years of age. For language and cognitive measures at both 2 and 3 years, but not for behavior problems, estimates of shared environment were more than twice as large for twins as compared to non-twin siblings. We conclude that about half of twin study estimates of shared environment for cognitive abilities in early childhood are specific to twins. Although many possibilities exist for explaining the special shared environment effect for twins, we suggest that cognitive-relevant experiences that are not shared by siblings are shared by twins because they are exactly the same age.

  6. Mexican-origin parents' differential treatment and siblings' adjustment from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Jenny; McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-12-01

    Parents' differential treatment is a common family dynamic that has been linked to youth's well-being in childhood and adolescence in European American families. Much less is known, however, about this family process in other ethnic groups. The authors examined the longitudinal associations between parents' differential treatment (PDT) and both depressive symptoms and risky behaviors of Mexican-origin sibling pairs from early adolescence through young adulthood. They also tested the moderating roles of cultural orientations as well as youth age, gender and sibling dyad gender constellation in these associations. Participants were mothers, fathers, and 2 siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who participated in individual home interviews on 3 occasions over 8 years. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for dyadic parent-child relationship qualities (i.e., absolute levels of warmth and conflict), adolescents who had less favorable treatment by mothers relative to their sibling reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior, on average. Findings for fathers' PDT emerged at the within-person level indicating that, on occasions when adolescents experienced less favorable treatment by fathers than usual, they reported more depressive symptoms and risky behavior. However, some of these effects were moderated by youth age and cultural socialization. For example, adolescents who experienced relatively less paternal warmth than their siblings also reported poorer adjustment, but this effect did not emerge for young adults; such an effect also was significant for unfavored youth with stronger but not weaker cultural orientations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Females paired with new and heavy mates reduce intra-clutch differences in resource allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Reproductive investment affects both offspring and parental fitness and influences the evolution of life histories. Females may vary their overall primary reproductive effort in relation to the phenotypic characteristics of their mate. However, the effects of male quality on differential resource allocation within clutches have been largely neglected despite the potential implications for mate choice and population dynamics, especially in species exhibiting biparental care and brood reduction. Female southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome paired with heavy mates reduced intra-clutch variation in egg and albumen masses. Females paired with new mates also reduced intra-clutch variation in yolk androgen levels. Since both an increased mass and increased androgen concentrations positively influence chick survival under sibling competition, the chances of fledging the whole clutch are likely to be higher for newly formed pairs with heavy males than for previously formed pairs with light males. Interestingly, total clutch provisioning did not vary with male quality. We show for the first time that females vary intra-clutch variation in resource allocation according to male quality. In species with brood reduction, it may be more adaptive for females to modulate the distribution of resources within the clutch according to breeding conditions, than to change their total clutch provisioning.

  8. Intellectual disability and impact on oral health: a paired study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Prado Júnior, Raimundo Rosendo; de Sousa Lima, Kássio Rafael; de Oliveira Amaral, Heylane; Moita Neto, José Machado; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to assess the oral health status, the treatment needed, and the type of dental health services access of intellectually disabled (ID) subjects in Teresina, Brazil. The sample consisted of 103 ID subjects matriculated in centers for special needs people and 103 siblings. Results were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square test, and odds ratio. ID subjects had fair (63.1%; p siblings had a good oral hygiene (n = 103 [55.3%]; p siblings. Thirty percent of ID subjects had never received dental treatment and had difficulty accessing public health services. Their treatment needs were, therefore, higher than non-ID subjects. The access to oral health services was unsatisfactory, thus it is important to implement educational and health promotion inclusion policies for people with ID. ©2013 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Siblings of children with a chronic illness: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Donald; Rossiter, Lucille

    2002-12-01

    To review the literature pertaining to the siblings of children with a chronic illness. Fifty-one published studies and 103 effect sizes were identified and examined through meta-analysis. We found (1) a modest, negative effect size statistic existed for siblings of children with a chronic illness relative to comparison participants or normative data; (2) heterogeneity existed for those effect sizes; (3) parent reports were more negative than child self-reports; (4) psychological functioning (i.e., depression, anxiety), peer activities, and cognitive development scores were lower for siblings of children with a chronic illness compared to controls; and (5) a cluster of chronic illnesses with daily treatment regimes was associated with negative effect statistics compared to chronic illnesses that did not affect daily functioning. More methodologically sound studies investigating the psychological functioning of siblings of children with a chronic illness are needed. Clinicians need to know that siblings of children with a chronic illness are at risk for negative psychological effects. Intervention programs for the siblings and families of children with a chronic illness should be developed.

  10. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  11. Parent Involvement, Sibling Companionship, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Longitudinal, Genetically-Informed Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.; Keyes, Margaret A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    A large literature shows that parent and sibling relationship factors are associated with an increased likelihood of adolescent substance use. Less is known about the etiology of these associations. Using a genetically-informed sibling design, we examined the prospective associations between parent involvement, sibling companionship, and adolescent substance use at two points in mid- and late-adolescence. Adolescents were adopted (n = 568) or the biological offspring of both parents (n = 412). Cross-lagged panel results showed that higher levels of parent involvement in early adolescence were associated with lower levels of substance use later in adolescence. Results did not significantly differ across adoption status, suggesting this association cannot be due to passive gene-environment correlation. Adolescent substance use at Time 1 was not significantly associated with parent involvement at Time 2, suggesting this association does not appear to be solely due to evocative (i.e. “child-driven”) effects either. Together, results support a protective influence of parent involvement on subsequent adolescent substance use that is environmental in nature. The cross-paths between sibling companionship and adolescent substance use were significant and negative in direction (i.e., protective) for sisters, but positive for brothers (in line with a social contagion hypothesis). These effects were consistent across genetically related and unrelated pairs, and thus appear to be environmentally mediated. For mixed gender siblings, results were consistent with environmentally-driven, protective influence hypothesis for genetically unrelated pairs, but in line with a genetically influenced, social contagion hypothesis for genetically related pairs. Implications are discussed. PMID:26030026

  12. Development Genetic Analysis of General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 12 Years in a Sample of Adoptees, Biological Siblings, and Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, E. G.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Corley, Robin; Plomin, Robert; DeFries, John C.; Hewitt, John K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied continuity and change in general cognitive ability from infancy to adolescence in adoptees (107 children), biological siblings (87 pairs), and twins (224 monozygotic and 189 dyzygotic pairs). Findings generally support previous findings about genetic and environmental factors, with the exception that in the transition to adolescence,…

  13. Support Needs of Siblings of People with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Catherine K.; Heller, Tamar; Kramer, John

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the support needs of adult siblings of people with developmental disabilities. A survey completed by 139 siblings of people with developmental disabilities captured the needs of adult siblings through 2 open-ended questions. A grounded theory approach was used, and the sibling responses anchored the analysis,…

  14. Parental Divorce and Sibling Relationships: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Voorpostel, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of parental divorce on sibling contact and relationship…

  15. Siblings and Theory of Mind in Deaf Native Signing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfe, Tyron; Want, Stephen C.; Siegal, Michael

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the basis of "theory of mind" (ToM) reasoning in 20 native signers (ages 4-8) of British Sign Language. Children and their siblings were given a measure of the quality of sibling relations. Sibling quality as perceived by siblings predicted children's ToM score over age and referential communication. (Contains…

  16. Older (but Not Younger) Siblings Facilitate False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…

  17. Sibling relationships in individuals with Angelman syndrome: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Victoria; Richters, Lotte; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Machalicek, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the impact of Angelman syndrome on the sibling relationship. This study explored differences in sibling relationships between children with a typically-developing sibling (n = 55) and children with a sibling with Angelman syndrome (n = 44). Sibling relationships were compared on four factors and 16 sub-scales of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire-Revised. Results showed significant differences in mean scores on each of the four factors (i.e. Warmth/Closeness, Conflict, Rivalry and Dominance/Nurturance) and most of the sub-scales. ANCOVAs showed that demographic variables (number of siblings, living in a two-parent vs single parent household, gender, participant's age, place of residence) did not influence significant differences in sibling relationships between the two groups. Having a brother or sister with Angelman syndrome may influence the way in which the sibling perceives the sibling relationship. This may have important implications for family-centred intervention for this population.

  18. Xeroderma Pigmentosum: Variable Expressions among Three Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Srinivasa Raju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare disorder transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin aging, and malignant tumor development. The frequency of this disorder is approximately 1 case per 250.000 population. Two important causes of mortality are metastatic malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here xeroderma pigmentosum in three siblings presenting with variable expressions is reported. The seventy of the condition was more in one of the more sun exposed sibling and had more signs of malignant lesions. Intraoral pigmentation was also present in all the three siblings.

  19. Phenotypes in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Eva; Ponjavic, Vesna; Möller, Claes; Kimberling, William J; Andréasson, Sten

    2011-06-01

    To characterize visual function in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome. Thirteen patients with phenotypically different subtypes of Usher syndrome, including 3 families with affected siblings, were selected. Genetic analysis and ophthalmological examinations including visual fields, full-field electroretinography (ERG), multifocal electroretinography (mf ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were assessed. The patients' degree of visual handicap was evaluated by a questionnaire (ADL). Twelve of thirteen patients were genotyped as Usher 1B, 1D, 1F, 2A, 2C or 3A. In 12 of 13 patients examined with ERG the 30 Hz flickering light response revealed remaining cone function. In 3 of the patients with Usher type 1 mf ERG demonstrated a specific pattern, with a sharp distinction between the area with reduced function and the central area with remaining macular function and normal peak time. OCT demonstrated loss of foveal depression with distortion of the foveal architecture in the macula in all patients. The foveal thickness ranged from 159 to 384 µm and was not correlated to retinal function. Three siblings shared the same mutation for Usher 2C but in contrast to previous reports regarding this genotype, 1 of them diverged in phenotype with substantially normal visual fields, almost normal OCT and mf ERG findings, and only moderately reduced rod and cone function according to ERG. Evaluation of visual function comprising both the severity of the rod cone degeneration and the function in the macular region confirm phenotypical heterogeneity within siblings and between different genotypes of Usher syndrome.

  20. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    OpenAIRE

    Karin eKeller; Karin eKeller; Larissa Maria Troesch; Alexander eGrob

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical...

  1. Attachment representations, parental differential treatment and sibling relationships.

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on siblings and sibling relationships. To outline the importance of this under-researched field the review details the link between sibling relationship quality and individual psychosocial outcome. Initial research into the area started with investigations of the influence of structural variables and temperament on sibling relationship quality but found that they explained only a small proportion of the variance in sibling relationship q...

  2. Sibling relationships in adults who have siblings with or without intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Mairéad A; Hastings, Richard P; O'Neill, Sarah; Grey, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively little research on the relationships between adults with intellectual disability and their siblings, despite the potential importance of these relationships for either individual's psychological well-being and future care roles that might be adopted by adult siblings. In the present study, sibling relationships of adults with adult siblings with (N=63) and without (N=123) intellectual disability were explored. Contact, warmth, conflict, and rivalry were measured using questionnaires available as an on-line survey. Expressed emotion was measured using the Five Minute Speech Sample over the telephone to establish an independently coded measure of criticism from the participant towards their sibling. Overall, there were few group differences in contact and sibling relationship. There was less telephone contact in the intellectual disability group, and less reported warmth in the relationship with siblings with intellectual disability although this was mainly associated with severe/profound intellectual disability. Exploratory analyses were conducted of the correlates of sibling relationships in both the intellectual disability and control groups. These analyses revealed a small number of different associations especially for conflict, which was lower when either the participant or sibling was younger in the control group but associated with relative age in the intellectual disability group.

  3. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-06-01

    Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.

  4. Siblings in the context of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner-Melman, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Sibling relationships may be relevant to the development of anorexia nervosa (AN), yet little research has focused on this aspect of the disorder. A narrative study of four women in various stages of recovery from AN is described and results relevant to sibling relationships are presented, enriched by published anecdotes and case studies. The anorexic interviewees described much antagonism and rivalry and little warmth and intimacy between themselves and their siblings. They seemed to feel they did not belong sufficiently in their families and other social settings despite a strong desire to belong. The sample is small, reports subjective and retrospective and no control group was included. It is suggested that anorexic girls often feel emotionally isolated from and misunderstood by siblings, who may have much to contribute to the process of therapy and recovery.

  5. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Arajärvi, Ritva; Ukkola, Jonna; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Hintikka, Jukka; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in no...

  6. Does Birth Spacing Affect Personality?

    OpenAIRE

    Golsteyn, Bart H.H.; Magnée, Cécile A. J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the causal effect of birth spacing (i.e., the age difference between siblings) on personality traits. We use longitudinal data from a large British cohort which has been followed from birth until age 42. Following earlier studies, we employ miscarriages between the first and second child as an instrument for birth spacing. The results show that a larger age gap between siblings negatively affects personality traits of the youngest child in two-child households. This result ...

  7. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Brien, Irene; Duffy, Anita; Nicholl, Honor

    Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child's siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: 'siblings', 'chronic illness', 'disability', 'cancer', 'sibling relations', 'sibling adjustment', 'coping', 'family-centred care', 'sibling interventions', 'camps', 'autism', 'Down's syndrome'. Seventeen research studies in total were reviewed. This review focuses on three sibling groups related to children suffering from autism, cancer and Down's syndrome, and are discussed under the following headings: sibling adjustment; family functioning and sibling's coping resources; and intervention programmes. The literature revealed that siblings of children with Down's syndrome were well adjusted to living with their brother or sister. However, there was conflicting information on the adjustment of siblings of children with cancer and autism. An awareness of the harmful effect that living with childhood illness and disability can have on some siblings is essential to enable healthcare professionals to provide supportive interventions to protect siblings' physical and emotional wellbeing.

  8. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Karin; Troesch, Larissa M.; Grob, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order, and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: the more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings. The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions. PMID:26089806

  9. Longitudinal Links between Older Sibling Features and Younger Siblings' Academic Adjustment during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchey, Heather A.; Shoulberg, Erin K.; Jodl, Kathleen M.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated prospective relations between older siblings' support and academic engagement and younger siblings' academic adjustment from 7th to post-8th grade. The study was unique in that it incorporated a sample of both African American and European American adolescents. Also investigated was the extent to which the gender…

  10. First-born siblings show better second language skills than later born siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eKeller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which three sibling structure variables number of siblings, birth order and presence of an older sibling at school age are linked to the second language skills of bilingual children. The research questions were tested using an ethnically heterogeneous sample of 1209 bilingual children with German as a second language. Controlling for children’s age, sex, nationality, number of children’s books at home, family language and parental German language skills, hierarchical regression analyses showed an inverse relationship between the number of siblings and second language skills: The more siblings a child had, the lower was his/her second language proficiency. This relationship was mediated by attendance in early education institutions. Moreover, first-born siblings showed better second language skills than later born siblings.The current study revealed that the resource dilution model, i.e., the decrease in resources for every additional sibling, holds for second language acquisition. Moreover, the results indicate that bilingual children from families with several children benefit from access to early education institutions.

