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Sample records for affect treatment response

  1. Factors affecting response to biologic treatment in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewski, Jacek; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Rzymski, Piotr; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population in western countries. Patients with a more severe form of the disease are typically considered for systemic therapy, including biologics. In spite of the overall superiority of biologic agents, the treatment response may differ substantially among individual patients. As with other medical conditions, a range of factors contribute to response heterogeneity observed in psoriasis. Proper identification of these factors can significantly improve the therapeutic decisions. This review focuses on potential genetic and nongenetic factors that may affect the treatment response and outcomes in patients with psoriasis.

  2. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621416

  4. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  5. Do gender, age or lifestyle factors affect responses to antimuscarinic treatment in overactive bladder patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schneider; D. Marschall-Kehrel; J.U. Hanisch; M.C. Michel

    2010-01-01

    P>Aims: Gender, age, obesity, smoking and alcohol or caffeine intake have been shown or proposed to be risk factors for the prevalence and/or severity of the overactive bladder symptom complex (OAB) or related parameters. We have explored whether any of these factors affect the therapeutic response

  6. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    OpenAIRE

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchic...

  7. Factors affecting cognitive remediation response in schizophrenia: the role of COMT gene and antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Spangaro, Marco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bechi, Margherita; Cocchi, Federica; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    Cognitive remediation is the best available tool to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and has evidence of biological validity; however results are still heterogeneous and significant predictors are lacking. Previous studies showed that cognitive remediation is able to induce changes in PFC function and dopaminergic transmission and thus the study of possible sources of variability at these levels (i.e. antipsychotic treatments and genetic variability) might help to gain a deeper understanding of neurobiological correlates and translate into optimization and personalization of interventions. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between pharmacological treatment (clozapine vs typical/atypical D2 blockers) and COMT rs4680 polymorphism on cognitive changes after cognitive remediation therapy, in a sample of 98 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia. The General Linear Model showed a significant interaction of pharmacological treatment and COMT polymorphism on the improvement in "Symbol Coding" subtest, a global measure of speed of processing. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between COMT genotypes, when treated with D2 blockers, with worse results among Val/Val patients. These preliminary results suggest that genetic variability, influencing prefrontal dopamine, might affect individual capacity to improve with different patterns, depending on antipsychotic treatment.

  8. Affective responses to dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience. PMID:27235953

  9. Stroke and TIA survivors’ cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, L. Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains – specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment – for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors’ adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed...

  10. Treatment of HCV Infection in Multitransfused Thalassemic Patients: Does Liver Iron Status Affect the Outcome of Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mirmomen

    2005-03-01

    investigationalsituations(8.The concept that hepatic iron content might influence the response to interferon therapy was first described in 1994 by Van Thiel et al.(9 and by Olynyk et al. in 1995(10. They retrospectively measured hepatic iron concentration (HIC in HCV infected patients who had been treated with interferon and showed that the biochemical and virological response was better in subjects with less HIC and majority of the patients with HIC more than 1100 mg/g of dry weight of liver had not responded to interferon therapy. Based on the above studies during 1990s, it was not unwise to theorize that TDT patients who have a very high HIC due to secondary hemochromatosis would have a poor response to IFN monotherapy. However, there were two studies that evaluated the response of IFN monotherapy in thalassemic children, both of which were against the above theory; the first was the Clemente study in 1994(11, which reported a sustained virological response (SVR after 6 Correspondence:Shahram Mirmomen, Associate Professor ofGastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University ofMedical Sciences, Tehran, IranTel: + 98 912 146 7202E-mail: Mirmomen@ams.ac.ir months of IFN monotherapy in thalassemic children (with mean age of 14 years old with chronic HCV infection and the second one was Di Marco study in 1997(12, which showed that 28 out of 70 (40% of children (mean age 14.1 years old with thalassemia achieved an SVR after 12 months of interferon monotherapy. Considering the Poynard et al. meta analysis in 1996(13, whichshowed that the overall SVR with IFN monotherapy in non-thalassemic subjects was less than 30%, a preliminary conclusion could have struck our mind that the high HIC of HCV infected thalassemic children does not affect the response to IFN monotherapy. So other host or viral factors such as patient’s age, short duration of infection (because according to Thalassemic International Federation [TIF] guideline, all thalassemic patients should undergo at least annual screening

  11. Stroke and TIA survivors' cognitive beliefs and affective responses regarding treatment and future stroke risk differentially predict medication adherence and categorised stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Diefenbach, Michael A; Abrams, Jessica; Horowitz, Carol R

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive beliefs and affective responses to illness and treatment are known to independently predict health behaviours. The purpose of the current study is to assess the relative importance of four psychological domains - specifically, affective illness, cognitive illness, affective treatment and cognitive treatment - for predicting stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors' adherence to stroke prevention medications as well as their objective, categorised stroke risk. We assessed these domains among stroke/TIA survivors (n = 600), and conducted correlation and regression analyses with concurrent and prospective outcomes to determine the relative importance of each cognitive and affective domain for adherence and stroke risk. As hypothesised, patients' affective treatment responses explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month adherence reports (8 and 5%, respectively, of the variance in adherence, compared to 1-3% explained by other domains). Counter to hypotheses, patients' cognitive illness beliefs explained the greatest unique variance in baseline and six-month objective categorised stroke risk (3 and 2%, respectively, compared to 0-1% explained by other domains). Results indicate that domain type (i.e. cognitive and affective) and domain referent (illness and treatment) may be differentially important for providers to assess when treating patients for stroke/TIA. More research is required to further distinguish between these domains and their relative importance for stroke prevention. PMID:25220292

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B and low density lipoprotein receptor genes affect response to antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahan Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidemia has been associated with hypertension. The present study explored if polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins in lipid metabolism could be used as predictors for the individual response to antihypertensive treatment. Methods Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in genes related to lipid metabolism were analysed by a microarray based minisequencing system in DNA samples from ninety-seven hypertensive subjects randomised to treatment with either 150 mg of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker irbesartan or 50 mg of the β1-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol for twelve weeks. Results The reduction in blood pressure was similar in both treatment groups. The SNP C711T in the apolipoprotein B gene was associated with the blood pressure response to irbesartan with an average reduction of 19 mmHg in the individuals carrying the C-allele, but not to atenolol. The C16730T polymorphism in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene predicted the change in systolic blood pressure in the atenolol group with an average reduction of 14 mmHg in the individuals carrying the C-allele. Conclusions Polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins in the lipid metabolism are associated with the response to antihypertensive treatment in a drug specific pattern. These results highlight the potential use of pharmacogenetics as a guide for individualised antihypertensive treatment, and also the role of lipids in blood pressure control.

  13. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  14. Factors affecting age of puberty and the response of Syrian female Awassi sheep to FGA and eCG treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted on Syrian female Awassi sheep to characterise certain parameters during various reproductive stages. In experiment 1, 18 ewe lambs were tested at 5 months of age to assess pubertal parameters and affecting factors. The overall average age at puberty was 18.0 months, occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in time to reach puberty between ewe lambs in terms of the month of birth, type of birth (single or twin) or weaning weight. The average live weight (LWt) and serum progesterone concentration of ewe lambs at puberty were 53.7 kg and 6.32 nmol/L, respectively. A positive and significant correlation (r = 0.72, P < 0.001) was found between progesterone concentration and LWt of lambs. In experiment 2, 16 nulliparous cyclic Awassi ewes, 21 months of age, were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 d during the breeding season. Eight animals (Group P) were then injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), the remainder (Group C) acting as controls. All females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 d of sponge withdrawal. Twinning rates were 37.5% and 12.5% respectively for the animals in Groups P and C (P < 0.05). It is concluded that it is possible to improve the twinning rate of nulliparous Syrian Awassi ewes in their first pregnancy using eCG with no adverse effects on either the ewes or the lambs born. (author)

  15. PARP inhibitor ABT-888 affects response of MDA-MB-231 cells to doxorubicin treatment, targeting Snail expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Germano; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Zampieri, Michele; Ciccarone, Fabio; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Calabrese, Roberta; Valentini, Elisabetta; Tafuri, Agostino; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Caiafa, Paola; Reale, Anna

    2015-06-20

    To overcome cancer cells resistance to pharmacological therapy, the development of new therapeutic approaches becomes urgent. For this purpose, the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in combination with other cytotoxic agents could represent an efficacious strategy. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational modification that plays a well characterized role in the cellular decisions of life and death. Recent findings indicate that PARP-1 may control the expression of Snail, the master gene of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snail is highly represented in different resistant tumors, functioning as a factor regulating anti-apoptotic programmes. MDA-MB-231 is a Snail-expressing metastatic breast cancer cell line, which exhibits chemoresistance properties when treated with damaging agents. In this study, we show that the PARP inhibitor ABT-888 was capable to modulate the MDA-MB-231 cell response to doxorubicin, leading to an increase in the rate of apoptosis. Our further results indicate that PARP-1 controlled Snail expression at transcriptional level in cells exposed to doxorubicin. Given the increasing interest in the employment of PARP inhibitors as chemotherapeutic adjuvants, our in vitro results suggest that one of the mechanisms through which PARP inhibition can chemosensitize cancer cells in vivo, is targeting Snail expression thus promoting apoptosis. PMID:25938539

  16. What are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible for the hearing complaint in the hearing loss for ototoxicity after the oncological treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberman, Patricia Helena Pecora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The neurosensory bilateral simetric hearing loss resulting of the oncological treatment is underestimated, because the patients has the hearing detection preserved, reporting complaints in determined situation, or the not comprehension of part of the message. Objective: Investigate which are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible by the presence of hearing complaints. Method: Prospective study evaluating 200 patients with cancer in the childhood out of the oncological treatment in at least 8 years, with average age to the diagnosis of 6,21 years (4,71. Was applied anamnesis to investigate the presence of hearing complaints and performed a tonal threshold audiometry. To check the association between the complaint and the hearing loss, was applied the Exact test of Fisher, with one error a=5%, the patients were split into: normal hearing, hearing loss in 8kHz, loss in 6-8 kHz, loss in 4-8 kHz, loss in 2-8 kHz and loss in < 1-8 kHz. Results: We found 125 patients with hearing loss, 10 presented hearing complaints. Between the patients with hearing loss, 16 presented loss only at 8kHz, and 1 with complaint; 22 with loss in 6-8 kHz, being 3 with complaint; 16 with loss in 4-8 kHz, from them 10 with complaint; 15 with loss 2-8 kHz, being 14 with complaint and 6 with loss in < 1-8 kHz all with complaints. There were a significant relationship between the loss and hearing complaint (p<0,001, when the frequency of 4 kHz was involved. Conclusion: The bigger the number of affected frequencies the bigger the occurrence of hearing complaint, most of all when the speech frequencies are involved, and the involvement of 4 kHz already determines the appearing of the complaints.

  17. Do changes in prescription practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents affect treatment response and adherence to therapy? Results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M L; Lindegaard, H M; Hansen, A;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prescription practice for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors has changed towards treating patients with lower disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the trend in treatment response in cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who started TNFalpha inhibitor...... treatment between 2000 and 2005. METHODS: 1813 patients with RA starting treatment with biological agents in 2000-5 were registered prospectively in the nationwide DANBIO Registry. Baseline disease activity and 12 months' treatment responses were determined in cohorts based on start year (2000/1; 2002; 2003...

  18. SEN virus does not affect treatment response in hepatitis C virus coinfected patients but SEN virus response depends on SEN virus DNA concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdurrahman Sagir; Ortwin Adams; Oliver Kirschberg; Andreas Erhardt; Tobias Heintges; Dieter H(a)ussinger

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the effect of SEN virus (SENV) infection on a combination therapy including interferon alfa (IFN-α) or pegylated-IFN with ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis and the effect of a combination therapy on SENV.METHODS: SENV DNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction in serum samples from 95 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Quantitative analysis was done for SENV H DNA.RESULTS: Twenty-one (22%) of 95 patients were positive for SENV DNA. There was no difference in clinical and biochemical parameters between patients with HCV infection alone and coinfected patients. The sustained response rate for HCV clearance after combination therapy did not differ between patients with SENV (52%) and without SENV (50%, n.s.). SENV DNA was undetectable in 76% of the initially SENV positive patients at the end of follow-up. SENV H response to combination therapy was significantly correlated with SENV DNA level (P=0.05).CONCLUSION: SENV infection had no influence on the HCV sustained response rate to the combination therapy.Response rate of SENV to the combination therapy depends on SENV DNA level.

  19. Transcranial bright light treatment via the ear canals in seasonal affective disorder: a randomized, double-blind dose-response study

    OpenAIRE

    Jurvelin, Heidi; Takala, Timo; Nissilä, Juuso; Timonen, Markku; Rüger, Melanie; Jokelainen, Jari; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    Background Bright light treatment is effective for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), although the mechanisms of action are still unknown. We investigated whether transcranial bright light via the ear canals has an antidepressant effect in the treatment of SAD. Methods During the four-week study period, 89 patients (67 females; 22 males, aged 22-65, mean ± SD age: 43.2 ± 10.9 years) suffering from SAD were randomized to receive a 12-min daily dose of photic energy of one of three intensities ...

  20. Hepatitis C comorbidities affecting the course and response to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the outcome of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is profoundly influenced by a variety of comorbidities. Many of these comorbidities have a significant influence on the response to antiviral therapy. These comorbidities negatively affect the course and outcome of liver disease, often reducing the chance of achieving a sustained virological response with PEGylated interferon and ribavirin treatments. Comorbidities affecting response to antiviral therapy reduce compliance and adherence to inadequate doses of therapy. The most important comorbidities affecting the course of CHC include hepatitis B virus coinfection, metabolic syndrome, and intestinal bacterial overgrowth.Comorbidities affecting the course and response to therapy include schistosomiasis, iron overload, alcohol abuse, and excessive smoking. Comorbidities affecting response to antiviral therapy include depression,anemia, cardiovascular disease, and renal failure.

  1. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  2. Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-11-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

  3. Physiological response and quality attributes of peach fruit cv florida king as affected by different treatments of calcium chloride, putrescine and salicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the ample increase in peach growing area, improvement in quality and average yield is still negligible. The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride (CaCl/sub 2/), putrescine (PUT) and salicylic acid (SA) on fruit yield and physico-chemical characteristics of 'Florida King' peach cultivar was evaluated for two consecutive years (2011 and 2012). Results indicated that, application of CaCl/sub 2/ (1%), PUT (1, 2 and 3 mM) and SA (2 and 3 mM) increased fruit weight , fruit diameter, pulp: stone ratio and yield compared to control. In addition, fruit harvested from these growth elicitors treated trees did not show significant difference in total soluble solids and total sugar contents. All treatments resulted in higher fruit firmness, acidity and ascorbic acid contents than control. Higher calcium treatments proved toxic and significantly increased the calcium level in leaves and fruit. From present work it can be referred that spraying of CaCl/sub 2/, PUT and SA, significantly affected yield, and physico-chemical characteristics of peach cv. 'Florida King'. These growth elicitors are considered safe chemicals and can be applied to enhance production and improve fruit quality of peach without compromising the food safety standards. (author)

  4. Postpartum affective disorders: incidence and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarriza, D N

    1992-05-01

    1. Postpartum depression is a culture-bound syndrome found in Western societies. The lack of supportive rites and rituals for postpartum women shape depressive symptoms. 2. Postpartum depression is a term used for three distinct syndromes: postpartum "blues," postpartum psychosis, and postpartum depression. 3. Treatment issues surrounding each postpartum affective disorder are different and require education and support of family members as well as postpartum women.

  5. Benign meningiomas: primary treatment selection affects survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of primary treatment selection on outcomes for benign intracranial meningiomas at the University of Florida. Methods and Materials: For 262 patients, the impact of age, Karnofsky performance status, pathologic features, tumor size, tumor location, and treatment modality on local control and cause-specific survival was analyzed (minimum potential follow-up, 2 years; median follow-up, 8.2 years). Extent of surgery was classified by Simpson grade. Treatment groups: surgery alone (n = 229), surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) (n = 21), RT alone (n = 7), radiosurgery alone (n = 5). Survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier method with univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: At 15 years, local control was 76% after total excision (TE) and 87% after subtotal excision plus RT (SE+RT), both significantly better (p = 0.0001) than after SE alone (30%). Cause-specific survival at 15 years was reduced after treatment with SE alone (51%), compared with TE (88%) or SE+RT (86%) (p = 0.0003). Recurrence after primary treatment portended decreased survival, independent of initial treatment group or salvage treatment selection (p = 0.001). Atypical pathologic features predicted reduced 15-year local control (54 vs. 71%) and cause-specific survival rates (57 vs. 86%). Multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival revealed treatment group (SE vs. others; p = 0.0001), pathologic features (atypical vs. typical; p = 0.0056), and Karnofsky performance status (≥80 vs. <80; p = 0.0153) as significant variables. Conclusion: Benign meningiomas are well managed by TE or SE+RT. SE alone is inadequate therapy and adversely affects cause-specific survival. Atypical pathologic features predict a poorer outcome, suggesting possible benefit from more aggressive treatment. Because local recurrence portends lower survival rates, primary treatment choice is important

  6. Hippocampal protein expression is differentially affected by chronic paroxetine treatment in adolescent and adult rats: A possible mechanism of paradoxical antidepressant responses in young persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Aspasia Karanges

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are commonly recognised as the pharmacological treatment of choice for patients with depressive disorders, yet their use in adolescent populations has come under scrutiny following reports of minimal efficacy and an increased risk of suicidal ideation and behavior in this age group. The biological mechanisms underlying these effects are largely unknown. Accordingly, the current study examined changes in hippocampal protein expression following chronic administration of paroxetine in drinking water (target dose = 10 mg/kg for 22 days to adult and adolescent rats. Results indicated age-specific changes in protein expression, with paroxetine significantly altering expression of 8 proteins in adolescents only and 10 proteins solely in adults. A further 12 proteins were significantly altered in both adolescents and adults. In adults, protein changes were generally suggestive of a neurotrophic and neuroprotective effect of paroxetine, with significant downregulation of apoptotic proteins Galectin 7 and Cathepsin B, and upregulation of the neurotrophic factor Neurogenin 1 and the antioxidant proteins Aldose reductase and Carbonyl reductase 3. Phosphodiesterase 10A, a signalling protein associated with major depressive disorder, was also downregulated (−6.5 fold in adult rats. Adolescent rats failed to show the neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects observed in adults, instead displaying upregulation of the proapoptotic protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (4.3 fold. Adolescent protein expression profiles also suggested impaired phosphoinositide signalling (Protein kinase C: −3.1 fold and altered neurotransmitter transport and release (Syntaxin 7: 5.7 fold; Dynamin 1: −6.9 fold. The results of the present study provide clues as to possible mechanisms underlying the atypical response of human adolescents to paroxetine treatment.

  7. Convex treatment response and treatment selection

    OpenAIRE

    Boes, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the identifying power of weak convexity assumptions in treatment effect models with endogenous selection. The counterfactual distributions are constrained either in terms of the response function, or conditional on the realized treatment, and sharp bounds on the potential outcome distributions are derived. The methods are applied to bound the effect of education on smoking.

  8. Psychophysiological response patterns to affective film stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G N Bos

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1 whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR, skin conductance response (SCR and heart rate (HR elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2 the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding.

  9. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  10. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  11. Do cancer and treatment type affect distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J. M.; Reyners, A. K. L.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined differences in distress levels and Distress Thermometer (DT) cutoff scores between different cancer types. The effect of socio-demographic and illness-related variables on distress was also examined. Methods One thousand three hundred fifty patients (response=51%) completed que

  12. Families First-Keys to Successful Family Functioning. Affective Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Rick; Green, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Affective responsiveness is the ability of an individual to respond to another with appropriate feelings . Affective (emotional) responsiveness is very important because family members interact with one another on a regular basis and often need to support each other during difficult times.

  13. Considering Affective Responses towards Environments for Enhancing Location Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Klettner, S.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies in the field of environmental psychology show that humans perceive and evaluate their surroundings affectively. Some places are experienced as unsafe, while some others as attractive and interesting. Experiences from daily life show that many of our daily behaviours and decision-making are often influenced by this kind of affective responses towards environments. Location based services (LBS) are often designed to assist and support people's behaviours and decision-making in space. In order to provide services with high usefulness (usability and utility), LBS should consider these kinds of affective responses towards environments. This paper reports on the results of a research project, which studies how people's affective responses towards environments can be modelled and acquired, as well as how LBS can benefit by considering these affective responses. As one of the most popular LBS applications, mobile pedestrian navigation systems are used as an example for illustration.

  14. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  15. Stimulus-response compatibility and affective computing: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.M.C.; Haan, A. de; Galen, G.P. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Affective computing, a human–factors effort to investigate the merits of emotions while people are working with human–computer interfaces, is gaining momentum. Measures to quantify affect (or its influences) range from EEG, to measurements of autonomic–nervous–system responses (e.g., heart rate, blo

  16. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  17. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin; Cross, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  18. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise P Kirsch

    Full Text Available Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS and zygomaticus major (ZM muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation.

  19. Identification of treatment response with social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Manski, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a formal language for study of treatment response with social interactions, and uses it to obtain new findings on identification of potential outcome distributions. Defining a person's treatment response to be a function of the entire vector of treatments received by the population, I study identification when shape restrictions and distributional assumptions are placed on response functions. An early key result is that the traditional assumption of individualistic treatme...

  20. ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE AFFECTED BY AGING AND CHOLINERGIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Hansen; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic startle response has been used to evaluate tinnitus and hyperacusis in animal models. Gap induced prepulse in-hibition of the acoustic startle reflex (gap-PPI) is affected by tinnitus and loudness changes. Since tinnitus and reduced sound tolerance are commonly seen in elderly, we measured gap-PPI in Fischer 344 rats, an aging related hearing loss model, at dif-ferent ages: 3-5 months, 9-12 months, and 15-17 months. The startle response was induced by three different intensity of sound:105, 95 and 85 dB SPL. Gap-PPI was induced by different duration of silent gaps from 1 to 100 ms. When the startle was induced by 105 dB SPL sound intensity, the gap-PPI induced by 50 ms silent gap was significantly lower than those in-duced by 25 or 100 ms duration, showing a“notch”in the gap-PPI function. The“notch”disappeared with the reduction of startle sound, suggesting the“notch”may be related with hyper-sensitivity to loud sound. As the intensity of the stimulus de-creased, the appearance of the hyperacusis-like effect decreased more quickly for the youngest group of rats. We also tested scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, and mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antago-nist, on the effect of gap-PPI. When scopolamine was administered, the results indicated no addition effect on the hyperacu-sis-like phenomenon in the two older groups. Mecamylamine, the nicotinic antagonist also showed effects on the appearance of hyperacusis on rats in different ages. The information derived from the study will be fundamental for the further research in determining the cause and treatment for hyperacusis.

  1. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  2. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  3. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  4. Lithium dampens neurotransmitter response in smooth muscle: relevance to action in affective illness.

    OpenAIRE

    Menkes, H A; Baraban, J M; Freed, A N; Snyder, S H

    1986-01-01

    Lithium, by inhibiting inositol phosphate metabolism, interferes with the phosphatidylinositol ("phosphoinositide") cycle, which is stimulated by numerous hormones and neurotransmitters. To examine the relevance of this action to neurotransmission, we evaluated effects of lithium treatment on smooth muscle responses to transmitters. In lithium-pretreated tracheal muscle, the relaxation following carbachol or histamine contractions is retarded. Lithium does not affect relaxation following cont...

  5. Implicit and Explicit Measurements of Affective Responses to Food Odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; de Wijk, René A; de Graaf, Cees; Boesveldt, Sanne

    2016-10-01

    One of the main functions of olfaction is to activate approach/avoidance behavior, toward or away from people, foods, or other odor sources. These behaviors are partly automated and therefore poorly accessible via introspection. Explicit tests need therefore be complemented by implicit tests to provide additional insights into the underlying processes of these behaviors. Affective responses to seven food odors plus one control nonodor were assessed in 28 female participants (18-30 years) using explicit tests [pleasantness, intensity, and non-verbal emotional ratings (PrEmo)] as well as implicit tests that reflect dynamic expressive emotional reactions (facial expressions) as well as behavioral-preparation responses (autonomic nervous system responses: heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature). Explicit tests showed significant differences in pleasantness (P emotions (P emotional responses were summarized by valence (explaining 83% of the responses variance) and arousal (14%) as principal components. Early implicit facial and ANS responses (after 1s) seem to reflect the odors' arousal, whereas later ANS responses (after 3-4s) reflected the odors' valence. The results suggest that explicit measures primarily reflect the odors' valence, as result of from relatively long (conscious) processing, which may be less relevant for odor acceptance in the real world where fast and automated processes based on arousal may play a larger role. PMID:27340136

  6. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  7. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per; Vindbjerg, Erik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most

  8. Prediction of treatment response to adalimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Sophine B; Dehlendorff, C; Hetland, M L;

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond to biologic agents, which emphasizes the need of predictive biomarkers. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) predictive of response to adalimumab in 180 treatment-naïve RA patients enrolled in the OPtimized treatment...

  9. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  10. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed. PMID:2252468

  11. Assessing treatment benefit with competing risks not affected by the randomized treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Korn, Edward L.; Dignam, James J.; Freidlin, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The comparison of overall survival curves between treatment arms will always be of interest in a randomized clinical trial involving a life-shortening disease. In some settings, the experimental treatment is only expected to affect the deaths caused by the disease, and the proportion of deaths caused by the disease is relatively low. In these settings, the ability to assess treatment-effect differences between Kaplan-Meier survival curves can be hampered by the large proportion of deaths in b...

  12. Improved tumour response by laser light treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graschew, Georgi; Smith, Janice; Rakowsky, Stefan; Roelofs, Theo A.; Schlag, Peter M.; Stein, Ulrike

    2008-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a serious barrier to the efficacy of clinical treatment of human cancers with chemotherapeutic drugs. This barrier might be reduced and eventually overcome by the simultaneous application of two or more treatment modalities. This study reports on the synergetic effect of combined application of laser light and cytostatic drugs to induce an improved tumour response in MDR cancer cells. The MDR breast cancer cell line MaTu/ADR, resistant to the drug adriamycin (ADR), was treated with a combination of ADR (125-1000 ng/ml) and laser light (488 nm with a total light dose between 6-18 J/cm2). This combined treatment leads to an additional reduction of the cell vitality by a factor of 2-3 as compared to treatment with ADR alone, suggesting that combined application of laser light and other treatment modalities might constitute a promising strategy for improvements in the tumour response.

  13. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  14. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  15. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  16. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada León

    Full Text Available Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz and lower alpha (8-10 Hz bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  17. Acute caffeine administration affects zebrafish response to a robotic stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Mwaffo, Violet; Li, Jasmine; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Zebrafish has been recently proposed as a valid animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms regulating emotional behavior and evaluate the modulatory effects exerted by psychoactive compounds. In this study, we propose a novel methodological framework based on robotics and information theory to investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish exposed to acute caffeine treatment. In a binary preference test, we studied the response of caffeine-treated zebrafish to a replica of a shoal of conspecifics moving in the tank. A purely data-driven information theoretic approach was used to infer the influence of the replica on zebrafish behavior as a function of caffeine concentration. Our results demonstrate that acute caffeine administration modulates both the average speed and the interaction with the replica. Specifically, zebrafish exposed to elevated doses of caffeine show reduced locomotion and increased sensitivity to the motion of the replica. The methodology developed in this study may complement traditional experimental paradigms developed in the field of behavioral pharmacology.

  18. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations.

  19. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  20. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response and Treatment Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Rose Levinstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders and non-responders to treatment. Delineation of these mechanisms largely relies on experiments that utilize animal models. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the various mouse models that are currently used to assess the antidepressant response, such as chronic mild stress, social defeat, and chronic corticosterone. We discuss how these mouse models can be used to advance our understanding of the differences between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment. We also provide an overview of experimental treatment modalities that are used for treatment-resistant depression, such as deep brain stimulation and ketamine administration. We will then review the various genetic polymorphisms and transgenic mice that display resistance to antidepressant treatment. Finally, we synthesize the published data to describe a potential neural circuit underlying the antidepressant response and treatment resistance.

  1. Mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and treatment resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Levinstein, Marjorie R.; Samuels, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders ...

  2. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response and Treatment Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie Rose Levinstein; Benjamin Adam Samuels

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders ...

  3. The markers predicting response to Hepatitis C virus treatment and evaluation of treatment responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Günal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFN and ribavirin treatment is recommended for chronic hepatitis Ctreatment. The aim of treatment is to provide sustained viral response (SVR.Material and methods: A total of 125 patients, who have been treated for chronic hepatitis C diagnosis and are followed upuntil 6 months after treatment, were enrolled into the study. Markers, which have indicated treatment response against hepatitisC virus treatment, treatment responses according to peg-IFNα type used, and experienced side effects in patients havebeen compared.Results: Of patients, 103 were (82.4% female and 22 were (17.6% male and mean of age was 54.74±7.93 years. Markersindicating SVR in our study were calculated as rapid viral response (RVR (p2 (p<0.034. Predictive parameters for EVR in our studywere defined as absence of diabetes in patients, high baseline lymphocyte numbers (2024.74±625.93 and high baseline cholesterollevel (in EVR positive patients 180.47±32.77 mg/dl; in EVR negatives 152.00±24.56. There was no statistical differencebetween peg-IFN type in patients and RVR, EVR and SVR. Also there was no statistical difference in hematological side effects(neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in both treatment groups.Conclusions: As the efficacy of treatment against HCV is defined, predictive markers for the treatment response are becomingmore significant. Therefore, it is concluded that these factors should also be considered in patient treatment plans. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2012; 2(3: 100-108Key words: Treatment of Hepatitis C, Sustained Viral Response, Markers of Treatment

  4. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  5. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  6. Response time variability and response inhibition predict affective problems in adolescent girls, not in boys : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, Patricia A. M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Brunnekreef, J. Agnes; Ormel, Johan; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Huizink, Anja C.; Speckens, Anne E. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine I. E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and affective problems through adolescence, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective. Baseline response speed, response speed variability, response inhibition, attentional flexibility and working memory were asse

  7. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  8. Pain Catastrophising Affects Cortical Responses to Viewing Pain in Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Fallon

    Full Text Available Pain catastrophising is an exaggerated cognitive attitude implemented during pain or when thinking about pain. Catastrophising was previously associated with increased pain severity, emotional distress and disability in chronic pain patients, and is also a contributing factor in the development of neuropathic pain. To investigate the neural basis of how pain catastrophising affects pain observed in others, we acquired EEG data in groups of participants with high (High-Cat or low (Low-Cat pain catastrophising scores during viewing of pain scenes and graphically matched pictures not depicting imminent pain. The High-Cat group attributed greater pain to both pain and non-pain pictures. Source dipole analysis of event-related potentials during picture viewing revealed activations in the left (PHGL and right (PHGR paraphippocampal gyri, rostral anterior (rACC and posterior cingulate (PCC cortices. The late source activity (600-1100 ms in PHGL and PCC was augmented in High-Cat, relative to Low-Cat, participants. Conversely, greater source activity was observed in the Low-Cat group during the mid-latency window (280-450 ms in the rACC and PCC. Low-Cat subjects demonstrated a significantly stronger correlation between source activity in PCC and pain and arousal ratings in the long latency window, relative to high pain catastrophisers. Results suggest augmented activation of limbic cortex and higher order pain processing cortical regions during the late processing period in high pain catastrophisers viewing both types of pictures. This pattern of cortical activations is consistent with the distorted and magnified cognitive appraisal of pain threats in high pain catastrophisers. In contrast, high pain catastrophising individuals exhibit a diminished response during the mid-latency period when attentional and top-down resources are ascribed to observed pain.

  9. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  10. Ethanol Extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd Affects Immune Responses in Normal Balb/c Mice In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yu-Jui; Lin, Jing-Pin; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Chou, Guan-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Numerous clinical anticancer drugs are obtained from natural plants and Hedyotis diffusa Willd (EEHDW) has been used as a major component in Traditional Chinese medicine formulas since a long time. Ethanol extracts of EEHDW have been shown to possess various biological activities including anticancer function in vitro. Our earlier studies have shown that EEHDW affects immune responses in WEHI-3-generated leukemia mice, but EEHDW has not been reported to affect immune responses in a normal mouse model. Herein, we investigated whether EEHDW could affect immune responses on normal murine cells in vivo. Normal BALB/c mice were orally treated with or without EEHDW at 0, 16, 32, and 64 mg/kg or 32 mg/kg by i.p. for 3 weeks, then were weighed, and blood, liver and spleen samples were collected for further experiments. Results indicated that EEHDW did not significantly affect body and liver weight but significantly increased the spleen weight by i.p. treatment when compared to control groups. Flow cytometric assays indicated that EEHDW promoted CD11b levels at 16, 32 and 64 mg/kg oral treatment, CD19 levels at 16, 32, 64 mg/kg oral treatment and i.p. treatment, and Mac-3 levels at 16, 32 and 64 mg/kg oral treatment, however, it did not significantly affect the levels of CD3. Oral treatment with 16 and 32 mg/kg of EEHDW significantly decreased macrophage phagocytosis from PBMC; 32 mg/kg of EEHDW by i.p. treatment significantly increased phagocytosis activity of macrophages obtain from the peritoneal cavity. EEHDW at 32 mg/kg by i.p. treatment led to an increase of NK cell activities compared to oil control groups. EEHDW at 32 mg/kg of EEHDW by i.p. treatment increased B- and T-cell proliferation. Based on these observations, EEHDW seems to have promoted immune responses in this murine model. PMID:26130790

  11. Human genetic variability and HIV treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David W

    2006-07-01

    Access to potent antiretroviral medications greatly reduces morbidity and mortality due to HIV/AIDS, but drug toxicity limits treatment success in many individuals. The field of pharmacogenomics strives to understand the influence of human genetic variants in response to medications. Investigators have begun to identify associations among human genetic variants, predisposition to HIV drug toxicities, and likelihood of virologic response. These include associations among abacavir hypersensitivity reactions, HLA type, and hsp70-hom genotypes, and among CYP2B6 polymorphisms, efavirenz pharmacokinetics, and central nervous system symptoms. Pharmacogenomics also holds great promise to suggest novel targets for drug development. The discovery that a naturally occurring, nonfunctional variant of the HIV receptor gene CCR5 protected against HIV infection encouraged the development of CCR5 antagonists. Through continued translational and applied research, pharmacogenomics will ultimately benefit persons living with HIV worldwide by identifying new therapeutic targets and through individualized drug prescribing that is informed by human genetic testing. PMID:16608660

  12. Towards prediction and modulation of treatment response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate new predictive assays and their potential to modulate treatment response. Their impact is presented in the context of three EORTC clinical trials in head and neck, lung and breast cancer, showing an improvement in survival by accelerated fractionation, concomitant use of cisplatin and radiotherapy and adjuvant hormonal treatment, respectively. Assays have been developed to predict the response to treatment by measuring tumor characteristics, such as the growth potential by the labeling index after i.v. injection of IdUrd, the extent of radiation-induced stable and unstable chromosome aberrations and the induction of apoptosis. These assays could guide us in the adaptation of the individual radiation doses and fractionation schedules. The measurement of the effect of cisplatin on DNA has become feasible with the development of antibodies against DNA adducts. In a recently completed phase II dose escalation trial with concomitant radiotherapy and daily cisplatin in lung cancer, we found that patients with high DNA adduct levels measured in the buccal mucosa, had a much better survival rate than patients with a low or undetectable amount of cisplatin DNA adducts. A better understanding of the signal transduction pathways involved in radiation-induced apoptosis may help to design studies aimed at modulating the apoptotic response. We and others have recently shown that alkylphospholipids, which inhibit mitogenic signaling, induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell lines. In combination with ionizing radiation, these compounds cause an enhancement of apoptotic cell kill. This type of signaling-based intervention study may form the basis for new therapeutic strategies. Pretreatment levels of apoptosis may be helpful in predicting treatment outcome, although the data so far show inconsistent results. The importance of evaluating other tumor-biological parameters, including cell kinetics should be stressed. Based on assays

  13. Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Performance of Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Comincioli, Nicola; Poddi, Laura; Vergalli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades in OECD countries an increasing number of firms are obtaining certification as Socially Responsible (CSR is the acronym for Corporate Social Responsibility). Several studies (including Preston and O'Bannon, 1997; Waddock and Graves, 1997; McWilliams and Sieger, 2001; Ullman, 1985) have sought to test whether there is a relation between Social Responsibility certification and firm performance. Our work builds a CSR index that intersects two of the three main internati...

  14. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicaceae vegetables. These health promoting affects are due to a range of phytochemicals including primary (carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acid) and secondary metabolites (phenolics and glucosino...

  15. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music

    OpenAIRE

    SNOWDON, CHARLES T.; Teie, David

    2009-01-01

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech (‘motherese’) influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations...

  16. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses f

  17. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5

  18. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHENG; Rong-rong SUN; Fei-yan WANG; Zhen PENG; Fu-ling KONG; Jian WU; Jia-shu CAO; Gang LU

    2012-01-01

    Objective:High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit.Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants.This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit.Methods:An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd,1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 ℃) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage.Results:Of the 10101 tomato probe sets represented on the array,127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits,compared with those under normal conditions,functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction,defense responses,oxidation reduction,and hormone responses.However,only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits,which were involved in primary metabolism,signal transduction,hormone responses,transcription factors,and stress responses.Meanwhile,55 genes involved in energy metabolism,cell wall metabolism,and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits.Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage.

  19. Responses to Positive Affect Predict Mood Symptoms in Children under Conditions of Stress: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijttebier, Patricia; Raes, Filip; Vasey, Michael W.; Feldman, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    Rumination to negative affect has been linked to the onset and maintenance of mood disorders in adults as well as children. Responses to positive affect have received far less attention thus far. A few recent studies in adults suggest that responses to positive affect are involved in the development of both depressive and hypomanic symptoms, but…

  20. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  1. Effectiveness of treatment of patients affected by trochanter major enthesitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kaljić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enthesitis of the trochanter major is characterized by pain and often by limping when walking, then pain, tension, swelling, increased warmth and redness in the area of trochanter, and hip weaknessespecially when performing exercises with resistance. Research goals: Determine the effectiveness of treatment of major trochanter enthesitis, and analyze the representation of it in patients of both gender, different ages and professions.Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from the clinic "Praxis" in the period from 01.01.2001. to 31.12.2011. year because of the major trochanter enthesitis 30 patients were treated. Criteria for inclusion in the study were those people with symptoms and diagnosis of of the trochanter major enthesitis who have accessed treatment, while the criteria for exclusion were inadequate diagnosis, treatment abandonment and lack ofpatient data. The process of therapy included the evaluation of the functional status of patients graded 0-5, then conducted physical therapy that included: bed rest, manual massage and local instillation of depot corticosteroids, and assessment of treatment success ranging from 0 to 5.Research results: The mean score for condition of respondents was 3.27 before therapy, while after treatment it was 4.33. The mean score for status of respondents was 3.13 before treatment, and after therapy itwas 4.33.Conslusion: Based on these data we can conclude that treatment in the clinic "Praxis" leads to the improvement in patients suffering from the enthesitis of trochanter major.

  2. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  3. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelle W Noorlander

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  4. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  5. Factors affecting response to medical management in patients of filarial chyluria: A prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neeraj Kumar; Goel, Apul; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet; Ali, Wahid; Natu, S. M.; Singh, Bhupendra Pal; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Dalela, Divakar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Filarial chyluria is a common problem in filarial endemic countries. Its management begins with medical therapy but some patients progress to require surgery. The present study aimed to determine factors affecting response to medical management in patients of filarial chyluria. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted between August 2008 and November 2012, included conservatively managed patients of chyluria. Demographic profile, clinical presentation, treatment history and urinary triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol levels at baseline were compared between the responders and non-responders. Apart from the clinical grade of chyluria, hematuria was evaluated as an independent risk factor. Results: Out of the 222 patients (mean age, 37.99 ± 13.29 years, 129 males), 31 patients failed to respond while 35 had a recurrence after initial response; the overall success rate being 70.3% at a mean follow-up of 25 months. No difference was observed in demographics, clinical presentation, presence of hematuria, disease duration and mean urinary TGs loss between responders and non-responders. On multivariate analysis, patients with treatment failure were found to have a higher-grade disease (14.3% Grade-I, 36.6% Grades-II and 60% Grade-III), higher number of pretreatment courses (1.59 ± 1.08 vs. 1.02 ± 0.79) and heavier cholesterol (26.54 ± 23.46 vs. 8.81 ± 8.55 mg/dl) loss at baseline compared with responders (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Conservative management has a success rate in excess of 70%, not affected by the disease chronicity, previous episodes and recurrent nature. However, higher-grade disease, extensive pre-treatment with drugs and higher urinary cholesterol loss at baseline are the predictors of poor response. Hematuria is not an independent poor risk factor for conservative management. PMID:24497677

  6. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic......). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items...... from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale covering psychotic symptoms. RESULTS: According to both statistical approaches, the PDAS, the HAM-D17 and the HAM-D6 were all able to detect significant differences in treatment effect between Olanzapine+Sertraline and Olanzapine+Placebo (Olanzapine...

  7. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettich, Dirk T.; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  8. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicace

  9. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa Rojas, J B; Verreth, J A J; Amato, S; Huisman, E A

    2003-09-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 gkg(-1) molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P<0.05). Similarly, true protein values tended to increase. The cellulose and total phenols levels of E-CoP were lower than OD-CoP (P<0.05). The E-CoP tannins levels tended to be lower than OD-CoP whereas caffeine levels remained unaffected. Improvement in the nutritional quality of E-CoP was associated with higher fat and protein contents and reduction of cellulose, total phenols and tannins. The aerobic decomposition treatment improved the nutritional quality of CoP by increasing true protein and fat contents. In addition, total phenols, tannins, caffeine and cellulose contents were reduced by an increase in treatment time (P<0.05). Bacterial treatment increased the protein content of CoP after 21 days (from 137 to 392 gkg(-1)) and decreased it after 28 days. Cellulose, total phenols, tannins and caffeine contents reduced with an increase in time of bacterial degradation. Bacterial treatment improved the CoP quality by increasing protein content and reducing cellulose and ANFs, especially after 21 days of treatment. Both the aerobic decomposition (after 21-28 days) and the aerobic bacterial degradation of CoP (after 21 days) appeared more suitable to improve the nutritional quality of CoP than the ensiling.

  10. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  11. Novel Approaches to Thyroid Cancer Treatment and Response Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Ravinder K; Ho, Alan; Schöder, Heiko

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing. After total thyroidectomy of well-differentiated thyroid tumors with intermediate- or high-risk features on pathology, radioiodine remains one of the mainstays of therapy for both thyroid remnant ablation as well as for treatment of metastatic disease. SPECT/CT, a relatively new modality, has been shown to play a pivotal role predominantly in the post-therapy setting by changing the risk stratification of patients with thyroid cancer. In the case of radioiodine treatment failure, FDG-PET/CT may provide prognostic information based on extent and intensity of metabolically active metastatic sites as well as serve as an important imaging test for response assessment in patients treated with chemotherapy, targeted therapies, or radiotherapy, thereby affecting patient management in multiple ways. The role of newer redifferentiation drugs has been evaluated with the use of I-124 PET/CT. PMID:26897715

  12. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Katharine V; Preisser, Evan L

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum : Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. PMID:27638950

  13. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  14. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  15. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRigoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm, have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioural experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behaviour, and psychopathology.

  16. Causal explanations affect judgments of the need for psychological treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy S. Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowing what event precipitated a client's abnormal behaviors makes the client appear more normal than if the event is not known (Meehl, 1973. Does such knowledge also influence judgments of the need for psychological treatment, and if so, does it matter whether the precipitating event was inside or outside the client's control? We presented undergraduates with cases of hypothetical clients exhibiting abnormal behaviors and manipulated whether they were also told of a precipitating event explaining those behaviors. Knowing the precipitant significantly reduced perceptions of clients' need for treatment, but only when the precipitating event was outside the client's control. These findings call into question the notion that it need always be beneficial for an outside reasoner to uncover the root cause of a client's psychological problems, particularly when the root cause is still unknown to the client. The rationality of the effect and additional implications for decision-making are discussed.

  17. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals.

  18. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals. PMID:15708944

  19. Historical Temperature Variability Affects Coral Response to Heat Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Carilli; Donner, Simon D.; Hartmann, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the temperature threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of...

  20. Ubiquitin Metabolism Affects Cellular Response to Volatile Anesthetics in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Darren; Reiner, Thomas; Keeley, Jessica L.; Pizzini, Mark; Keil, Ralph L.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of action of volatile anesthetics, we are studying mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have altered sensitivity to isoflurane, a widely used clinical anesthetic. Several lines of evidence from these studies implicate a role for ubiquitin metabolism in cellular response to volatile anesthetics: (i) mutations in the ZZZ1 gene render cells resistant to isoflurane, and the ZZZ1 gene is identical to BUL1 (binds ubiquitin ligase), which appears to be invo...

  1. Affective responses across psychiatric disorders-A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägele, Claudia; Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Held-Poschardt, Dada; Wittmann, André; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Between-group differences were assessed with full-factorial ANOVAs, with age, gender and smoking habits as covariates. Self-ratings of depressed mood and anxiety were correlated with activation clusters showing significant stimulus-evoked fMRI activation. Furthermore, we examined functional connectivity with the amygdala as seed region during the processing of aversive pictures. During the presentation of pleasant stimuli, we observed across all subjects significant activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus, while a significant activation of the left amygdala and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was found during the presentation of aversive stimuli. We did neither find any significant interaction with diagnostic group, nor any correlation with depression and anxiety scores at the activated clusters or with amygdala connectivity. Positive and aversive IAPS-stimuli were consistently processed in limbic and prefrontal brain areas, irrespective of diagnostic category. A dimensional correlate of these

  2. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...... and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. CONCLUSIONS: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most of the rating scales, but correlations were modest in size, possibly due to the number of different factors influencing...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  3. Growth hormone (GH) provocation tests and the response to GH treatment in GH deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, T. J.; Hindmarsh, P C; Dunger, D B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors, particularly the growth hormone (GH) provocation test result, affecting growth response to GH treatment in children with GH deficiency (GHD).Subjects: A total of 337 prepubertal GHD patients aged,10 years from the UK Pharmacia KIGS database (GH response to provocation test >20 mU/l).Outcome measure: Annual change in height standard deviation score (SDS) (revised UK reference) in the first and second years of treatment.Results: Height increased by 0.74 SDS units...

  4. Does the Environment Responsibility Affect the Management Control System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem DKHILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests a problem emerging between management controls systems with the new responsibilities that companies must take into consideration. This study examines a system design management control tool orientation as behaviors that can overcome the uncertainties related to the environment and register the company in a voluntary approach which takes into account the environmental dimensions. A questionnaire survey sent to 306 Tunisian industrial companies was conducted. The results of the exploratory and confirmatory analysis are required. The results of the principal component factor analysis evidenced by Cronbach's alpha and KMO test, helped to cleanse the items selected from the literature. Similarly, the results of structural equations with indices of structural adjustment and parcimonies have devoted a good quality adjustment. Overall, findings suggest that most of the firm’s environment is uncertain, more tools to include in its environmental dimensions. On the other hand, the voluntary integration of an environmental approach is part of a strategy of cost leadership in the Tunisian industrial companies.

  5. Historical temperature variability affects coral response to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Carilli

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the temperature threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past temperature variability on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak temperature variability in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean temperature were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions.

  6. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( Pchickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  7. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF HOSPITAL AND DAY TREATMENT WITH COMMUNITY CARE OF AFFECTIVE AND SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, D; KLUITER, H; NIENHUIS, FJ; RUPHAN, M; GIEL, R

    1995-01-01

    Background. A randomised controlled trial of day treatment with community care for patients with schizophrenic and affective disorders, referred for in-patient psychiatric treatment, was conducted to evaluate patterns of treatment and the course of illness with its psychosocial consequences over a p

  8. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  9. Effective NSAID treatment indicates that hyperprostaglandinism is affecting the clinical severity of childhood hypophosphatasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collmann H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypophosphatasia (HP is an inborn error of bone metabolism characterized by a genetic defect in the gene encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP. There is a lack of knowledge as to how the variability and clinical severity of the HP phenotype (especially pain and walking impairment are related to metabolic disturbances or impairments, subsequent to the molecular defect. Methods We analyzed the changes in clinical symptoms and the prostaglandin (PG metabolism in response to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in six children affected by childhood HP. In addition, by exposing HP fibroblasts to pyridoxal phosphate and/or calcium pyrophosphate in vitro, we analyzed whether the alterations in PG levels are sequelae related to the metabolic defect. Results Childhood HP patients, who often complain about pain in the lower limbs without evident fractures, have systemic hyperprostaglandinism. Symptomatic anti-inflammatory treatment with NSAIDs significantly improved pain-associated physical impairment. Calcium pyrophosphate, but not pyridoxal phosphate, induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 gene expression and PG production in HP and normal fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion Clinical features of childhood HP related to pain in the lower legs may be, at least in part, sequelae related to elevated PG levels, secondary to the primary metabolic defect. Consequently, NSAID treatment does improve the clinical features of childhood HP.

  10. Seeing red: affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Bello, Iruma; Sinclair, S Justin; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found. PMID:23428172

  11. Decreased calcification affects photosynthetic responses of Emiliania huxleyi exposed to UV radiation and elevated temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Helbling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in calcification of coccolithophores may affect their photosynthetic responses to both, ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm and temperature. We operated semi-continuous cultures of Emiliania huxleyi (strain CS-369 at reduced (0.1 mM, LCa and ambient (10 mM, HCa Ca2+ concentrations and, after 148 generations, we exposed cells to six radiation treatments (>280, >295, >305, >320, >350 and >395 nm by using Schott filters and two temperatures (20 and 25 °C to examine photosynthesis and calcification responses. Overall, our study has demonstrated that: (1 decreased calcification resulted in a down regulation of photoprotective mechanisms (i.e., as estimated via non-photochemical quenching, NPQ, pigment contents and photosynthetic carbon fixation; (2 Calcification (C and photosynthesis (P (as well as their ratio have different responses related to UVR with cells grown under the high Ca2+ concentration having a better performance as compared to those grown under the low Ca2+ level; (3 elevated temperature increased photosynthesis and calcification of E. huxleyi grown at high Ca2+ concentrations whereas the opposite was observed in low Ca2+ grown cells. Therefore, a decrease in calcification rates in E. huxleyi is expected to decrease photosynthesis rates and producing also a negative feedback, further reducing calcification.

  12. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M.; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregnant WKY dams completed gestation with and without T4 administration and their adult male offspring were tested. Measures included depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in both plasma and specific brain regions. In addition, the expression of two proteins affecting thyroid hormone trafficking and metabolism, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT-8) and iodothyronine deiodinase type III (Dio3), and of several behavior-altering molecules, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), prepro-thyrotropin releasing hormone (prepro-TRH) and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), were determined in the hippocampus and amygdala of the offspring. Prenatal T4 treatment of WKYs did not affect adult depressive behavior but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased plasma levels of THs. In the hippocampus of males treated with T4 in utero, Dio3 and MCT-8 protein levels were increased, while in the amygdala, there were increases of free T4, MCT-8, GR, prepro-TRH protein and CRH mRNA levels. These results show that T4 administration in utero programs adult peripheral and amygdalar thyroid hormone levels divergently, and that the resulting upregulation of anxiety-related genes in the amygdala could be responsible for the exacerbated anxiety-like behavior seen in WKYs after prenatal T4 treatment. PMID:20005050

  13. The Relationship between Affective Response to Social Comparison and Academic Performance in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrens, Maike J. P. W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to study the relationship between affective responses to social comparison and test scores among high school students. Our analyses showed that three types of responses to social comparison could be distinguished: an empathic, constructive, and destructive response. Whereas girls scored higher on empathic…

  14. Self-reported tolerance influences prefrontal cortex hemodynamics and affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempest, Gavin; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between cognitive and sensory processes in the brain contributes to the regulation of affective responses (pleasure-displeasure). Exercise can be used to manipulate sensory processes (by increasing physiological demand) in order to examine the role of dispositional traits that may influence an individual's ability to cognitively regulate these responses. With the use of near infrared spectroscopy, in this study we examined the influence of self-reported tolerance upon prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemodynamics and affective responses. The hemodynamic response was measured in individuals with high or low tolerance during an incremental exercise test. Sensory manipulation was standardized against metabolic processes (ventilatory threshold [VT] and respiratory compensation point [RCP]), and affective responses were recorded. The results showed that the high-tolerance group displayed a larger hemodynamic response within the right PFC above VT (which increased above RCP). The low-tolerance group showed a larger hemodynamic response within the left PFC above VT. The high-tolerance group reported a more positive/less negative affective response above VT. These findings provide direct neurophysiological evidence of differential hemodynamic responses within the PFC that are associated with tolerance in the presence of increased physiological demands. This study supports the role of dispositional traits and previous theorizing into the underlying mechanisms (cognitive vs. sensory processes) of affective responses. PMID:26337703

  15. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-10-01

    Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intraoral fistula to allow passive administration of solutions. In the first study, taste reactivity was tracked throughout chronic vehicle or nicotine (12 mg/kg/day) infusion via osmotic minipumps and spontaneous withdrawal following removal of minipumps. In the second study, the endocannabinoid CB1-receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 3 and 10mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or vehicle was acutely administered before taste reactivity measurement during chronic nicotine administration. Chronic nicotine treatment and spontaneous withdrawal did not influence taste reactions to sucrose or quinine. AM251 decreased positive reactions to sucrose and increased negative reactions to quinine. The effects of AM251 were respectively attenuated and enhanced in nicotine infused mice. These results suggest chronic nicotine exposure and withdrawal has no apparent affective sequelae, as probed by taste reactivity, and thus may not explain the difficulty tobacco-users have in achieving abstinence. In contrast, endocannabinoids elevate affective state in drug-naïve animals and changes in endogenous endocannabinoid tone may underlie compensations in affective state during chronic nicotine exposure. PMID:19540830

  16. PKA-mediated responses in females' estrous cycle affect cocaine-induced responses in dopamine-mediated intracellular cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, J; Sun, W Lun; Zhou, L; Kreiter, C M; Jenab, S; Quiñones-Jenab, V

    2009-07-01

    An extensive body of literature provides evidence for both sexual dimorphism and menstrual cycle effects in drug abuse patterns and behavioral responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying sexually dimorphic responses to and hormonal effects on cocaine use remain unclear. We hypothesized that endogenous hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle of rats modulate cocaine's effects on dopamine- and PKA-mediated intracellular responses. To test this hypothesis, intact female rats at different stages of their cycle received a single injection of saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) and were sacrificed after 15 or 60 min. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were dissected and analyzed via Western blot for total and phosphorylated (p-thr34) dopamine- and 3'-5'-cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32), PP1, PP2B (CNA1 and CNB1 subunits), PKA, CREB, cFOS, and Delta-FosB. Our results show that saline-treated rats had estrous cycle-related differences in protein levels of pCREB, DARPP-32, p-thr34-DARPP-32, PP1, and CNA1. Saline-treated female rats in the estrus stage had higher levels of pCREB in the NAc, but cocaine-treatment lowered pCREB levels. The estrous cycle also significantly affected the magnitude of change for p-thr34-DARPP-32 protein levels in both the NAc and CPu. Sixty minutes of cocaine administration increased p-thr34-DARPP-32 levels in the NAc of rats during estrus and proestrus and in the CPu of rats in diestrus. Furthermore, cocaine-induced changes in PP1 protein levels in the NAc were also affected by the stage of the cycle; 60 min of cocaine administration increased PP1 levels in the NAc of rats during diestrus, whereas PP-1 levels decreased in rats during estrus. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle may contribute to the previously reported sex differences in the PKA pathway and in behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:19348873

  17. Affective Response to Physical Activity: Testing for Measurement Invariance of the Physical Activity Affect Scale across Active and Non-Active Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laura C.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Nilsson, Renea; Bryan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Affective responses to physical activity are assumed to play a role in exercise initiation and maintenance. The Physical Activity Affect Scale measures four dimensions of an individual's affective response to exercise. Group differences in the interpretation of scale items can impact the interpretability of mean differences, underscoring the need…

  18. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  19. Trait Mindfulness Modulates Neuroendocrine and Affective Responses to Social Evaluative Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Methods Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. Results In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. Conclusions The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. PMID:22626868

  20. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  1. Microstructural response to heat affected zone cracking of prewelding heat-treated Inconel 939 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A., E-mail: mgonzalez@comimsa.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martinez, D.I., E-mail: dorairma@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Perez, A., E-mail: betinperez@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Guajardo, H., E-mail: hguajardo@frisa.com [FRISA Aerospace, S.A. de C.V., Valentin G. Rivero No. 200, Col. Los Trevino, C.P. 66150, Santa Caterina N.L. (Mexico); Garza, A., E-mail: agarza@comimsa.com [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V. (COMIMSA), Ciencia y Tecnologia No.790, Saltillo 400, C.P. 25295 Saltillo Coah. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    The microstructural response to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a nickel-based IN 939 superalloy after prewelding heat treatments (PWHT) was investigated. The PWHT specimens showed two different microstructures: 1) spherical ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates (357-442 nm), with blocky MC and discreet M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides dispersed within the coarse dendrites and in the interdendritic regions; and 2) ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates in 'ogdoadically' diced cube shapes and coarse MC carbides within the dendrites and in the interdendritic regions. After being tungsten inert gas welded (TIG) applying low heat input, welding speed and using a more ductile filler alloy, specimens with microstructures consisting of spherical {gamma} Prime precipitate particles and dispersed discreet MC carbides along the grain boundaries, displayed a considerably improved weldability due to a strong reduction of the intergranular HAZ cracking associated with the liquation microfissuring phenomena. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous microstructures of {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides of Ni base superalloys through preweld heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides reduce the intergranular HAZ liquation and microfissuring of Nickel base superalloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet blocky type MC carbides, capable to relax the stress generated during weld cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding heat input welding speeds and ductile filler alloys reduce the HAZ cracking susceptibility.