  11. Sibling Voices: The Self-Reported Mental Health of Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Gavidia-Payne, Susana; Minett, Belinda; Kapoor, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the experiences and well-being of siblings growing up with a brother or sister with a disability in Australia. However, research to date has primarily obtained parent reports of sibling adjustment and mental health. Therefore, the aim of the current study was threefold: (1) to report on the mental health…

  12. Siblings of Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Sibling Relationships and Wellbeing in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2009-01-01

    We investigated sibling relationships and wellbeing in adolescents and adults with a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adolescents engaged in more shared activities than did adults. Adolescents reported greater social support, greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and less use of problem-focused coping than adults. In…

  13. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  14. Why Siblings Are Important Agents of Cognitive Development: A Comparison of Siblings and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmitia, Margarita; Hesser, Joanne

    1993-01-01

    Found that, in unstructured building sessions, kindergartners were more likely to observe, imitate, and consult their second- or third-grade siblings than their older peers. Older siblings were also more likely to provide additional explanations and positive feedback than older peers when instructing younger children. (MDM)

  15. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended.

  16. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended. (orig.)

  17. Heritability, assortative mating and gender differences in violent crime: results from a total population sample using twin, adoption, and sibling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisell, Thomas; Pawitan, Yudi; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Research addressing genetic and environmental determinants to antisocial behaviour suggests substantial variability across studies. Likewise, evidence for etiologic gender differences is mixed, and estimates might be biased due to assortative mating. We used longitudinal Swedish total population registers to estimate the heritability of objectively measured violent offending (convictions) in classic twin (N = 36,877 pairs), adoptee-parent (N = 5,068 pairs), adoptee-sibling (N = 10,610 pairs), and sibling designs (N = 1,521,066 pairs). Type and degree of assortative mating were calculated from comparisons between spouses of siblings and half-siblings, and across consecutive spouses. Heritability estimates for the liability of violent offending agreed with previously reported heritability for self-reported antisocial behaviour. While the sibling model yielded estimates similar to the twin model (A ≈ 55%, C ≈ 13%), adoptee-models appeared to underestimate familial effects (A ≈ 20-30%, C ≈ 0%). Assortative mating was moderate to strong (r (spouse) = 0.4), appeared to result from both phenotypic assortment and social homogamy, but had only minor effect on variance components. Finally, we found significant gender differences in the etiology of violent crime.

  18. Associations between social understanding, sibling relationship quality, and siblings' conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated with positive conflict processes. Younger siblings' second-order false belief scores were negatively associated with constructive conflict strategies, and older siblings' narrative self-referential focus was negatively associated with compromise. Associations between younger children's social understanding (conflict interpretation and narrative perspective references) and siblings' dyadic conflict behavior were moderated by relationship quality. Results suggest that links between social understanding and conflict behavior should be considered in conjunction with the quality of children's relationships.

  19. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Tsamparli; Elvisa Frrokaj

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU) and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU). Thirty-six (36) families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old) in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings w...

  20. Mechanisms of sibling socialization in normative family development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Becerra, Julia M; Killoren, Sarah E

    2009-01-01

    Siblings are important sources of social influence throughout childhood and adolescence. Nevertheless, the processes by which siblings influence one another remain relatively unexplored. We highlight two theories of sibling influence-sibling deidentification and social learning-that offer insights as to how and why siblings develop similar and different attributes, attitudes, and behaviors. Recognizing the need to move past post hoc explanations, we suggest several directions for how these two influence processes can be measured directly in future work. Research on sibling influence also can be improved by integrating these theories and attending to their domains of influence.

  1. A novel mutation of laminin β2 (LAMB2) in two siblings with renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falix, Farah A.; Bennebroek, Carlien A.M.; van der Zwaag, Bert; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Florquin, Sandrine; Oosterveld, Michiel J.S.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a novel mutation of LAMB2, the gene associated with Pierson syndrome (microcoria-congenital nephrosis syndrome), in two female siblings. The c.970T>C p.(Cys324Arg) mutation in the LAMB2 gene affects one of the eight highly conserved cysteine residues within the first EGF-like

  2. Sibling Relationship Quality and Mexican-Origin Adolescents' and Young Adults' Familism Values and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; De Jesús, Sue A. Rodríguez; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2017-01-01

    We examined profiles of sibling relationship qualities in 246 Mexican-origin families living in the United States using latent profile analyses. Three profiles were identified: "Positive," "Negative," and "Affect-Intense." Links between profiles and youths' familism values and adjustment were assessed using…

  3. Social Smiling and Its Components in High-Risk Infant Siblings without Later ASD Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Caitlin McMahon; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired affective expression, including social smiling, is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and may represent an early marker for ASD in their infant siblings (Sibs-ASD). Social smiling and its component behaviors (eye contact and non-social smiling) were examined at 15 months in Sibs-ASD who demonstrated later ASD…

  4. Mental health of adolescents before and after the death of a parent or sibling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/168171147; Bodden, Denise H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297688499; Reitz, Ellen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/265031036; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; van Baar, Anneloes L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08504749X

    The death of a parent or sibling (family bereavement) is associated with mental health problems in approximately, 25 % of the affected children. However, it is still unknown whether mental health problems of family-bereaved adolescents are predicted by pre-existing mental health problems, pre-loss

  5. Child-feeding practices in children with down syndrome and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kristen L; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2005-02-01

    To compare parental feeding practices and evaluate their relationship to weight status among children with Down syndrome (DS) and their unaffected siblings. Cross-sectional study of sibling pairs, one child with DS (n = 36) and one child without DS (n = 36), between 3 and 10 years of age. Parents completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), which assesses six aspects of control in feeding, separately for each child. Children's height and weight were measured using standard research procedures for calculation of body mass index (BMI) and BMI Z scores (BMIZ). Mean BMIZ was higher among children with DS than their siblings (1.1 +/- 0.9 vs 0.1 +/- 1.1; P child weight status, and lower pressure to eat for children with DS than for their siblings. After adjustment for BMIZ, differences remained significant only for concern (10.6 +/- 3.5 vs 6.4 +/- 3.4; P child overweight and concern were positively associated with BMIZ, whereas pressure was inversely associated with BMIZ. Differences in child-feeding practices may play a role in the development of obesity in DS.

  6. Maternal Perspectives of Well Siblings' Adjustment to Family Life With a Technology-Dependent Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Blanchette, Julia E; Sikorski, Shannon; Musil, Carol M; Al-Hamed, Arwa

    2017-08-01

    Technology-dependent (TD) children require complex care and are dependent on medical technology. Approximately 75% of families, in the United States, who are caring for a TD child, also care for a well child. Well siblings are likely to be affected by the experience of living with a TD sibling as the process of family normalization is described as a family affair. The experiences of well siblings are not well described. The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to describe the experiences of well siblings who are living in a family with a TD child. Mothers were interviewed about the experiences of their well children and were digitally audio recorded. The interviews were transcribed, and content analysis was conducted. Content analysis from the interviews revealed the major themes of well sibling adjustment within the family unit, upside (altruistic, prosocial behaviors) and downside (negative internal and external processing behaviors). These results can be applied to advance the delivery of family nursing care offered to these families.

  7. Well-being of Sibling Caregivers: Effects of Kinship Relationship and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, Eun Ha; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether caregiving has a differential effect on the well-being of sibling caregivers relative to other caregiving groups and whether race moderates this effect. Using the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, 631 family caregivers (including 61 sibling caregivers) and 4,944 noncaregivers were identified. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of the caregiver-care recipient relationship and its interaction with race on caregivers' well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-rated health, life satisfaction, and perceived control over life). Caregivers in general reported poorer well-being than noncaregivers, but sibling caregivers were less affected by caregiving than parent or spouse caregivers. Among sibling caregivers, caregiving took a significantly greater toll on non-Hispanic White caregivers than those from minority groups with respect to depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. The findings suggest that the experience of sibling caregivers is significantly shaped by their cultural background. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Kat; Kingma, Sjouke A; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Spurgin, Lewis G; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a suite of hypothesized immediate (early-life body mass, telomere length, and survival) and delayed (adult reproductive potential and lifespan) costs of sibling rivalry for offspring of differing competitive ability in Seychelles warblers, where most offspring are raised singly and hence competitor success can be compared to a competition-free scenario. Compared to those raised alone, all competing nestlings had lower body mass and weaker competitors experienced reduced survival. However, the stronger competitors appeared to have longer adult breeding tenures and lifespan than those raised alone. We propose that comparisons with competition-free groups, as well as detailed fitness measures across entire lifetimes, are needed to understand the evolution of sibling rivalry and thus individual reproductive strategy in wild systems.

  9. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  10. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verte, Sylvie; Hebbrecht, Lies; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated both the quality of sibling relationships and the psychological adjustment siblings experienced across two groups: siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing compared to siblings of children with no disability. Twenty-four siblings of children with hearing loss and 24 siblings of children without a disability…

  11. The Nature and Correlates of Sibling Influence in Two-Parent African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Becerra Bernard, Julia M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by research and theory on sibling similarities and differences, this study explored the nature and correlates of 2 processes of sibling influence--social learning and sibling differentiation--during adolescence. Participants included 2 adolescent-age siblings (M = 16.29 years for older siblings and M = 12.59 years for younger siblings,…

  12. The experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, B; Romero-Bosch, L; Plante, W; Lobato, D

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of Latino siblings of children with developmental disabilities. Parents and typically developing siblings from 15 Latino families with a child with a developmental disability participated in separate interviews. Using consensual qualitative research methodology, domains reflecting siblings' relationships, emotional experiences and communication about the disability were identified. The child's need for caregiving was a prominent topic in the sibling and parent narratives. Parents reported concerns about siblings' experience of differential treatment, whereas siblings reported concerns about restricted social activities because of their brother/sister. Including multiple informants revealed commonalities and differences in parents' and siblings' perspectives on the impact of a child's disability. The importance of considering sibling adaptation in sociocultural context is discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Caring for Siblings of Kids With Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem. If this happens, seek help from a mental health professional for your child. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: August 2015 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Sibling Rivalry Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children ...

  14. Sibling relationships of anxiety disordered children--a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Boer, Frits; Markus, Monica T.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Maingay, Ragna; Borst, Sophie R.

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the role of sibling relationships in internalizing disorders. Research in nonclinical populations suggests an association between internalizing problems in children and negative sibling interactions. Further, an association is reported between internalizing

  15. Living with disability. Taking care of siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Caldin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The birth of a disabled child is a critical event that places all the members of the family in a condition of great vulnerability. When talking about families with a disabled child, attention is usually focused on the parents. Siblings tend to play a marginal role, as shown in the referred literature, in this specific field of investigation. Communicating diagnosis to siblings means involving them in the process of family change, making them active players rather than “spectators” in their own “existential niche”. Communication of diagnosis is a delicate, continuous process that has to be tackled appropriately, using targeted words and educational actions. Children need help in accepting and welcoming their disabled sibling, with all his/her characteristics (and deficits, through a balanced, pondered approach that includes both the dimension of co-development and the acknowledgement of problematic situations.

  16. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  17. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals.

  18. Sibling constellation effects on learning and career aspirations of pupils.

    OpenAIRE

    KOROTVIČKOVÁ, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis "Sibling Constellation Effects on Learning and Career Aspirations of Pupils" is aimed at the description of a relationship between birth order and personality development. It also deals with the general characteristics of sibling constellation and its historical development. It points out the importance of sibling constellation in human life and presents the personality description with regard to birth order in relation to parents, siblings, peers, education and occupation. The the...

  19. Childhood Experiences of Sibling Abuse: An investigation into learned helplessness

    OpenAIRE

    McLaurin, Shamla L.

    2005-01-01

    As various forms of interpersonal family violence receive more attention in the literature, sibling abuse is still in the background. Despite the increasing knowledge about the prevalence, causes, and effects of sibling abuse, many of us continue to relegate it to a childhood occurrence. Sibling abuse symptoms continue to go unrecognized and its demoralizing effects continue to be ignored (Wiehe, 1990). Minimization and denial of sibling abuse have also contributed to constraining the extent ...

  20. The subtle intracapsular survival of the fittest: maternal investment, sibling conflict, or environmental effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Thatje, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Developmental resource partitioning and the consequent offspring size variations are of fundamental importance for marine invertebrates, in both an ecological and evolutionary context. Typically, differences are attributed to maternal investment and the environmental factors determining this; additional variables, such as environmental factors affecting development, are rarely discussed. During intracapsular development, for example, sibling conflict has the potential to affect resource partitioning. Here, we investigate encapsulated development in the marine gastropod Buccinum undatum. We examine the effects of maternal investment and temperature on intracapsular resource partitioning in this species. Reproductive output was positively influenced by maternal investment, but additionally, temperature and sibling conflict significantly affected offspring size, number, and quality during development. Increased temperature led to reduced offspring number, and a combination of high sibling competition and asynchronous early development resulted in a common occurrence of "empty" embryos, which received no nutrition at all. The proportion of empty embryos increased with both temperature and capsule size. Additionally, a novel example ofa risk in sibling conflict was observed; embryos cannibalized by others during early development ingested nurse eggs from inside the consumer, killing it in a "Trojan horse" scenario. Our results highlight the complexity surrounding offspring fitness. Encapsulation should be considered as significant in determining maternal output. Considering predicted increases in ocean temperatures, this may impact offspring quality and consequently species distribution and abundance.

  1. My older sibling was drunk - younger siblings' drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent-adolescent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossrau-Breen, Diana; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the links between having older siblings who get drunk, satisfaction with the parent-adolescent relationship, parental monitoring, and adolescents' risky drinking. Regression models were conducted based on a national representative sample of 3725 8th to 10th graders in Switzerland (mean age 15.0, SD = .93) who indicated having older siblings. Results showed that both parental factors and older siblings' drinking behaviour shape younger siblings' frequency of risky drinking. Parental monitoring showed a linear dose-response relationship, and siblings' influence had an additive effect. There was a non-linear interaction effect between parent-adolescent relationship and older sibling's drunkenness. The findings suggest that, apart from avoiding an increasingly unsatisfactory relationship with their children, parental monitoring appears to be important in preventing risky drinking by their younger children, even if the older sibling drinks in such a way. However, a satisfying relationship with parents does not seem to be sufficient to counterbalance older siblings' influence.

  2. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  3. Social and Emotional Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Tammy; Yirmiya, Nurit; Doppelt, Osnat; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Shalev, Ruth S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Social and emotional adjustment of siblings of children with autism was examined, to explore their risk or resilience to effects of genetic liability and environmental factors involved in having a sibling with autism. Method: Social-emotional adjustment, behavior problems, socialization skills, and siblings' relationships were compared…

  4. Siblings within Families: Levels of Analysis and Patterns of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The study of siblings has become increasingly central to developmental science. Sibling relationships have unique effects on development, and sibling designs allow researchers to isolate causal mechanisms in development. This volume emphasizes causal mechanisms in the social domain. We review the preceding chapters in relation to six topics: a…

  5. Perceived Support in Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; Van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; Van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Siblings may support each other, but also reveal fierce rivalry and mutual aggression. Supportive sibling relationships have been linked to the development of psychosocial competence of children. In the present longitudinal study, we will focus on the development of perceived support in sibling dyads and on the influence of sibling…

  6. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings to a Child with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollidge, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the psychological adjustment of well child siblings living with siblings with diabetes. Psychological adjustment was assessed by measuring self-concept; behavioral difficulties; competence; anxiety; and depression on standardized tests. The well siblings demonstrated significant internal psychological stressors and maintained high levels…

  7. Review of Sibling Interventions with Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Devender R.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen intervention studies were reviewed that included children with autism and their typical siblings. Overall, results across several studies reveal that siblings can have positive impacts on social and communication skills in children with autism. However, methodological variations and mixed results in studies that included siblings as…

  8. Forgotten family members: the importance of siblings in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; McGorry, Patrick; Howie, Linsey

    2014-08-01

    This paper reviews the evidence on the significance of sibling inclusion in family interventions and support during early psychosis. This narrative review presents the current research related to the importance of family work during early psychosis, the needs and developmental significance of siblings during adolescence and early adulthood, the protective effects of sibling relationships, and the characteristics of early psychosis relevant to the sibling experience. It will also review the evidence of the sibling experience in chronic physical illness and disability, as well as long-term psychotic illness. Despite the evidence that working with families is important during early psychosis, siblings have been largely ignored. Siblings are an important reciprocal relationship of long duration. They play an important role in development during adolescence and early adulthood. These relationships may be an underutilized protective factor due to their inherent benefits and social support. Developmental theories imply that early psychosis could negatively impact the sibling relationship and their quality of life, effecting personality development and health outcomes. The evidence shows that adolescent physical illness or disability has a significantly negative impact on the sibling's quality of life and increases the risk for the onset of mental health issues. Long-term psychotic illness also results in negative experiences for siblings. Current evidence shows that siblings in early psychosis experience psychological distress and changes in functional performance. Further research using standard measures is required to understand the impact early psychosis has on the sibling relationship and their quality of life. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Reframing Paul's sibling language in light of Jewish epistolary forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, Jewish dimensions (particularly ethnic dimensions) of Paul's sibling language still remain unexplored in current scholarship. Furthermore, scholars have not drawn much attention to how Jewish letter writers use sibling terms in their letters. This article offers a new interpretation on Paul's sibling language in light of ...