  2. Negative Affective Spillover from Daily Events Predicts Early Response to Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; Butler, Andrew C.; Parrish, Brendt P.; Wenze, Susan J.; Beck, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to…

  3. Melatonin enhances DNA repair capacity possibly by affecting genes involved in DNA damage responsive pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin, a hormone-like substance involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm, has been demonstrated to protect cells against oxidative DNA damage and to inhibit tumorigenesis. Results In the current study, we investigated the effect of melatonin on DNA strand breaks using the alkaline DNA comet assay in breast cancer (MCF-7 and colon cancer (HCT-15 cell lines. Our results demonstrated that cells pretreated with melatonin had significantly shorter Olive tail moments compared to non-melatonin treated cells upon mutagen (methyl methanesulfonate, MMS exposure, indicating an increased DNA repair capacity after melatonin treatment. We further examined the genome-wide gene expression in melatonin pretreated MCF-7 cells upon carcinogen exposure and detected altered expression of many genes involved in multiple DNA damage responsive pathways. Genes exhibiting altered expression were further analyzed for functional interrelatedness using network- and pathway-based bioinformatics analysis. The top functional network was defined as having relevance for “DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair, Gene Expression, [and] Cancer”. Conclusions These findings suggest that melatonin may enhance DNA repair capacity by affecting several key genes involved in DNA damage responsive pathways.

  4. FDG-PET/CT based response-adapted treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Vriens, Dennis; Arens, Anne I J;

    2012-01-01

    chemotherapy and the risk of toxic death. The trials provide a model for designing response-guided treatment algorithms in other malignancies. PET-guided treatment algorithms are the promise of the near future; the choice of therapy, its intensity, and its duration will become better adjusted to the biology...... of the individual patient. Today's major challenge is to investigate the impact on patient outcome of personalized response-adapted treatment concepts....

  5. Automatic contrast : Evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruys, Kirsten I.; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; de Vries, Nanne K.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affect

  6. Negative Affect and Neural Response to Palatable Food Intake in Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (N = 26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during rec...

  7. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Israels; C. Chirambo; H. Caron; J. de Kraker; E. Molyneux; R. Reis

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Methods: Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible caus

  8. Palliative or curative treatment intent affects communication in radiation therapy consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, L.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Leer, J.W.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether communication in radiotherapy consultations is affected by palliative or curative treatment intent. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study involved 160 patients and 8 radiation oncologists. Eighty patients visited the radiation oncologist (RO) for palliative treatment and 80 fo

  9. [Emotional responsiveness of substance abusers under outpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Juan; Pérez-García, Ana M; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The emotions predispose to action providing information from both internal and external environment. There is evidence indicating that the emotional response in drugdependent patients is different from that of the not consuming population. The present work analyzed the emotions of drugdependent under ambulatory treatment (N=57), following the Lang's theory of emotion, considering the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance or control, across the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), individually applied. The results were contrasted with a control group of not consuming persons (N=44) of similar age, since this variable concerns emotional experience. The influence of sex was also analyzed, considering the possible differences between men and women in emotional experience. The results can be summarized in the following points: (1) There were significant differences between substance abusers and not consumers in the dimension of valence, valuing the consumers the emotional stimuli of the most extreme form (the agreeable ones as better, and the disagreeable ones as worse); (2) there were no differences between both groups in the arousal and dominance dimensions; and (3) women reported more arousal before aversive images, and less before the sexual ones, than males, independently of they were or not substance abusers. Finally, it is suggested the need to deep into the analysis of sex differences and into the images selected, as well as into the usefulness of the emotion centred therapies for the treatment of drugdependency.

  10. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer. PMID:26643553

  11. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON TREATMENT OF LUMBAR VERTEBRAL RETROGRADE AFFECTION WITH ACUPUNCTURE, TDP-IRRADIATION AND CUPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, 70 cases of retrograde affection of the lumbar vertebrae are randomly and evenly divided into treatment group and control group. Shenshu (BL 23), Qihaishu (BL 24), Dachangshu (BL 25),Weizhong (BL 40), Jiaji (EX-B 2), etc. are used. In treatment group, acupuncture, TDP irradiation and cupping are performed, and in control group, only acupuncture is given. After 30 sessions (3 therapeutic courses) of treatment, in treatment and control groups, the total effective rates are 91.43 % and 71.43 % respectively. The therapeutic effect of comprehensive treatment is significantly superior to that of simple acupuncture therapy (P < 0.05).

  12. [Individual response to treatments using Teuscher activator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I L; Lagerström, L O

    1991-12-01

    Variations in facial growth and dentoalveolar development were studied in a group of 40 patients treated with the Teuscher appliance, a functional appliance which is a combination of an activator and a high-pull headgear. Patients were selected for this study on the basis of an initial Class II Division 1 malocclusion and on being consecutively treated with this appliance. The results showed that in 80% of the patients the maxilla either remained unchanged in it's relationship to the anterior cranial base (NSL) or became more retrusive during the treatment period. The mandible in 70% of the patients became more prognathic, only in four cases did the mandible become slightly more retrognathic. The analysis further showed that no statistically significant change occurred in the inclination of the mandible during treatment. Correlation analysis of the association between pretreatment mandibular plane angle and the changes during treatment showed no association. The dentoalveolar changes were characterized by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90% of the patients which occurred in spite of the torque springs, intended to maintain the inclination of these teeth. In contrast, the mandibular incisors on average showed no statistically significant change during treatment. This may be attributed to the capping of these teeth. Analysis of the association between the pretreatment inclination and the change during treatment of the mandibular incisors showed an inverse relationship. Mandibular incisors, that initially were proclined, tended to become more upright which is in contrast to previous studies indicating that functional appliance treatment generally increases the inclination of these teeth. The results of this study suggest that the correction of the skeletal component of the Class II malocclusion with the Teuscher appliance in most instances takes place by restriction of forward development of the maxilla in combination with downward-forward growth of the

  13. Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers’ Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W.; Dani, John A.; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintena...

  14. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  15. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  16. Chronic morphine treatment decreases acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The reward-related effects of addictive drugs primarily act via the dopamine system, which also plays an important role in sensorimotor gating. The mesolimbic dopamine system is the common pathway of drug addiction and sensorimotor gating. However, the way in which addictive drugs affect sensorimotor gating is currently unclear. In previous studies, we examined the effects of morphine treatment on sensory gating in the hippocampus. The present study investigated the effects of morphine on sensorimotor gating in rats during chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal. Rats were examined during treatment with morphine for 10 successive days, followed by a withdrawal period. Acoustic startle responses to a single startle stimulus (115 dB SPL) and prepulse inhibition responses were recorded. The results showed that acoustic startle responses were attenuated during morphine treatment, but not during withdrawal. PPI was impaired in the last 2 morphine treatment days, but returned to a normal level during withdrawal.

  17. Using biological markers to inform a clinically meaningful treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Bierer, Linda M; Pratchett, Laura C; Pelcovitz, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) demonstrate less robust improvement following treatments than do civilians with PTSD. This paper discusses a theoretical model for evaluating treatment response based on the extent of change in biological markers of symptom severity or resilience between treatment initiation and termination. Such analysis permits a determination of biological change associated with the liberal criteria commonly used to determine treatment response in combat PTSD, and a comparison of this to the biological change associated with clinical response determined according to the conservative definition more appropriate to civilian PTSD. Interim data supporting the utility of this approach is presented based on preliminary analyses from our work in progress. We propose that future studies consider the unique consequences of combat trauma and develop treatments that incorporate the complex nature of the exposure and response characteristic of a veteran population. PMID:20955338

  18. GENDER-RESPONSIVE DRUG COURT TREATMENT: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Nena; Calhoun, Stacy; Warda, Umme

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study compared outcomes for 94 women offenders in San Diego County, California, who participated in four drug court programs. Women were randomized to gender-responsive (GR) programs using Helping Women Recover and Beyond Trauma or standard mixed-gender treatment. Data were collected at program entry, during treatment, and approximately 22 months after treatment entry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results showed that GR participants had better in-treatment pe...

  19. 单双相抑郁患者的情感气质特征及其与抗抑郁治疗反应的关系%Characteristics of affective temperaments and their relations with antidepressant treatment responses in unipolar depression and bipolar depression patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林康广; 卢睿; 陈玲玉; 陈琨; 欧阳惠怡; 党亚梅; 徐贵云

    2016-01-01

    Hospital of Jiˊnan University. Their affective temperaments were assessed by the Chinese TEMPS - A(Temperament Evaluation of Memphis Pisa Paris and San Diego - Auto questionnaire)and the severity of depression by the Hamilton Depression Scale- 17 item(HAMD - 17). Primary outcome measures were score - reducing rate of HAMD - 17 at the 4th and 6th week compared with baseline. Results Patients with bipolar I disorder score was significantly higher than patients with unipolar depression and patients with bipolar II disorder on the hyperthymic temperament subscale(F = 6. 562,P = 0. 002). Patients with bipolar II disorder score was significantly higher than unipolar depression disorder patients on the cyclothymic temperament subscales(F = 12. 89,P < 0. 01). The score - reducing rate of HAMD - 17 at the 6th week in patients with dominant hyperthymic temperament was better than patients without the dominant hyperthymic temperament(F = 6. 44,P = 0. 011). Conclusion The hyperthymic temperament may be overrepresented inpatients with bipolar I disorder,while the cyclothymic temperament may be overrepresented in patients with bipolar II disorder. The hyperthymic temperament was measured by TEMPS - A may be assist in predicting antidepressant treatment response in patients with major affective disorders suffering a major depressive episode.

  20. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Dutch Version of the Responses to Positive Affect Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 698 respondents selected from the community, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008 which measures ruminative and dampening thoughts in response to positive affect. In a first sample ('n' = 170, exploratory factor analyses largely replicated the 3-factor model obtained by Feldman et al. (2008 with the following factors: Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination. The 3-factor model revealed in the first sample was confirmed using confirmatory factor analyses in a second independent sample of 528 respondents. All subscales showed adequate internal consistency and evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of depressive rumination, depressive symptoms, trait hypomania, and positive and negative affect. Results underscore the value of assessing responses to positive as well as negative affect in the study of mood disorders.

  1. Prefrontal cortex haemodynamics and affective responses during exercise: a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin D Tempest

    Full Text Available The dose-response effects of the intensity of exercise upon the potential regulation (through top-down processes of affective (pleasure-displeasure responses in the prefrontal cortex during an incremental exercise protocol have not been explored. This study examined the functional capacity of the prefrontal cortex (reflected by haemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy and affective responses during exercise at different intensities. Participants completed an incremental cycling exercise test to exhaustion. Changes (Δ in oxygenation (O2Hb, deoxygenation (HHb, blood volume (tHb and haemoglobin difference (HbDiff were measured from bilateral dorsal and ventral prefrontal areas. Affective responses were measured every minute during exercise. Data were extracted at intensities standardised to: below ventilatory threshold, at ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point and the end of exercise. During exercise at intensities from ventilatory threshold to respiratory compensation point, ΔO2Hb, ΔHbDiff and ΔtHb were greater in mostly ventral than dorsal regions. From the respiratory compensation point to the end of exercise, ΔO2Hb remained stable and ΔHbDiff declined in dorsal regions. As the intensity increased above the ventilatory threshold, inverse associations between affective responses and oxygenation in (a all regions of the left hemisphere and (b lateral (dorsal and ventral regions followed by the midline (ventral region in the right hemisphere were observed. Differential activation patterns occur within the prefrontal cortex and are associated with affective responses during cycling exercise.

  2. Startle response and prepulse inhibition modulation by positive- and negative-induced affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, Luis Gonzalo; Mena, Auxiliadora; Puentes, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The startle response, a set of reflex behaviours intended to prepare the organism to face a potentially threatening stimulus, can be modulated by several factors as, for example, changes in affective state, or previous presentation of a weak stimulus (a phenomenon termed Pre-Pulse Inhibition [PPI]). In this paper we analyse whether the induction of positive or negative affective states in the participants modulates the startle response and the PPI phenomenon. The results revealed a decrease of the startle response and an increase of the PPI effect when registered while the participants were exposed to pleasant images (Experiment 1), and an increase of the startle response and of the PPI effect when they were exposed to a video-clip of unpleasant content (Experiment 2). These data are interpreted considering that changes in affective states correlate with changes in the startle reflex intensity, but changes in PPI might be the result of an attentional process. PMID:24188916

  3. Automatic contrast: evidence that automatic comparison with the social self affects evaluative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruys, Kirsten I; Spears, Russell; Gordijn, Ernestine H; de Vries, Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate whether unconsciously presented affective information may cause opposite evaluative responses depending on what social category the information originates from. We argue that automatic comparison processes between the self and the unconscious affective information produce this evaluative contrast effect. Consistent with research on automatic behaviour, we propose that when an intergroup context is activated, an automatic comparison to the social self may determine the automatic evaluative responses, at least for highly visible categories (e.g. sex, ethnicity). Contrary to previous research on evaluative priming, we predict automatic contrastive responses to affective information originating from an outgroup category such that the evaluative response to neutral targets is opposite to the valence of the suboptimal primes. Two studies using different intergroup contexts provide support for our hypotheses. PMID:17705936

  4. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration) to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency) and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length) of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks. PMID:27195007

  5. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  6. Studies on Fetal response to Prozac Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A, Abou Naja* , Fatma A. Eid * and Khadija Abdul jalil Fadladdeen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work: :A variety of adverse effects are reported post-treatment with Prozac(fluoxetineespecially during pregnancy.The percentage of these changes often reflects increased rates with rising doses. This study aimed to study the possible histopathological and histochemical changes in skin of fetuses maternally treated with Prozac with 3 different doses(0.72&1.44&2.88 mg/kg b.wt.. Material and methods: Mature male and virgin female albino rats of pure strain (Albino rattus norvegicus ranging from 220-280 gm were used. Males were used only for mating. Pregnant rats were categorized into the following groups: Group (1: control group. Group (2: 10 pregnant rats treated daily with 0.72 mg/kg. b.wt. Prozac (T1 (treatment started one month before pregnancy and continued till day19 of gestationGroup (3: 10 pregnant rats treated daily with 1.44 mg/kg. b.wt. (T2. Group (4:10 pregnant rats treated daily with 2.88 mg/kg. b.wt. Prozac (T3. Pregnant mothers from all groups were sacrificed on day 19 of gestation and small pieces of fetal skin were taken for the histological and histochemical studies. Results: Many histological and histochemical changes were observed in fetal skin of all the treated groups compared with control ones. The severity of these changes increased with increasing the doses.Conclusion: Maternally Prozac treatment caused deleterious changes in the fetal skin, therefore the use of this drug during pregnancy should be under strict precautions and further studies are recommended due to the potential risks to the developing fetuses

  7. The treatment of “anxiety-depression” via positive reinforcement and response cost1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, James John

    1972-01-01

    A target behavior program, structured within a token economy project, was implemented to modify the behavior of an institutionalized patient who exhibited excessive rates of crying and no smiling responses. To affect both responses concurrently, token costs were made contingent upon crying and token payments and/or social reinforcements were provided for smiling. The results indicated both the feasibility of eliminating “anxiety-depression” within an institutional environment and the efficacy of the treatment procedures 14 months after discharge. PMID:16795330

  8. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  9. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. PMID:26149986

  10. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  11. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Patient Affected by Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poggi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV is pegilated interferon α (IFN α plus ribavirin. Despite the numerous benefits of this therapy, there is an increasing concern regarding his tolerance. Among the most common side effects, interferon may trigger the onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. When chronic hepatitis C coexists with an autoimmune disorder, it is not clear whether using interferon is better than avoiding it. We evaluated the disease state of a 55-year old female affected by sistemic sclerosis (SSc, during and after therapy with IFNα pegilated plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. We were worried about the potential worsening of the autoimmune disease during the therapy, but we were confident that we would give our patient a short course of peginterferon and ribavirin. A mild, asymptomatic worsening of lung SSc was observed during IFN administration, without life threatening symptoms. After 24 months follow up we observed the maintenance of the virological response and a good control of the rheumatological disease. Thus, in liver disease at high risk of progression and concomitant SSc, the antiviral therapy with IFNα is a feasible approach.

  12. Different immunological responses to early-life antibiotic exposure affecting autoimmune diabetes development in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjia; Jin, Ping; Peng, Jian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-08-01

    Environmental factors clearly influence the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease. We have studied gut microbiota as important environmental agents that could affect the initiation or progression of type 1 diabetes especially in the prenatal period. We used neomycin, targeting mainly Gram negative or vancomycin, targeting mainly Gram positive bacteria, to treat pregnant NOD mothers and to study autoimmune diabetes development in their offspring. Neomycin-treated offspring were protected from diabetes, while vancomycin-treated offspring had accelerated diabetes development, and both antibiotics caused distinctly different shifts in gut microbiota composition compared with the offspring from untreated control mice. Our study demonstrated that neomycin treatment of pregnant mothers leads to generation of immune-tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the offspring and these APCs had reduced specific autoantigen-presenting function both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the protection from diabetes mediated by tolerogenic APCs was vertically transmissible to the second generation. In contrast, more diabetogenic inflammatory T cells were found in the lymphoid organs of the offspring from the vancomycin-treated pregnant mothers. This change however was not transmitted to the second generation. Our results suggested that prenatal exposure to antibiotic influenced gut bacterial composition at the earliest time point in life and is critical for consequent education of the immune system. As different bacteria can induce different immune responses, understanding these differences and how to generate self-tolerogenic APCs could be important for developing new therapy for type 1 diabetes. PMID:27178773

  13. Attachment and affect regulation: a framework for family treatment of conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K

    2002-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), a pervasive adolescent disorder with clinically significant antisocial behaviors, has been a difficult syndrome to treat successfully. Recently, research on affect regulation and attachment has suggested that attachment and affect regulation strategies may underlie the development of conduct disorder in adolescents, implying that attention to these factors might improve family treatment for CD. In this review of the research literature, I discuss the role of attachment and affect regulation in the development and treatment of CD. In addition, I present information about the framework, intervention protocol, and preliminary evidence of effectiveness of an attachment- and affect regulation-based intervention that has been developed and implemented with multiple-family groups of parents and incarcerated adolescents.

  14. Affective Modulation of the Startle Response among Children at High and Low Risk for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Glenn, Catherine R.; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying early markers of risk for anxiety disorders in children may aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and informing prevention efforts. Affective modulation of the startle response indexes sensitivity to pleasant and unpleasant environmental contexts and has been shown to relate to anxiety, yet the extent to which abnormalities in affect-modulated startle reflect vulnerability for anxiety disorders in children has yet to be examined. The current study assessed the effects of parental psychopathology on affective modulation of startle in offspring. Methods Nine-year-old children (N=144) with no history of anxiety or depressive disorders completed a passive picture viewing task in which eye blink startle responses were measured during the presentation of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant images. Results Maternal anxiety was associated with distinct patterns of affective modulation of startle in offspring, such that children with maternal histories of anxiety showed potentiation of the startle response while viewing unpleasant images, but not attenuation during pleasant images, whereas children with no maternal history of anxiety exhibited attenuation of the startle response during pleasant images, but did not exhibit unpleasant potentiation—even when controlling for child symptoms of anxiety and depression. No effects of maternal depression or paternal psychopathology were observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that both enhanced startle responses in unpleasant conditions and failure to inhibit startle responses in pleasant conditions may reflect early-emerging vulnerabilities that contribute to the later development of anxiety disorders. PMID:25913397

  15. Patterns of physiological and affective responses to vehicle pass-by noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Notbohm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is considered causing annoyance and severe health effects like cardiovascular disease (CVD. The present laboratory study examines the importance of individual factors, namely age, gender and personality traits on short term physiological and affective response to vehicle pass-by noises. Four groups of subjects (20-30 vs. 40-55 year-old male or female, n = 66 in total were exposed to a series of vehicle pass-by noises. Physiological responses (finger-pulse amplitude [FPA], skin conductance level [SCL] were registered during the exposure; affective responses and judgements regarding the sounds were assessed by questionnaires. Noise sensitivity and sensation seeking were measured by validated questionnaires. The results show different patterns of response depending on age, gender and personality. The strongest sympathetic stress reaction as measured by SCL was found for the older female group. In regression analysis, the SCL response was predicted by the female gender and low score of sensation seeking only (adjusted R2 = 0.139. The FPA response was strongest among the young men and age was the only significant predictor. For affective responses of pleasantness and activation, regression analysis proved noise sensitivity and sensation seeking to be significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.187 respectively 0.154. Age, gender and personality influence physiological and affective reactions to traffic noise, which might affect health conditions. Especially, a potential risk of older women for CVD owing to noise should be investigated further. Individual sensitiveness in terms of noise sensitivity or sensation seeking proves to be important for explaining differences in response to noise.

  16. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body-mass-index (BMI, binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.. Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task. In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted.

  17. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  18. Projecting corporate brand image and behavioral response in business schools: Cognitive or affective brand attributes?

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Alwi, SF; Kitchen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers corporate brand image, focusing on cognitive and affective brand attributes in the context of business schools. While previous research on university or institutional branding has studied these elements separately via cognitive (e.g., service or educational quality attributes) or affective criteria (personality traits of the corporate brand), this study investigates them jointly through behavioral responses (leading to positive recommendations about the corporate brand). ...

  19. Psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective response to exercise in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret L.; Kwan, Bethany M.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesTo further understanding of the factors influencing adolescents’ motivations for physical activity, the relationship of variables derived from Self-Determination Theory to adolescents’ affective response to exercise was examined.DesignCorrelational.MethodAdolescents (N = 182) self-reported psychological needs satisfaction (perceived competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and intrinsic motivation related to exercise. In two clinic visits, adolescents reported their affect before, dur...

  20. Shrub resprouting response after fuel reduction treatments: comparison of prescribed burning, clearing and mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A; Fonturbel, Teresa

    2013-03-15

    Fuel reduction treatments are commonly used to reduce the risk of severe wildfire. However, more information about the effects on plant resprouting is needed to help land managers select the most appropriate treatment. To address this question, we evaluated the resprouting ability of five shrub species after the application of different types of fuel reduction methods (prescribed burning, clearing and mastication) in two contrasting shrubland areas in northern Spain. The shrub species were Erica australis, Pterospartum tridentatum and Halimium lasianthum spp. alyssoides, Ulex gallii and Erica cinerea. For most of the species under study (E. australis, P. tridentatum, H. lasianthum spp. alyssoides and U. gallii), neither plant mortality nor the number nor length of sprouted shoots per plant differed between treatments, although in E. cinerea the number of shoots was more negatively affected by prescribed burning than by clearing or mastication. The pre-treatment plant size did not affect plant mortality or plant resprouting response, suggesting that this parameter alone is not a good indicator of plant resprouting after fuel reduction treatments. Stem minimum diameter after treatments, a proxy of treatment severity, was not related to plant mortality, number or length of resprouted shoots. The duration of temperatures higher than 300 °C during burning in plant crown had a negative effect on the length of resprouted shoots, only in E. cinerea. The results show that fuel reduction treatments did not prevent shrub response in any case. Some reflections on the applicability of treatments are discussed.

  1. Examination of Studies Targeting Social Skills with Pivotal Response Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkus Genc, Gulden; Vuran, Sezgin

    2013-01-01

    In early education, especially in effective teaching to children with autism spectrum disorders, the teaching methods which are applicable in natural settings like pivotal response treatment (PRT) are commonly used. It is one of the naturalistic intervention models aiming to facilitate the stimulant-response generalization, decrease the dependency…

  2. Proteomic Response to Acupuncture Treatment in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Xinsheng Lai; Jiayou Wang; Nabar, Neel R.; Sanqiang Pan; Chunzhi Tang; Yong Huang; Mufeng Hao; Zhonghua Yang; Chunmei Ma; Jin Zhang; Helen Chew; Zhenquan He; Junjun Yang; Baogui Su; Jian Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th) day, rat medullas w...

  3. Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents' reward neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Yücel, Murat; Sheeber, Lisa; Simmons, Julian G; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2009-09-01

    The development of reward-based learning and decision-making, and the neural circuitry underlying these processes, appears to be influenced negatively by adverse child-rearing environments characterized by abuse and other forms of maltreatment. No research to-date has investigated whether normative variations in the child-rearing environment have effects on adolescent brain structure. We examined whether normative variations in maternal responses to adolescents' positive affective behavior were associated with morphometric measures of the adolescents' affective neural circuitry, namely the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Healthy adolescents (N = 113) participated in laboratory-based interaction tasks with their mothers, and underwent high-resolution (3T) structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mother-adolescent interactions included a pleasant event-planning interaction (EPI) and a conflictual problem-solving interaction (PSI). Adolescents, whose mothers displayed more punishing responses to their positive affective behavior during both tasks, and only during the PSI, had larger left dorsal ACC and bilateral OFC volumes, respectively. In addition, boys whose mothers evidenced this pattern of behavior during the EPI had larger right amygdala volumes. These results suggest that normative variations in maternal responses to affective behavior are associated with the structural characteristics of adolescents' affective neural circuitry, which may have implications for the development of their social, cognitive and affective functioning.

  4. Psychosocial and medical factors affecting treatment compliance in patients attending psychiatric hospital: a study from Kashmir

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Shoib; Raheel Mushtaq; Mohammad Maqbool Dar; Javid Ahmad Mir; Tabindah Shah; Rameshwar Singh; Javid Ahmad; Syed Kyser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compliance with medication is decisive for treatment of the psychiatric disorders and is necessary for determining the outcome and prognoses of psychiatric patients. While the causes of poor compliance are multifactorial, the psychiatrist should be aware of such factors and may be able to implement interventions to address those factors. The objective of study was to find out the various medical and social reasons affecting treatment Compliance among patients suffering from psychi...

  5. Negative affect and neural response to palatable food intake in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood.

  6. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    OpenAIRE

    Damjanović Aleksandar; Duišin Dragana; Barišić Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summari...

  7. How does enhancing cognition affect human values? How does this translate into social responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rise in the use of different technologies aimed at enhancing cognition of normal healthy individuals. While values have been acknowledged to be an important aspect of cognitive enhancement practices, the discussion has predominantly focused on just a few values, such as safety, peer pressure, and authenticity. How are values, in a broader sense, affected by enhancing cognitive abilities? Is this dependent on the type of technology or intervention used to attain the enhancement, or does the cognitive domain targeted play a bigger role in how values are affected? Values are not only likely to be affected by cognitive enhancement practices; they also play a crucial role in defining the type of interventions that are likely to be undertaken. This paper explores the way values affect and are affected by enhancing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it argues that knowledge of the interplay between values and cognitive enhancement makes a strong case for social responsibility around cognitive enhancement practices.