  10. Parental divorce and sibling relationships : a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines long-term effects of parental divorce on sibling relationships in adulthood and the role of predivorce parental conflict. It used large-scale retrospective data from the Netherlands that contain reports from both siblings of the sibling dyad. Results show limited effects of

  11. Sibship size, sibling cognitive sensitivity, and children's receptive vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Heather; Pauker, Sharon; Plamondon, André; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between sibship size and children's vocabulary as a function of quality of sibling interactions. It was hypothesized that coming from a larger sibship (ie, 3+ children) would be related to lower receptive vocabulary in children. However, we expected this association to be moderated by the level of cognitive sensitivity shown by children's next-in-age older siblings. Data on 385 children (mean age = 3.15 years) and their next-in-age older siblings (mean age = 5.57 years) were collected and included demographic questionnaires, direct testing of children's receptive vocabulary, and videos of mother-child and sibling interactions. Sibling dyads were taped engaging in a cooperative building task and tapes were coded for the amount of cognitive sensitivity the older sibling exhibited toward the younger sibling. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted and showed an interaction between sibship size and sibling cognitive sensitivity in the prediction of children's receptive vocabulary; children exposed to large sibships whose next-in-age older sibling exhibited higher levels of cognitive sensitivity were less likely to show low vocabulary skills when compared with those children exposed to large sibships whose siblings showed lower levels of cognitive sensitivity. Children who show sensitivity to the cognitive needs of their younger siblings provide a rich environment for language development. The negative impact of large sibships on language development is moderated by the presence of an older sibling who shows high cognitive sensitivity.

  12. Siblings of the Hearing Impaired: Perspectives for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Dale V.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the concerns and needs of siblings of hearing-impaired children, offering practical suggestions for parents, educators, and mental health and community service workers. Examples of successful programs for siblings that provide emotional support, training and information about their siblings' disability, and effective…

  13. The Siblings Relationship of Adolescents with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Gazi; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The sibling relationship of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities was examined. Participants were 70 sibling dyads--each dyad was comprised of one 12-year old adolescent with (N = 23) or without intellectual disabilities (N = 47). Sibling relationships, behavior problems, and social skills were assessed using mother reports.…

  14. Bidirectional Associations between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkman, Marleen M. S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; van der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental support to be associated with each other.…

  15. Bidirectional Associations Between Sibling Relationships and Parental Support During Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents' development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent-child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental

  16. Bidirectional associations between sibling relationships and parental support during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Vorst, H. van der; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Sibling relationships and parental support are important for adolescents’ development and well-being, yet both are likely to change during adolescence. Since adolescents participate in both the sibling relationship and the parent–child relationship, we can expect sibling relationships and parental

  17. Sibling Relationships Cognition in Japanese Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Misae; Kato, Daiki

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of sibling relationships in Japanese female university students. Two hundred and fifteen Japanese female university students participated in this study. The Adult Sibling Relationship Scale (ASRQ, Stocker et al., 1997) was used to measure sibling relationship cognition. The model was constructed as a result…

  18. Sibling Relationships and Influences in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Whiteman, Shawn D.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the literature on sibling relationships in childhood and adolescence, starting by tracing themes from foundational research and theory and then focusing on empirical research during the past 2 decades. This literature documents siblings' centrality in family life, sources of variation in sibling relationship qualities, and the…

  19. Processes of Sibling Influence in Adolescence: Individual and Family Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Christiansen, Abigail

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M = 17.34; second-born age M = 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their…

  20. Siblings of the Handicapped: A Literature Review for School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Mary Elizabeth; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    Siblings of handicapped children may have adjustment problems associated with increased family responsibilities, increased parental expectations, and perceived parental neglect in favor of the disabled sibling. Problems may be related to socioeconomic status; family size; age, sex, and birth order of the sibling; and severity of the handicap. (GDC)

  1. Factors Related to Sibling Removal after a Child Maltreatment Fatality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Bonner, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many children who die from abuse or neglect are survived by siblings. However, little data are available about what happens to these siblings after the victim's death, such as whether they are removed from their home. Even less is known about how decisions are made regarding sibling removal following a child fatality. This study…

  2. Impaired prefrontal hemodynamic maturation in autism and unaffected siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kawakubo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions of the prefrontal cortex have been previously reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Previous studies reported that first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD show atypical brain activity during tasks associated with social function. However, developmental changes in prefrontal dysfunction in ASD and genetic influences on the phenomena remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the change in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal cortex as measured with near-infrared spectroscopy, in children and adults with ASD during the letter fluency test. Moreover, to clarify the genetic influences on developmental changes in the prefrontal dysfunction in ASD, unaffected siblings of the ASD participants were also assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study participants included 27 individuals with high-functioning ASD, age- and IQ-matched 24 healthy non-affected siblings, and 27 unrelated healthy controls aged 5 to 39 years. The relative concentration of hemoglobin ([Hb] in the prefrontal cortex was measured during the letter fluency task. For children, neither the [oxy-Hb] change during the task nor task performances differed significantly among three groups. For adults, the [oxy-Hb] increases during the task were significantly smaller in the bilateral prefrontal cortex in ASD than those in control subjects, although task performances were similar. In the adult siblings the [oxy-Hb] change was intermediate between those in controls and ASDs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although indirectly due to a cross-sectional design, the results of this study indicate altered age-related change of prefrontal activity during executive processing in ASD. This is a first near-infrared spectroscopy study that implies alteration in the age-related changes of prefrontal activity in ASD and genetic influences on the phenomena.

  3. A high-density SNP linkage scan with 142 combined subtype ADHD sib pairs identifies linkage regions on chromosomes 9 and 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asherson, P; Zhou, K; Anney, R J L; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J; Ebstein, R; Gill, M; Altink, M; Arnold, R; Boer, F; Brookes, K; Buschgens, C; Butler, L; Cambell, D; Chen, W; Christiansen, H; Feldman, L; Fleischman, K; Fliers, E; Howe-Forbes, R; Goldfarb, A; Heise, A; Gabriëls, I; Johansson, L; Lubetzki, I; Marco, R; Medad, S; Minderaa, R; Mulas, F; Müller, U; Mulligan, A; Neale, B; Rijsdijk, F; Rabin, K; Rommelse, N; Sethna, V; Sorohan, J; Uebel, H; Psychogiou, L; Weeks, A; Barrett, R; Xu, X; Banaschewski, T; Sonuga-Barke, E; Eisenberg, J; Manor, I; Miranda, A; Oades, R D; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J; Steinhausen, H-C; Taylor, E; Thompson, M; Faraone, S V

    2008-05-01

    As part of the International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics project we completed an affected sibling pair study of 142 narrowly defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition combined type attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) proband-sibling pairs. No linkage was observed on the most established ADHD-linked genomic regions of 5p and 17p. We found suggestive linkage signals on chromosomes 9 and 16, respectively, with the highest multipoint nonparametric linkage signal on chromosome 16q23 at 99 cM (log of the odds, LOD=3.1) overlapping data published from the previous UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) (LOD>1, approximately 95 cM) and Dutch (LOD>1, approximately 100 cM) studies. The second highest peak in this study was on chromosome 9q22 at 90 cM (LOD=2.13); both the previous UCLA and German studies also found some evidence of linkage at almost the same location (UCLA LOD=1.45 at 93 cM; German LOD=0.68 at 100 cM). The overlap of these two main peaks with previous findings suggests that loci linked to ADHD may lie within these regions. Meta-analysis or reanalysis of the raw data of all the available ADHD linkage scan data may help to clarify whether these represent true linked loci.

  4. Spondyloepiphseal dysplasia congenita in siblings born to unaffected parents: ? germ line mosaicism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulla, W.; McDonald-McGinn, D.; Zackai, E. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Germ line mosaicism has been used to explain the birth of more than one child affected with a dominantly inherited disorder born to unaffected parents. Furthermore, it has been confirmed clinically in families where recurrence in siblings was originally thought to be autosomal recessive, but were affected individuals have reproduced affected offspring. Firm evidence of germ line mosaicism using mutation analysis by molecular methods exists for some autosomal disorders. We present two siblings with spondyloepipheseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) born to unaffected parents. This suggests the presence of germ line mosaicism in this entity. Patient 1 was born at 32 weeks gestation to a G1P1 Puerto Rican mother. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. The neonate, a short-limbed dwarf, died at 15 hours of age from respiratory distress and a compromised thoracic cavity. Patient 2, the sibling of patient 1 was born at 37 weeks gestation after a pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios and prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of short-limbed dwarfism. The diagnosis of SEDC was made and, after review of the sibling`s postmortem X-rays, it was felt that she was similarly affected. The family history reveals no history of dwarfism or consanguinity. The SEDC is described as an autosomal dominant form of dwarfism with variable presentation including some cases that have been lethal in the neonatal period. SEDC is now believed to represent a family of collagen II mutations. Sporadic cases that have arisen in families with no history have been ascribed to new heterozygous mutations. Other families in which SEDC and SEMD recurred without a family history most likely represent germ line mosaicism. In these cases molecular studies should be pursued to document a collagen II mutation. We believe that germ line mosaicism is the most plausible explanation for recurrence in our family.

  5. Delayed Development of Brain Connectivity in Adolescents With Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Andrew; Pantelis, Christos; Cropley, Vanessa; Fornito, Alex; Cocchi, Luca; McAdams, Harrison; Clasen, Liv; Greenstein, Deanna; Rapoport, Judith L; Gogtay, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities in structural brain connectivity have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Mapping these abnormalities longitudinally and understanding their genetic risk via sibship studies will provide crucial insight into progressive developmental changes associated with schizophrenia. To identify corticocortical connections exhibiting an altered developmental trajectory in adolescents with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) and to determine whether similar alterations are found in patients' unaffected siblings. Using prospective structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, large-scale corticocortical connectivity was mapped from ages 12 to 24 years in 109 patients with COS (272 images), 86 of their unaffected siblings (184 images), and 102 healthy controls (262 images) over a 20-year period beginning January 1, 1991, through April 30, 2011, as part of the ongoing COS study at the National Institute of Mental Health. Structural connectivity between pairs of cortical regions was estimated using a validated technique based on across-subject covariation in magnetic resonance imaging-derived cortical thickness measurements. Compared with normally developing controls, significant left-hemisphere occipitotemporal deficits in cortical thickness correlations were found in patients with COS as well as their healthy siblings (P siblings normalized by mid-adolescence, whereas patients with COS showed significantly longer maturational delays, with cortical thickness correlations between the left temporal lobe and left occipital cortex not showing evidence of development until early adulthood. The normalization of deficits with age in patients with COS correlated with improvement in symptoms. Compared with controls, left-hemisphere occipitotemporal thickness correlations in a subgroup of patients with high positive symptoms were significantly reduced from age 14 to 18 years (P siblings associated with resilience to developing schizophrenia. These findings indicate

  6. Neurodevelopment of children prenatally exposed to selective reuptake inhibitor antidepressants: Toronto sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne; Barrera, Maru; Streiner, David L; Feldman, Brian M

    2015-07-01

    The reproductive safety of selective reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants needs to be established to provide optimal control of maternal depression while protecting the fetus. To define a child's neurodevelopment following prenatal exposure to SRIs and to account for genetic and environmental confounders in a sibling design using the Toronto Motherisk prospective database. Intelligence and behavior of siblings prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs were assessed by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Third Edition, Child Behavior Checklist, and Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised and subsequently compared. Mothers, diagnosed with depression using DSM-IV, were assessed for intelligence quotient (IQ) and for severity of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Prenatal drug doses and durations of exposure, child's age, child's sex, birth order, severity of maternal depression symptoms, and Full Scale IQ, the primary outcome measure, of both the mother and the child were considered in the analyses. Forty-five sibling pairs (ages 3 years to 6 years 11 months, prenatally exposed and unexposed to SRIs) did not differ in their mean ± SD Full Scale IQs (103 ± 13 vs 106 ± 12; P = .30; 95% CI, -7.06 to 2.21) or rates of problematic behaviors. Significant predictor of children's intelligence was maternal IQ (P = .043, β = 0.306). Severity of maternal depression was a significant predictor of Child Behavior Checklist Internalizing (P = .019, β = 0.366), Externalizing (P = .003, β = 0.457), and Total scores (P = .001, β = 0.494). Drug doses and durations of exposure during pregnancy did not predict any outcomes of interest in the exposed siblings. SRI antidepressants were not found to be neurotoxic. Maternal depression may risk the child's future psychopathology. The sibling design in behavioral teratology aids in separating the effects of maternal depression from those of SRIs, providing stronger

  7. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  8. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  9. Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Wendy C.; Yu, Jeong Jin; Kuehn, Emily D.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the direct and moderating effects of trustworthiness and modeling on adolescent siblings' adjustment. Data were collected from 438 families including a mother, a younger sibling in fifth, sixth, or seventh grade (M = 11.6 years), and an older sibling (M = 14.3 years). Respondents completed Web-based…

  10. Number of Siblings, Sibling Spacing, Sex, and Birth Order: Their Effects on Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effect of the sibling structures of number and spacing, sex composition, and birth order on adolescents' perceptions of the power and support dimensions of parental behavior. Results suggest that research focusing on birth order must control for number of siblings, spacing, and sex composition of siblings. (Author)

  11. Siblings and children's time use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dunifon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eighty-two percent of children under age 18 live with at least one sibling, and the sibling relationship is typically the longest-lasting family relationship in an individual's life. Nevertheless, siblings remain understudied in the family demography literature. Objective: We ask how having a sibling structures children's time spent with others and in specific activities, and how children's time and activities with siblings vary by social class, gender, and age. Methods: We use time diary data from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement (PSID-CDS, comparing the time use of children with and without siblings and presenting regression-adjusted descriptive statistics on patterns among those with siblings. Results: Children with siblings spend about half of their discretionary time engaged with siblings. They spend less time alone with parents and more time in unstructured play than those without siblings. Brothers and more closely spaced siblings spend more time together and more time in unstructured play. For example, boys with at least one brother spend five more hours per week with their siblings and over three more hours per week in unstructured play than boys with no brothers. Conclusions: The presence and characteristics of siblings shape children's time use in ways that may have implications for child development. Contribution: This is the first study to use children's time diary data to examine how the presence and characteristics of siblings structure ways in which children spend their time. This contributes to our broader understanding of sibling relationships and family dynamics.