  8. Patterns of physiological and affective responses to vehicle pass-by noises

    OpenAIRE

    Gert Notbohm; Renate Schmook; Sieglinde Schwarze; Peter Angerer

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise is considered causing annoyance and severe health effects like cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present laboratory study examines the importance of individual factors, namely age, gender and personality traits on short term physiological and affective response to vehicle pass-by noises. Four groups of subjects (20-30 vs. 40-55 year-old male or female, n = 66 in total) were exposed to a series of vehicle pass-by noises. Physiological responses (finger-pulse amplitude [FPA], skin...

  9. Viral Infection Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Homing Ability of Forager Honey Bees, Apis mellifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguo Li; Yanping Chen; Shaowu Zhang; Shenglu Chen; Wenfeng Li; Limin Yan; Liangen Shi; Lyman Wu; Alex Sohr; Songkun Su

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and ra...

  10. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of dextromethorphan/quinidine in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoedel KA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kerri A Schoedel,1 Sarah A Morrow,2 Edward M Sellers3,4 1Altreos Research Partners, Inc., Toronto, 2Western University, London, 3DL Global Partners, Inc., Toronto, 4University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration–effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug’s side effects and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a

  11. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  12. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...

  13. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  14. Dance expertise modulates behavioral and psychophysiological responses to affective body movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Gomila, Antoni; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Sivarajah, Nithura; Calvo-Merino, Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    The present study shows how motor expertise increases individuals' sensitivity to others' affective body movement. This enhanced sensitivity is evident in the experts' behavior and physiology. Nineteen affective movement experts (professional ballet dancers) and 24 controls watched 96 video clips of emotionally expressive body movements while they performed an affect rating task (subjective response), and their galvanic skin response was recorded (physiological response). The movements in the clips were either sad or happy, and in half of the trials, movements were played in the order in which they are learned (forward presentation), and in the other half, movements were played backward (control condition). Results showed that motor expertise in affective body movement specifically modulated both behavioral and physiological sensitivity to others' affective body movement, and that this sensitivity is particularly strong when movements are shown in the way they are learnt (forward presentation). The evidence is discussed within current theories of proprioceptive arousal feedback and motor simulation accounts. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882181

  15. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...... in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran was decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes...... were found in any treatment group. Antibiotic induced changes in microbiota could be linked to intestinal permeability, although changes in permeability did not always result from major changes in microbiota and vice versa....

  16. Nonmusic Majors' Cognitive and Affective Responses to Performance and Programmatic Music Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Cassidy, Jane W.; Byo, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the effects of different kinds of visual presentations, and music alone, on university nonmusic students' affective and cognitive responses to music. Separate groups of students listened to classical music excerpts, either by themselves, or with video accompaniment. They rated the music on Likert-type scales and responded to open-ended…

  17. School and Classroom Goal Structures: Effects on Affective Responses in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Koidou, Eirini; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Grouios, George

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relative impact of school and classroom goal structures on students' affective responses and the mediating role of motivation. The sample of the study consisted of 368 high school students, who completed measures of school and classroom goal structures, motivational regulations in physical education, boredom, and…

  18. Effect of apolipoprotein E and butyrylcholinesterase genotypes on cognitive response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C E; Todd, S A; Passmore, A P

    2011-12-01

    Factors that influence response to drug treatment are of increasing importance. We report an analysis of genetic factors affecting response to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in 165 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele was associated with early and late cognitive response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment in mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥21) (P<0.01). In moderate-to-severe AD (MMSE ≤15), presence of the BCHE-K variant was associated with late response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (P=0.02). Testing for APOE and BCHE genotypes may be useful in therapeutic decision making.

  19. The involvement of XPC protein in the cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan WANG; Alan DOMBKOWSKI; Lynn CHUANG; Xiao Xin S XU

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of DNA damage is a critical step for DNA damage-mediated cellular response. XPC is an important DNA damage recognition protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have studied the XPC protein in cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response. Comparison of the microarray data from both normal and XPCdefective human fibroblasts identified 861 XPC-responsive genes in the cisplatin treatment (with minimum fold change≥1.5).The cell cycle and cell proliferation-related genes are the most affected genes by the XPC defect in the treatment. Many other cellular function genes, especially the DNA repair and signal transduction-related genes, were also affected by the XPC defect in the treatment. To validate the microarray data, the transcription levels of some microarray-identified genes were also determined by an RT-PCR based real time PCR assay. The real time PCR results are consistent with the microarray data for most of the tested genes, indicating the reliability of the microarray data. To further validate the microarray data, the cisplatin treatment-mediated caspase-3 activation was also determined. The Western blot hybridization results indicate that the XPC defect greatly attenuates the cisplatin treatment-mediated Caspase-3 activation. We elucidated the role of p53 protein in the XPC protein DNA damage recognition-mediated signaling process. The XPC defect reduces the cisplatin treatment-mediated p53 response. These results suggest that the XPC protein plays an important role in the cisplatin treatment-mediated cellular response. It may also suggest a possible mechanism of cancer cell drug resistance.

  20. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  1. The CTRB1/2 locus affects diabetes susceptibility and treatment via the incretin pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    't Hart, Leen M; Fritsche, Andreas; Nijpels, Giel;

    2013-01-01

    locus, also associated with an absolute 0.51±0.16% (5.6±1.7 mmol/mol) lower A1C response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in G allele carriers but there was no effect on GLP-1 RA treatment in type 2 diabetes patients (n=527). Furthermore, in pancreatic tissue we show that rs7202877 acts as expression...... in the regulation of the incretin pathway, development of diabetes and response to DPP-4 inhibitor treatment.......The incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes glucose homeostasis and enhances beta-cell function. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which inhibit the physiological inactivation of endogenous GLP-1, are used for the treatment of type 2...

  2. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism: Convergent evidence on chronic antidepressant treatment response in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ik; Dournes, Carine; Sillaber, Inge; Uhr, Manfred; Asara, John M.; Gassen, Nils C.; Rein, Theo; Ising, Marcus; Webhofer, Christian; Filiou, Michaela D.; Müller, Marianne B.; Turck, Christoph W.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of psychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). For unknown reasons a substantial number of patients do not show any improvement during or after SSRI treatment. We treated DBA/2J mice for 28 days with paroxetine and assessed their behavioral response with the forced swim test (FST). Paroxetine-treated long-time floating (PLF) and paroxetine-treated short-time floating (PSF) groups were stratified as proxies for drug non-responder and responder mice, respectively. Proteomics and metabolomics profiles of PLF and PSF groups were acquired for the hippocampus and plasma to identify molecular pathways and biosignatures that stratify paroxetine-treated mouse sub-groups. The critical role of purine and pyrimidine metabolisms for chronic paroxetine treatment response in the mouse was further corroborated by pathway protein expression differences in both mice and patients that underwent chronic antidepressant treatment. The integrated -omics data indicate purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathway activity differences between PLF and PSF mice. Furthermore, the pathway protein levels in peripheral specimens strongly correlated with the antidepressant treatment response in patients. Our results suggest that chronic SSRI treatment differentially affects purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, which may explain the heterogeneous antidepressant treatment response and represents a potential biosignature. PMID:27731396

  3. Factors Affecting the Response to Exercise in Patients with Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Flox-Camacho, Ángela; Escribano Subías, Pilar; Jiménez-Lépez Guarch, Carmen; Fernández Vaquero, Almudena; Martín Ríos, María Dolores; Saenz de la Calzada-Campo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Ergospirometry objectively quantifies exercise capacity. Up until now, the response to exercise evaluated by ergospirometry in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension has only been described in recently diagnosed.patients. Our aim is to describe the response to exercise in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension under specific treatment and define which parameters determine their exercise capacity. Patients and method: A cross-sectional study was performed on ...

  4. Deficient beta-mannosylation of Candida albicans phospholipomannan affects the proinflammatory response in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Devillers

    Full Text Available Candida albicans produces a complex glycosphingolipid called phospholipomannan (PLM, which is present on the cell-wall surface of yeast and shed upon contact with host cells. The glycan moiety of PLM is composed of β-mannosides with degrees of polymerization up to 19 in C. albicans serotype A. PLM from serotype B strains displays a twofold decrease in the length of the glycan chains. In this study we compared the proinflammatory activities of PLMs purified from C. albicans serotype A and serotype B strains and from a bmt6Δ mutant of C. albicans, whose PLM is composed of short truncated oligomannosidic chain. We found that PLMs activate caspase-1 in murine macrophage cell line J774 independent of the glycan chain length although IL-1β secretion is more intense with long glycan chain. None of the tested PLMs stimulate ROS production, indicating that caspase-1 activation may occur through a ROS-independent pathway. On the other hand, only long-chain oligomannosides present on PLM from serotype A strain (PLM-A are able to induce TNF-α production in macrophages, a property that is not affect by blocking endocytosis through latrunculin A treatment. Finally, we demonstrate that soluble and not cell surface-bound galectin-3, is able to potentiate PLM-A-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. PLMs from C. albicans serotype B and from bmt6∆ mutant are not able to induce TNF-α production and galectin-3 pretreatment does not interfere with this result. In conclusion, we show here that PLMs are able to evoke a proinflammatory state in macrophage, which is in part dependent on their glycosylation status. Long-glycan chains favor interaction with soluble galectin-3 and help amplify inflammatory response.

  5. Deficient beta-mannosylation of Candida albicans phospholipomannan affects the proinflammatory response in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, Audrey; Courjol, Flavie; Fradin, Chantal; Coste, Agnes; Poulain, Daniel; Pipy, Bernard; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Jouault, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans produces a complex glycosphingolipid called phospholipomannan (PLM), which is present on the cell-wall surface of yeast and shed upon contact with host cells. The glycan moiety of PLM is composed of β-mannosides with degrees of polymerization up to 19 in C. albicans serotype A. PLM from serotype B strains displays a twofold decrease in the length of the glycan chains. In this study we compared the proinflammatory activities of PLMs purified from C. albicans serotype A and serotype B strains and from a bmt6Δ mutant of C. albicans, whose PLM is composed of short truncated oligomannosidic chain. We found that PLMs activate caspase-1 in murine macrophage cell line J774 independent of the glycan chain length although IL-1β secretion is more intense with long glycan chain. None of the tested PLMs stimulate ROS production, indicating that caspase-1 activation may occur through a ROS-independent pathway. On the other hand, only long-chain oligomannosides present on PLM from serotype A strain (PLM-A) are able to induce TNF-α production in macrophages, a property that is not affect by blocking endocytosis through latrunculin A treatment. Finally, we demonstrate that soluble and not cell surface-bound galectin-3, is able to potentiate PLM-A-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. PLMs from C. albicans serotype B and from bmt6∆ mutant are not able to induce TNF-α production and galectin-3 pretreatment does not interfere with this result. In conclusion, we show here that PLMs are able to evoke a proinflammatory state in macrophage, which is in part dependent on their glycosylation status. Long-glycan chains favor interaction with soluble galectin-3 and help amplify inflammatory response.

  6. Impact on allergic immune response after treatment with vitamin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Berggård, Karin; Barrios, Yvelise;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin A may have some influence on the immune system, but the role in allergy modulation is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether high levels of retinoic acid (RA) affects allergic response in vivo, we used a murine experimental model of airway allergic disease...

  7. Greater hippocampal volume is associated with PTSD treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mikael; Shvil, Erel; Papini, Santiago; Chhetry, Binod T; Helpman, Liat; Markowitz, John C; Mann, J John; Neria, Yuval

    2016-06-30

    Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respectively), perhaps due to more robust fear-extinction capacity in both the initial phase after exposure to trauma and during treatment. PMID:27179314

  8. Association between diabetes treatment adherence and parent-child agreement regarding treatment responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Blake Mark; Gadaire, Dana M; Holman, Kathryn; LeBlanc, Linda A

    2015-06-01

    When primary responsibility for Type 1 diabetes (DM1) treatment adherence transfers from parents to adolescents, glycemic control often suffers. Low rates of treatment adherence during this transition are possibly attributable to decreased parental involvement, disagreements between parents and children regarding treatment responsibilities, and increased family conflict. The current investigation assessed the relationships between each of these variables and glycemic control among youth diagnosed with DM1. Parent and child report questionnaires were completed by 64 parent-child dyads (ages 8-18) with a child diagnosed with DM1. HbA1c readings served as measures of glycemic control. Parental involvement in their children's treatment was reported to decline with age, however absolute levels of parent involvement were not significantly correlated with youth HbA1c levels. Parent-child agreement regarding treatment responsibility and reports of diabetes-related conflict were significant predictors of glycemic control. Results support previous findings implicating parent-child agreement regarding treatment responsibilities and family conflict as predictors of treatment adherence among youth with DM1. The current study found this relationship to be significant for a larger population of children for which past research has failed to find such an effect. Taken together, these findings suggest further research is warranted to identify effective methods for transferring treatment responsibilities from parents to children. PMID:25689164

  9. Plasma Biomarkers Can Predict Treatment Response in Tuberculosis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Yang, Chih-Mann; Chang, Lih-Yu; Lin, Ching-Kai; Wang, Jann-Yuan; Shu, Chin-Chong; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Despite numerous studies, there has been little progress in the use of biomarkers for predicting treatment response in patients with tuberculosis (TB). Patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB between 2010 and 2014 were prospectively recruited. Blood samples were taken upon diagnosis and 2 months after the start of standard anti-TB treatment. A pilot study utilizing measurement of TB-antigen-stimulated cytokines was conducted to select potential biomarkers for further testing. Ou...

  10. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    2015-01-01

    with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10–11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general...... in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic...

  11. CT contrast predicts pancreatic cancer treatment response to verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermyn, Michael; Davis, Scott C.; Dehghani, Hamid; Huggett, Matthew T.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pereira, Stephen P.; Bown, Stephen G.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine dominant factors affecting treatment response in pancreatic cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on clinically available information in the VERTPAC-01 trial. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of verteporfin PDT in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT scans before and after contrast enhancement from the 15 patients in the VERTPAC-01 trial were used to determine venous-phase blood contrast enhancement and this was correlated with necrotic volume determined from post-treatment CT scans, along with estimation of optical absorption in the pancreas for use in light modeling of the PDT treatment. Energy threshold contours yielded estimates for necrotic volume based on this light modeling. Both contrast-derived venous blood content and necrotic volume from light modeling yielded strong correlations with observed necrotic volume (R2 = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively). These correlations were much stronger than those obtained by correlating energy delivered versus necrotic volume in the VERTPAC-01 study and in retrospective analysis from a prior clinical study. This demonstrates that contrast CT can provide key surrogate dosimetry information to assess treatment response. It also implies that light attenuation is likely the dominant factor in the VERTPAC treatment response, as opposed to other factors such as drug distribution. This study is the first to show that contrast CT provides needed surrogate dosimetry information to predict treatment response in a manner which uses standard-of-care clinical images, rather than invasive dosimetry methods.

  12. CT contrast predicts pancreatic cancer treatment response to verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to determine dominant factors affecting treatment response in pancreatic cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), based on clinically available information in the VERTPAC-01 trial. This trial investigated the safety and efficacy of verteporfin PDT in 15 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CT scans before and after contrast enhancement from the 15 patients in the VERTPAC-01 trial were used to determine venous-phase blood contrast enhancement and this was correlated with necrotic volume determined from post-treatment CT scans, along with estimation of optical absorption in the pancreas for use in light modeling of the PDT treatment. Energy threshold contours yielded estimates for necrotic volume based on this light modeling. Both contrast-derived venous blood content and necrotic volume from light modeling yielded strong correlations with observed necrotic volume (R2 = 0.85 and 0.91, respectively). These correlations were much stronger than those obtained by correlating energy delivered versus necrotic volume in the VERTPAC-01 study and in retrospective analysis from a prior clinical study. This demonstrates that contrast CT can provide key surrogate dosimetry information to assess treatment response. It also implies that light attenuation is likely the dominant factor in the VERTPAC treatment response, as opposed to other factors such as drug distribution. This study is the first to show that contrast CT provides needed surrogate dosimetry information to predict treatment response in a manner which uses standard-of-care clinical images, rather than invasive dosimetry methods. (paper)

  13. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  14. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiawen [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  15. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G1/S or G2/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G0, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its known role in radio-resistance

  16. Mechanisms of Behavioral and Affective Treatment Outcomes in a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for effective treatment for behavioral problems continues to grow, yet evidence about the effective mechanisms underlying those interventions has lagged behind. The Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program is a multicomponent intervention for boys between 6 and 11. This study tested putative treatment mechanisms using data from 252 boys in a randomized controlled trial of SNAP versus treatment as usual. SNAP includes a 3 month group treatment period followed by individualized intervention, which persisted through the 15 month study period. Measures were administered in four waves: at baseline and at 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline. A hierarchical linear modeling strategy was used. SNAP was associated with improved problem-solving skills, prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills, and reduced parental stress. Prosocial behavior, emotion regulation skills and reduced parental stress partially mediated improvements in child aggression. Improved emotion regulation skills partially mediated treatment-related child anxious-depressed outcomes. Improvements in parenting behaviors did not differ between treatment conditions. The results suggest that independent processes may drive affective and behavioral outcomes, with some specificity regarding the mechanisms related to differing treatment outcomes. PMID:25619927

  17. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Banwari; Prutha Desai; Prahlad Patidar

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolong...

  18. Sexual orientation of women does not affect outcome of fertility treatment with donated sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Nordqvist, S.; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Lampic, C; Akerud, H.; Elenis, E.; Skoog Svanberg, A.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in fertility between heterosexual women and lesbians undergoing sperm donation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women undergoing treatment with donated sperm are equally fertile regardless of sexual orientation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Lesbians have an increased prevalence of smoking, obesity, sexually transmitted diseases and, possibly, polycystic ovary syndrome, all factors known to affect fertility. Previous studies on sperm donation inseminations (D-IUI) show conflict...

  19. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

  20. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administrated antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2004-01-01

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. RESULTS: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a response, as well......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. METHODS: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon......-LG was contaminated with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein....

  1. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed.

  2. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  3. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  4. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  5. The relationship between Norwegian and Swedish employees’ perception of corporate social responsibility and affective commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Ditlev-Simonsen, Caroline D.

    2015-01-01

    Corporations are spending a substantial and increasing amount of money on corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, little is known about the effects on key stakeholders of these activities. This study investigates if CSR activities have an effect on employees’ affective commitment (AC). Two models test to what extent employees’ CSR perception, involvement in decision processes, and demographic variables are related to their AC relative to their perception of positive organizational sup...

  6. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  7. Coordination of cortisol response to social evaluative threat with autonomic and inflammatory responses is moderated by stress appraisals and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    Recent approaches to stress regulation have emphasized coordination among multiple biological systems. This study builds on evidence that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity should be considered in coordination with other stress-sensitive biological systems to characterize healthy responses. Healthy African-Americans (n=115) completed the Trier Social Stress Test, and biological responses were assessed through salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), alpha amylase (sAA), and C-reactive protein (sCRP). Multilevel modeling demonstrated that cortisol responses typically aligned with changes in DHEA-S, sAA, and sCRP across the session. At the same time, the degree of cortisol coordination with sAA and sCRP varied by participants' subjective stress following the task; participants with higher secondary stress appraisals showed greater cortisol-sAA alignment, whereas those experiencing more negative affect showed greater cortisol-sCRP alignment. Results highlight the importance of a multisystem approach to stress and suggest that positive HPA axis coordination with the autonomic response, but not with the immune/inflammatory response, may be adaptive.

  8. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michel A; Love, Ryan J; Hawton, Andrea; Brett, Kaighley; McCreary, Donald R; Arendt, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal extremes of photoperiod in the high Arctic place particular strain on the human circadian system, which leads to trouble sleeping and increased feelings of negative affect in the winter months. To qualify for our study, potential participants had to have been at Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert (82° 30' 00″ N) for at least 2 weeks. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding sleep difficulty, psychological well-being and mood and wore Actigraphs to obtain objective sleep data. Saliva was collected at regular intervals on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, to measure melatonin and assess melatonin onset. Individuals with a melatonin rhythm that was in disaccord with their sleep schedule were given individualized daily light treatment interventions based on their pretreatment salivary melatonin profile. The light treatment prescribed to seven of the twelve subjects was effective in improving sleep quality both subjectively, based on questionnaire results, and objectively, based on the actigraphic data. The treatment also caused a significant reduction in negative affect among the participants. Since the treatment is noninvasive and has minimal associated side effects, our results support the use of the light visors at CFS Alert and other northern outposts during the winter for individuals who are experiencing sleep difficulty or low mood. PMID:25580574

  9. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  10. Mothers’ amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane eStrathearn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one’s own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valence—happy or sad—while monitoring one’s own level of arousal. The amygdala has traditionally been understood to respond to affective valence; in the present study, we examined the potential effect of personal relevance on amygdala response, by testing whether mothers’ amygdala response to happy and sad infant face cues would be modulated by infant identity. We used functional MRI to measure amygdala activation in 39 first-time mothers, while they viewed happy, neutral and sad infant faces of both their own and a matched unknown infant. Emotional arousal to each face was rated using the Self Assessment Manikin Scales. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine significant predictors of amygdala response. Overall, both arousal ratings and amygdala activation were greater when mothers viewed their own infant’s face compared with unknown infant faces. Sad faces were rated as more arousing than happy faces, regardless of infant identity. However, within the amygdala, a highly significant interaction effect was noted between infant identity and valence. For own-infant faces, amygdala activation was greater for happy than sad faces, whereas the opposite trend was seen for unknown-infant faces. Our findings suggest that the amygdala response to positive and negative valenced cues is modulated by personal relevance. Positive facial expressions from one’s own infant may play a particularly important role in eliciting maternal responses and strengthening the mother-infant bond.

  11. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolonged hypomania/mania or manic-like syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with first episode, continuous, nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant, unipolar major depression of 10 years duration, who manifested a switch from depression to mania while being treated with subanesthetic dose of ketamine, given intramuscularly. This case suggests that polarity switch should be considered as a potential side effect while using ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.

  12. Configurational affects on the compaction response of CeO2 powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattelbaum D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Initial configuration, which can include particle size and shape, initial density, and void location, can affect the measured compaction responses of initially porous materials. In this work, both the low- and high-strain-rate compaction response of several different morphology CeO2 powders are investigated experimentally. Quasi-static compaction curves are found to exhibit distinct differences between the morphologies, where initial packing efficiencies and particle aspect ratios are found to dominate the low pressure response. At low-strain-rates, the largest particles with the highest aspect ratio are found to exhibit the stiffest response, while those that most resemble spherical particles offer the least resistance to initial densification. At high-strain-rates a transition in compliance is observed, where smaller equiaxed particles are found to exhibit greater resistances to densification. The role of particle morphology and its affect on the communication of particle-level stresses during quasi-static and dynamic densification are discussed, and emphasis is placed on the mechanisms that cause the morphology-based transition in compliance.

  13. Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Butchart, Stuart H M; Sekercioğlu, Cağan H; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services.

  14. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  15. How does enhancing cognition affect human values? How does this translate into social responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rise in the use of different technologies aimed at enhancing cognition of normal healthy individuals. While values have been acknowledged to be an important aspect of cognitive enhancement practices, the discussion has predominantly focused on just a few values, such as safety, peer pressure, and authenticity. How are values, in a broader sense, affected by enhancing cognitive abilities? Is this dependent on the type of technology or intervention used to attain the enhancement, or does the cognitive domain targeted play a bigger role in how values are affected? Values are not only likely to be affected by cognitive enhancement practices; they also play a crucial role in defining the type of interventions that are likely to be undertaken. This paper explores the way values affect and are affected by enhancing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it argues that knowledge of the interplay between values and cognitive enhancement makes a strong case for social responsibility around cognitive enhancement practices. PMID:25048389

  16. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  17. Amygdala-prefrontal pathways and the dopamine system affect nociceptive responses in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onozawa Kitaro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the affective rather than the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain. The PFC receives dense projection from the limbic system. Monosynaptic projections from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA to the PFC are known to produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. We examined effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS delivered to the BLA on nociceptive responses in the rat PFC. Results HFS induced long lasting suppression (LLS of the specific high threshold responses of nociceptive neurons in the PFC. Microinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, dizocilpine (MK-801 and also metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR group antagonists (α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, and 2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl-D-alanine (LY341495, prevented the induction of LLS of nociceptive responses. We also examined modulatory effects of dopamine (DA on the LLS of nociceptive responses. With depletion of DA in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the ipsilateral forebrain bundle, LLS of nociceptive responses was decreased, while nociceptive responses were normally evoked. Antagonists of DA receptor subtypes D2 (sulpiride and D4 (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b] pyridine (L-745,870, microinjected into the PFC, inhibited LLS of nociceptive responses. Conclusions Our results indicate that BLA-PFC pathways inhibited PFC nociceptive cell activities and that the DA system modifies the BLA-PFC regulatory function.

  18. Factors affecting the dynamic response of pre-stressed anchors after transient excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huijun; Li Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    The wide application of pre-stressed bolting technology in coal mine tunnels has made the nondestructive stress wave reflection method of determining bolting quality an important one.The effect of the support plate on the dynamic response of the pre-stressed anchor is of particular interest.A theoreticalanalysis and numerical simulations are used to identify the factors affecting the contact stress between the support plate and the rock wall.A formula allowing the calculation of contact stress is presented.Stress wave propagation through the nut,support plate,and rock wall are predicted.The dynamic response signals were measured in the field using prestressed anchors pre-tightened to different torques.The effects from the support plate on the dynamic response were recorded and the results compared to the predictions of pre-stressed anchor.This work provides a theoretical reference for the signal processing of dynamic reflected wave signals in anchor bolts.

  19. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane; Tamouza, Ryad; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leweke, Markus; Lewis, Shôn; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sommer, Iris E; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Kapur, Shitij; Kahn, René S; Rujescu, Dan; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-05-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligible rate of patients does not respond to any treatment or may develop side effects that affect adherence to the treatments as well as negatively impact physical health. Thus, there clearly is a pressing need for defining biomarkers that may be helpful to predict response to treatment and sensitivity to side effects in first-episode psychosis. The present systematic review provides (1) trials that assessed biological markers associated with antipsychotic response or side effects in first-episode psychosis and (2) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances that may guide the choice of conventional treatments or the prescription of innovative treatments. Trials including first-episode psychoses are few in number. Most of the available data focused on pharmacogenetics markers with so far only preliminary results. To date, these studies yielded-beside markers for metabolism of antipsychotics-no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been associated with treatment response. In addition to pharmacogenetics, further efforts should focus on the association of emergent biomarkers with conventional treatments or with innovative therapies efficacy, where some preliminary data suggest promising results. PMID:25759473

  20. Affective neural responses modulated by serotonin transporter genotype in clinical anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Oathes

    Full Text Available Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531 to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/L(G carriers showed less activity than their L(A/L(A counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/L(G healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations.

  1. Dynamic rendering of the heterogeneous cell response to anticancer treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Falcetta

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative response to anticancer treatment is the result of concurrent responses in all cell cycle phases, extending over several cell generations, whose complexity is not captured by current methods. In the proposed experimental/computational approach, the contemporary use of time-lapse live cell microscopy and flow cytometric data supported the computer rendering of the proliferative process through the cell cycle and subsequent generations during/after treatment. The effects of treatments were modelled with modules describing the functional activity of the main pathways causing arrest, repair and cell death in each phase. A framework modelling environment was created, enabling us to apply different types of modules in each phase and test models at the complexity level justified by the available data. We challenged the method with time-course measures taken in parallel with flow cytometry and time-lapse live cell microscopy in X-ray-treated human ovarian cancer cells, spanning a wide range of doses. The most suitable model of the treatment, including the dose-response of each effect, was progressively built, combining modules with a rational strategy and fitting simultaneously all data of different doses and platforms. The final model gave for the first time the complete rendering in silico of the cycling process following X-ray exposure, providing separate and quantitative measures of the dose-dependence of G1, S and G2M checkpoint activities in subsequent generations, reconciling known effects of ionizing radiations and new insights in a unique scenario.

  2. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  3. Measurement of affective state during chronic nicotine treatment and withdrawal by affective taste reactivity in mice: the role of endocannabinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Victoria C.; Cagniard, Barbara; Murphy, Niall P; Shoaib, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite tobacco being highly addictive, it is unclear if nicotine has significant affective properties. To address this, we studied taste reactions to gustatory stimuli, palatable sucrose and unpalatable quinine, which are believed to reflect ongoing affective state. Taste reactivity was assessed during chronic nicotine administration and spontaneous withdrawal and the role of the endogenous cannabinoids was also investigated. C57BL6J mice were implanted with intra-oral fi...

  4. Palliative radiation treatment of cutaneous mycosis fungoides - a dose response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotter, G.W.; Baglan, R.J.; Wasserman, T.H.; Mill, W.

    1983-10-01

    Between 1966 and 1981, 20 patients (191 lesions) underwent palliative radiation therapy for control of biopsy-proven cutaneous mycosis fungoides. Six patients (47 lesions) and an additional 34 lesions from the remaining 14 patients with complete response to treatment were excluded from the study because of follow-up of less than one year. Included in the remaining 110 lesions were all recurrences and all partial responses. The modalities for treatment included superficial X rays, Cobalt-60 or electron beam irradiation. The total tumor doses employed ranged from 600-4000 cGy. The 110 lesions (14 patients) were retrospectively analyzed to determine the dose required for local control of the lesions. Fifty-three percent of the lesions were classified as plaques, 20% as tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter, and 27% as tumors > 3 cm in diameter. Complete response to treatment was observed in 95% of the plaque lesions, 95% of the tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter and 93% of tumor > 3 cm in diameter. A complete response to treatment was noted in all lesions receiving greater than 2000 cGy. In the total population of lesions having a complete response, a local infield recurrence rate of 42% was noted in the group receiving less than or equal to 1000 cGy, 32% in those receiving 1001-2000 cGy, 21% in those receiving 2001-3000 cGy, and 0% in the group receiving > 3000 cGy. The data from this study indicate that tumor doses equivalent to at least 3000 cGy at 200 cGy per fraction, five fractions per week (TDF greater than or equal to) are needed for adquate local control of cutaneous mycosis fungoides lesions.

  5. T-SPOT.TB responses during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conde Marcus B

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens could serve as surrogate markers of treatment response. Methods Using the T-SPOT.TB assay and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we enumerated ESAT-6- and CFP-10-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells over time in pulmonary TB patients receiving directly observed treatment. T cell responses (measured as "spot forming cells" or "SFCs" were assessed prior to treatment and at 16 and 24 weeks of treatment. Results 58 patients were evaluated, of whom 57 were HIV seronegative. Mean (SD ESAT-6, CFP-10, and summed RD1 specific SFCs declined from 42.7 (72.7, 41.2 (66.4, and 83.8 (105.7 at baseline to 23.3 (39.4, p = 0.01, 23.2 (29.4, p = 0.18, and 46.5 (59.5, p = 0.02 at completion of 24 weeks of treatment, respectively. Only 10% of individuals with a baseline reactive test reverted to negative at treatment week 24. For the group that was culture positive at completion of 8 weeks of treatment compared to the culture negative group, the incidence rate ratio (IRR of ESAT-6, CFP-10, and summed RD1 specific SFC counts were, respectively, 2.23 (p = 0.048, 1.51 (p = 0.20, and 1.83 (p = 0.047. Patients with cavitary disease had mean ESAT-6 specific SFC counts that were higher than those without cavitary disease (IRR 2.08, p = 0.034. Conclusion IFN-γ-producing RD1-specific T cells, as measured in the T-SPOT.TB assay, may be directly related to bacterial load in patients undergoing treatment for pulmonary TB. However, high inter-subject variability in quantitative results coupled with failure of reversion to negative of qualitative results in most subjects at treatment completion may limit the utility of this assay as a surrogate marker for treatment efficacy.

  6. Maternal stress and plural breeding with communal care affect development of the endocrine stress response in a wild rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Davis, Garrett T; Romero, L Michael

    2015-09-01

    Maternal stress can significantly affect offspring fitness. In laboratory rodents, chronically stressed mothers provide poor maternal care, resulting in pups with hyperactive stress responses. These hyperactive stress responses are characterized by high glucocorticoid levels in response to stressors plus poor negative feedback, which can ultimately lead to decreased fitness. In degus (Octodon degus) and other plural breeding rodents that exhibit communal care, however, maternal care from multiple females may buffer the negative impact on pups born to less parental mothers. We used wild, free-living degus to test this hypothesis. After parturition, we manipulated maternal stress by implanting cortisol pellets in 0%, 50-75%, or 100% of adult females within each social group. We then sampled pups for baseline and stress-induced cortisol, negative feedback efficacy, and adrenal sensitivity. From groups where all mothers were implanted with cortisol, pups had lower baseline cortisol levels and male pups additionally had weaker negative feedback compared to 0% or 50-75% implanted groups. Contrary to expectations, stress-induced cortisol did not differ between treatment groups. These data suggest that maternal stress impacts some aspects of the pup stress response, potentially through decreased maternal care, but that presence of unstressed mothers may mitigate some of these effects. Therefore, one benefit of plural breeding with communal care may be to buffer post-natal stress.

  7. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bruder-Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load. One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im. Acute immobilization stress (2 h was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g: sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.

  8. NOD2 and ATG16L1 polymorphisms affect monocyte responses in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dylan M Glubb; Richard B Gearry; Murray L Barclay; Rebecca L Roberts; John Pearson; Jacqui I Keenan; Judy McKenzie; Robert W Bentley

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether polymorphisms in NOD2 and ATG16L1 affect cytokine responses and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) survival in monocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients.METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients of known genotype for common single nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD2 and ATG16L1 .Monocytes were challenged with MAP and bacterial persistence assessed at subsequent time-points. Cytokine responses were assayed using a Milliplex multi-analyte profiling assay for 13 cytokines.RESULTS: Monocytes heterozygous for a NOD2 polymorphism (R702W, P268S, or 1007fs) were more permissive for growth of MAP (P = 0.045) than those without. There was no effect of NOD2 genotype on subsequent cytokine expression. The T300A polymorphism of ATG16L1 did not affect growth of MAP in our model (P= 0.175), but did increase expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 (P = 0.047) and IL-6 (P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: CD-associated polymorphisms affected the elimination of MAP from ex vivo monocytes (NOD2 ), or expression of certain cytokines (ATG16L1 ), implying independent but contributory roles in the pathogenesis of CD.

  9. Factors that affect response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M H; Al-Sarraf, M; Vaitkevicius, V K

    1979-06-01

    A review of 164 patients with far advanced head and neck cancer, treated by a cytotoxic chemotherapy over a ten year period, at WAyne State University, Detroit, Michigan, was done in an attempt to determine factors that may influence the response to chemotherapy and subsequent survival. Response rate to methotrexate was 28%, 5-FU 31%, and porfiromycin 13%. Improved responses were noted with combination chemotherapy. Patients who failed to first line therapy rarely responded to other single agent or combination chemotherapy. Those who did not have prior surgery and/or radiotherapy had better results from drug therapy. Patients with good performance status at the time of initial chemotherapy, had better response to treatment (32% vs. 13% PR & CR) and longer survival (28 weeks vs. 9 weeks, p = 0.01) when compared to those with poor status. Patients who responded to chemotherapy have better survival compared to nonresponders (29 weeks vs. 16 weeks, p = 0.002). This information may prove helpful in future planning of multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:455217

  10. 20 CFR 410.476 - Responsibility to give notice of event which may affect a change in disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibility to give notice of event which may affect a change in disability status. 410.476 Section 410.476 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.476 Responsibility to give notice of event which may affect...

  11. Does response mode affect amount recalled or the magnitude of the testing effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Adam L; Roediger, Henry L

    2013-01-01

    The testing effect is the finding that retrieval practice can enhance recall on future tests. One unanswered question is whether first-test response mode (writing or speaking the answer) affects final-test performance (and whether final-test response mode itself matters). An additional unsettled issue is whether written and oral recall lead to differences in the amount recalled. In three experiments, we examined these issues: whether subjects can recall more via typing or speaking; whether typing or speaking answers on a first test can lead to better final-test performance (and whether an interaction occurs with final-test response mode) and whether any form of overt response leads to better final-test performance as compared to covert retrieval (thinking of the answer but not producing it). Subjects studied paired associates; took a first test by typing, speaking, or thinking about responses; and then took a second test in which the answers were either spoken or typed. The results revealed few differences between typing and speaking during recall, and no difference in the size of the testing effect on the second test. Furthermore, an initial covert retrieval yielded roughly the same benefit to future test performance as did overt retrieval. Thus, the testing effect was quite robust across these manipulations. The practical implication for learning is that covert retrieval provides as much benefit to later retention as does overt retrieval and that both can be effective study strategies. PMID:22898928

  12. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER assays and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  13. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive. PMID:24130876

  14. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  15. Paroxetine treatment and the prolactin response to sumatriptan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Y K; Clifford, E M; Sheehan, B D; Campling, G M; Hockney, R A; Cowen, P J

    1996-04-01

    We studied the effect of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), paroxetine (20 mg daily for 16 days) on the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, thermic and subjective responses to the 5-HT1D receptor agonist, sumatriptan (6 mg, SC). Compared to placebo injection, sumatriptan lowered plasma prolactin and oral temperature and increased diastolic blood pressure. While paroxetine increased baseline prolactin concentration, it had no effect on any of the responses to sumatriptan. In addition, paroxetine did not alter concentrations of sumatriptan in plasma. No adverse reactions resulted from the combination of sumatriptan and paroxetine. Our findings suggest that combined treatment with sumatriptan and paroxetine in the doses used in this study is not necessarily contra-indicated. In addition, short-term SSRI treatment may not desensitise 5-HT1D autoreceptors in humans. PMID:8739554

  16. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  17. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administered antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2004-01-01

    intraperitoneal immunization without adjuvant was measured, and oral tolerance induction against beta-LG after administration of either an aqueous solution or water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of beta-LG was evaluated. Results: LPS contamination of beta-LG provoked a beta-LG-specific IgG2a lresponse, as well......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. Methods: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon......-LG was contaminated with LPS. Conclusions: LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein....

  18. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Enns, Robert; Kazemi, Pooya; Chung, Wiley; Lee, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women) with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Fu...

  19. Trajectories of Response to Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Nathan R.; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Schuster, Jennifer; Litz, Brett T.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the predictors of response to cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD has often produced inconsistent or ambiguous results. We argue this is in part due to the use of statistical techniques that explore relationships among the entire sample of participants rather than homogeneous subgroups. Using two large randomized controlled trials of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), CPT components, and Prolonged Exposure, we employed growth mixture modeling to identify distinct trajectorie...

  20. Renal function affects absorbed dose to the kidneys and haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Johanna; Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Waengberg, Bo [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, Maria [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Bernhardt, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Bioengineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become an important treatment option in the management of advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Long-lasting responses are reported for a majority of treated patients, with good tolerability and a favourable impact on quality of life. The treatment is usually limited by the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys, where the radiopharmaceutical is reabsorbed and retained, or by evident haematological toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate how renal function affects (1) absorbed dose to the kidneys, and (2) the development of haematological toxicity during PRRT treatment. The study included 51 patients with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour who received {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment during 2006 - 2011 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. An average activity of 7.5 GBq (3.5 - 8.2 GBq) was given at intervals of 6 - 8 weeks on one to five occasions. Patient baseline characteristics according to renal and bone marrow function, tumour burden and medical history including prior treatment were recorded. Renal and bone marrow function were then monitored during treatment. Renal dosimetry was performed according to the conjugate view method, and the residence time for the radiopharmaceutical in the whole body was calculated. A significant correlation between inferior renal function before treatment and higher received renal absorbed dose per administered activity was found (p < 0.01). Patients with inferior renal function also experienced a higher grade of haematological toxicity during treatment (p = 0.01). The residence time of {sup 177}Lu in the whole body (range 0.89 - 3.0 days) was correlated with grade of haematological toxicity (p = 0.04) but not with renal absorbed dose (p = 0.53). Patients with inferior renal function were exposed to higher renal absorbed dose per administered activity and developed a higher grade of haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. The study confirms the

  1. [Affective disorders and their treatment during pregnancy and after birth -- a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félegyházy, Zsolt; Adler, Mats

    2013-03-01

    Treatment and management of affective disorders associated with pregnancy is still an underemphasized field receiving little attention, furthermore, it is burdened with misinformation as well as incomplete or missing knowledge. Professionals of related fields (psychiatrists, obstetrician-gynecologists) often provide patients with contradicting information or, due to their lack of sufficient knowledge, keep referring the patient for information between different services. However, there is an increasing amount of data and information available, suitable for drawing conclusions and making it possible to provide adequate and credible counselling and information for pregnant women or family planning couples. In the present paper we aim to facilitate this process by reviewing the currently available information.

  2. The timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation affects responses to platform translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacka, F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We compared the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation applied at 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 s prior to a backward platform translation on postural responses. The effect of the galvanic stimulation was largest on the final equilibrium position of the center of pressure (CoP). The largest effects occurred for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-period, when the dynamic CoP pressure changes in response to both the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation coincided. The shift in the final equilibrium position was also larger than the sum of the shifts for the galvanic stimulus and the platform translation alone for the 0.5 and 0-s pre-periods. The initial rate of change of the CoP response to the platform translation was not significantly affected in any condition. Changes in the peak CoP position could be accounted for by local interaction of CoP velocity changes induced by the galvanic and translation responses alone, but the changes in final equilibrium position could only be accounted for by a change in global body orientation. These findings suggest that the contribution of vestibulospinal information is greatest during the dynamic phase of the postural response, and that the vestibular system contributes most to the later components of the postural response, particularly to the final equilibrium position. These findings suggest that a nonlinear interaction between the vestibular signal induced by the galvanic current and the sensory stimuli produced by the platform translation occurs when the two stimuli are presented within 1 s, during the dynamic phase of the postural response to the galvanic stimulus. When presented at greater separations in time, the stimuli appear to be treated as independent events, such that no interaction occurs. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  4. Atomoxetine pharmacogenetics: associations with pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob T; Bishop, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is predominantly metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme. Differences in pharmacokinetic parameters as well as clinical treatment outcomes across CYP2D6 genotype groups have resulted in dosing recommendations within the product label, but clinical studies supporting the use of genotype guided dosing are currently lacking. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies have primarily focused on extensive as compared with poor metabolizers, with little information known about other metabolizer categories as well as genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of atomoxetine. This review describes the pharmacogenetic associations with atomoxetine pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability with considerations for the clinical utility of this information.

  5. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fortune, Anne F

    2012-02-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available. We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and\\/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5). Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective. Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) 37 months from diagnosis were 80% and 52%, respectively. Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.

  6. Affects, agency, and self-regulation: complexity theory in the treatment of children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly unsettled and violent world, with swelling numbers of children who are abused, abandoned, or neglected, emotionally if not physically, and an increasing population of aggressive preschool children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders who cannot be contained in ordinary settings, psychoanalysts can make a contribution. Early intervention is essential. In very early childhood, new procedural memories for interacting with others and for regulating affects can be formed more easily than they can ever be again. Intervention should aim toward helping the child develop a sense of agency, establish moral standards, assume self-responsibility, and attain the capacity for emotional regulation. The principles of complex dynamic systems can inform psychoanalytic treatment strategies, as demonstrated with five children whose cases are presented.

  7. Daytime and nighttime wind differentially affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-05-01

    This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response. PMID:26541407

  8. Verbal conditioning of affect responses of process and reactive schizophrenics in a clinical interview situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansa, M

    1979-06-01

    Sixteen process and 16 reactive schizoprenics out-patients were compared on a verbal conditioning task in an alternating conditioning-extinction design, using verbal and non-verbal positive social reinforcement to influence the emission of self-referred affect statements. It was found that process subjects failed to condition during the time periods used, while reactives demonstrated a significant trials effect showing trends consistent with those hypothesized from the type of design used. This differential conditionability between groups was shown not to be a function of diagnosis, sex, motivation, severity of illness, medication, hospitalization history, or general speech output. It was concluded that the degree of social responsiveness manifested in the premorbid history of the two groups is also operative in behaviour during the psychotic period, specifically, in responsiveness to positive social reinforcers in a verbal conditioning task. PMID:486358

  9. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  10. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  11. Catatonia: Etiopathological diagnoses and treatment response in a tertiary care setting: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Catatonia is caused by a variety of psychiatric and organic conditions. The onset, clinical profile, and response to treatment may vary depending on the underlying cause. The study is an attempt to explore clinical profile, possible etiological correlates with neurotic/psychotic spectrum illnesses, and response to treatment and outcome in patients of catatonia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart analysis by using semistructured data sheet for the analysis of sociodemographic data, clinical profile, precipitating event, and response to treatment in patients with catatonic symptoms admitted to IHBAS (Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, India from January 2009 to December 2010 was undertaken. Results: Catatonia was commonly observed in patients with the following profile - late twenties, female, Hindu religion, urban background, and housewives. Psychotic spectrum disorder (57%, N=35 was the most commonly entertained diagnosis and affective disorder (18%, N=11 being the second common. Thirty four percent of the subjects responded to lorazepam treatment and rest required modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT. Conclusion: Catatonia is more likely to be associated with Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders in Indian settings. Majority of patients responded to therapy either by lorazepam alone or to its augmentation with modified ECT. The study being a retrospective one, the sample being representative of the treatment seeking group only, and unavailability of the follow up data were the limitations of the study

  12. Factors affecting response to hepatitis b vaccine among hemodialysis patients in a large Saudi Hemodialysis Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Saran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination in patients on hemodialysis (HD and to identify the factors that could affect this response. This retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 in the Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD, Riyadh, and included 144 patients (78 males and 66 females on regular HD, all of whom received hepatitis B vacci-nation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb: Responders group (>10 IU/L and non-responders group (<10 IU/L. The study looked at the factors that may affect the responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination, like gender, age, co-existence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, dialysis adequacy that was evaluated by urea reduction ratio (URR and Kt/V, hemoglobin level, albumin level, protein catabolic rate (PCR, body mass index (BMI, subjective global nutritional status (SGA and HbA1c. There were 129 patients (89.6% in the responders group including 69 males and 60 females and 15 patients (10.4% in the non-responders group including nine males and six females. The mean age in the responders group and the non-responders group was 50.56 ± 15.35 and 56.87 ± 12.52 years, respectively (P = 0.128. The mean value of the PCR was 1.03 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17 g/kg/day in the responders group and non-responders group, respectively (P = 0.002. There was no statically significant difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of HCV infection, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, URR, Kt/V, hemoglobin level and albumin level. We report a high response rate (89% for HBV vaccination in our HD patients. The PCR was the only factor that affected the response to HBV vaccination in these patients.

  13. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance. PMID:23952256

  14. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward–reward discrimination cognitive bias task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard M.A.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Burman, Oliver H.P.; Browne, William J.; Mendl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward (‘optimism’) or punishment (‘pessimism’). We investigated whether an automated Reward–Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively ‘pessimistic’, whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

  15. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward-reward discrimination cognitive bias task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard M A; Paul, Elizabeth S; Burman, Oliver H P; Browne, William J; Mendl, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward ('optimism') or punishment ('pessimism'). We investigated whether an automated Reward-Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively 'pessimistic', whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases. PMID:25106739

  16. Metabolic syndrome - the consequence of lifelong treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ruzić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duska; Graovac, Mirjana; Palijan, Tija Zarković

    2010-06-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. A 61-year old female patient has been receiving continuous and systematic psychiatric treatment for Bipolar Affective Disorder for the last 39 years. The first episode was a depressive one and it occurred after a child delivery. Seventeen years ago the patient developed diabetes (diabetes type II), and twelve years ago arterial hypertension was diagnosed. High cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as weight gain were objective findings. During the last nine years she has been treated for lower leg ulcer. Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome. When treating Bipolar Affective Disorder, the antipsychotic drug choice should be careful and aware of its side-effects in order to avoid the development or aggravation of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20562789

  17. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Suzanne Ho-wai; Begemann, Marieke J. H.; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual’s responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals’ cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed. PMID:27698407

  18. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 7: biological treatment of contaminated milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a nuclear accident affecting the UK, regulation of contamination in the foodchain would involve both the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the Environment Agency (EA). Restrictions would be based on intervention levels imposed by the Council of the European Communities (often referred to as Council Food Intervention Levels, CFILs). FSA would be responsible for preventing commercial foodstuffs with concentrations of radionuclides above the CFILs from entering the foodchain, while EA would regulate the storage and disposal of the waste food. Milk is particularly important in this respect because it is produced continually in large quantities in many parts of the UK. An evaluation of various options for the management of waste foodstuffs has been carried out by NRPB, with support from FSA and its predecessor, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, and EA. This report describes an evaluation of the practicability of one of those options, namely the biological treatment of contaminated milk. Whole milk has a high content of organic matter and in consequence a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). If not disposed of properly, releases of whole milk into the environment can have a substantial detrimental effect because of the high BOD. Biological treatments are therefore potentially an attractive management option because the fermentation by bacteria reduces the BOD in the resultant liquid effluent. The objectives of this study were as follows: a. To compile information about the options available for the biological treatment of milk; b. To establish the legal position; c. To assess practicability in terms of technical feasibility, capacity, cost, environmental and radiological impacts and acceptability; d. To assess the radiation doses that might be received by process operators, contractors, farmers and the general public from the biological treatment of contaminated milk. The radionuclides of interest were 131II

  19. Productivity of sugar beet as affected by salinity and radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of experiments were carried out in the two successive seasons,1983 and 1984 at the agricultural department for soils and water researches, A.E.A., to investigate the response of two sugar beet varieties; namely maribomaroc - poly and monopour to saline conditions and irradiation treatments signly or in combination. Saline conditions were performed by using different salt types, viz. sodium chloride 'Nacl; sodium bicarbonate 'NaHCO3' and potassium chloride 'KC1'. Each at 25,50,100 and 200 mel-1, beside the control treatment 'zero level 0.0'. In addition, irradiation doses that had been applied to seeds before sowing were 50, 100 and 200 gray, beside the unirradiated ones

  20. Enteric microbiome metabolites correlate with response to simvastatin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Kaddurah-Daouk

    Full Text Available Although statins are widely prescribed medications, there remains considerable variability in therapeutic response. Genetics can explain only part of this variability. Metabolomics is a global biochemical approach that provides powerful tools for mapping pathways implicated in disease and in response to treatment. Metabolomics captures net interactions between genome, microbiome and the environment. In this study, we used a targeted GC-MS metabolomics platform to measure a panel of metabolites within cholesterol synthesis, dietary sterol absorption, and bile acid formation to determine metabolite signatures that may predict variation in statin LDL-C lowering efficacy. Measurements were performed in two subsets of the total study population in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (CAP study: Full Range of Response (FR, and Good and Poor Responders (GPR were 100 individuals randomly selected from across the entire range of LDL-C responses in CAP. GPR were 48 individuals, 24 each from the top and bottom 10% of the LDL-C response distribution matched for body mass index, race, and gender. We identified three secondary, bacterial-derived bile acids that contribute to predicting the magnitude of statin-induced LDL-C lowering in good responders. Bile acids and statins share transporters in the liver and intestine; we observed that increased plasma concentration of simvastatin positively correlates with higher levels of several secondary bile acids. Genetic analysis of these subjects identified associations between levels of seven bile acids and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs4149056, in the gene encoding the organic anion transporter SLCO1B1. These findings, along with recently published results that the gut microbiome plays an important role in cardiovascular disease, indicate that interactions between genome, gut microbiome and environmental influences should be considered in the study and management of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic

  1. Power generation and oil sands process-affected water treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), a product of bitumen isolation in the oil sands industry, is a source of pollution if not properly treated. In present study, OSPW treatment and voltage generation were examined in a single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (MFC) under the effect of inoculated carbon source and temperature. OSPW treatment with an anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFC (AS-MFC) generated 0.55 ± 0.025 V, whereas an MFC inoculated with mature-fine tailings (MFT-MFC) generated 0.41 ± 0.01 V. An additional carbon source (acetate) significantly improved generated voltage. The voltage detected increased to 20-23% in MFCs when the condition was switched from ambient to mesophilic. The mesophilic condition increased OSPW treatment efficiency in terms of lowering the chemical oxygen demand and acid-extractable organics. Pyrosequencing analysis of microbial consortia revealed that Proteobacteria were the most abundant in MFCs and microbial communities in the AS-MFC were more diverse than those in the MFT-MFC.

  2. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  3. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle;

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  4. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  5. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  6. 'Ecstasy' as a social drug: MDMA preferentially affects responses to emotional stimuli with social content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Margaret C; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-08-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is used recreationally to improve mood and sociability, and has generated clinical interest as a possible adjunct to psychotherapy. One way that MDMA may produce positive 'prosocial' effects is by changing responses to emotional stimuli, especially stimuli with social content. Here, we examined for the first time how MDMA affects subjective responses to positive, negative and neutral emotional pictures with and without social content. We hypothesized that MDMA would dose-dependently increase reactivity to positive emotional stimuli and dampen reactivity to negative stimuli, and that these effects would be most pronounced for pictures with people in them. The data were obtained from two studies using similar designs with healthy occasional MDMA users (total N = 101). During each session, participants received MDMA (0, 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg oral), and then rated their positive and negative responses to standardized positive, negative and neutral pictures with and without social content. MDMA increased positive ratings of positive social pictures, but reduced positive ratings of non-social positive pictures. We speculate this 'socially selective' effect contributes to the prosocial effects of MDMA by increasing the comparative value of social contact and closeness with others. This effect may also contribute to its attractiveness to recreational users.

  7. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship. PMID:26943924

  8. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1 were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level.

  9. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-12-02

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level.

  10. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. CONCLUSIONS: Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an

  11. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability. PMID:20688369

  12. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  13. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Further information regarding the patients’ clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment were obtained through chart reviews and patient telephone interviews. The mean age of the patients at symptom onset was 30 years. All patients complained of dysphagia, 81% had a history of bolus obstruction, 43% had a history of asthma and 70% had a history of environmental allergies. Thirty-three per cent had a family history of asthma, while 52% had a family history of food or seasonal allergies. The most common endoscopic findings were rings and/or corrugations, which were found in 63% of patients. Swallowed fluticasone therapy resulted in symptom resolution in 74% of patients; however, 79% of these patients relapsed after discontinuing fluticasone therapy and required repeat treatments. Esophageal dilation was complication free and resulted in improvement in 80% of patients. However, 83% of those reporting improvement relapsed within one year. The clinical and endoscopic findings were similar to those found in the literature, with most patients requiring ongoing, repeated therapies. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of treatment modalities ideally suited to patients with EE.

  14. UNDERSTANDING THE NEUROINFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING CONCUSSION TO DEVELOP TREATMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI have been associated with long-term cognitive deficits relating to trauma-induced neurodegeneration. These long-term deficits include impaired memory and attention, changes in executive function, emotional instability and sensorimotor deficits. Furthermore, individuals with concussions show a high co-morbidity with a host of psychiatric illnesses (e.g. depression, anxiety, addiction and dementia. The neurological damage seen in mTBI patients is the result of the direct impact and mechanical injury, followed by a delayed neuroimmune response that can last hours, days and even months after the injury. As part of the neuroimmune response, a cascade of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released and can be detected at the site of injury as well as subcortical, and often contralateral, regions. It has been suggested that the delayed neuroinflammatory response to concussions is more damaging then the initial impact itself. However, evidence exists for favourable consequences of cytokine production following traumatic brain injuries as well. In some cases, treatments that reduce the inflammatory response will also hinder the brain's intrinsic repair mechanisms. At present, there is no evidence-based pharmacological treatment for concussions in humans. The ability to treat concussions with drug therapy requires an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological and neuroinflammatory changes that accompany concussive injuries. The use of neurotrophic factors (e.g. nerve growth factor and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct for the management of post-concussion symptomology will be explored in this review.