  12. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737

  13. Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the sister relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2013-01-01

    Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the sister relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.

  14. The impact of having a sibling with an intellectual disability: parental perspectives in two disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulroy, S; Robertson, L; Aiberti, K; Leonard, H; Bower, C

    2008-03-01

    The potential effects on other children when there is a child with intellectual disability (ID) in the family are being increasingly recognized. This study describes the impact of having a sibling with Down syndrome or Rett syndrome using a questionnaire completed by parents. The parents of 186 Western Australian children with Down syndrome and 141 Australian girls and women with Rett syndrome participated in the study. Patterns of reporting disadvantages and/or benefits were compared across a number of child and family variables (age, functional ability and birth order of the affected child, number of siblings and number of parents in the family home) and by socio-economic status as measured by the index of relative socio-economic disadvantage and by area of residence. Parents' responses to open-ended questions about the benefits and/or disadvantages for siblings of their child were analysed for themes. The majority of parents in the Rett syndrome and Down syndrome groups reported both disadvantages and benefits for siblings. In the Rett syndrome group, families from outer regional areas were the least likely to mention disadvantages and those with a smaller family more likely to note disadvantages. In both groups, more socio-economically advantaged families were more likely to report disadvantages. In the Down syndrome group, benefits were also more commonly reported by parents who were socio-economically advantaged, and by larger and two-parent families. Major disadvantages for siblings centred around parental and personal time constraints, relationships and socializing, restrictions, parental emotion and burden of helping. Major benefits were related to personality characteristics. Parents identified both benefits and disadvantages to the siblings of their child with either Rett syndrome or Down syndrome. It is important that these findings are incorporated into any discussion around the impact on the family of a child diagnosed with an ID.

  15. From Parents to Siblings and Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Roskam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child–parent, child–sibling, and child–peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multi-method strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed.

  16. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  17. The Family Contexts of Children's Sibling Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    1996-01-01

    Unlike much previous research on sibling relationships, which emphasizes the congruence across various types of family experiences, the research described in this article explored between-family differences in patterns of experiences within families. The work is built upon Bronfenbrenner's ecological model and Magnusson's interactional…

  18. Sibling Gender Configuration and Family Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Lotte D.; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Endendijk, Joyce J.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study focuses on the effects of sibling gender configuration on family processes during early childhood. In a sample of 369 two-parent families with two children (youngest 12 months, oldest about 2 years older), both siblings’ noncompliant and oppositional behaviors and fathers’ and

  19. Genomic ancestry, self-reported "color" and quantitative measures of skin pigmentation in Brazilian admixed siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tailce K M Leite

    Full Text Available A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs. Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654, which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.

  20. Genomic ancestry, self-reported "color" and quantitative measures of skin pigmentation in Brazilian admixed siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tailce K M; Fonseca, Rômulo M C; de França, Nanci M; Parra, Esteban J; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported "color", but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to "color" is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported "color", according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported "color" and skin pigmentation, self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three "color" groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the "color" categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different "color", and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker "color" category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported "color" and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported "color", such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with skin pigmentation in this sample.

  1. Familial risk and sibling mentalization: Links with preschoolers' internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michelle; Binnoon-Erez, Noam; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2017-09-01

    The current study explored whether older sibling mentalization moderated the relationship between familial risk for internalizing symptoms and the development of future internalizing problems in the younger siblings, referred to as target children. Data were collected on 397 older siblings at Time 1 (T1) when target children were newborn and their older siblings were on average 2.61 years old (SD = .75). Target children were on average 1.60 years old at Time 2 (T2). Internalizing problems were assessed via mother and partner reports. Familial risk was operationalized as the average of all older siblings' level of internalizing problems. Older sibling mentalization, indexed by internal state talk and reasoning, was observed and coded during a sibling pretend-play interaction at T2. Results revealed a significant interaction between familial risk of internalizing problems and older siblings' mentalizing abilities, showing that familial risk was related to target children's internalizing problems in the absence of sibling mentalization. Familial risk was not associated with target children's internalizing problems when siblings demonstrated mentalizing abilities. Findings support the need to consider sibling mentalization as a protective factor for children's internalizing problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Assessing functional impairment in siblings living with children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.

  3. Polyphyly and gene flow between non-sibling Heliconius species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiggins Chris D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The view that gene flow between related animal species is rare and evolutionarily unimportant largely antedates sensitive molecular techniques. Here we use DNA sequencing to investigate a pair of morphologically and ecologically divergent, non-sibling butterfly species, Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, whose distributions overlap in Central and Northwestern South America. Results In these taxa, we sequenced 30–45 haplotypes per locus of a mitochondrial region containing the genes for cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II (CoI/CoII, and intron-spanning fragments of three unlinked nuclear loci: triose-phosphate isomerase (Tpi, mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (Mpi and cubitus interruptus (Ci genes. A fifth gene, dopa decarboxylase (Ddc produced sequence data likely to be from different duplicate loci in some of the taxa, and so was excluded. Mitochondrial and Tpi genealogies are consistent with reciprocal monophyly, whereas sympatric populations of the species in Panama share identical or similar Mpi and Ci haplotypes, giving rise to genealogical polyphyly at the species level despite evidence for rapid sequence divergence at these genes between geographic races of H. melpomene. Conclusion Recent transfer of Mpi haplotypes between species is strongly supported, but there is no evidence for introgression at the other three loci. Our results demonstrate that the boundaries between animal species can remain selectively porous to gene flow long after speciation, and that introgression, even between non-sibling species, can be an important factor in animal evolution. Interspecific gene flow is demonstrated here for the first time in Heliconius and may provide a route for the transfer of switch-gene adaptations for Müllerian mimicry. The results also forcefully demonstrate how reliance on a single locus may give an erroneous picture of the overall genealogical history of speciation and gene flow.

  4. Maternal employment and adolescents' relations with parents, siblings, and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, R

    1984-12-01

    The association between maternal employment status and the relations that adolescents have with their parents, siblings, and peers was investigated. Three daily reports of conflicts with family members and time spent with parents, peers, and alone were obtained from 64 tenth-grade adolescents using a telephone interviewing technique. Males, but not females, had more arguments, which were of longer duration and greater intensity, with their mothers and siblings when their mothers worked than when they did not. Female conflict behavior was unrelated to the work status of the mother. Adolescents of both sexes spent less time with their parents when their mothers worked, especially when they worked full-time, than when they were nonemployed. Adolescents with employed mothers generally spent less free time with their parents than those with nonemployed mothers. Time spent with parents in the performance of household tasks was not affected by maternal employment status. The need to take a family system perspective in order to understand fully the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development was emphasized.

  5. Language performance in siblings of nonverbal children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-05-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children - SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27 typically developing children (SIBS-TD; 16 boys) matched to the SIBS-ANV on age, family background, socioeconomic status and type of school they attended. Significant IQ differences, as well as language differences as measured on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), emerged between SIBS-ANV and SIBS-TD. However, differences in the language scores mostly disappeared when PIQ and FSIQ were controlled for. Furthermore, grammatical analysis of spontaneous speech samples produced in the course of testing did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. These results add to recent work suggesting that language deficits may not be part of the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). It further suggests that the cognitive deficit characteristic of nonverbal people with autism may be familial.

  6. Autism occurrence by MMR vaccine status among US children with older siblings with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Marshall, Jaclyn; Buikema, Ami; Bancroft, Tim; Kelly, Jonathan P; Newschaffer, Craig J

    2015-04-21

    Despite research showing no link between the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), beliefs that the vaccine causes autism persist, leading to lower vaccination levels. Parents who already have a child with ASD may be especially wary of vaccinations. To report ASD occurrence by MMR vaccine status in a large sample of US children who have older siblings with and without ASD. A retrospective cohort study using an administrative claims database associated with a large commercial health plan. Participants included children continuously enrolled in the health plan from birth to at least 5 years of age during 2001-2012 who also had an older sibling continuously enrolled for at least 6 months between 1997 and 2012. MMR vaccine receipt (0, 1, 2 doses) between birth and 5 years of age. ASD status defined as 2 claims with a diagnosis code in any position for autistic disorder or other specified pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) including Asperger syndrome, or unspecified PDD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 299.0x, 299.8x, 299.9x). Of 95,727 children with older siblings, 994 (1.04%) were diagnosed with ASD and 1929 (2.01%) had an older sibling with ASD. Of those with older siblings with ASD, 134 (6.9%) had ASD, vs 860 (0.9%) children with unaffected siblings (P siblings, vs 73% (n = 1409) at age 2 years and 86% (n = 1660) at age 5 years for children with affected siblings. MMR vaccine receipt was not associated with an increased risk of ASD at any age. For children with older siblings with ASD, at age 2, the adjusted relative risk (RR) of ASD for 1 dose of MMR vaccine vs no vaccine was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.49-1.18; P = .22), and at age 5, the RR of ASD for 2 doses compared with no vaccine was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.31-1.01; P = .052). For children whose older siblings did not have ASD, at age 2, the adjusted RR of ASD for 1 dose was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.67-1.20; P = .50) and at age 5

  7. Living with a brother or sister with epilepsy: siblings' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette; Appleton, Richard

    2009-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the impact of disability upon siblings, and very little research on the siblings of children with epilepsy. There is some evidence that siblings who have less accurate information exhibit more distress. The aim of this study was to assess siblings' response to having a brother or sister with epilepsy and to begin to develop information for them. Parents of children attending paediatric neurology outpatient departments were invited to participate in a pilot study. Parents who consented to take part were asked if they had previously received information for siblings. Parents and siblings participated in a semi-structured interview and siblings were also invited to submit a personal account of living with a brother or sister who had epilepsy. Twenty-five families with a child with epilepsy aged 2.5-15 years initially agreed to take part. None of the families stated that they had ever seen or received any information specifically for siblings. Fourteen siblings from the 25 families, aged 8-25 years, provided a personal account of what it was like living with a brother or sister with epilepsy. Siblings' accounts included both negative and positive feelings, and specifically feelings of care and love for their sibling. This initial study suggests that siblings of children with epilepsy have many positive but also early negative feelings. The results are limited by the size of the study, the fact that most siblings were older sisters, and the mean time since diagnosis was 6 years. Finally, it is hoped that the personal accounts collected in this study will be published for the benefit of other siblings of children with epilepsy.

  8. Sibling influence on mexican-origin adolescents' deviant and sexual risk behaviors: the role of sibling modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Zeiders, Katharine H; Killoren, Sarah E; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2014-05-01

    A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other's health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths' deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk-taking behaviors in two home interviews across a 2-year span. A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings' perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings' deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings' subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings' earlier and younger siblings' later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings' earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Sibling relations between individuation and attachment: attempt at a conceptualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    2001-01-01

    Although sibling relationships can be considered as one of the most durable and intensive relationships, not much research in developmental psychology and family research has been done on this issue. The strong focus on parents, more specifically on mothers, stood in the way of adequate conceptualization and understanding of the function and contribution of siblings to individual development and family interaction. In this contribution a conceptualization of sibling relationships is presented. Siblings as objects of aggressive and sexual feelings as well as the function of siblings in the family system, for example, as parentification and negative identity is emphasized. In addition, the different qualities of sibling relationships, for example, envy, rivalry, similarity, and difference, are emphasized. The function of siblings as love objects is stressed, and the role of siblings as support as well as teaching object is illustrated. Finally, it is emphasized that, similar to relationships between parents and child, the quality of sibling relationships changed over time and leads, for example, to a detachment between sibling relationships during adolescence.

  10. Pairing correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, C.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    There are many similarities between the properties of nucleons in nuclei and electrons in metals. In addition to the properties explainable in terms of independent particle motion, there are many important co-operative effects suggesting correlated motion. Pairing correlation which leads to superconductivity in metals and several important properties in nuclei , is an exmple of such correlations. An attempt has been made to review the effects of pairing correlations in nuclei. Recent indications of reduction in pairing correlations at high angular momenta is discussed. A comparision between pairing correlations in the cases of nuclei and electrons in metals is attempted. (author). 20 refs., 10 figs

  11. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  13. Perceptions of emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication in Latino and non-Latino white siblings of children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Lobato, Debra; Kao, Barbara; Plante, Wendy; Grullón, Edicta; Cheas, Lydia; Houck, Christopher; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-06-01

    Examine general emotion expression and sibling-parent emotion communication among Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) siblings of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and matched comparisons. 200 siblings (ages 8-15 years) completed the newly developed Sibling-Parent Emotion Communication Scale and existing measures of general emotion expression and psychosocial functioning. Preliminary analyses evaluated scale psychometrics across ethnicity. Structure and internal consistency of the emotion expression and communication measures differed by respondent ethnicity. Latino siblings endorsed more general emotion expression problems and marginally lower sibling-parent emotion communication than NLW siblings. Siblings of children with ID reported marginally more general emotion expression problems than comparisons. Emotion expression problems and lower sibling-parent emotion communication predicted more internalizing and somatic symptoms and poorer personal adjustment, regardless of ID status. Siblings of children with ID endorsed poorer personal adjustment. Cultural differences in emotion expression and communication may increase Latino siblings' risk for emotional adjustment difficulties.

  14. Only full-sibling families evolved eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus J; Beekman, Madeleine; Cornwallis, Charlie K

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. The paper by Nowak et al. has the evolution of eusociality as its title, but it is mostly about something else. It argues against inclusive fitness theory and offers an alternative modelling approach...... that is claimed to be more fundamental and general, but which, we believe, has no practical biological meaning for the evolution of eusociality. Nowak et al. overlook the robust empirical observation that eusociality has only arisen in clades where mothers are associated with their full-sibling offspring; that is......, in families where the average relatedness of offspring to siblings is as high as to their own offspring, independent of population structure or ploidy. We believe that this omission makes the paper largely irrelevant for understanding the evolution of eusociality....

  15. Sibling Relationships and Adolescents' Mental Health: The Interrelationship of Structure and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2009-01-01

    Although sibling structure influences some aspects of adolescents' well-being, including deviance and educational achievement, little research has explored the association between sibling structure and adolescents' mental health. This study explores how sibling structure (the number of siblings, full versus step- or half-siblings, the relative age…

  16. The Impact of Sibling Warmth and Conflict on Children's Social Competence with Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Rebecca L.; Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Cohen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Examined links between children's sibling and peer relationships. Found that sibling warmth was associated with more positive peer relations; sibling conflict was associated with both positive and negative peer outcomes, independent of sibling warmth; and sibling relationships were not more strongly associated with measures of friendships quality…

  17. Adult Female and Male Siblings of Persons with Disabilities: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.; Burke, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a national, Web-based survey to examine female and male siblings of individuals with disabilities. More than 1,160 adult siblings completed a 163-question survey about themselves, their siblings, and their sibling relationships. Most respondents reported fairly close contact with their siblings and positive sibling…

  18. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutstein Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  19. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutstein, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  20. Should Selecting Saviour Siblings be Banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  1. Self-reported behaviour problems and sibling relationship quality by siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A

    2014-11-01

    There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Brain network connectivity in individuals with schizophrenia and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repovs, Grega; Csernansky, John G; Barch, Deanna M

    2011-05-15

    Research on brain activity in schizophrenia has shown that changes in the function of any single region cannot explain the range of cognitive and affective impairments in this illness. Rather, neural circuits that support sensory, cognitive, and emotional processes are now being investigated as substrates for cognitive and affective impairments in schizophrenia, a shift in focus consistent with long-standing hypotheses about schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Our goal was to further examine alterations in functional connectivity within and between the default mode network and three cognitive control networks (frontal-parietal, cingulo-opercular, and cerebellar) as a basis for such impairments. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging was collected from 40 individuals with DSM-IV-TR schizophrenia, 31 siblings of individuals with schizophrenia, 15 healthy control subjects, and 18 siblings of healthy control subjects while they rested quietly with their eyes closed. Connectivity metrics were compared between patients and control subjects for both within- and between-network connections and were used to predict clinical symptoms and cognitive function. Individuals with schizophrenia showed reduced distal and somewhat enhanced local connectivity between the cognitive control networks compared with control subjects. Additionally, greater connectivity between the frontal-parietal and cerebellar regions was robustly predictive of better cognitive performance across groups and predictive of fewer disorganization symptoms among patients. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that impairments of executive function and cognitive control result from disruption in the coordination of activity across brain networks and additionally suggest that these might reflect impairments in normal pattern of brain connectivity development. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between siblings and psychological adjustment in adolescents:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ripoll

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of parent-child relationship quality (acceptance and differential treatment over dimensions of the quality of sibling relationships (warmth and conflict and psychological adjustment in 69 adolescent sibling dyads. The effects of parent-child relationships were evaluated both at the individual and dyadic levels. In older siblings, the father-child relationship had a significant effect on both their perception of warmth in the sibling relationship and psychological adjustment. In younger siblings, there was a significant dyadic effect of the older sibling’s perceived acceptance by mother on their perception of warmth in the sibling relationship. Results are analyzed based on the literature and questions for future research are proposed.

  4. Sibling genes as environment: Sibling dopamine genotypes and adolescent health support frequency dependent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily; Conley, Dalton; Siegal, Mark L

    2015-11-01

    While research consistently suggests siblings matter for individual outcomes, it remains unclear why. At the same time, studies of genetic effects on health typically correlate variants of a gene with the average level of behavioral or health measures, ignoring more complicated genetic dynamics. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, we investigate whether sibling genes moderate individual genetic expression. We compare twin variation in health-related absences and self-rated health by genetic differences at three locations related to dopamine regulation and transport to test sibship-level cross-person gene-gene interactions. Results suggest effects of variation at these genetic locations are moderated by sibling genes. Although the mechanism remains unclear, this evidence is consistent with frequency dependent selection and suggests much genetic research may violate the stable unit treatment value assumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Secure pairing with biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Boom, B.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Secure pairing enables two devices that share no prior context with each other to agree upon a security association, which they can use to protect their subsequent communication. Secure pairing offers guarantees of the association partner identity and it should be resistant to eavesdropping and to a

  6. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.

    2011-01-01

    Pairings on elliptic curves are being used in an increasing number of cryptographic applications on many different devices and platforms, but few performance numbers for cryptographic pairings have been reported on embedded and mobile devices. In this paper we give performance numbers for affine and

  7. Solutions of nuclear pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A. B.; Pehlivan, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We give the exact solution of orbit dependent nuclear pairing problem between two nondegenerate energy levels using the Bethe ansatz technique. Our solution reduces to previously solved cases in the appropriate limits including Richardson's treatment of reduced pairing in terms of rational Gaudin algebra operators

  8. Pair correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    Except for the closed shell nuclei, almost all nuclei are in the superconducting state at their ground states. This well-known pair correlation in nuclei causes various interesting phenomena. It is especially to be noted that the pair correlation becomes weak in the excited states of nuclei with high angular momentum, which leads to the pair phase transition to the normal state in the high spin limit. On the other hand, the pair correlation becomes stronger in the nuclei with lower nucleon density than in those with normal density. In the region of neutron halo or skin state of unstable nuclei, this phenomenon is expected to be further enhanced to be observed compared to the ground state of stable nuclei. An overview of those interesting aspects caused via the pair correlation is presented here in the sections titled 'pair correlations in ground states', pair correlations in high spin states' and 'pair correlations in unstable nuclei' focusing on the high spin state. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Faecalibacterium gut colonization is accelerated by presence of older siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin Frederik; Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Larnkjær, Anni

    2017-01-01

    -inflammatory properties. However, factors affecting the colonization of F. prausnitzii in the human gut during early life are very poorly understood. By analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data from three separate infant study populations, we determined the colonization dynamics of Faecalibacterium and factors...... affecting its establishment in the gut. We found that in particular, the presence of older siblings was consistently associated with Faecalibacterium gut colonization during late infancy and conclude that acquisition of Faecalibacterium is very likely to be accelerated through transfer between siblings....... IMPORTANCEFaecalibacterium prausnitzii has been suggested to constitute a key marker of a healthy gut, yet the factors shaping the colonization of this highly oxygen-sensitive, non-spore-forming species in the intestinal environment remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence from three separate infant study...

  10. Choosing offspring: prenatal genetic testing for thalassaemia and the production of a 'saviour sibling' in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Suli; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper focuses on the pre-natal genetic testing and reproductive decision-making around thalassaemia in China. Findings are based on fieldwork conducted in hospitals and research institutions, interviews with families with thalassaemia-affected children, interviews with geneticists and genetic researchers and a literature review conducted between September and November 2007. The paper aims to provide insight into the ways in which those who carry thalassaemia decide to have a test for the condition and the choices available to prospective parents. The paper also analyses factors affecting reproductive choices and the decision to produce a 'saviour sibling', including financial implications, state family planning policy, images and information conveyed through the media and propaganda, advice and counselling from doctors, psychological pressure from the community and social discrimination. The paper concludes with a discussion on the issues involved in the creation of saviour siblings, some of which are particular to China.

  11. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  12. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    pair-sending families in the Philippines, this dissertation examines the long-term trajectories of these young Filipinas. It shows how the au pairs’ local and transnational family relations develop over time and greatly influence their life trajectories. A focal point of the study is how au pairs...... that Filipina au pairs see their stay abroad as an avenue of personal development and social recognition, I examine how the au pairs re-position themselves within their families at home through migration, and how they navigate between the often conflicting expectations of participation in the sociality......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...

  13. Adolescents' Social Skills in Friendship : The influence of sibling relationship

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, 文; Aya, Fujita

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the sibling relationship on the adolescents' social skills in friendship. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduate students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their sibling relationship and their social skills in friendship. Their sibling relationship was categorized eight types; close, intimate, hostile, dominate, intimate-hostile, intimate-dominate, hostile-dominate, separate. The result showed that the students ...

  14. Sibling Rivalry in Educational Attainment: The German Case

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; Thomas Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies exploring sibling rivalry in the allocation of household resources in the U.S. produce conflicting results. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the role of sibling rivalry in educational attainment in Germany. Using the German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP) we are able to distinguish how the effects of sibling rivalry vary by cultural affiliation, i.e., among families of West German, East German and foreign origin. We also point out and correct for a reference group pro...

  15. Impact of childhood chronic illnesses on siblings: a literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Brien, Irene

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood illness can have a significant impact on families, particularly on the ill child\\'s siblings. There is a dearth of published literature focusing on the needs of siblings of ill children. AIM: This literature review aims to provide an overview of the current healthcare literature in relation to the impact of childhood chronic illness or disability on siblings. METHOD: A literature review was undertaken by searching the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest and Cochrane Library for relevant articles in English using the search terms: \\'siblings\\

  16. Cancer risk in siblings of children with congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Wu, Chunsen; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer and birth defects cluster in families more often than expected by chance, but the reasons are neither well known nor well studied. METHODS: From singletons born alive in Denmark between 1 January 1977 and 31 December 2007, we identified children who had no congenital malformations...... but had a full or half sibling with a congenital malformation (CM) diagnosed in the first year of life; this constituted the exposed group, while children whose siblings had no such condition constituted a reference group. We estimated cancer risks for children who had a full sibling or a half sibling...

  17. Homozygous LIPE Mutation in Siblings with Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis, Partial Lipodystrophy, and Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotov, Sagit; Xing, Chao; Mahamid, Riad; Shalata, Adel; Sheikh-Ahmad, Mohammed; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in identifying causal genes for lipodystrophy syndromes, the molecular basis of some peculiar adipose tissue disorders remains obscure. In an Israeli–Arab pedigree with a novel autosomal recessive, multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL), partial lipodystrophy and myopathy, we conducted exome sequencing of two affected siblings to identify the disease-causingmutation. The 41-year-old female proband and her 36-year-old brother reported marked accumulation of subcutan...

  18. How Mg2+ ion and water network affect the stability and structure of non-Watson-Crick base pairs in E. coli loop E of 5S rRNA: a molecular dynamics and reference interaction site model (RISM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Sudhanshu; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta

    2017-08-01

    The non-Watson-Crick (non-WC) base pairs of Escherichia coli loop E of 5S rRNA are stabilized by Mg 2+ ions through water-mediated interaction. It is important to know the synergic role of Mg 2+ and the water network surrounding Mg 2+ in stabilizing the non-WC base pairs of RNA. For this purpose, free energy change of the system is calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation as Mg 2+ is pulled from RNA, which causes disturbance of the water network. It was found that Mg 2+ remains hexahydrated unless it is close to or far from RNA. In the pentahydrated form, Mg 2+ interacts directly with RNA. Water network has been identified by two complimentary methods; MD followed by a density-based clustering algorithm and three-dimensional-reference interaction site model. These two methods gave similar results. Identification of water network around Mg 2+ and non-WC base pairs gives a clue to the strong effect of water network on the stability of this RNA. Based on sequence analysis of all Eubacteria 5s rRNA, we propose that hexahydrated Mg 2+ is an integral part of this RNA and geometry of base pairs surrounding it adjust to accommodate the [Formula: see text]. Overall the findings from this work can help in understanding the basis of the complex structure and stability of RNA with non-WC base pairs.

  19. Observation of parental functioning at mealtime using a sibling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Vandewalle, Julie

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates whether parental feeding practices are part of the shared environment or responsive to characteristics of different children from the same family. Thirty-six mothers with two children (4-12 y) of which 10 sibling-pairs were discordant for weight status (healthy weight-overweight), were invited to the lab for a standard meal. Maternal responsive and controlling behaviour was observed and coded. Children's weight status and eating behaviour was assessed. Results indicated that in general, mothers show similar levels of responsiveness and controlling behaviour within families. However, the use of mothers' authoritarian and permissive behaviour and her expressions of involvement at mealtime were consequently related to children's amount of food eaten and their restraining eating style. Thus, the amount of food children eat, both observed and assessed by questionnaire, seems related to more maladaptive parenting practices in mothers. This pleads for more tailor-made guidelines when advising parents of children with eating- and weight problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Congenital cataracts in two siblings with Wolfram syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mets, Rebecca B; Emery, Sarah B; Lesperance, Marci M; Mets, Marilyn B

    2010-12-01

    Wolfram syndrome is characterized by optic atrophy, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus and deafness. There are several other associated conditions reported in the literature, but congenital or early childhood cataracts are not among them. Observational case series with confirmatory genetic analysis. A pair of siblings, followed over 17 years, who manifest congenital or early childhood cataracts, diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. They are both compound heterozygotes for mutations (V415 deletion and A684V substitution) in the WFS1 gene. Their father has congenital sensorineural hearing loss and developed optic atrophy. He is heterozygous for A684V in WFS1. Wolfram syndrome should be in the differential diagnosis of genetic syndromes associated with congenital and early childhood cataracts. Here, we report on a mother who is a phenotypically normal carrier of an autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome gene, and a father who has some of the findings of the syndrome and carries a single mutation that appears to be responsible for his hearing loss and optic atrophy. Their 2 children are compound heterozygotes and manifest the full Wolfram syndrome, in addition to cataracts.

  1. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Latino Siblings: Changes in Family Dynamics and Feelings toward the Teen Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Slonim, Ashley; Horn, Emily J.; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Latinos have had the highest teenage birthrate of any racial or ethnic group in the United States for the past 15 years, yet little is known about how Latino families are affected by a teenage daughter's childbearing. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Mexican American younger siblings of parenting teens to discern how their sister's…

  2. Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

  3. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V. Pollet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610, we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.

  4. Dead or Alive? Knowledge about a Sibling's Death Varies by Genetic Relatedness in a Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Pollet, Thomas; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Using a large sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the Netherlands (n = 7610), we examined the influence of relatedness on an individual's knowledge about whether their sibling is alive or not. Respondents were generally less likely to know whether their sibling was alive if they were not fully related. The effects were stronger for differences between paternal half-siblings and full siblings than for differences between maternal half-siblings and full siblings.

  5. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  6. Risk of Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders Among Siblings of Probands With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta-Olkoniemi, Elina; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Sucksdorff, Dan; Suominen, Auli; Gyllenberg, David; Chudal, Roshan; Leivonen, Susanna; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S; Sourander, Andre

    2016-06-01

    .4-14.7), tic disorders (28 cases [0.8%] vs 24 controls [0.2%]; adjusted RR, 4.3; 95% CI, 2.3-8.2), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (189 cases [5.3%] vs 180 controls [1.5%]; adjusted RR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9-4.7), learning and coordination disorders (563 cases [15.7%] vs 697 controls [5.9%]; adjusted RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.8-3.6), intellectual disability (104 cases [2.9%] vs 137 controls [1.2%]; adjusted RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.3-4.2), conduct and oppositional disorders (180 cases [5.0%] vs 221 controls [1.9%]; adjusted RR, 2.8; 95% CI, 2.2-3.5), and emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (126 cases [3.5%] vs 157 controls [1.3%]; adjusted RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.4). Autism spectrum disorders were also associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, and other neurotic and personality disorders among siblings. Psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders cluster among siblings of probands with ASD. For etiologic research, these findings provide further evidence that several psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders have common risk factors.

  7. Personality Traits and Body Weight: Evidence Using Sibling Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Past research has shown that personality traits relate to body weight, but this relationship may be confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics such as genetic endowments. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the association between personality traits, as measured by the Big Five taxonomy, and body weight among young adults is spurious owing to shared family background. Methods Participants were drawn from the full (n = 14,366) and family (n = 2,813) samples of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The study employed family-fixed effects to eliminate shared family background factors that might affect personality traits and body weight simultaneously. Results Among the Big Five personality traits, only conscientiousness showed a robust association with body weight, including body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk. These results were robust to adjustments for family-fixed effects, which indicates that the association between conscientiousness and body weight is generally not confounded by unobserved family-level characteristics shared by siblings. A one-standard-deviation increase in conscientiousness was associated with a decrease in BMI by 0.89 (equivalent to a 2.5 kg decrease in weight for an individual with an average height of the sample) and a 12% reduction in the probability of being obese. This study also found some suggestive evidence of gender and racial/ethnic differences. The association between conscientiousness and obesity was larger and statistically significant only for women, and conscientiousness was most strongly associated with obesity among Hispanic people. Conclusion Conscientiousness is associated with decreased body weight net of unobserved background characteristics that are shared by siblings. The results suggest that interventions that develop personality traits may have “spillover effects”; in other words, they may also help reduce obesity. PMID

  8. Divergent trophic levels in two cryptic sibling bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, Björn M; Greif, Stefan; Borissov, Ivailo; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L; Voigt, Christian C

    2011-05-01

    Changes in dietary preferences in animal species play a pivotal role in niche specialization. Here, we investigate how divergence of foraging behaviour affects the trophic position of animals and thereby their role for ecosystem processes. As a model, we used two closely related bat species, Myotis myotis and M. blythii oxygnathus, that are morphologically very similar and share the same roosts, but show clear behavioural divergence in habitat selection and foraging. Based on previous dietary studies on synanthropic populations in Central Europe, we hypothesised that M. myotis would mainly prey on predatory arthropods (i.e., secondary consumers) while M. blythii oxygnathus would eat herbivorous insects (i.e., primary consumers). We thus expected that the sibling bats would be at different trophic levels. We first conducted a validation experiment with captive bats in the laboratory and measured isotopic discrimination, i.e., the stepwise enrichment of heavy in relation to light isotopes between consumer and diet, in insectivorous bats for the first time. We then tested our trophic level hypothesis in the field at an ancient site of natural coexistence for the two species (Bulgaria, south-eastern Europe) using stable isotope analyses. As predicted, secondary consumer arthropods (carabid beetles; Coleoptera) were more enriched in (15)N than primary consumer arthropods (tettigoniids; Orthoptera), and accordingly wing tissue of M. myotis was more enriched in (15)N than tissue of M. blythii oxygnathus. According to a Bayesian mixing model, M. blythii oxygnathus indeed fed almost exclusively on primary consumers (98%), while M. myotis ate a mix of secondary (50%), but also, and to a considerable extent, primary consumers (50%). Our study highlights that morphologically almost identical, sympatric sibling species may forage at divergent trophic levels, and, thus may have different effects on ecosystem processes.