  15. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  16. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  17. Pleasant for some and unpleasant for others: a protocol analysis of the cognitive factors that influence affective responses to exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfitt Gaynor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At exercise intensities around ventilatory threshold (VT, the extent to which individuals experience pleasure or displeasure from the exercise varies between individuals. One source of this variability is proposed to be the cognitive appraisal that occurs during the exercise which influences the generation of the affective response. When individuals self-select their own intensity they choose to exercise around VT and experience more positive affective responses, again the explanation being that cognitive appraisal processes influence the choice of intensity and resulting affective response. However, the specific factors that comprise this appraisal process have not been thoroughly explored. In addition, it is not clear if activity status influences this appraisal and different cognitive factors play a role in the generation of affective responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive factors that influence the affective response experienced during prescribed and self-selected intensity exercise in low-active and high-active women. Methods Seventeen low-active and 15 high-active women (M age = 45 years, SD = 10 completed a graded exercise test and two 30 min bouts of treadmill exercise, one at a self-selected intensity and one prescribed at an intensity around VT. Using 'think aloud' procedures, every five min, the women were asked to provide an affective response and explain the thought processes that caused them to report that affective response. Using inductive content analysis, the verbal reports provided by the women were analysed for key themes and categories that emerged as explaining the factors that underpinned the generation of the affective response. Data from the low-active and high-active women were analysed separately. Results Concepts relating to pre-exercise affective state, perceptions of ability, immediate and anticipated outcomes, attentional focus and perceptions of control

  18. Complexities of Emotional Responses to Social and Nonsocial Affective Stimuli in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Peterman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adaptive emotional responses are important in interpersonal relationships. We investigated self-reported emotional experience, physiological reactivity, and micro-facial expressivity in relation to the social nature of stimuli in individuals with schizophrenia.METHOD: Galvanic skin response (GSR and facial electromyography (fEMG were recorded in medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ and demograph-ically-matched healthy controls (CO while they viewed social and non-social im-ages from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS. Participants rated the valence and arousal, and selected a label for experienced emotions. Symp-tom severity in the SZ, and schizotypy in CO were assessed.RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in their labeling of the emotions evoked by the stimuli, but individuals with schizophrenia were more positive in their va-lence ratings. Although self-reported arousal was similar in both groups, GSR was greater in schizophrenia, suggesting differential awareness or calibration of internal states. Both groups reported social images to be more arousing than non-social images but their physiological responses to nonsocial vs. social imag-es were different. Self-reported arousal to neutral social images was correlated with positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Negative symptoms in SZ and disor-ganized schizotypy in CO were associated with reduced fEMG. Greater corruga-tor fEMG activity for positive images in SZ indicates valence-incongruent facial expressions.CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of emotional responses differed between the two groups. While both groups were in broad agreement in self-reported arousal and emotion labels, their GSR and fEMG correlates of emotion diverged in relation to the social nature of the stimuli and clinical measures. Importantly, these results suggest disrupted self awareness of internal states in schizophrenia and under-score the complexities of emotion processing in health and

  19. Modulating affect, cognition and behavior – prospects of deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Schlaepfer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Most patients suffering from psychiatric disorders respond to combina-tions of psycho- and psychopharmacotherapy, however there are patients who profit little if anything even after many years of treatment. Since about a decade different modalities of targeted neuromodulation – among them most prominently – Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS - are being actively researched as putative approaches to very treatment resistant forms of those disorders. Recently, promising pilot data have been re-ported both for Major Depression (MD and Obsessive-Compulsive Disor-der (OCD. Given the fact that patients studied had been treated unsuc-cessfully for many years renders these findings remarkable. Remarkable is the fact, that in case of the long-term studies underway for MD, patients show a stable response. This gives hope to a substantial percentage of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients requiring new therapy approaches. There are no fundamental ethic objections to its use in psychiatric disor-ders, but until substantial clinical data is available, mandatory standards are needed. DBS is a unique and very promising method for the treat-ment of therapy-resistant psychiatric patients. The method allows ma-nipulating pathological neuronal networks in a very precise way.

  20. New ABA-hypersensitive Arabidopsis mutants are affected in loci mediating responses to water deficit and Dickeya dadantii infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Plessis

    Full Text Available On water deficit, abscisic acid (ABA induces stomata closure to reduce water loss by transpiration. To identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants which transpire less on drought, infrared thermal imaging of leaf temperature has been used to screen for suppressors of an ABA-deficient mutant (aba3-1 cold-leaf phenotype. Three novel mutants, called hot ABA-deficiency suppressor (has, have been identified with hot-leaf phenotypes in the absence of the aba3 mutation. The defective genes imparted no apparent modification to ABA production on water deficit, were inherited recessively and enhanced ABA responses indicating that the proteins encoded are negative regulators of ABA signalling. All three mutants showed ABA-hypersensitive stomata closure and inhibition of root elongation with little modification of growth and development in non-stressed conditions. The has2 mutant also exhibited increased germination inhibition by ABA, while ABA-inducible gene expression was not modified on dehydration, indicating the mutated gene affects early ABA-signalling responses that do not modify transcript levels. In contrast, weak ABA-hypersensitivity relative to mutant developmental phenotypes suggests that HAS3 regulates drought responses by both ABA-dependent and independent pathways. has1 mutant phenotypes were only apparent on stress or ABA treatments, and included reduced water loss on rapid dehydration. The HAS1 locus thus has the required characteristics for a targeted approach to improving resistance to water deficit. In contrast to has2, has1 exhibited only minor changes in susceptibility to Dickeya dadantii despite similar ABA-hypersensitivity, indicating that crosstalk between ABA responses to this pathogen and drought stress can occur through more than one point in the signalling pathway.

  1. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13–19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved. PMID:27635134

  2. Identification of Regulatory Mutations in SERPINC1 Affecting Vitamin D Response Elements Associated with Antithrombin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderici, Mara; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Antón, Ana Isabel; Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Herranz, María Teresa; Fernández, Nuria; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a crucial anticoagulant serpin whose even moderate deficiency significantly increases the risk of thrombosis. Most cases with antithrombin deficiency carried genetic defects affecting exons or flanking regions of SERPINC1.We aimed to identify regulatory mutations inSERPINC1 through sequencing the promoter, intron 1 and 2 of this gene in 23 patients with antithrombin deficiency but without known genetic defects. Three cases with moderate antithrombin deficiency (63–78%) carried potential regulatory mutations. One located 200 bp before the initiation ATG and two in intron 1. These mutations disrupted two out of five potential vitamin D receptor elements (VDRE) identified in SERPINC1 with different software. One genetic defect, c.42-1060_-1057dupTTGA, was a new low prevalent polymorphism (MAF: 0.01) with functional consequences on plasma antithrombin levels. The relevance of the vitamin D pathway on the regulation of SERPINC1 was confirmed in a cell model. Incubation of HepG2 with paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, increased dose-dependently the levels of SERPINC1transcripts and antithrombin released to the conditioned medium. This study shows further evidence of the transcriptional regulation of SERPINC1 by vitamin D and first describes the functional and pathological relevance of mutations affecting VDRE of this gene. Our study opens new perspectives in the search of new genetic defects involved in antithrombin deficiency and the risk of thrombosis as well as in the design of new antithrombotic treatments. PMID:27003919

  3. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  4. Natural parasite infection affects the tolerance but not the response to a simulated secondary parasite infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Lutermann

    Full Text Available Parasites deplete the resources of their host and can consequently affect the investment in competing traits (e.g. reproduction and immune defence. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that testosterone (T mediates trade-offs between parasite defence and reproductive investment by suppressing immune function in male vertebrates while more recently a role for glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol (C in resource allocation has been suggested. These hypotheses however, have not always found support in wild animals, possibly because most studies focus on a single parasite species, whereas infections with multiple parasites are the rule in nature. We measured body mass, T- and C-levels of wild male highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae naturally uninfected or infected with a cestode (Mathevotaenia sp. right after capture. Subsequently, we injected animals subcutaneously with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS to simulate a bacterial infection and recorded changes in body mass, food intake, haematological parameters and hormone levels. As a control, animals were injected with saline. Natural infection neither affected initial body mass nor C-levels, whereas infected males had significantly reduced T-levels. We observed significant reductions in food intake, body mass and T in response to LPS but not saline while C increased. However, this response did not vary with infection status. In contrast, final body mass and some haematological parameters were significantly lowered in infected males. Our results suggest that naturally infected males are able to compensate for resource depletion by physiological adjustments. However, this leaves them less tolerant to the challenges of a secondary infection.

  5. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p < 0.001) and larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs. PMID:26348409

  6. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity.

  7. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  8. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs.

  9. The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2 Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise conditions, a control condition with no stimuli and two test conditions; one supplemented with a self-selected video and the other self-selected music. The Feeling Scale (FS was administered prior to, every 10 min during, immediately following, and 10 min post exercise. (3 Results: These data demonstrate a significant condition effect for FS during exercise. The condition effect was due to FS being greater in the video and distraction conditions. There was no time by condition interaction seen during exercise. (4 Conclusion: These data indicate that distraction may be effective in supporting a more pleasant exercise experience and could potentially increase exercise adherence.

  10. Affect Intensity and Phasic REM Sleep in Depressed Men before and after Treatment with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored relationship between daytime affect and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in 45 depressed men before and after treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and in control group of 43 healthy subjects. For depressed subjects only, intensity of daytime affect correlated significantly and positively with phasic REM sleep measures at pre- and…

  11. Leaf age affects the responses of foliar injury and gas exchange to tropospheric ozone in Prunus serotina seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianwei, E-mail: jianweizhang@fs.fed.u [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaub, Marcus; Ferdinand, Jonathan A. [Environmental Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Skelly, John M. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Steiner, Kim C. [School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Savage, James E. [Department of Plant Pathology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the effect of leaf age on the response of net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g{sub wv}), foliar injury, and leaf nitrogen concentration (N{sub L}) to tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) on Prunus serotina seedlings grown in open-plots (AA) and open-top chambers, supplied with either carbon-filtered or non-filtered air. We found significant variation in A, g{sub wv}, foliar injury, and N{sub L} (P < 0.05) among O{sub 3} treatments. Seedlings in AA showed the highest A and g{sub wv} due to relatively low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Older leaves showed significantly lower A, g{sub wv}, N{sub L}, and higher foliar injury (P < 0.001) than younger leaves. Leaf age affected the response of A, g{sub wv}, and foliar injury to O{sub 3}. Both VPD and N{sub L} had a strong influence on leaf gas exchange. Foliar O{sub 3}-induced injury appeared when cumulative O{sub 3} uptake reached 8-12 mmol m{sup -2}, depending on soil water availability. The mechanistic assessment of O{sub 3}-induced injury is a valuable approach for a biologically relevant O{sub 3} risk assessment for forest trees. - Ozone effects on symptom development and leaf gas exchange interacted with leaf age and N-content on black cherry seedlings.

  12. Chronic fatigue syndrome and seasonal affective disorder: comorbidity, diagnostic overlap, and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, M; Levine, S M; Terman, J S; Doherty, S

    1998-09-28

    This study aimed to determine symptom patterns in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), in summer and winter. Comparison data for patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) were used to evaluate seasonal variation in mood and behavior, atypical neurovegetative symptoms characteristic of SAD, and somatic symptoms characteristic of CFS. Rating scale questionnaires were mailed to patients previously diagnosed with CFS. Instruments included the Personal Inventory for Depression and SAD (PIDS) and the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Effects (SAFTEE), which catalogs the current severity of a wide range of somatic, behavioral, and affective symptoms. Data sets from 110 CFS patients matched across seasons were entered into the analysis. Symptoms that conform with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definition of CFS were rated as moderate to very severe during the winter months by varying proportions of patients (from 43% for lymph node pain or enlargement, to 79% for muscle, joint, or bone pain). Fatigue was reported by 92%. Prominent affective symptoms included irritability (55%), depressed mood (52%), and anxiety (51%). Retrospective monthly ratings of mood, social activity, energy, sleep duration, amount eaten, and weight change showed a coherent pattern of winter worsening. Of patients with consistent summer and winter ratings (n = 73), 37% showed high global seasonality scores (GSS) > or = 10. About half this group reported symptoms indicative of major depressive disorder, which was strongly associated with high seasonality. Hierarchical cluster analysis of wintertime symptoms revealed 2 distinct clinical profiles among CFS patients: (a) those with high seasonality, for whom depressed mood clustered with atypical neurovegetative symptoms of hypersomnia and hyperphagia, as is seen in SAD; and (b) those with low seasonality, who showed a primary clustering of classic CFS symptoms (fatigue, aches, cognitive disturbance

  13. Micro glial responses after focal radiation-induced injury are affected by α-difluoro methylornithine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to quantify microglial and astrocytic cell responses after focal 125I irradiation of normal brain and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of α-difluoro methylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Methods and Materials: Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity 125I sources. Saline or DFMO (75 mg/kg/day) was infused for 18 days, and 1 to 10 weeks later brain tissues were collected. Immunohistochemical stains were used to label phagocytes and amoeboid microglia (lectin RCA-1), astrocytes (GFAP), and cells synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (BrdU). Cell densities (cells/mm2) and BrdU labeling indices were quantified. Results: In dogs infused with saline, increases in phagocytes and amoeboid microglia were observed at 1-2 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. The labeling indices for phagocytes and amoeboid microglia peaked at 4 weeks with maximum values of 4.8 and 13.4%, respectively. Astrocyte cell numbers increased from 2-6 weeks following irradiation; increased labeling indices were observed after 2 weeks. An infusion of DFMO significantly suppressed BrdU labeling and delayed the increase in cell numbers for phagocytes and amoeboid microglia. In both treatment groups, the proportion of total BrdU labeling accounted for by phagocytes was maximum 1 week after irradiation and then decreased. The proportion of total BrdU labeling accounted for by amoeboid microglia and astrocytes was zero for 2 weeks and then increased. Conclusions: Microglial reactions after focal irradiation involve the phagocytic and amoeboid cell forms and are characterized by increased BrdU uptake and increased cell number. DFMO significantly alters these responses. Changes in astrocyte cell number and BrdU labeling may be related to changes in microglia. Studies of cell responses and their modification may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation injury, and to new strategies to optimize the use of

  14. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Noll, Jennie G.; Bukstein, Oscar G.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 – 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy not responsive to other treatments.

    OpenAIRE

    Nemni, R; Amadio, S; Fazio, R; GALARDI, G; Previtali, S; G. Comi

    1994-01-01

    Nine patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating poliradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. All patients had been previously treated with prednisone and/or plasma exchange without effect. Objective improvement in clinical condition occurred in six patients. One patient became refractory after two treatment courses, two patients had no response. The results indicate that intravenous immunoglobulin has beneficial effects in a high percentage of patients wit...

  16. No pain, no gain: the affective valence of congruency conditions changes following a successful response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Schouppe; S. Braem; J. de Houwer; M. Silvetti; T. Verguts; K.R. Ridderinkhof; W. Notebaert

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive control theory of Botvinick, Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 356-366 (2007) integrates cognitive and affective control processes by emphasizing the aversive nature of cognitive conflict. Using an affective priming paradigm, we replicate earlier results showing that

  17. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  18. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.

  19. Morphogenesis in Mucor mucedo: mutations affecting gamone response and organ differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, T; Jockusch, H

    1978-02-27

    Mutants of Mucor mucedo minus strain that are affected in their trisporic acid (TA) mediated zygophore formation have been isolated. We have found mutants with cold sensitive (cs), with temperature sensitive (ts) and without zygophore formation as well as mutants with unstable zygophores (Zst-). From the appearence of certain pleiotropic phenotypes we deduce a one-dimensional sequence of states of competence of the mycelium to form different organs. TA appears to be a growth substance for zygophores acting on one transient state of competence. The fact that all isolates with lowered response to TA also have a lowered response to the mating type specific TA-precursor P strongly suggests that P has to be converted into TA before inducing zygophore growth. Furthermore, one mutant with lowered sensitivity to TA exhibits an excess zygophore formation in the presence of high TA-concentrations, while high concentrations of P cause a depressed zygophore formation (Fig. 6). Our interpretation of this behaviour is that P acts as an antagonist to TA in the regulation of zygophore growth.

  20. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been associated with atrophy of the amygdala. By combining structural and functional MRI in 19 patients with bvFTD and 20 controls we investigated the neural effects of emotion in face-responsive cortex and its relationship with amygdalar gray matter (GM) volume in neurodegeneration. Voxel-based morphometry revealed decreased GM volume in anterior medio-temporal regions including amygdala in patients compared to controls. During fMRI, we presented dynamic facial expressions (fear and chewing) and their spatiotemporally scrambled versions. We found enhanced activation for fearful compared to neutral faces in ventral temporal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in controls, but not in patients. In the bvFTD group left amygdalar GM volume correlated positively with emotion-related activity in left fusiform face area (FFA). This correlation was amygdala-specific and driven by GM in superficial and basolateral (BLA) subnuclei, consistent with reported amygdalar-cortical networks. The data suggests that anterior medio-temporal atrophy in bvFTD affects emotion processing in distant posterior areas. PMID:27389802

  1. Paradoxical response during antituberculous treatment for abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Mi Jeong; Chang, Hyuk Won; Hwang, Jae Seok; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate clinical and CT findings of paradoxical response during treatment for abdominal tuberculosis. Authors reviewed the patient records of 138 patients with abdominal tuberculosis during a recent 6-year period and we selected 11 patients with a paradoxical response. The CT findings and pathologic findings of the initial lesions and new lesions were reviewed. The intervals between initiation of therapy and the detection of new lesions, improvement of new lesion and the final follow-up were evaluated. At the initial presentation, we identified tuberculous peritonitis in 8 patients, tuberculous lymphadenitis in 3 patients and ileocolic tuberculosis in two patients. New lesions were identified at 2-10 months (mean: 3.8 months) after the initiation of therapy and following improvement of the initial lesions. The new lesions were perihepatic caseous abscess (n=4), hepatic tuberculoma (n=3), hepatic caseous abscess (n=1), tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3), ileocolic tuberculosis (n=3), and splenic tuberculoma (n=1). Improvement of new lesions was noted at 4-14 months (mean: 7.6 months). At the final follow-up of seven patients, the new lesions disappeared and four patients still had small residual lesions. New lesions that develop in a patient with initial improvement should be considered a paradoxical response that will ultimately improve with continuation of the original medication.

  2. Seasonality affects macroalgal community response to increases in pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Baggini

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is expected to alter marine systems, but there is uncertainty about its effects due to the logistical difficulties of testing its large-scale and long-term effects. Responses of biological communities to increases in carbon dioxide can be assessed at CO2 seeps that cause chronic exposure to lower seawater pH over localised areas of seabed. Shifts in macroalgal communities have been described at temperate and tropical pCO2 seeps, but temporal and spatial replication of these observations is needed to strengthen confidence our predictions, especially because very few studies have been replicated between seasons. Here we describe the seawater chemistry and seasonal variability of macroalgal communities at CO2 seeps off Methana (Aegean Sea. Monitoring from 2011 to 2013 showed that seawater pH decreased to levels predicted for the end of this century at the seep site with no confounding gradients in Total Alkalinity, salinity, temperature or wave exposure. Most nutrient levels were similar along the pH gradient; silicate increased significantly with decreasing pH, but it was not limiting for algal growth at all sites. Metal concentrations in seaweed tissues varied between sites but did not consistently increase with pCO2. Our data on the flora are consistent with results from laboratory experiments and observations at Mediterranean CO2 seep sites in that benthic communities decreased in calcifying algal cover and increased in brown algal cover with increasing pCO2. This differs from the typical macroalgal community response to stress, which is a decrease in perennial brown algae and proliferation of opportunistic green algae. Cystoseira corniculata was more abundant in autumn and Sargassum vulgare in spring, whereas the articulated coralline alga Jania rubens was more abundant at reference sites in autumn. Diversity decreased with increasing CO2 regardless of season. Our results show that benthic community responses to ocean

  3. Seasonality affects macroalgal community response to increases in pCO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggini, Cecilia; Salomidi, Maria; Voutsinas, Emanuela; Bray, Laura; Krasakopoulou, Eva; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to alter marine systems, but there is uncertainty about its effects due to the logistical difficulties of testing its large-scale and long-term effects. Responses of biological communities to increases in carbon dioxide can be assessed at CO2 seeps that cause chronic exposure to lower seawater pH over localised areas of seabed. Shifts in macroalgal communities have been described at temperate and tropical pCO2 seeps, but temporal and spatial replication of these observations is needed to strengthen confidence our predictions, especially because very few studies have been replicated between seasons. Here we describe the seawater chemistry and seasonal variability of macroalgal communities at CO2 seeps off Methana (Aegean Sea). Monitoring from 2011 to 2013 showed that seawater pH decreased to levels predicted for the end of this century at the seep site with no confounding gradients in Total Alkalinity, salinity, temperature or wave exposure. Most nutrient levels were similar along the pH gradient; silicate increased significantly with decreasing pH, but it was not limiting for algal growth at all sites. Metal concentrations in seaweed tissues varied between sites but did not consistently increase with pCO2. Our data on the flora are consistent with results from laboratory experiments and observations at Mediterranean CO2 seep sites in that benthic communities decreased in calcifying algal cover and increased in brown algal cover with increasing pCO2. This differs from the typical macroalgal community response to stress, which is a decrease in perennial brown algae and proliferation of opportunistic green algae. Cystoseira corniculata was more abundant in autumn and Sargassum vulgare in spring, whereas the articulated coralline alga Jania rubens was more abundant at reference sites in autumn. Diversity decreased with increasing CO2 regardless of season. Our results show that benthic community responses to ocean acidification are

  4. Radiological evaluation of response to treatment: Application to metastatic renal cancers receiving anti-angiogenic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeted therapies have considerably improved the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cancer (mRCC) but there are no reliable response assessment criteria reflecting the clinical benefits, because there is no regression in size, or it is delayed. Such criteria would help early identification of non-responders, who would then benefit from a change of treatment, and would avoid their being subjected to unnecessary side effects related to the treatment. We will review the imaging techniques currently available for evaluating tumour response in mRCC patients, including the response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST), the Choi criteria, the modified Choi criteria, and the CT size and attenuation criteria (SACT). We will also discuss functional imaging techniques, which are based on the physiological characteristics of the tumours, such as perfusion CT, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound (DCE-CT, DCE-MRI, DCE-US), diffusion MRI, BOLD MRI and new positron emission tomography (PET) tracers. It is not possible at present to propose a unanimously acknowledged criterion for evaluating tumour response to targeted therapy. However, there is a real need for this according to oncologists and the pharmaceutical industry, and radiologists need to be involved in reflecting on the subject. (authors)

  5. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature. PMID:25270993

  6. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature.

  7. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  8. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xinsheng; Wang, Jiayou; Nabar, Neel R; Pan, Sanqiang; Tang, Chunzhi; Huang, Yong; Hao, Mufeng; Yang, Zhonghua; Ma, Chunmei; Zhang, Jin; Chew, Helen; He, Zhenquan; Yang, Junjun; Su, Baogui; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Jun; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th) day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01), though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture. Further

  9. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Lai

    Full Text Available Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3 acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01, though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture

  10. Chronic Treatment with Ivabradine Does Not Affect Cardiovascular Autonomic Control in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda C; Paiva, Franciny A; Müller-Ribeiro, Flávia C; Caldeira, Henrique M A; Fontes, Marco A P; de Menezes, Rodrigo C A; Casali, Karina R; Fortes, Gláucia H; Tobaldini, Eleonora; Solbiati, Monica; Montano, Nicola; Dias Da Silva, Valdo J; Chianca, Deoclécio A

    2016-01-01

    A low resting heart rate (HR) would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine-a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN) channels- has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH) or ivabradine (IVA) during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP) and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p = 0.0005) and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11 bpm, p = 0.0146). However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu) (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p > 0.05); HF (nu) (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p > 0.05), any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (tonic sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p = 0.3494). We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p < 0.0001), without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/s, p = 0.9100) and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p

  11. Treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with severe acute malnutrition treated at outpatient therapeutic care program

    OpenAIRE

    Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Deyessa, Negussie; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi; Dessie, Yadeta

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outpatient therapeutic care program (OTP) of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been decentralized to health post level in Ethiopia since 2008–2009. However, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment outcomes and factors related to the duration of stay on treatment after its decentralization to health post level.Objective: This study was aimed to assess treatment outcome and factors affecting time to recovery in children with SAM treated at OTP.Design: Hea...

  12. Responsiveness to the Negative Affect System as a Function of Emotion Perception: Relations Between Affect and Sociability in Three Daily Diary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Sara K; Nicpon, Catherine G; Robinson, Michael D

    2014-04-30

    Perceiving emotions clearly and accurately is an important component of emotional intelligence (EI). This skill is thought to predict emotional and social outcomes, but evidence for this point appears somewhat underwhelming in cross-sectional designs. The present work adopted a more contextual approach to understanding the correlates of emotion perception. Because emotion perception involves awareness of affect as it occurs, people higher in this skill might reasonably be expected to be more attuned to variations in their affective states and be responsive to them for this reason. This novel hypothesis was pursued in three daily diary studies (total N = 247), which found systematic evidence for the idea that higher levels of daily negative affect predicted lesser sociability particularly, and somewhat exclusively, among people whose emotion perception skills were high rather than low. The results support a contextual understanding of individual differences in emotion perception and how they operate. PMID:24789808

  13. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles. PMID:18453445

  14. Patient Characteristics Associated with HCV Treatment Adherence, Treatment Completion, and Sustained Virologic Response in HIV Coinfected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis C (HCV treatment efficacy among HIV patients is limited by poor treatment adherence and tolerance, but few studies have examined the psychosocial determinants of treatment adherence and outcomes. Methods. Chart abstracted and survey data were collected on 72 HIV patients who had received pegylated interferon and ribavirin to assess correlates of treatment adherence, completion, and sustained virologic response (SVR. Results. Nearly half (46% the sample had active psychiatric problems and 13% had illicit drug use at treatment onset; 28% reported <100% treatment adherence, 38% did not complete treatment (mostly due to virologic nonresponse, and intent to treat SVR rate was 49%. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with nonadherence, while better HCV adherence was associated with both treatment completion and SVR. Conclusions. Good mental health may be an indicator of HCV treatment adherence readiness, which is in turn associated with treatment completion and response, but further research is needed with new HCV treatments emerging.

  15. CD38 expression and complement inhibitors affect response and resistance to daratumumab therapy in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Inger S; Casneuf, Tineke; van Velzen, Jeroen; van Kessel, Berris; Axel, Amy E; Syed, Khaja; Groen, Richard W J; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter; Minnema, Monique C; Zweegman, Sonja; Chiu, Christopher; Bloem, Andries C; Mutis, Tuna; Lokhorst, Henk M; Sasser, A Kate; van de Donk, Niels W C J

    2016-08-18

    The anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody daratumumab is well tolerated and has high single agent activity in heavily pretreated relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, not all patients respond, and many patients eventually develop progressive disease to daratumumab monotherapy. We therefore examined whether pretreatment expression levels of CD38 and complement-inhibitory proteins (CIPs) are associated with response and whether changes in expression of these proteins contribute to development of resistance. In a cohort of 102 patients treated with daratumumab monotherapy (16 mg/kg), we found that pretreatment levels of CD38 expression on MM cells were significantly higher in patients who achieved at least partial response (PR) compared with patients who achieved less than PR. However, cell surface expression of the CIPs, CD46, CD55, and CD59, was not associated with clinical response. In addition, CD38 expression was reduced in both bone marrow-localized and circulating MM cells, following the first daratumumab infusion. CD38 expression levels on MM cells increased again following daratumumab discontinuation. In contrast, CD55 and CD59 levels were significantly increased on MM cells only at the time of progression. All-trans retinoic acid increased CD38 levels and decreased CD55 and CD59 expression on MM cells from patients who developed daratumumab resistance, to approximately pretreatment values. This resulted in significant enhancement of daratumumab-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Together, these data demonstrate an important role for CD38 and CIP expression levels in daratumumab sensitivity and suggest that therapeutic combinations that alter CD38 and CIP expression levels should be investigated in the treatment of MM. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00574288 (GEN501) and #NCT01985126 (SIRIUS). PMID:27307294

  16. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  17. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators. (paper)

  18. How the type of input function affects the dynamic response of conducting polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xingcan; Alici, Gursel; Mutlu, Rahim; Li, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    There has been a growing interest in smart actuators typified by conducting polymer actuators, especially in their (i) fabrication, modeling and control with minimum external data and (ii) applications in bio-inspired devices, robotics and mechatronics. Their control is a challenging research problem due to the complex and nonlinear properties of these actuators, which cannot be predicted accurately. Based on an input-shaping technique, we propose a new method to improve the conducting polymer actuators’ command-following ability, while minimizing their electric power consumption. We applied four input functions with smooth characteristics to a trilayer conducting polymer actuator to experimentally evaluate its command-following ability under an open-loop control strategy and a simulated feedback control strategy, and, more importantly, to quantify how the type of input function affects the dynamic response of this class of actuators. We have found that the four smooth inputs consume less electrical power than sharp inputs such as a step input with discontinuous higher-order derivatives. We also obtained an improved transient response performance from the smooth inputs, especially under the simulated feedback control strategy, which we have proposed previously [X Xiang, R Mutlu, G Alici, and W Li, 2014 “Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization’, Journal of Smart Materials and Structure, 23]. The idea of using a smooth input command, which results in lower power consumption and better control performance, can be extended to other smart actuators. Consuming less electrical energy or power will have a direct effect on enhancing the operational life of these actuators.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes DNA Glycosylase AdlP Affects Flagellar Motility, Biofilm Formation, Virulence, and Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Bae, Dongryeoul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The temperature-dependent alteration of flagellar motility gene expression is critical for the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to respond to a changing environment. In this study, a genetic determinant, L. monocytogenes f2365_0220 (lmof2365_0220), encoding a putative protein that is structurally similar to the Bacillus cereus alkyl base DNA glycosylase (AlkD), was identified. This determinant was involved in the transcriptional repression of flagellar motility genes and was named adlP (encoding an AlkD-like protein [AdlP]). Deletion of adlP activated the expression of flagellar motility genes at 37°C and disrupted the temperature-dependent inhibition of L. monocytogenes motility. The adlP null strains demonstrated decreased survival in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells and less virulence in mice. Furthermore, the deletion of adlP significantly decreased biofilm formation and impaired the survival of bacteria under several stress conditions, including the presence of a DNA alkylation compound (methyl methanesulfonate), an oxidative agent (H2O2), and aminoglycoside antibiotics. Our findings strongly suggest that adlP may encode a bifunctional protein that transcriptionally represses the expression of flagellar motility genes and influences stress responses through its DNA glycosylase activity. IMPORTANCE We discovered a novel protein that we named AlkD-like protein (AdlP). This protein affected flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. Our data suggest that AdlP may be a bifunctional protein that represses flagellar motility genes and influences stress responses through its DNA glycosylase activity. PMID:27316964

  20. Response surface optimization of electrochemical treatment of textile dye wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical treatment of textile dye wastewater containing Levafix Blue CA, Levafix Red CA and Levafix Yellow CA reactive dyes was studied on iron electrodes in the presence of NaCl electrolyte in a batch electrochemical reactor. The wastewater was synthetically prepared in relatively high dye concentrations between 400 mg/L and 2000 mg/L. The electrochemical treatment of textile dye wastewater was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), where current density and electrolyte concentration were to be minimized while dye removal and turbidity removal were maximized at 28 deg. C reaction temperature. Optimized conditions under specified cost driven constraints were obtained for the highest desirability at 6.7 mA/cm2, 5.9 mA/cm2 and 5.4 mA/cm2 current density and 3.1 g/L, 2.5 g/L and 2.8 g/L NaCl concentration for Levafix Blue CA, Levafix Red CA and Levafix Yellow CA reactive textile dyes, respectively

  1. Response of tropical horticultural commodities to insect disinfestation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop effective, non-damaging, non-polluting, non-carcinogenic procedures for insect disinfestation and disease control in fresh horticultural products. The loss of ethylene dibromide as a fumigant and the uncertainties of other fumigants, has meant that alternatives are needed. The most likely possibilities include irradiation, heat, cold and controlled atmospheres. Irradiation doses required for sterilization of insects cause only minor physiological changes, while controlled atmospheres appear to require longer periods of exposure than the postharvest life of most tropical fruit. The sensitivity of tropical commodities to temperatures less than 10°C makes cold treatments inappropriate for most tropical commodities. Heat treatments seem to be most promising. For papaya, the requirement is that the fruit core temperature reach 47.2°C, this can occasionally disrupt fruit ripening. The sensitivity to heat is modified by seasonal, variety and rate of heating factors. The sensitivity can be related to the heat shock response and the presence of heat shock proteins. (author)

  2. Therapeutic use of dextromethorphan: key learnings from treatment of pseudobulbar affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ariel; Panitch, Hillel

    2007-08-15

    A variety of neurological conditions and disease states are accompanied by pseudobulbar affect (PBA), an emotional disorder characterized by uncontrollable outbursts of laughing and crying. The causes of PBA are unclear but may involve lesions in neural circuits regulating the motor output of emotional expression. Several agents used in treating other psychiatric disorders have been applied in the treatment of PBA with some success but data are limited and these agents are associated with unpleasant side effects due to nonspecific activity in diffuse neural networks. Dextromethorphan (DM), a widely used cough suppressant, acts at receptors in the brainstem and cerebellum, brain regions implicated in the regulation of emotional output. The combination of DM and quinidine (Q), an enzyme inhibitor that blocks DM metabolism, has recently been tested in phase III clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and was both safe and effective in palliating PBA symptoms. In addition, clinical studies pertaining to the safety and efficacy of DM/Q in a variety of neurological disease states are ongoing. PMID:17433820

  3. The degree of virulence does not necessarily affect MRSA biofilm strength and response to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa A Y; Nafee, Noha A; Moussa, Nihal K

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation transforms infections from acute to chronic, increasing patient mortality and significantly increasing healthcare costs. We are studying the prevalence of some virulence genes among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates relative to biofilm formation and the potential of photoactivated hypericin to treat these infections. Isolates were collected from three Egyptian governorates over seven months in 2011, 100 isolates were identified as MRSA. Biofilm formation was established using crystal violet staining and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction. Twenty two percent of the isolates formed biofilms, of which 68.2% were moderate to strong. The virulence genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. spaX (x-region of protein A) was most prevalent. All biofilm-formers lacked cap5 (capsular polysaccharide 5), the other genes were: nuc (thermonuclease) > clfA (clumping factor) > spaIgG (IgG binding site of protein A), fnbA (fibronectin protein A), cap8 (capsular polysaccharide 8), agr (accessory-gene-regulator locus) > fnbB (fibronectin protein B). agr-locus was only found in 22.22% of moderate biofilm-formers, the remaining genes were almost equally prevalent among biofilm-formers and negative controls. Photoactivated hypericin efficiently inhibited 92.2-99.9% of biofilm viability, irrespective of the number of virulence genes. To conclude, biofilm formation, and treatment might be affected by a myriad of virulence factors rather than a single gene, however, photoactivated hypericin remains a potential antibiofilm approach.

  4. The degree of virulence does not necessarily affect MRSA biofilm strength and response to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa A Y; Nafee, Noha A; Moussa, Nihal K

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation transforms infections from acute to chronic, increasing patient mortality and significantly increasing healthcare costs. We are studying the prevalence of some virulence genes among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates relative to biofilm formation and the potential of photoactivated hypericin to treat these infections. Isolates were collected from three Egyptian governorates over seven months in 2011, 100 isolates were identified as MRSA. Biofilm formation was established using crystal violet staining and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction. Twenty two percent of the isolates formed biofilms, of which 68.2% were moderate to strong. The virulence genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. spaX (x-region of protein A) was most prevalent. All biofilm-formers lacked cap5 (capsular polysaccharide 5), the other genes were: nuc (thermonuclease) > clfA (clumping factor) > spaIgG (IgG binding site of protein A), fnbA (fibronectin protein A), cap8 (capsular polysaccharide 8), agr (accessory-gene-regulator locus) > fnbB (fibronectin protein B). agr-locus was only found in 22.22% of moderate biofilm-formers, the remaining genes were almost equally prevalent among biofilm-formers and negative controls. Photoactivated hypericin efficiently inhibited 92.2-99.9% of biofilm viability, irrespective of the number of virulence genes. To conclude, biofilm formation, and treatment might be affected by a myriad of virulence factors rather than a single gene, however, photoactivated hypericin remains a potential antibiofilm approach. PMID:26616167

  5. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione.

  6. The Dynamical Response of Dark Matter to Galaxy Evolution Affects Direct-Detection Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Michael S; Weinberg, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Over a handful of rotation periods, dynamical processes in barred galaxies induce non-axisymmetric structure in dark matter halos. Using n-body simulations of a Milky Way-like barred galaxy, we identify both a trapped dark-matter component, a shadow bar, and a strong response wake in the dark-matter distribution that affects the predicted dark-matter detection rates for current experiments. The presence of a baryonic disk together with well-known dynamical processes (e.g. spiral structure and bar instabilities) increase the dark matter density in the disk plane. We find that the magnitude of the combined stellar and shadow bar evolution, when isolated from the effect of the axisymmetric gravitational potential of the disk, accounts for >30% of this overall increase in disk-plane density. This is significantly larger that of previously claimed deviations from the standard halo model. The dark-matter density and kinematic wakes driven by the Milky Way bar increase the detectability of dark matter overall, espec...

  7. Bacterial formyl peptides affect the innate cellular antimicrobial responses of larval Galleria mellonella (Insecta: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavo, Thiery B C; Dunphy, Gary B

    2004-04-01

    The non-self cellular (hemocytic) responses of Galleria mellonella larvae, including the attachment to slides and the removal of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis from the hemolymph, were affected by N-formyl peptides. Both N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and the ester derivative decreased hemocyte adhesion in vitro, and both elevated hemocyte counts and suppressed the removal of both X. nematophila and B. subtilis from the hemolymph in vivo. The amide derivative and the antagonist tertiary-butoxy-carbonyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (tBOC) increased hemocyte attachment to glass. The fMLF suppressed protein discharge from monolayers of granular cells with and without bacterial stimulation, while tBOC stimulated protein discharge. The peptide tBOC offset the effects of fMLF in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report implying the existence of formyl peptide receptors on insect hemocytes in which the compounds fMLF and tBOC inhibited and activated hemocyte activity, respectively.

  8. Aging affects the responsiveness of rat peritoneal macrophages to GM-CSF and IL-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Stanojević, Stanislava; Blagojević, Veljko; Ćuruvija, Ivana; Vujnović, Ivana; Petrović, Raisa; Arsenović-Ranin, Nevena; Vujić, Vesna; Leposavić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages undergo significant functional alterations during aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes of rat macrophage functions and response to M1/M2 polarization signals with age. Therefore, resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from young (3-month-old) and aged (18-19-month-old) rats were tested for phagocytic capacity and ability to secrete inflammatory mediators following in vitro stimulation with LPS and GM-CSF, and IL-4, prototypic stimulators for classically (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages, respectively. Aging increased the frequency of monocyte-derived (CCR7+ CD68+) and the most mature (CD163+ CD68+) macrophages within resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, respectively. The ability to phagocyte zymosan of none of these two cell subsets was affected by either LPS and GM-CSF or IL-4. The upregulated production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 and downregulated that of TGF-β was observed in response to LPS in resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from rats of both ages. GM-CSF elevated production of IL-1β and IL-6 in resident macrophages from aged rats and in thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from young rats. Unexpectedly, IL-4 augmented production of proinflammatory mediators, IL-1β and IL-6, in resident macrophages from aged rats. In both resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages aging decreased NO/urea ratio, whereas LPS but not GM-SCF, shifted this ratio toward NO in the macrophages from animals of both ages. Conversely, IL-4 reduced NO/urea ratio in resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages from young rats only. In conclusion, our study showed that aging diminished GM-CSF-triggered polarization of elicited macrophages and caused paradoxical IL-4-driven polarization of resident macrophages toward proinflammatory M1 phenotype. This age-related deregulation of macrophage inflammatory mediator secretion and phagocytosis in response to M1/M2

  9. Neurobehavioral response to increased treatment dosage in chronic, severe aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Mozeiko

    2014-04-01

    recruited from a university-based aphasia group. They were both right handed, one male (S1 and one female (S2, 51 and 31 months post left CVA. Both participants were classified as having moderate-severe aphasia with scores on the Western Aphasia Battery Aphasia Quotient (WAB AQ; Kertesz, 1982 of 38.5 for S1 and 51.7 for S2. Lesion volumes were 99,671 mm3 and 67,250 mm3 for S1 and S2 respectively. Neither fit neatly into an aphasia classification but S1 would be considered nonfluent and S2 was considered to have a more fluent aphasia type. While taking part in the study, individuals did not participate in any other form of language rehabilitation. Intervention ILAT was administered according to the protocol described by Maher and colleagues (2006 with target responses increasing in difficulty over time. Three-hour sessions were conducted five days a week, for four weeks for a total of 60 hours of treatment. The few studies that report follow-up data after ILAT, tend to report additional increases in language production four weeks post the “standard” two week treatment dosage (e.g.,Maher et al., 2006; Mozeiko et al., 2011; Szaflarski et al., 2008. In order to a capitalize on the probable continued neural change occurring post treatment and b provide a time-off from a very rigorous treatment schedule, a five week break was incorporated after the first 30 hours of treatment. Participants were required to produce and respond to verbal communication with the verbal modality only. Participants were instructed on linguistic targets prior to each session and the clinician provided cueing as necessary. Assessments Standardized tests, treatment and generalization probes and fMRI scans were administered at four time points: pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment and at an eight week follow-up. Standardized assessments included the WAB AQ, the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan et al., 1983 and the Computerized Revised Token Test (CRTT; McNeil et al., 2008. Probes of treatment

  10. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  11. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K.; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O.; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S. K.; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R.; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M.; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Calaza, Manuel; Elmarakeby, Haitham; Heath, Lenwood S.; Long, Quan; Moore, Jonathan D.; Opiyo, Stephen Obol; Savage, Richard S.; Zhu, Jun; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Louis Bridges Jr., S.; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M.

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h2=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  12. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F; Louis Bridges, S; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M; Bridges, S Louis; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h(2)=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  13. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  14. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  15. Affect Regulation and Treatment for Depression and Anxiety through Art: Theoretical Ground and Clinical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Nan, JKM; Ho, RTH

    2014-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience research have shown that depression and anxiety are closely related to affect regulation, the emotional processes that work within the brain system. This paper reviews two major areas of affect regulation. The first area accounts for the relationships between affect regulation and the functions of the left/right hemispheric brain, as well as the effect of these emotional processes on the autonomic nervous system. The interpersonalneurobiological basis of affect regula...

  16. Treatment heterogeneity in asthma: genetics of response to leukotriene modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, John J

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, asthma continues to be a significant health and economic burden. Although asthma cannot be cured, several drugs, including beta2 agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene (LT) modifiers, are well tolerated and effective in minimizing symptoms, improving lung function, and preventing exacerbations. However, inter-patient variability in response to asthma drugs limits their effectiveness. It has been estimated that 60-80% of this inter-patient variability may be attributable to genetic variation. LT modifiers, in particular, have been associated with heterogeneity in response. These drugs exert their action by inhibiting the activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent bronchoconstrictors and pro-inflammatory agents. Two classes of LT modifiers are 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) inhibitors (zileuton) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) [montelukast, pranlukast, and zarfirlukast]. LT modifiers can be used as alternatives to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in mild persistent asthma, as add-on therapy to low- to medium-dose ICS in moderate persistent asthma, and as add-on to high-dose ICS and a long-acting ss2 agonist in severe persistent asthma. At least six genes encode key proteins in the LT pathway: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), ALOX5 activating protein (ALOX5AP [FLAP]), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), the ATP-binding cassette family member ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 [MRP1]), and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1). Studies have reported that genetic variation in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, and ABCC1 influences response to LT modifiers. Plasma concentrations of LTRAs vary considerably among patients. Physio-chemical characteristics make it likely that membrane efflux and uptake transporters mediate the absorption of LTRAs into the systemic circulation following oral administration. Genes that encode efflux and uptake transport proteins harbor many variants that could

  17. The Influence of a Model's Reinforcement Contingency and Affective Response on Children's Perceptions of the Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assesses the influence of model consequences on perceived model affect and, conversely, assesses the influence of model affect on perceived model consequences. Also appraises the influence of model consequences and model affect on perceived model attractiveness, perceived model competence, and perceived task attractiveness. (Author/RK)

  18. Personality and treatment response in agoraphobia with panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, A L; Oei, T P; Evans, L

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of specific personality characteristics with agoraphobia, and whether they predicted long-term outcome following a group cognitive behavior therapy program. Thirty-three patients with agoraphobia with panic attacks, 18 with social phobia, and 26 "normals" were used in the study. Personality factors were measured with the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior Scale (FIRO-B). The results showed that (1) agoraphobics are more extroverted and more likely to include others in their activities than are social phobics; however, they are less extroverted, more neurotic, more hostile and intropunitive, and less likely to include others in their activities than are normals; (2) social phobics are similarly less extroverted, more neurotic, and more hostile and intropunitive than normals, but, in addition, are less likely to exert control over others, more likely to want to be controlled, and less expressive of affection than normals; and (3) personality characteristics did not predict treatment outcome.

  19. Sitagliptin treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Perrin C; Chamberlain-Shea, Heidi; de la Morena, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors have recently become widely used for treating type 2 diabetes, but in meta-analyses are associated with a mildly increased risk of all-cause infections. CD26 is a cell-surface form of DPP4 which can costimulate T-cell proliferation, raising the possibility that DPP4 inhibitors might adversely affect immune function. To address this issue in an observational study, two groups of 20 subjects each were recruited from a private endocrinology practice; one group consisted of type 2 diabetes patients treated for at least 6 months with the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, whereas patients in the other group had never been treated with this agent. The groups were similar with regard to sex and racial composition, body mass index, hemoglobin A(1c), and use of other medications for diabetes, but the sitagliptin group was slightly older. A blood sample from each patient was analyzed for CD4+ T-cell activation in response to phytohemagglutinin using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated bioluminescence. There was not a significant difference in T-cell activation between the treatment groups (median, 419 and 481 ng/ml ATP in the groups that were and were not treated with sitagliptin, respectively). Thus the observed increased rate of infection in diabetic patients treated with sitagliptin cannot be explained by a major effect on T-cell activation. Randomized studies, preferably using several assays of immune function, should be performed to confirm and extend these findings.

  20. Acaricide Treatment Affects Viral Dynamics in Varroa destructor-Infested Honey Bee Colonies via both Host Physiology and Mite Control

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, B.; Forsgren, E.; Fries, I; Miranda, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate)...

  1. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (100-1000 mg/l) can affect vitamin E response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Renata; Kołodziej, Karolina; Ślesak, Ireneusz; Zimak-Piekarczyk, Paulina; Orzechowska, Aleksandra; Gabruk, Michał; Żądło, Andrzej; Habina, Iwona; Knap, Wiesław; Burda, Květoslava; Kruk, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    In the present study we analyze the effect of seed treatment by a range of nano-TiO2 concentrations on the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants, on the vitamin E content and the expression of its biosynthetic genes, as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. To conduct the mechanistic analysis of nano-TiO2 on plants growth and antioxidant status we applied nanoparticles concentrations that are much higher than those reported in the environment. We find that as the concentration of nano-TiO2 increases, the biomass, and chlorophyll content in 5-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana plants decrease in a concentration dependent manner. In opposite, higher nano-TiO2 concentration enhanced root growth. Our results indicate that a high concentration of nano-TiO2 induces symptoms of toxicity and elevates the antioxidant level. We also find that the expression levels of tocopherol biosynthetic genes were either down- or upregulated in response to nano-TiO2. Thermoluminescence analysis shows that higher nano-TiO2 concentrations cause lipid peroxidation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the effect of nano-TiO2 on vitamin E status in plants. We conclude that nano-TiO2 affects the antioxidant response in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This could be an effect of a changes in vitamin E gene expression that is diminished under lower tested nano-TiO2 concentrations and elevated under 1000 μg/ml. PMID:27060280

  2. Bioaccessibility of Pb from ammunition in game meat is affected by cooking treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mateo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of lead (Pb ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w. than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g. The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75% and wine (4.51% than in uncooked meat (0.7%. Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account.

  3. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  4. Identification and management of prodromal symptoms in bipolar affective disorder: the role of individual, disorder, and treatment-related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadon, Lisa Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Background: Traditional psychosocial treatments have been adapted for use with individuals with bipolar affective disorders due to the limited prophylactic nature of pharmacotherapy and the recognition of the role of psychosocial factors in the course of this disorder. Psychosocial interventions that include a prodromal monitoring and management component have been empirically shown to be an effective adjunct to medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Aims: There i...

  5. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  6. Affect regulation, mental health disorders, and maladaptive brain responses in music listening : a correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Affect regulation may be defined as a process by which an individual maintains or modifies his or her mood or emotional state, by conscious or automatic processes. Adequate affect regulation may play an important role in mitigating or preventing mental illness, which is a widespread, inadequately treated and inadequately understood phenomenon. Music, which is known to express and induce emotions, may be used for affect regulation in a variety of ways, both self-directed and in therapeutic con...

  7. Response of barley plants to Fe deficiency and Cd contamination as affected by S starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, S; Zuchi, S; Neumann, G; Cesco, S; Sanità di Toppi, L; Pinton, R

    2012-02-01

    Both Fe deficiency and Cd exposure induce rapid changes in the S nutritional requirement of plants. The aim of this work was to characterize the strategies adopted by plants to cope with both Fe deficiency (release of phytosiderophores) and Cd contamination [production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins] when grown under conditions of limited S supply. Experiments were performed in hydroponics, using barley plants grown under S sufficiency (1.2 mM sulphate) and S deficiency (0 mM sulphate), with or without Fe(III)-EDTA at 0.08 mM for 11 d and subsequently exposed to 0.05 mM Cd for 24 h or 72 h. In S-sufficient plants, Fe deficiency enhanced both root and shoot Cd concentrations and increased GSH and phytochelatin levels. In S-deficient plants, Fe starvation caused a slight increase in Cd concentration, but this change was accompanied neither by an increase in GSH nor by an accumulation of phytochelatins. Release of phytosiderophores, only detectable in Fe-deficient plants, was strongly decreased by S deficiency and further reduced after Cd treatment. In roots Cd exposure increased the expression of the high affinity sulphate transporter gene (HvST1) regardless of the S supply, and the expression of the Fe deficiency-responsive genes, HvYS1 and HvIDS2, irrespective of Fe supply. In conclusion, adequate S availability is necessary to cope with Fe deficiency and Cd toxicity in barley plants. Moreover, it appears that in Fe-deficient plants grown in the presence of Cd with limited S supply, sulphur may be preferentially employed in the pathway for biosynthesis of phytosiderophores, rather than for phytochelatin production. PMID:22090437

  8. Response of barley plants to Fe deficiency and Cd contamination as affected by S starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, S; Zuchi, S; Neumann, G; Cesco, S; Sanità di Toppi, L; Pinton, R

    2012-02-01

    Both Fe deficiency and Cd exposure induce rapid changes in the S nutritional requirement of plants. The aim of this work was to characterize the strategies adopted by plants to cope with both Fe deficiency (release of phytosiderophores) and Cd contamination [production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins] when grown under conditions of limited S supply. Experiments were performed in hydroponics, using barley plants grown under S sufficiency (1.2 mM sulphate) and S deficiency (0 mM sulphate), with or without Fe(III)-EDTA at 0.08 mM for 11 d and subsequently exposed to 0.05 mM Cd for 24 h or 72 h. In S-sufficient plants, Fe deficiency enhanced both root and shoot Cd concentrations and increased GSH and phytochelatin levels. In S-deficient plants, Fe starvation caused a slight increase in Cd concentration, but this change was accompanied neither by an increase in GSH nor by an accumulation of phytochelatins. Release of phytosiderophores, only detectable in Fe-deficient plants, was strongly decreased by S deficiency and further reduced after Cd treatment. In roots Cd exposure increased the expression of the high affinity sulphate transporter gene (HvST1) regardless of the S supply, and the expression of the Fe deficiency-responsive genes, HvYS1 and HvIDS2, irrespective of Fe supply. In conclusion, adequate S availability is necessary to cope with Fe deficiency and Cd toxicity in barley plants. Moreover, it appears that in Fe-deficient plants grown in the presence of Cd with limited S supply, sulphur may be preferentially employed in the pathway for biosynthesis of phytosiderophores, rather than for phytochelatin production.

  9. Neural correlates of inhibition and contextual cue processing related to treatment response in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Geuze, Elbert; Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Thirty to fifty percent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients do not respond to treatment. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying treatment response could contribute to improve response rates. PTSD is often associated with decreased inhibition of fear responses in a safe environme

  10. Treatment of impaired affective information processing and social cognition in neuropsychiatric patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting impr

  11. The effects of slow breathing on affective responses to pain stimuli: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Alex J; Fasman, Robert; Davis, Mary C; Craig, Arthur D Bud

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether breathing rate affected self-reported pain and emotion following thermal pain stimuli in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM: n=27) or age-matched healthy control women (HC: n=25). FM and HC were exposed to low and moderate thermal pain pulses during paced breathing at their normal rate and one-half their normal rate. Thermal pain pulses were presented in four blocks of four trials. Each block included exposure to both mild and moderate pain trials, and periods of both normal and slow paced breathing. Pain intensity and unpleasantness were recorded immediately following each pain trial, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of each block of trials. Compared to normal breathing, slow breathing reduced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, particularly for moderately versus mildly painful thermal stimuli. The effects of slow breathing on pain ratings were less reliable for FM patients than for HCs. Slow versus normal breathing decreased negative affect ratings following thermal pain pulses for both groups, and increased positive affect reports, but only for healthy controls with high trait negative affect. Participants who reported higher levels of trait positive affect prior to the experiment showed greater decreases in negative affect as a result of slow versus normal breathing. These experimental findings provide support for prior reports on the benefits of yogic breathing and mindful Zen meditation for pain and depressed affect. However, chronic pain patients may require more guidance to obtain therapeutic benefit from reduced breathing rates.

  12. The Role of Temperament in Children's Affective and Behavioral Responses in Achievement Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Aunola, Kaisa; Alatupa, Saija; Viljaranta, Jaana; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Although students' affects and behaviors in achievement situations have been shown to be influenced by their previous learning experiences, less is known about how they relate to students' dispositional characteristics, such as temperament. This study examined to what extent children's temperament is related to their affective and behavioral…

  13. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  14. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F. J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Klein, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inf

  15. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje

  16. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  17. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier. PMID:24548171

  18. A five-year follow-up of two different [sup 131]I treatment methods for Graves' disease and the factors affecting the outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimoto, Midori; Iino, Shiro (Showa Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Fujigaoka Hospital); Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Momotani, Naoko; Hamada, Noboru; Ito, Kunihiko

    1994-11-01

    We employed two different methods of [sup 131]I treatment for Graves' disease in 285 patients and compared the results between the two. (We also analyzed the factors affecting the treatment outcome.) A single dose of [sup 131]I adjusted to the patients' thyroid weight was administered to 180 patients in group 1, while a relatively lower dose of [sup 131]I (approximately 30 Gy) was given repeatedly to 105 patients in group 2. A 5-year follow-up showed that in group 1, 34% of the patients were euthyroid, 11% hypothyroid, 11% subclinical hypothyroid and 44% still remained hyperthyroid. In group 2, 43% of the patients were euthyroid, 5% hypothyroid, 35% subclinical hypothyroid and 17% hyperthyroid. The factors affecting the outcome of the treatment in group 1 patients were their thyroid weight, the duration of the disease and TRAb levels. No significant correlation was observed between the efficacy of [sup 131]I treatment and the patients' sex, age, 24 hr [sup 131]I-uptake, effective half life of administered [sup 131]I or titers of antithyorid antibodies. We conclude that the repeated low dose administration of [sup 131]I provides the best outcome in a 5-year follow-up. However, we suggest that an adjusted dose of [sup 131]I in relation to the patients' thyroid weight should be employed to obtain a faster therapeutic response. (author).

  19. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Veneraldo Pinheiro; Luís F. Stone; José A. F. Barrigossi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments we...

  20. Endoscopic Laser Treatment for Rectosigmoid Villous Adenoma: Factors Affecting the Results

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetaud, JM; Maunoury, V; Cochelard, D; Boniface, B.; Cortot, A; Paris, JC

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser treatment is now commonly used for palliation of advanced digestive cancers in nonsurgical candidates. lt has also been used for treatment of benign rectosigmoid villous adenoma. The present work reports the long term results in 387 patients with benign rectosigmoid villous adenomas revealed by biopsy. Patients included 39% who had contraindications to surgery, 19% who had a tumour recurrence after a nonlaser treatment, 41 % for whom surgical resection appeared to be too dras...