  9. Mesoscopic pairing without superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    We discuss pairing signatures in mesoscopic nanowires with a variable attractive pairing interaction. Depending on the wire length, density, and interaction strength, these systems realize a simultaneous bulk-to-mesoscopic and BCS-BEC crossover, which we describe in terms of the parity parameter that quantifies the odd-even energy difference and generalizes the bulk Cooper pair binding energy to mesoscopic systems. We show that the parity parameter can be extracted from recent measurements of conductance oscillations in SrTiO3 nanowires by Cheng et al. [Nature (London) 521, 196 (2015), 10.1038/nature14398], where it marks the critical magnetic field that separates pair and single-particle currents. Our results place the experiment in the fluctuation-dominated mesoscopic regime on the BCS side of the crossover.

  10. Investigations into nuclear pairing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is divided in two main sections focusing on different aspects of collective nuclear behavior. In the first section, solutions are considered for the collective pairing Hamiltonian. In particular, an approximate solution at the critical point of the pairing transition from harmonic vibration (normal nuclear behavior) to deformed rotation (superconducting behavior) in gauge space is found by analytic solution of the Hamiltonian. The eigenvalues are expressed in terms of the zeros of Bessel functions of integer order. The results are compared to the pairing bands based on the Pb isotopes. The second section focuses on the experimental search for the Giant Pairing Vibration (GPV) in nuclei. After briefly describing the origin of the GPV, and the reasons that the state has remained unidentified, a novel idea for populating this state is presented. A recent experiment has been performed using the LIBERACE+STARS detector system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of LBNL to test the idea. (Author)

  11. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  12. Upaya Mengatasi Sibling Rivalry melalui Layanan Konseling Kelompok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Turniati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan berdasarkan fenomena yang terjadi pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 kecamatan Tembalang kota Semarang yang mengalami sibling rivalry. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui apakah konseling kelompok dapat mengatasi sibling rivalry pada siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. Jenis penelitian adalah penelitian eksperiment dengan desain penelitian one group pre-test dan pos-test design. Subyek penelitian ini, siswa kelas VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 yang memiliki tingkat sibling rivalry tinggi yang diperoleh dari hasil DCM dan rekomendasi dari guru kelas yaitu terjaring 10 siswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan skala psikologis berupa skala sibling rivalry. Analisis data menggunakan teknik analisis data deskriptif persentase dan uji wilcoxon. Hasil penelitian menunjukan sibling rivalry siswa sebelum diberi perlakuan berupa konseling kelompok dalam kategori tinggi (75.14%. Setelah diberikan konseling kelompok menunjukkan perbedaan, dilihat dari hasil pos test rata-rata sibling rivalry siswa menurun yaitu berada pada kategori rendah (42,95%. Hal tersebut menunjukan bahwa sibling rivalry dapat diatasi melalui layanan konseling kelompok This research was conducted based on phenomena that occur in grade VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 Tembalang Semarang who experienced sibling rivalry. The purpose of this research is to find out if counseling groups can overcome sibling rivalry at grade VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02. This type of research is research research design alphabets experiment one group pre test and post test design. The subject of this study, students of class VI SDN Sendangmulyo 02 that has a high level of sibling rivalry that results obtained from DCM and the recommendations of the master class that is netted 10 students. Method of data collection using a scale of psychological scale in the form of sibling rivalry. Data analysis data analysis techniques using a descriptive percentage and wilcoxon test. The research results

  13. Dyssegmental dysplasia in siblings: Prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P.E. Jr.; Hauge, M.; Bang, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases of dyssegmental dysplasia (type Silverman-Handmaker) in siblings are presented. The first-born died at the age of 3 months and the second fetus was followed during pregnancy with ultrasound examinations. In the 20th week of gestation marked shortening of the extremities was found; a female infant showing the same radiologic bony malformations as the firstborn was born by cesarean section. These cases support the autosomal recessive inheritance and demonstrate the possibility of prenatal diagnosis in this type of micromelic dwarfism. (orig.)

  14. Early sex differences are not autism-specific: A Baby Siblings Research Consortium (BSRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel S; Young, Gregory S; Webb, Sara Jane; Ozonoff, Sally; Bryson, Susan E; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Curtin, Suzanne; Dobkins, Karen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hutman, Ted; Iverson, Jana M; Landa, Rebecca; Nelson, Charles A; Stone, Wendy L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    The increased male prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be mirrored by the early emergence of sex differences in ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning. The female protective effect hypothesis posits that ASD recurrence and symptoms will be higher among relatives of female probands. This study examined sex differences and sex of proband differences in ASD outcome and in the development of ASD symptoms and cognitive functioning among the high-risk younger siblings of ASD probands and low-risk children. Prior to 18 months of age, 1824 infants (1241 high-risk siblings, 583 low-risk) from 15 sites were recruited. Hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) analyses of younger sibling and proband sex differences in ASD recurrence among high-risk siblings were followed by HGLM analyses of sex differences and group differences (high-risk ASD, high-risk non-ASD, and low-risk) on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) subscales (Expressive and Receptive Language, Fine Motor, and Visual Reception) at 18, 24, and 36 months and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores (social affect (SA) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB)) at 24 and 36 months. Of 1241 high-risk siblings, 252 had ASD outcomes. Male recurrence was 26.7 % and female recurrence 10.3 %, with a 3.18 odds ratio. The HR-ASD group had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB and SA scores than the HR non-ASD group, which had lower MSEL subscale scores and higher RRB scores than the LR group. Regardless of group, males obtained lower MSEL subscale scores, and higher ADOS RRB scores, than females. There were, however, no significant interactions between sex and group on either the MSEL or ADOS. Proband sex did not affect ASD outcome, MSEL subscale, or ADOS domain scores. A 3.2:1 male:female odds ratio emerged among a large sample of prospectively followed high-risk siblings. Sex differences in cognitive performance and repetitive behaviors were apparent not only in

  15. Psychological Symptomatology in Siblings of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listug-Lunde, Lori; Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Petros, Thomas V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Studies utilizing parent-report measures have identified above average levels of internalizing and externalizing problems in siblings of children diagnosed with ADHD. Scant research has examined siblings' self-report on standardized measures of emotional functioning. The current study examined parent-reported and child self-reported…

  16. Adolescent Depression and Time Spent with Parents and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desha, Laura N.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Ziviani, Jenny M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent…

  17. Types of sons/siblings, fraternal function and peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brunori

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author starts by exploring family dynamics using the psychodynamic-groupanalytic paradigm to explore the intertwined relationships amongst the family figures like son, daughter, parents and sibling. The work focuses on the analysis of the psychological aspects related to siblings in the family, birth order and their consequences.

  18. Support Between Siblings and Between Friends : Two Worlds Apart?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether siblings and friends resemble each other in supportive behavior. Using a Dutch national sample of 6,289 individuals containing 12,578 relationships with siblings and friends, we investigated the relative importance of gender composition, geographical proximity,

  19. Perceived support in sibling relationships and adolescent adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branje, S.J.T.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Aken, M.A.G. van; Haselager, G.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Siblings may support each other, but also reveal fierce rivalry and mutual aggression. Supportive sibling relationships have been linked to the development of psychosocial competence of children. In the present longitudinal study, we will focus on the development of perceived support in

  20. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  1. Parents, Siblings, and Peers: Close Social Relationships and Adolescent Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelt, Monika; Day, Laurie

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between parents, older siblings, peers, adolescents' individual characteristics, and adolescents' deviant attitudes and behaviors among inner-city families. Structural equation models showed that older deviant siblings had the strongest effect on adolescent deviance. Positive family relationships, parental support, and…

  2. Korean sibling caregivers of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijung Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia are an important source of family caregiving. Unfortunately, limited information is available about sibling caregivers because existing studies have focused on other family relationships such as parents, spouses, and children. To fill the knowledge gap, the purpose of this study is to describe Korean sibling caregivers’ experience with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Guided by Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological methodology, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with eight individuals who have a sibling (1 diagnosed with schizophrenia and (2 hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric unit. We discerned six key themes: sorrow, burnout, shame, different perspectives in life, acceptance, and responsibility. We categorized these themes into three groups: suffering, hope, and responsibility and obligation. Sibling caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia experience a mixture of several emotions. Participants loved their brother or sister with schizophrenia, but at the same time they felt shame and fear. While they were burdened by the responsibilities of caregiving, they remained loyal to their sibling with schizophrenia, continuing to help their siblings reach their full potential. Although participants were confused about the symptoms of schizophrenia, they were committed to learning more about the illness. Because we conducted the current study in Korea, the findings of this study may be unique to Korea culture. Further studies are needed to compare and contrast nuanced differences in sibling caregivers’ experience among different cultural groups.

  3. Cortical Excitability Measures in Patients and Unaffected Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at St Vincent's Hospital, Victoria, Australia, measured cortical excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 157 patients with epilepsy (95 generalized and 62 focal and their asymptomatic siblings and results were compared to those of 12 controls and 20 of their siblings.

  4. Socialization, Social Cognitive Factors and the Sibling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Nina

    Two separate studies suggest that the development of positive sibling relations may be related to siblings' social-cognitive skills (Stewart & Marvin, 1984) and the nature of mothers' conversations with their children (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982). The purpose of the present study was to provide a synthesis of these two studies and to demonstrate the…

  5. A report of heat stroke in two Nigerian siblings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-31

    May 31, 2014 ... Two Nigerian siblings aged ... Case Report. Two male siblings, aged 3 (Case 1) and 5‑year‑old (Case 2) ... stroke with the resultant neurological and multi organ dysfunction,[11] ... urine color cleared within 24 h of admission.

  6. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality among full siblings in comparison with non-related individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately 1.4 million full siblings born in De...

  7. Helping as Coping by Siblings of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Hannah, Mary Elizabeth

    Research has shown that siblings can experience either negative or positive mental health outcomes as a result of having a brother or sister with disabilities. When maladjustment occurs, it is frequently attributed to the stress of excessive helping. This research-based paper proposes that siblings of children with disabilities, perceiving…

  8. The effect of educational interventions with siblings of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursky, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.

  9. Outcomes in Adult Life among Siblings of Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Moss, Philippa; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. We report on cognitive, social and mental health outcomes in 87 adult siblings (mean age 39 years). When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). As…

  10. Hostile siblings in the abused child’s mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    , in an experience of siblings as representing violent inner parental objects not fully differentiated from hostile sibling objects, e.g. linked to a fantasy of an inattentive breast-mother feeding herself and a violent paternal part-object, the two of them in a fused state becoming merged as an undifferentiated...

  11. The Lived Experience of Losing a Sibling through Murder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    siblings. Homicide survivor bereavement, as a grief experience relative to other ... who have lost a child through murder, and, to a lesser ... siblings taking on the role of protector of their parents ...... fearful and angry feelings that contribute to their ... the adolescent to young adult transition: A developmental resilience model.

  12. Shyness, Sibling Relationships, and Young Children's Socioemotional Adjustment at Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Allison A.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the moderating role of sibling relationship quality in the associations between shyness and indices of socioemotional adjustment in an early childhood education context. Participants were 79 children ages 4 to 6 (M = 4.74 years) who had at least one sibling. Parents completed ratings of child shyness,…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  14. Latino Adolescents' Academic Motivation: The Role of Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Edna C.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological perspective, two competing models were tested to examine how sibling relationship quality directly predicted or interacted with academic support from siblings to predict Latino adolescents' academic motivation (N = 258). Gender differences were examined utilizing multiple group analysis in structural equation modeling.…

  15. Conflict and Friendship in Sibling Relationships: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Reviews research findings about the nature and development of typical sibling relationships. Discusses two important themes, the role of children's social cognition skills, and the role of the demands of the relationship. Addresses two questions: (1) the prevalence and features of sibling rivalry and conflict; and (2) the characteristics of…

  16. Sibling Squabbles: How to Cope With Your Children Fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branvold, Sharon L.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses what is normal and what is not regarding sibling rivalry, jealousy, and squabbling, and it provides some guidance for parents on handling conflict. The article also discusses three major sources of sibling conflict (jealousy, being left alone together, and family trips) and offers suggestions for dealing with each case. (SM)

  17. Compensatory Effects of Sibling Support in Preadolescence and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Levitt, Mary J.

    The current study is an examination of how support from siblings relates to academic competence in early adolescence, with a focus on the compensatory effects of sibling support. Participants were 694 African-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American students, ranging in age from 11 to 15. Participants were interviewed in school regarding…

  18. Maintaining Sibling Relationships for Children in Foster and Adoptive Placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sigrid; Monn, Amy R; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Leslie, Laurel K

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the nature of sibling relationships among children in foster or adoptive placement and the challenges and processes involved in maintaining these relationships, we conducted an exploratory analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews with caregivers of 14 foster and adopted children in San Diego County. We identified three patterns of placement histories and living situations which appeared to impact the degree of contact maintained with siblings: (1) children who had never lived together and were not currently placed together; (2) children who at some point lived with or were placed together with their siblings, but were now separated from them; and (3) children who had lived with their siblings all their life and were placed together with at least some of their siblings at the time of the interview. Children's current living situations and placement histories, caregivers' experiences and perceptions of feasibility and desirability of sibling contact, and the sibling relationship itself are primary determinants in the development and maintenance of contact between siblings. Implications for child welfare policy and practice are discussed.

  19. "Barter", "Deals", "Bribes" and "Threats": Exploring Sibling Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Ian; Punch, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates forms of strategic interaction between siblings during childhood. The authors argue that these interactions, characterized by notions of reciprocity, equivalence and constructions of fairness, are worked out in relation to responsibility, power, knowledge and sibling status. Birth order and age are not experienced as…

  20. Associations between Family Communication Patterns, Sibling Closeness, and Adoptive Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and…

  1. Altered cognitive development in the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M.; Cohen, Rachel; Csernansky, John

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult: 1) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (N = 66); (2) healthy control participants (N = 77); and (3) the siblings of healthy controls (N = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: 1) IQ; 2) working memory; 3) episodic memory; and 4) executive function. We found significant group differences in the relationships between age and performance in working memory and episodic memory, with similar patterns for executive function and verbal IQ. The siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. In addition, healthy controls and/or their siblings showed age-related improvements in all four cognitive domains, while the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia only showed this for verbal IQ. PMID:25485180

  2. Altered cognitive development in the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Cohen, Rachel; Csernansky, John

    2014-03-01

    The goal of the current study was to further investigate the late neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia by examining cross-sectional, age-related changes in cognitive function among young adult: 1) siblings of individuals with schizophrenia (N = 66); (2) healthy control participants (N = 77); and (3) the siblings of healthy controls (N = 77). All subjects participated in a battery of tasks in four domains: 1) IQ; 2) working memory; 3) episodic memory; and 4) executive function. We found significant group differences in the relationships between age and performance in working memory and episodic memory, with similar patterns for executive function and verbal IQ. The siblings of individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired performance in working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. In addition, healthy controls and/or their siblings showed age-related improvements in all four cognitive domains, while the siblings of individuals with schizophrenia only showed this for verbal IQ.

  3. Group intervention for siblings of children with disabilities: a pilot study in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Tina; Nordgren, Ingrid; Rein, George; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a group intervention in a clinical setting designed to increase knowledge of disability and improve sibling relationship among siblings of children with disabilities. A self-selected sample of 54 younger and older siblings with typical development (ages 8-12 years) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9), Asperger syndrome (7), autistic disorder (13), physical disability (8) and intellectual disability (17) participated in collateral sibling groups. The Sibling Knowledge Interview (SKI) and Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) were administered pre- and post-intervention. SKI scores increased (p sibling groups showed significantly different (p siblings of children with disabilities. In view of the limited empirical research on group interventions for siblings of children with disabilities future work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions. Particular attention should be given to siblings of children with autism and siblings of children with intellectual disability.

  4. Quality of Sibling Relationship and Substance Misuse: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Tsamparli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to examine the quality of sibling relationship in families with a sibling with substance misuse (SSU and compare the relationship to families with a sibling with no use (SNU. Thirty-six (36 families participated in the study (17 with SSU and 19 with SNU; N = 144. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 siblings (20 SNU and 20 SSU; 18-31 years old in order to qualitatively investigate the characteristics of the sibling relationship. The siblings were not identified with any psychopathology, according to SCL-90R. Moreover, we considered the family cohesion and adaptability, as identified by the FACES III (administered to the whole sample and the family constellation (including number of children, birth order, gender, family size, family structure, years of substance misuse and socioeconomic level. The results of the thematic analysis seem to support Furman and Buhrmester’s (1985 framework, in the context of SNU families. Nevertheless, when considering families with SSU the framework is enriched with a new axis: Loss/mourning. The substance misuse seems to provoke an overturn of the representation of the sibling relationship: the behavioral changes (i.e. disengagement of the sibling with drug use are experienced as a loss by the sibling non user, thus triggering the psychological process of ‘mourning’. Moreover, in these families, the sibling with no drug use seem to experience differential parenting, they feel neglected, angry and they take up a parental role towards the SSU, whom they experience as “sensitive” and “vulnerable”.

  5. Victimization by Siblings in Children with Disability or Weight Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna J; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    Children with a physical disability, psychological disorder, or of nonnormative weight are often targets of peer victimization. Sibling victimization, however, is more common than peer victimization, but rarely explored. We investigated linkages between sibling victimization and whether children had a physical disability, psychological disorder (i.e., internalizing disorder, attention deficit disorder/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), and were perceived by parents as being thinner than average or overweight. Also, we explored how the extent and kinds of sibling victimization experiences were related to these characteristics in childhood. A US probability sample of adult caregivers of a child aged 0 to 9 (N = 780; 50% women; mean age 4.58) in 2-child households who completed a telephone interview. Controlling for other forms of maltreatment and individual and family characteristics, children with a physical disability and parent-perceived children who are thinner than average and children who are overweight experienced more sibling victimization. Children with an internalizing disorder experienced less sibling victimization. Sibling victimization did not differ for children with and without ADHD. Children perceived to be overweight by parents and children with a physical disability were at increased risk of experiencing more types of sibling victimization. Children with a physical disability had greater odds of being victims of property victimization by a sibling. Children with a physical disability or perceived as different from average weight are at risk for sibling victimization. Using a nationally representative sample, this is the first study to highlight the importance of screening for sibling victimization in families of children with a disability and/or nonnormative weight status.

  6. Sibling cycle piston and valving method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew P. (Inventor); Bauwens, Luc (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A double-acting, rotating piston reciprocating in a cylinder with the motion of the piston providing the valving action of the Sibling Cycle through the medium of passages between the piston and cylinder wall. The rotating piston contains regenerators ported to the walls of the piston. The piston fits closely in the cylinder at each end of the cylinder except in areas where the wall of the cylinder is relieved to provide passages between the cylinder wall and the piston leading to the expansion and compression spaces, respectively. The piston reciprocates as it rotates. The cylinder and piston together comprise an integral valve that seqentially opens and closes the ports at the ends of the regenerators alternately allowing them to communicate with the expansion space and compression space and blocking that communication. The relieved passages in the cylinder and the ports in the piston are so arranged that each regenerator is sequentially (1) charged with compressed working gas from the compression space; (2) isolated from both expansion and compression spaces; (3) discharged of working gas into the expansion space; and (4) simultaneously charged with working gas from the expansion space while being discharged of working gas into the compression space, in the manner of the Sibling Cycle. In an alterate embodiment, heat exchangers are external to the cylinder and ports in the cylinder wall are alternately closed by the wall of the piston and opened to the expansion and compression spaces through relieved passages in the wall of the reciprocating, rotating piston.

  7. Saviour siblings and collective family interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2010-09-01

    In this article, I will explore the ethical concerns arising out of the use of preimplantation tissue typing (PTT) to create saviour siblings. There are two main ethical concerns about the welfare of the child to be born as a result of PTT. The first is whether the child to be born is treated as a commodity, as simply a means to save the life of his or her sibling. The second is whether the child to be born will be harmed as a result of PTT, either physically, psychologically or socially. These two ethical concerns reflect an individualistic approach to the welfare of the child, whose interests are treated as largely separate to the interests of other family members. I will argue that the welfare of the child born as a result of PTT should be conceived more broadly to include not only the child's individual interests, but also the collective interests the child shares with his or her family. I base this broader conception of welfare on the notion of human flourishing, which recognises that the welfare of a child is inextricably connected to the welfare of the intimate collective that is his or her family. The collective interests of intimate family members are particularly relevant in the context of PTT, as the members are engaged in a shared journey to save the life of an ill child.

  8. Elemental abundances of solar sibling candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, I.; Lambert, D. L.; Endl, M.; Cochran, W. D.; MacQueen, P. J.; Bajkova, A. T.; Bobylev, V. V.; Roederer, I. U.; Wittenmyer, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamical information along with survey data on metallicity and in some cases age have been used recently by some authors to search for candidates of stars that were born in the cluster where the Sun formed. We have acquired high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra for 30 of these objects to determine, using detailed elemental abundance analysis, if they could be true solar siblings. Only two of the candidates are found to have solar chemical composition. Updated modeling of the stars' past orbits in a realistic Galactic potential reveals that one of them, HD 162826, satisfies both chemical and dynamical conditions for being a sibling of the Sun. Measurements of rare-element abundances for this star further confirm its solar composition, with the only possible exception of Sm. Analysis of long-term high-precision radial velocity data rules out the presence of hot Jupiters and confirms that this star is not in a binary system. We find that chemical tagging does not necessarily benefit from studying as many elements as possible but instead from identifying and carefully measuring the abundances of those elements that show large star-to-star scatter at a given metallicity. Future searches employing data products from ongoing massive astrometric and spectroscopic surveys can be optimized by acknowledging this fact.

  9. Epilepsy phenotypes in siblings with Norrie disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Arai, Eisuke; Kitamura, Yuri; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Fujimaki, Takuro; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by congenital blindness. Although epileptic seizures are observed in some patients with Norrie disease, little is known about this phenomenon. Here, we report the manifestation of epilepsy in siblings with Norrie disease to increase our knowledge of epilepsy in this condition. Three brothers with congenital blindness were diagnosed with Norrie disease after genetic analyses indicated the deletion of exon 2 of the NDP gene. The eldest brother had suffered from epileptic seizures since the age of 11years, and his seizures were resistant to antiepileptic drugs. Although the second brother had no epileptic seizures, the youngest sibling had experiences epileptic seizures since the age of 8years. His seizures were controlled using lamotrigine and levetiracetam. An electroencephalography (EEG) revealed epileptiform discharges in the occipital areas in all three brothers. A study of these patients will increase our knowledge of epilepsy in patients with Norrie disease. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Theory-of-Mind Development and Early Sibling Relationships after the Birth of a Sibling: Parental Discipline Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Hyun; Volling, Brenda L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's Theory-of-Mind (ToM) development, early sibling interactions, and parental discipline strategies during the transition to siblinghood. Using a sample of firstborn children and their parents (N = 208), we assessed children's ToM before the birth of a sibling and 12 months after the birth, and…

  11. Perceptions of Siblings with Autism and Relationships with Them: European American and Asian American Siblings Draw and Tell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Kara D.; Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined typically developing children's perceptions of their siblings with autism and their relationships with them in a European American and an Asian American family. Method: Data were drawn from interviews with the siblings using the "draw-and-tell" technique and participant observation in the homes of the 2 families.…

  12. Sibling Influence on Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Deviant and Sexual Risk Behaviors: The Role of Sibling Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Killoren, Sarah E.; Rodriguez, Sue Annie; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A growing body of research indicates that siblings uniquely influence each other’s health risk behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood. Mechanisms underlying these associations, however, are largely unknown because they are rarely tested directly. The present study addressed this gap by examining the role of sibling modeling in explaining changes in Mexican-origin youths’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors over time. Methods The sample included 380 Mexican-origin siblings (older sibling age: M = 21.18, SD = 1.59; younger sibling age: M = 18.19, SD = .46) from (N = 190) families. Participants provided self-reports of their sibling relationship qualities, including modeling, as well as their engagement in deviant and sexual risk taking behaviors in two home interviews across a two-year span. Results A series of residualized regression models revealed that younger siblings’ perceptions of modeling moderated the links between older siblings’ deviant and sexual risk behaviors and younger siblings’ subsequent behaviors in those same domains. Specifically, high levels of modeling predicted stronger associations between older siblings’ earlier and younger siblings’ later risk behaviors controlling for younger siblings’ earlier behaviors as well as variables that have been used as proxies for social learning in previous research. Conclusions Social learning mechanisms, especially modeling, are salient processes through which older siblings transmit norms and expectations regarding participation in health risk behaviors. Future research should continue to explore the ways in which siblings influence each other because such processes are emerging targets for intervention and prevention. PMID:24287013

  13. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  14. Quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Hilda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer treatment in children influences the quality of life of patients and their families. The Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL inventory is a questionnaire to assess quality of life of the healthy and ill children. Objective To compare quality of life in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and to compare quality of life in those with hematologic malignancies to those with solid tumors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 5-to-18- year-olds at the Hematology-Oncology Division at Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera, from May to July 2012. The case group (subjects with cancer filled the PedsQL 3.0 and 4.0 questionnaires, while the control group (normal siblings filled only the PedsQL 4.0 questionnaire. Independent T-test was used to compare the quality of life between children with cancer and their normal siblings. Results There were 46 children in each group. The PedsQL 4.0 results in children with cancer and their normal siblings, and PedsQL 3.0 between hematology malignant and solid cancer were as follows: physical function 36.9 vs. 80.7, respectively (95%CI of differences -52.639 to -34.990; P= 0.0001, emotional function 40.4 vs. 69.3, respectively (95%CI of differences -35.912 to -21.914; P=0.0001, social function 71.5 vs. 93.9, respectively (95%CI of differences - 29.238 to -15.587; P=0.0001, school function 20.7 vs. 74.2, respectively (95%CI of differences - 62.124 to -44.832; P=0.0001, and total score 42.1 vs. 79.3, respectively (95%CI of differences - 43.066 to -31.344; P=0.0001. School function was the most affected parameter in children with cancer compared to their normal siblings. Conclusion There is a significant difference in quality of life between children with cancer and their normal siblings, for all four parameters examined by the PedsQL inventory. However, there are no significant differences in quality of life between children with hematologic malignancy and those with

  15. Early onset of diabetes in the proband is the major determinant of risk in HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Kathleen M; Aitken, Rachel J; Wilson, Isabel; Williams, Alistair J K; Bingley, Polly J

    2014-03-01

    Islet autoimmunity is initiated in infancy, and primary prevention trials require children at high genetic risk to be identified before autoantibodies appear. To inform screening strategies, we evaluated risks of autoimmunity and diabetes associated with HLA DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 in U.K. families. Extended HLA haplotypes were determined in 2,134 siblings from the Bart's-Oxford Study followed to a median age of 22 years. Risks of diabetes and islet autoimmunity (more than two antibodies) were estimated by survival analysis. Of 138 informative DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings, 63% shared both haplotypes with their diabetic proband, 29% shared one, and 8% shared neither. In HLA-identical DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 siblings, the cumulative risk of diabetes by age 15 was 17% (vs. 6% in those sharing one haplotype or none; P = 0.095). Risk varied, however, with the age at the onset of diabetes in the proband; the cumulative risk of autoimmunity and/or diabetes by age 15 was 61% in siblings of probands diagnosed when younger than 10 years old compared with only 4.7% in those diagnosed after age 10 years (P sibling risk. This suggests that non-HLA genes or epigenetic/environmental factors that accelerate the progression of type 1 diabetes in the proband strongly affect risk in siblings.

  16. Population-based estimate of sibling risk for preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental abruption and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Jevon; Borecki, Ingrid; Morgan, Thomas; Stamilio, David; Muglia, Louis J

    2008-07-08

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth, preeclampsia and placental abruption, are common, with acute and long-term complications for both the mother and infant. Etiologies underlying such adverse outcomes are not well understood. As maternal and fetal genetic factors may influence these outcomes, we estimated the magnitude of familial aggregation as one index of possible heritable contributions. Using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked birth certificate database, we performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of births (1989-1997), designating an individual born from an affected pregnancy as the proband for each outcome studied. We estimated the increased risk to siblings compared to the population risk, using the sibling risk ratio, lambdas, and sibling-sibling odds ratio (sib-sib OR), for the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia. Risk to siblings of an affected individual was elevated above the population prevalence of a given disorder, as indicated by lambdaS (lambdaS (95% CI): 4.3 (4.0-4.6), 8.2 (6.5-9.9), 4.0 (2.6-5.3), and 4.5 (4.4-4.8), for preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia, respectively). Risk to siblings of an affected individual was similarly elevated above that of siblings of unaffected individuals, as indicated by the sib-sib OR (sib-sib OR adjusted for known risk factors (95% CI): 4.2 (3.9-4.5), 9.6 (7.6-12.2), 3.8 (2.6-5.5), 8.1 (7.5-8.8) for preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia, respectively). These results suggest that the adverse pregnancy outcomes of preterm birth, PPROM, placental abruption, and pre-eclampsia aggregate in families, which may be explained in part by genetics.

  17. Genomic Ancestry, Self-Reported “Color” and Quantitative Measures of Skin Pigmentation in Brazilian Admixed Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tailce K. M.; Fonseca, Rômulo M. C.; de França, Nanci M.; Parra, Esteban J.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2011-01-01

    A current concern in genetic epidemiology studies in admixed populations is that population stratification can lead to spurious results. The Brazilian census classifies individuals according to self-reported “color”, but several studies have demonstrated that stratifying according to “color” is not a useful strategy to control for population structure, due to the dissociation between self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry. We report the results of a study in a group of Brazilian siblings in which we measured skin pigmentation using a reflectometer, and estimated genomic ancestry using 21 Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). Self-reported “color”, according to the Brazilian census, was also available for each participant. This made it possible to evaluate the relationship between self-reported “color” and skin pigmentation, self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry, and skin pigmentation and genomic ancestry. We observed that, although there were significant differences between the three “color” groups in genomic ancestry and skin pigmentation, there was considerable dispersion within each group and substantial overlap between groups. We also saw that there was no good agreement between the “color” categories reported by each member of the sibling pair: 30 out of 86 sibling pairs reported different “color”, and in some cases, the sibling reporting the darker “color” category had lighter skin pigmentation. Socioeconomic status was significantly associated with self-reported “color” and genomic ancestry in this sample. This and other studies show that subjective classifications based on self-reported “color”, such as the one that is used in the Brazilian census, are inadequate to describe the population structure present in recently admixed populations. Finally, we observed that one of the AIMs included in the panel (rs1426654), which is located in the known pigmentation gene SLC24A5, was strongly associated with

  18. Frustrated Lewis Pairs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Frustrated Lewis Pairs : Enabling via inability. Sanjoy Mukherjee ... Author Affiliations. Sanjoy Mukherjee Pakkirisamy Thilagar1. Department of Inorgainic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  19. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types...

  20. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.; Abdalla, M.; Lange, T.

    2013-01-01

    We report on relative performance numbers for affine and projective pairings on a dual-core Cortex A9 ARM processor. Using a fast inversion in the base field and doing inversion in extension fields by using the norm map to reduce to inversions in smaller fields, we find a very low ratio of

  1. Child, Parent and Family Factors as Predictors of Adjustment for Siblings of Children with a Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, R.; Gavidia-Payne, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings adjust to having a brother or sister with a disability in diverse ways. This study investigated a range of child, parent and family factors as predictors of sibling adjustment outcomes. Methods: Forty-nine siblings (aged 7-16 years) and parents provided information about (1) sibling daily hassles and uplifts; (2) sibling…

  2. Siblings: Brothers and Sisters of People Who Have Mental Retardation. Arc Q & A Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    Basic information about siblings of people with mental retardation is presented in a question-and-answer format. The following questions are addressed: "Is having a sibling with a disability different than having a sibling who does not have a disability?"; "What are some of the concerns of siblings of people with disabilities?"; "Are there any…

  3. Sibling Relationships When a Child Has Autism: Marital Stress and Support Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jessica Wood; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2003-01-01

    Family systems theory was employed to study sibling relationships in 50 families with a child (ages 4-12) with autism. Typically developing siblings expressed satisfaction with their sibling relationships. Parents were somewhat less positive about the sibling relationships. Stress in the marital relationship was associated with compromised sibling…

  4. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  5. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  6. Gratitude for Help among Adult Friends and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rotkirch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80 who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  7. Gratitude for help among adult friends and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkirch, Anna; Lyons, Minna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Jokela, Markus

    2014-07-06

    Although gratitude is a key prosocial emotion reinforcing reciprocal altruism, it has been largely ignored in the empirical literature. We examined feelings of gratitude and the importance of reciprocity in same-sex peer relations. Participants were 772 individuals (189 men; mean age = 28.80) who completed an online survey using a vignette design. We investigated (i) differences in reported gratitude and the importance of reciprocity among same-sex siblings and same-sex friends, and (ii) how relationship closeness moderates these associations. Based on the theory of kin altruism, we expect that people would feel more grateful towards friends than towards their siblings, and that lack of gratitude or failure to pay back a loan would bother more with friends than with siblings, irrespective of emotional closeness. Results showed that levels of gratitude and expectations of reciprocity were higher towards friends compared to siblings. This was the case also after controlling for emotional closeness. Being close generally made participants feel more grateful and expect lower displays of gratitude in the other. Closeness was also strongly associated with emotional gratitude among siblings compared to friends. We conclude that feelings and displays of gratitude have a special role in friendships. Although a close sibling may elicit as much gratitude as a friend does, even a very close friend is not exempt from the logic of reciprocity in the same way that a sibling is.

  8. Sibling experiences after a major childhood burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, primarily from the sibling perspective, the effect of a child's major burn injury on his or her sibling. A mixed method qualitative dominant design was implemented using the life story method for the qualitative portion. Additionally, the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire -Revised (SRQ-R) was used as a structured interview guide and for calculating scoring data to explore sibling relationship factors of warmth/closeness, rivalry, conflict, and relative status/power. Participants from 22 family cases (one or multiple family members) and 40 individuals were interviewed. To capture impact on the family over time, interviews began a minimum of two years post-burn. The central thematic pattern for the sibling relationship in families having a child with a major burn injury was that of normalization. Two components of normalization were described: areas of normalization and the process of adjustment. Areas of normalization were found in play and other activities, in school and work, and in family relations with siblings. The process of adjustment was varied and often gradual, involved school and work re-entry, and in some instances, seemed to change life perspective. Clinical implications in providing family-centered care can focus on promoting normalization by assessing and supporting siblings who may only be occasionally seen in the hospital or clinic.

  9. [Early sibling aggression in mammals and its hormonal correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonevich, A L; Naĭdenko, S V

    2007-01-01

    Early sibling aggression is a widespread phenomenon in birds. Ornithologists distinguish species with "obligate" and "facultative" siblicide. Sibling aggression was described in some mammal species: the domestic pig (Sus scrofa), the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and the Iberian lynx (L. par-dinus). In all of them, sibling aggression corresponds well with the "facultative" siblicide model in birds. Sibling aggression was observed at the age of 36-64 days in both lynx species. It is usually restricted to a single fight and can change the hierarchical structure and growth rate of the kittens. In the spotted hyena and the domestic pig, the frequency and intensity of aggressive interactions between siblings are strongest during the first days of postnatal ontogeny and then decrease gradually. The newborns of these species are much developed than newborn lynx kittens. Usually adult lynx females, in contrast to hyenas and pigs, try to stop sibling fights. This is probably related to the larger parental investment at the time of the fight in lynxes (a kitten's body weight is about 10% of the mother's) than in pigs (0.5%) and hyenas (1.9%). Sibling aggression in spotted hyenas could be related to the high level of androstenedione and is not related to testosterone concentration. In the Eurasian lynx, female sibs attack their littermates slightly more often than male sibs do, and sibling aggression is not testosterone-dependent. Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands may play an important role in this phenomenon. The data available so far, however, do not positively confirm the presence of hormonal trigger effects in mammal sibling aggression.

  10. Understanding intention to undergo colonoscopy among intermediate-risk siblings of colorectal cancer patients: a test of a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Markowitz, Arnold; Winawer, Sidney; Guillem, Jose; Meropol, Neal J; Haller, Daniel; Jandorf, Lina; Rakowski, William; Babb, James; Duncan, Terry

    2003-01-01

    There is a need for research to identify factors influencing intentions to undergo colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among family members at risk for CRC. This study tested a mediational model primarily guided by Ronis' elaboration of the Health Belief Model in predicting intention to have colorectal cancer screening among siblings of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer prior to age 56 years. Data were collected from 534 siblings of individuals diagnosed with CRC. A baseline survey was administered by telephone. Measures included perceived susceptibility, CRC severity, physician and family support for CRC screening, cancer-specific distress, the closeness of the relationship with the affected sibling, and future intention to have a colonoscopy. Participant age, gender, and number of prior colonoscopies, as well as the stage of the affected patient's cancer and time from the patient's diagnosis to the interview, were controlled for in the analyses. The proposed model was not a good fit to the data. A respecified model was fit to the data. In this model, physician support, family support, and sibling closeness were significantly associated with both perceived benefits and barriers. Perceived severity was associated with barriers. Benefits and barriers, as well as cancer-specific distress, were directly associated with colonoscopy intentions. Results were consistent with a mediational role for benefits and barriers in the associations of sibling closeness and with a mediational role for barriers in the association between perceived severity and colonoscopy intentions. Family and physician support impacted intentions both directly and indirectly through effects on benefits and barriers. Perceived risk was not associated with benefits, barriers, or colonoscopy intentions. Intervention efforts to increase colonoscopy intentions may benefit from targeting family influences, particularly the affected proband in the family, as well as physician influence, cancer

  11. Sex-specific differential survival of extra-pair and within-pair offspring in song sparrows, Melospiza melodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardell, Rebecca J; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Reid, Jane M

    2011-11-07

    It is widely hypothesized that the evolution of female extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous species reflects indirect genetic benefits to females. However, a critical prediction of this hypothesis, that extra-pair young (EPY) are fitter than within-pair young (WPY), has rarely been rigorously tested. We used 18 years of data from free-living song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, to test whether survival through major life-history stages differed between EPY and WPY maternal half-siblings. On average, survival of hatched chicks to independence from parental care and recruitment, and their total lifespan, did not differ significantly between EPY and WPY. However, EPY consistently tended to be less likely to survive, and recruited EPY survived for significantly fewer years than recruited WPY. Furthermore, the survival difference between EPY and WPY was sex-specific; female EPY were less likely to survive to independence and recruitment and lived fewer years than female WPY, whereas male EPY were similarly or slightly more likely to survive and to live more years than male WPY. These data indicate that extra-pair paternity may impose an indirect cost on females via their female offspring and that sex-specific genetic, environmental or maternal effects may shape extra-pair reproduction.

  12. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, S. [Department of Physics “E. Fermi” University of Pisa, and INFN - Sezione di Pisa,Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rabinovici, E. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Tallarita, G. [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago 7941169 (Chile)

    2016-04-28

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  13. Effect of pairing on nuclear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scamps, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Pairing correlations is an essential component for the description of the atomic nuclei. The effects of pairing on static property of nuclei are now well known. In this thesis, the effect of pairing on nuclear dynamics is investigated. Theories that includes pairing are benchmarked in a model case. The TDHF+BCS theory turns out to be a good compromise between the physics taken into account and the numerical cost. This TDHF+BCS theory was retained for realistic calculations. Nevertheless, the application of pairing in the BCS approximation may induce new problems due to (1) the particle number symmetry breaking, (2) the non-conservation of the continuity equation. These difficulties are analysed in detail and solutions are proposed. In this thesis, a 3 dimensional TDHF+BCS code is developed to simulate the nuclear dynamic. Applications to giant resonances show that pairing modify only the low lying peaks. The high lying collective components are only affected by the initial conditions. An exhaustive study of the giant quadrupole resonances with the TDHF+BCS theory is performed on more than 700 spherical or deformed nuclei. Is is shown that the TDHF+BCS theory reproduces well the collective energy of the resonance. After validation on the small amplitude limit problem, the approach was applied to study nucleon transfer in heavy ion reactions. A new method to extract transfer probabilities is introduced. It is demonstrated that pairing significantly increases the two-nucleon transfer probability. (author) [fr

  14. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  15. The Perceptions of Professionals Toward Siblings of Individuals With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan M; Lee, Chung Eun; Arnold, Catherine K; Owen, Aleksa

    2017-04-01

    Adult siblings of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) report struggling to navigate the adult disability service delivery system and collaborate with professionals. To date, though, it is unclear how professionals encourage sibling involvement and, accordingly, the facilitators and challenges in working with siblings. For this study, 290 professionals participated in a national web-based survey; participants answered three open-ended questions about ways to involve siblings, positive experiences with siblings, and challenges in working with siblings. Professionals reported person-level and systems-level supports to encourage sibling involvement. Also, professionals reported enjoying working with cohesive families of individuals with IDD and witnessing the benefits that siblings bring to their brothers and sisters with IDD. Challenges in working with siblings included: lack of sibling involvement, systemic barriers, and caregiving burden. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  16. Sibling death and death fear in relation to depressive symptomatology in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.

  17. Applied behavior analysis programs for autism: sibling psychosocial adjustment during and following intervention use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither significant drawbacks nor benefits in terms of their behavioral adjustment, sibling relationship quality and self-concept compared to control group siblings, either during or following intervention use. Parents and siblings perceived improvements in sibling interaction since the outset of ABA, with parents somewhat more positive in their views than were siblings. Social support was associated with better sibling outcomes in all groups. Implications for supporting families using ABA are considered.

  18. Sibling violence silenced: rivalry, competition, wrestling, playing, roughhousing, benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Debby A; Phillips, Kate H; Grupp, Kitty; Trigg, Lisa J

    2009-01-01

    In this article, sibling violence and the silence surrounding it is explicated through professional literature and research findings, exemplars from clinical practice, and statistics. Theoretical positions and discourse analysis have been used to help explain how regular broken bones, bruises, lacerations, and verbal humiliation can be minimized as normal sibling rivalry or roughhousing, which does not cause serious consequences. Nursing should be on the front lines of ending practices of violence. Recognizing sibling violence as such is part of this work and is a social justice issue.

  19. Mental health among young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings including posttraumatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the mental health status of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and their siblings (SIBs). This paper focuses on depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese CCSs and their SIBs. Adolescent and young adult CCSs (n=185), in remission for more than 1 year, their SIBs (n=72), and general controls (CONTs) (n=1,000) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, PTSS, and PTG. The physicians in charge also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. CCSs were approximately 8 years old at diagnosis and approximately 23 years old at the time of the survey. Their diagnoses included leukemia (57%), lymphoma (12%), and solid tumors (30%). Thirty-eight percent underwent surgery and 25% received stem cell transplantation. No significant differences were found between CCSs and CONTs in terms of depression and anxiety. CCSs had significantly more PTSS and had remarkably greater PTG compared to CONTs. Although no significant differences were found between SIBs and CONTs regarding depression, anxiety, or PTSS, female SIBs exhibited greater PTG compared to female CONTs. To empower CCSs, they should be evaluated periodically regarding PTSS and PTG and should be provided appropriate care and feedback. The fact that the mental health status of young adult SIBs was similar to CONTs at 15 years after their siblings' diagnoses may help reassure parents who worry about mental health among the siblings of an affected child during and after his/her treatment.

  20. Attention skills and executive functioning in children with Noonan syndrome and their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Tworog-Dube, Erica; Roberts, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    Emerging research indicates that gene mutations within the RAS-MAPK signaling cascade, which cause Noonan syndrome and related disorders, affect neurophysiologic activity in brain regions underlying attention and executive functions. The present study examined whether children with Noonan syndrome are at heightened risk for symptoms of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and executive dysfunction relative to an unaffected sibling comparison group, and investigated three key aspects of behavioral attention: auditory attention, sustained attention, and response inhibition. Children and adolescents with Noonan syndrome (n=32, 17 males, 15 females, mean age 11y 3mo, SD 3y) and their unaffected siblings (n=16, eight males, eight females, mean age 11y, SD 3y 6mo) were administered standardized tests of intellectual functioning and clinic-based measures of behavioral attention. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, and behavior were also obtained. Children with Noonan syndrome demonstrated higher rates of past ADHD diagnosis, as well as reduced performance compared with unaffected siblings on behavioral attention measures. Parent-rated functional impairments in attention, social skills, working memory, and self-monitoring were more prevalent in the Noonan syndrome group. The relationship between attention regulation skills (sustained attention and inhibitory control) and intellectual test performance was significantly stronger in the Noonan syndrome group than the comparison group. Clinical screening/evaluation for ADHD and executive dysfunction in Noonan syndrome is recommended to facilitate appropriate intervention and to address functional impact on daily life activities. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.