  1. Factors that affect adherence to recommended treatment among diabetes patients in Kampala

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlén, Elin; Davidsson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an increasing global health problem and this puts high demands on the health care system. Patients with diabetes demand continuous treatment and monitoring in order to control the disease and avoid complications. Adherence to recommended treatment was important in order for the treatment to give positive effect. In this context adherence was defined as the extent to which the patients follow medical instructions.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify factors that c...

  2. Effects of response satiation procedures in the treatment of aerophagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holburn, C S; Dougher, M J

    1986-07-01

    A contingent response that previously increased self-injurious air-swallowing (aerophagia) by a profoundly mentally retarded woman (Holburn & Dougher, 1985) was shown to decrease her air-swallowing when the response was presented in accord with the response deprivation/satiation hypothesis, which suggests that any free-operant response can serve as a reinforcer or a punisher depending upon specific contigency arrangements. The results offer an explanation for the earlier increase in air-swallowing. PMID:3740118

  3. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The role of N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  4. MK-801 treatment affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes more than in astrocytes and neuronal cells: insights for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Guest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a multifactorial disease, the underlying causes of schizophrenia require analysis by multiplex methods such as proteomics to allow identification of whole protein networks. Previous post-mortem proteomic studies on brain tissues from schizophrenia patients have demonstrated changes in activation of glycolytic and energy metabolism pathways. However, it is not known whether these changes occur in neurons or in glial cells. To address this question, we treated neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lines with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and measured the levels of six glycolytic enzymes by Western blot analysis. MK-801 acts on the glutamatergic system and has been proposed as a pharmacological means of modeling schizophrenia. Treatment with MK-801 resulted in significant changes in the levels of glycolytic enzymes in all cell types. Most of the differences were found in oligodendrocytes, which had altered levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1, enolase 2 (ENO2, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1 after acute MK-801 treatment (8 hours, and HK1, ENO2, PGK and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI following long term treatment (72 hours. Addition of the antipsychotic clozapine to the cultures resulted in counter-regulatory effects to the MK-801 treatment by normalizing the levels of ENO2 and PGK in both the acute and long term cultures. In astrocytes, MK-801 affected only aldolase C (ALDOC under both acute conditions and HK1 and ALDOC following long term treatment, and TPI was the only enzyme affected under long term conditions in the neuronal cells. In conclusion, MK-801 affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes to a larger extent than neuronal cells and this may be modulated by antipsychotic treatment. Although cell culture studies do not necessarily reflect the in vivo pathophysiology and drug effects within the brain, these results suggest that neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are affected differently in

  5. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice--plant response and treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Pär; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-03-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied.

  7. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronsson, Paer, E-mail: par.aronsson@vpe.slu.s [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dahlin, Torleif [Lund University, Department of Electrical Measurements, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Dimitriou, Ioannis [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m{sup 2} plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (<=2160 kg N/ha), chloride (<=8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  8. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Dispersion Methods Affect Their Aggregation, Deposition, and Biomarker Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    To systematically evaluate how dispersion methods affect the environmental behaviors of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), MWNTs were dispersed in various solutions (e.g., surfactants, natural organic matter (NOM), and etc.) via ultrasonication (SON) and long-term stirring (LT...

  9. The MTHFR C677T variant is associated with responsiveness to disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSpellicy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Disulfiram is a one of the few pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction that shows promise. Since disulfiram and cocaine both affect levels of global methylation we hypothesized the MTHFR gene, whose product is involved in supplying methyl groups for DNA and protein methylation, may be associated with responsiveness to disulfiram in cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods: Sixty-seven cocaine dependent patients were stabilized on methadone for two weeks and then randomized into disulfiram (250 mg/day, N = 32 and placebo groups (N =35 for 10 weeks. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR (rs1801133, also known as C677T polymorphism and the data was evaluated for association with cocaine-free urines in the disulfiram or placebo groups. Data from patients that completed all ten weeks of the study (N = 56 were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, corrected for population structure. Results: The CT or TT MTHFR genotype group (N = 32 dropped from 73% to 52% on disulfiram (p = 0.0001, while the placebo group showed no treatment effect. The CC MTHFR genotype group (N = 24 showed a reduced, but still significant, reduction in cocaine-positive urines on disulfiram compared to placebo; 81-69% (p = 0.007. Conclusion: This study indicates that a patient’s MTHFR genotype may be used to identify individuals who might show improved response to disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence.

  10. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47 and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  11. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms) for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  12. Keeping Your Sex Life Going Despite Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can affect fertility How cancer treatment can affect sexual desire and response How cancer treatments can affect sexuality and fertility Dealing with sexual problems What treatments are available to help with ...

  13. Prepotent response inhibition predicts treatment outcome in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Oord; H.M. Geurts; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp; J. Oosterlaan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Inhibition deficits, including deficits in prepotent response inhibition and interference control, are core deficits in ADHD. The predictive value of prepotent response inhibition and interference control was assessed for outcome in a 10-week treatment trial with methylphenidate. Methods:

  14. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik;

    2009-01-01

    treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers...

  15. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  16. Factors affecting the choice of treatment in occupational therapy practices in hospital-based care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy

  17. Shared Responsibility: Massachusetts Legislators, Physicians, and An Act Relative to Substance Use Treatment, Education, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudder, Meghan; Tsao, Lulu; Jack, Helen E

    2016-01-01

    Recent passage of the Massachusetts law, An Act Relative to Substance Use, Treatment, Education, and Prevention, represents an admirable public health approach to substance use disorder (SUD), a stigmatized chronic disease that affects some of society's most vulnerable people. With its seven-day supply limit on first-time opioid prescriptions, this legislation takes an unusual approach to state government involvement in health care. By intervening in individual physicians' practices, state legislators have entered a space traditionally reserved for clinical teams. The seven-day supply limit and the process through which it was developed highlight competing priorities and dialogue between physicians and legislators, limits of physician self-regulation, and standards of evidence in policy making and health care. Addressing these issues requires both physicians and legislators to recognize and fulfill new responsibilities in order to better assist the populations they serve. PMID:27669141

  18. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  19. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Houben; C. Nederkoorn; R.W. Wiers; A. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking s

  20. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Watts; S.O. Lilienfeld; J.F. Edens; K.S. Douglas; J.L. Skeem; B. Verschuere; A.C. LoPilato

    2015-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response dis

  1. Adolescent Eating Disorders: Treatment and Response in a Naturalistic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Boisseau, Christina L.; Satir, Dana A.

    2010-01-01

    This naturalistic study investigated the treatment and outcome of adolescents with eating disorders (EDs) in the community. Clinicians from a practice-research network provided data on ED symptoms, global functioning, comorbidity, treatment, and outcome for 120 adolescents with EDs. ED “not otherwise specified” was the most common ED diagnosed. After an average of 8 months of treatment, about one third of patients had recovered, with patients with anorexia nervosa showing the most improvement...

  2. Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Astin, Millie C.; Kelley, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. F...

  3. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S

    1995-01-01

    HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful

  4. Affective response to a loved one's pain: insula activity as a function of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Mazzola

    Full Text Available Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone. Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

  5. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. PMID:25622071

  6. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications

  7. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications. PMID:21849720

  8. Response of T cells in vivo Induced by Repeated Superantigen Treatments at Different Time Intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang HUANG; Yanfang SUI; Xiumin ZHANG; Shaoyan SI; Wei GE; Peizhen HU; Xia LI; Bin MA

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the response of T cells to staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) injections in vivo. We found that a single injection of SEA with an optimal dose of 10 μg increased the expression of both CD4 and CD8 significantly. There was expansion of SEA-reactive T cells in vivo after SEA re-injection and the time interval between injections strongly influenced the responsiveness of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.Anergy of T cells was observed after three SEA treatments. The time interval between injections mainly affected the unresponsiveness of CD4+ T cells, not CD8+ T cells. Marked deletion followed by anergy of CD4+ T cells was induced at short intervals, and anergy without obvious deletion of CD4+ T cells was induced at long intervals. We also found that the anergic state was reversible in vivo. Repeated SEA stimulation led to down-regulation of interleukin (IL)-2, and high levels of IL-10. This study showed that both CD4+ and CD8+ SEA-primed T cells were responsive to SEA rechallenge in vivo, and a third injection was needed to induce the anergy of T cells.

  9. Effects of corticosterone treatment on responses to fasting in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Julian P; Cockrem, John F

    2009-10-01

    Plasma concentrations of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone, have been reported to increase during fasting in some species of birds. Although Japanese quail are widely used in laboratory studies, corticosterone responses to fasting have not been described for this species. We therefore investigated the effects of 24h of fasting on plasma corticosterone concentrations in quail. Previous work has shown that the corticosterone response to handling in quail may be affected by treatment with corticosterone, so we also measured corticosterone responses to 24h of fasting in quail treated with corticosterone in their drinking water, and determined the effects of corticosterone on food intake immediately after a fast. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were unaffected by 24h of fasting in controls and in three out of four groups of birds with varying corticosterone intakes. Fasting in birds can be divided into three phases, and our results suggest that quail remained in phase I during the 24h fast. Food intake in the 3h immediately after fasting was higher in four groups of birds with varying corticosterone intakes than in the control group, and was greatest in quail with the highest corticosterone intake. The current results suggest that corticosterone can stimulate food intake in quail following a period of food deprivation. PMID:19539044

  10. Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive-affective framework and implications for asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Verleden, Geert; De Peuter, Steven; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2009-06-01

    Inaccurate perception of respiratory symptoms is often found in asthma patients. Typically, patients who inaccurately perceive asthma symptoms are divided into underperceivers and overperceivers. In this paper we point out that this division is problematic. We argue that little evidence exists for a trait-like stability of under- and overperception and that accuracy of respiratory symptom perception is highly variable within persons and strongly influenced by contextual information. Particularly, expectancy and affective cues appear to have a powerful influence on symptom accuracy. Based on these findings and incorporating recent work on associative learning, attention and mental representations in anxiety and symptom perception, we propose a cognitive-affective model of symptom perception in asthma. The model can act as a framework to understand both normal perception as well as under- and overperception of asthma symptoms and can guide the development of affect-related interventions to improve perceptual accuracy, asthma control and quality of life in asthma patients. PMID:19285771

  11. Predicting Subjective Affective Salience from Cortical Responses to Invisible Object Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmack, Katharina; Burk, Julia; Haynes, John-Dylan; Sterzer, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The affective value of a stimulus substantially influences its potency to gain access to awareness. Here, we sought to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying such affective salience in a combined behavioral and fMRI experiment. Healthy individuals with varying degrees of spider phobia were presented with pictures of spiders and flowers suppressed from view by continuous flash suppression. Applying multivoxel pattern analysis, we found that the average time that spider stimuli took relative to flowers to gain access to awareness in each participant could be decoded from fMRI signals evoked by suppressed spider versus flower stimuli in occipitotemporal and orbitofrontal cortex. Our results indicate neural signals during unconscious processing of complex visual information in orbitofrontal and ventral visual areas predict access to awareness of this information, suggesting a crucial role for these higher-level cortical regions in mediating affective salience. PMID:26232987

  12. ‘Short-term treatment with methotrexate does not affect microvascular endothelial function in patients with psoriasis’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, M; Jensen, Peter; Løvendorf, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly due to chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment might reduce the risk of CVD. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate if short-term treatment with methotrexate...... of treatment with methotrexate. At the same time points, we recorded anamnestic information, measured body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences and blood pressure, and drew blood samples (lipid profile, HbA1 and hs-CRP). Psoriasis severity was evaluated by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI...... by 7 (from 9 to 2). No significant changes were observed in MEF, expressed by reactive hyperaemia index and augmentation index. Also, we saw no significant changes in BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure and blood samples. CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment with methotrexate did not affect MEF...

  13. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  14. Treatment-Resistant Depressed Youth Show a Higher Response Rate If Treatment Ends during Summer School Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Keller, Martin B.; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is little work on the effect of school on response to treatment of depression, with available research suggesting that children and adolescents with school difficulties are less likely to respond to fluoxetine compared with those with no school difficulties. Method: Depressed adolescents in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in…

  15. Marijuana Use in Hepatitis C Infection does not Affect Liver Biopsy Histology or Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.

  16. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

  17. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  18. Repeated treatment with oxytocin promotes hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation and affects socio-emotional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Chan, Ngai-Man Jackie; Chan, Alan H L; Hui, Katy K Y; Lee, Sylvia; Chan, Hoi-Yi; Law, Yuen Shan; Sze, Mei Yi; Tsui, Wai-Ching Sarah; Fung, Timothy K H; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Lai, Cynthia Y Y

    2016-10-01

    Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of repeated oxytocin treatment on hippocampal cell proliferation, dendritic maturation of new born neurons and social/emotional behaviors. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received treatment with either vehicle or oxytocin (1mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Behavioral tests revealed that oxytocin increased social behaviors and reduced the anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Cell proliferation, differentiation and the dendritic complexity of new born neurons in the hippocampus were promoted by oxytocin treatment. Depression- and anxiety-like behaviors were induced by repeated treatment of corticosterone (40mg/kg) for two weeks while oxytocin treatment reversed the behavioral disturbances. Suppression of cell proliferation caused by corticosterone was reverted by oxytocin treatment in which cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and dendritic complexity increased. The present findings reveal that oxytocin not only enhances cell proliferation, but also promotes the development of the new neurons which is associated with the induction of positive emotional and social behaviors. The results also suggest that oxytocin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of emotional and social dysfunction. PMID:27418343

  19. Factors affecting the choice of treatment in occupational therapy practices in hospital-based care.

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy practice was carried out in The Netherlands. A registration form based on the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicapts (ICIDH) was filled out for 944 patients. This...

  20. Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Astin, Millie C; Kelley, Mary

    2010-06-01

    This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

  1. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  2. The strategic Samaritan : How effectiveness and proximity affect corporate responses to external crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Diermeier, Daniel A.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines how two dimensions of moral intensity involved in a corporation's external crisis response-magnitude of effectiveness and interpersonal proximity-influence observer perceptions of and behavioral intentions toward the corporation. Across three studies, effectiveness decreased n

  3. "Sharing is Caring": Corporate social responsibility awareness explaining the relationship of information flow with affective commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. ter Hoeven; J.W.M. Verhoeven

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication on external stakeholders' perceptions and behaviours have been studied extensively; however, researchers have largely overlooked the effects of CSR communication on internal stakeholders. This study seeks to propose that, b

  4. Genetic variation in human NPY expression affects stress response and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guanshan; Hariri, Ahmad R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Scott, David; Sinha, Rajita; Virkkunen, Matti; Mash, Deborah C.; Lipsky, Robert H; Hu, Xian-Zhang; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Xu, Ke; Buzas, Beata; Yuan, Qiaoping; SHEN, PEI-HONG

    2008-01-01

    Understanding inter-individual differences in stress response requires the explanation of genetic influences at multiple phenotypic levels, including complex behaviours and the metabolic responses of brain regions to emotional stimuli. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is anxiolytic1,2 and its release is induced by stress3. NPY is abundantly expressed in regions of the limbic system that are implicated in arousal and in the assignment of emotional valences to stimuli and memories4–6. Here we show that hap...

  5. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Esseili, Malak A; Siegismund, Christine; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines. We investigated the impact of colonization by probiotics, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Bb12) with/without col/milk (mimicking breast/formula fed infants) on B lymphocyte responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine in a n...

  6. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  7. Temperature stress affects the expression of immune response genes in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; James, Rosalind R

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stresses are thought to be associated with increases in disease suceptibility, attributable to evolutionary trade-offs between the energy demands required to deal with stress vs pathogens. We compared the effects of temperature stress and pathogen exposure on the immune response of a solitary bee, Megachile rotundata. Using an oligonucleotide microarray with 125 genes (375 probes), we determined that both high and low temperatures increased the expression of immune response genes in M. rotundata and reduced levels of a disease called chalkbrood. In the absence of the pathogen, trypsin-like serine and pathogen recognition proteases were most highly expressed at the lowest rearing temperature (20°C), while immune response signalling pathways and melanization were highly expressed at the warmest temperature tested (35°C). In pathogen-exposed bees, immune response genes tended to be most highly expressed at moderate temperatures, where we also saw the greatest infection levels. Temperature stress appears to have activated immunity before the pathogen elicited a response from the host, and this early activity prevented infection under stressful conditions. In this insect, the trade-off in energetic costs associated with stress and infection may be partially avoided by the use of conserved responses that reduce the effects of both. PMID:22356318

  8. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis;

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire...

  9. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis;

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walkin...

  10. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical ...

  11. Team members' affective responses to patterns of intragroup interdependence and job complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.; Emans, B.J.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this questionnaire study, the relations between the affective reactions of 114 technical consultants and both intragroup interdependence and job complexity were examined Individual-level task interdependence and job complexity were found to be positively related to individual job satisfaction, te

  12. Attributional, Perceptual, and Affective Responses to Depressed and Nondepressed Marital Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, William P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Husbands of wives with (n=22) or without (n=23) history of depressive disorder indicated their attributions about and affective reactions to real and hypothetical positive and negative events occurring to their wives, rated their wives on personality traits, and reported their own marital satisfaction. Depressed wives were rated more negatively on…

  13. Virtual Characters: Visual Realism Affects Response Time and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuma, Bernadette

    2012-01-01

    This study integrates agent research with a neurocognitive technique to study how character faces affect cognitive processing. The N170 event-related potential (ERP) was used to study face processing during simple decision-making tasks. Twenty-five adults responded to facial expressions (fear/neutral) presented in three designs…

  14. Early exposure of infants to GI nematodes induces Th2 dominant immune responses which are unaffected by periodic anthelminthic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Wright

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a reduction in anaemia and wasting malnutrition in infants <3 years old in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, following repeated anthelminthic treatment for the endemic gastrointestinal (GI nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. In view of the low intensity of worm infections in this age group, this was unexpected, and it was proposed that immune responses to the worms rather than their direct effects may play a significant role in morbidity in infants and that anthelminthic treatment may alleviate such effects. Therefore, the primary aims of this study were to characterise the immune response to initial/early GI nematode infections in infants and the effects of anthelminthic treatment on such immune responses. The frequency and levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma and IL-10 induced by the worms were evaluated in 666 infants aged 6-24 months using the Whole Blood Assay. Ascaris and hookworm antigens induced predominantly Th2 cytokine responses, and levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were significantly correlated. The frequencies and levels of responses were higher for both Ascaris positive and hookworm positive infants compared with worm negative individuals, but very few infants made Trichuris-specific cytokine responses. Infants treated every 3 months with mebendazole showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection compared with placebo-treated controls at one year following baseline. At follow-up, cytokine responses to Ascaris and hookworm antigens, which remained Th2 biased, were increased compared with baseline but were not significantly affected by treatment. However, blood eosinophil levels, which were elevated in worm-infected children, were significantly lower in treated children. Thus the effect of deworming in this age group on anaemia and wasting malnutrition, which were replicated in this study, could not be explained by modification of cytokine responses but may be related to

  15. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  16. End-of-treatment virologic response does not predict relapse after lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jen Liu; Wen-Ling Huang; Pei-Jer Chen; Ming-Yang Lai; Jia-Horng Kao; Ding-Shinn Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Attaining hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion during lamivudine treatment is assodated with fewer relapses in HBeAg-positive patients. In HBeAg-negative patients,predictors for post-treatment relapse remain largely unknown.We therefore studied whether end-of-treatment virologic response correlated with relapse after lamivudine treatment.METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 12 HBeAg-negative patients and 14 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B, who received at least 9 mo of lamivudine treatment and were followed up for 12 mo post-treatment. Relapse of hepatitis B activity was defined by an elevation of serum ALT level above twice the upper limit of normal as well as reappearance of serum HBV DNA by the branched DNA assay or HBeAg during the follow-up period. The serum viral loads during and at the end of treatment were further determined by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.RESULTS: Relapse occurred in 6 (50.0%) HBeAg-negative patients within 12 mo post-treatment. Two relapsers had end-of-treatment serum viral load < 1000 copies/mL, the proportion was not significantly different from that in the 6 non-relapsers (33.3% vs16.7%; P = 1.00). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels did not correlate with post-treatment relapse in HBeAg-positive patients either. However, genotype C patients tended to have a lower relapse rate than genotype B patients (14.3% vs57.9%, P= 0.08).CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that end-of-treatment virologic response cannot predict post-treatment relapse in patients with HBeAg-negative or -positive chronic hepatitis B. The impact of HBV genotype on the response to lamivudine treatment awaits further studies.

  17. Stressors can affect immobility time and response to imipramine in the rat forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M

    2009-02-01

    We subjected Wistar rats to the forced swim test (FST) to compare the effects of two doses of imipramine in physically stressed rats (P: unavoidable electric footshocks), emotionally stressed rats (E: odors), or non-stressed rats (C). Stress or control sessions lasted 35 days. Drug treatments began on day 21 and continued for the next 14 days. E rats were placed for 10 min, once per day for 35 days, in a small non-movement-restricting cage impregnated with urine collected from a P rat. E and P rats exhibited opposite changes in locomotion. After 21 days of stress sessions, P rats displayed the longest immobility times in the FST, followed by E rats. In the P group, on day 7 of treatment (day 28 of the study), imipramine (2.5 mg/kg) reduced immobility time to baseline values. In the E group, immobility time decreased only after 14 days of treatment with the low imipramine dose. The high dose of imipramine (5.0 mg/kg) reduced immobility time at day 7 of treatment in all groups. In conclusion, physical and emotional stress similarly increased immobility time in the FST, but emotional stress appears to be more resistant to imipramine treatment.

  18. Some aspects of salinity responses in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) to NaCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Yang, Hetong; Wu, Xiaoqing; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun

    2015-05-01

    Salinity is a major stress that adversely affects plant growth and crop production. Understanding the cellular responses and molecular mechanisms by which plants perceive and adopt salinity stress is of fundamental importance. In this work, some of the cellular signaling events including cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the behaviors of organelles were analyzed in a salt-tolerant species (Keyuan-1) of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) under NaCl treatment. Our results showed that 200 mM NaCl treatment elicited a distinct progress of cell death with chromatin condensation and caspase-3-like activation and a dramatic burst of ROS which was required for the execution of cell death. The major ROS accumulation occurred in the mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were the sources of ROS production under NaCl stress. Moreover, mitochondrial activity and photosynthetic capacity also exhibited the obvious decrease in the ROS-dependent manner under 200 mM NaCl stress. Furthermore, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) as well as the contents of ascorbate and glutathione changed in the concentration-dependent manner under NaCl stress. Altogether, our data showed the execution of programmed cell death (PCD), the ROS dynamics, and the behaviors of organelles especially mitochondria and chloroplasts in the cellular responses of peppermint to NaCl stress which can be used for the tolerance screening, and contributed to the understanding of the cellular responses and molecular mechanisms of peppermint to salinity stress, providing the theoretic basis for the further development and utilization of peppermint in saline areas.

  19. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  20. Short-term teriparatide treatment does not affect NT-proBNP, a marker of cardiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Schwarz, Peter; Hansen, Ann Caroline;

    2012-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is seen in PHPT patients. The N-terminal fragment of the pro-peptide of Brain Natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a risk marker of CVD, has been shown to be elevated in PHPT patients, indicating that continuously high concentrations of PTH affect the heart. Therefore the aim...... of this study was to investigate whether teriparatide treatment is associated with changes in plasma NT-proBNP....

  1. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  2. Neural Mechanisms of Improvements in Social Motivation after Pivotal Response Treatment: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Tirrell, Jonathan; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Vander Wyk, Brent; Kaiser, Martha D.; McPartland, James C.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Ventola, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment that has widespread positive effects on communication, behavior, and social skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For the first time, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of successful response to…

  3. An Evaluation of Response Cost in the Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.; Kettering, Tracy L.; Keeney, Kris M.

    2004-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the utility of a procedure consisting of noncontingent reinforcement with and without response cost in the treatment of inappropriate vocalizations maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results are discussed in terms of examining the variables that contribute to the effectiveness of response cost as treatment for…

  4. Factors affecting the response of the bubble detector BD-100 and a comparison of its response to CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BD-100 is a bubble detector available commercially from Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Canada for neutron dosimetry. According to the manufacturer, the BD-100 detects neutrons over an energy range of 100 keV to 14 MeV and the dose equivalent response is independent of energy. The sensitivity of the detector is dependent upon its temperature at the time of irradiation. The sensitized detector self-nucleates upon sharp impact and when heated to temperatures of 480C or greater. The BD-100 is insensitive to low energy gamma rays but responds to 6 MeV photons. The sensitivity (bubbles/μSv) of the BD-100 was found to be energy dependent when exposed to standard neutron sources with average energies ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 MeV. The bubbles formed upon irradiation continued to grow in size with time. The response of electrochemically etched CR-39 to the same neutron sources is also reported for comparison

  5. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  6. Dividuality, masculine respectability and reputation: how masculinity affects men's uptake of HIV treatment in rural eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Godfrey E; Seeley, Janet; Wight, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence in SSA that once infected with HIV men are disadvantaged compared to women in terms of uptake of treatment. In Uganda fewer men are on treatment, they tend to initiate treatment later, are difficult to retain on treatment and have a higher mortality while on treatment. This article discusses how men's response to HIV infection relates to their masculinity. We conducted participant observation and in-depth interviews with 26 men from a rural setting in eastern Uganda, in 2009-2010. They comprised men receiving HIV treatment, who had dropped treatment or did not seek it despite testing HIV positive, who had not tested but suspected infection, and those with other symptoms unrelated to HIV. Thematic analysis identified recurrent themes and variations across the data. Men drew from a range of norms to fulfil the social and individual expectations of being sufficiently masculine. The study argues that there are essentially two forms of masculinity in Mam-Kiror, one based on reputation and the other on respectability, with some ideals shared by both. Respectability was endorsed by 'the wider society', while reputation was endorsed almost entirely by men. Men's treatment seeking behaviours corresponded with different masculine ideologies. Family and societal expectations to be a family provider and respectable role model encouraged treatment, to regain and maintain health. However, reputational concern with strength and the capacity for hard physical work, income generation and sexual achievement discouraged uptake of HIV testing and treatment since it meant acknowledging weakness and an 'HIV patient' identity. Men's 'dividuality' allowed them to express different masculinities in different social contexts. We conclude that characteristics associated with respectable masculinity tend to encourage men's uptake of HIV treatment while those associated with reputational masculinity tend to undermine it.

  7. Vitamin D supplementation for treatment of seasonal affective symptoms in healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tenna Bloch; Pareek, Manan; Hansen, Jens Peter;

    2014-01-01

    for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders (SIGH-SAD). The secondary outcome was World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) of the healthcare professionals during the winter period and the exploratory outcome measures were weight, waist circumference, blood pressure......BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been associated with a higher likelihood of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and poor mental well-being, yet firm evidence for either remains lacking. Thus, vitamin D supplementation may alleviate symptoms associated with SAD. METHODS...... inclusion criterion was 8 points or more on question no. 2 of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ-SAD). During a 3-month period, the participants received a daily dose of 70 μg vitamin D or placebo. The primary outcome was the sum of the self-reported questionnaire Structured Interview Guide...

  8. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate. PMID:27172997

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:26520216

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  11. Rootstock-scion interaction affecting citrus response to CTV infection: a proteomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Paolo; Russo, Maria P; Guardo, Maria; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi; Moliterni, Vita M C

    2016-04-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of various diseases with dramatic effects on citrus crops worldwide. Most Citrus species, grown on their own roots, are symptomless hosts for many CTV isolates. However, depending on different scion-rootstock combination, CTV infection should result in distinct syndromes, being 'tristeza' the more severe one, leading to a complete decline of the susceptible plants in a few weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed several genes involved either in defense response, or systemic acquired resistance, as well as transcription factors and components of the phosphorylation cascades, to be differentially regulated during CTV infection in Citrus aurantifolia species. To date little is known about the molecular mechanism of this host-pathogen interaction, and about the rootstock effect on citrus response to CTV infection. In this work, the response to CTV infection has been investigated in tolerant and susceptible scion-rootstock combinations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 125 protein spots have been found to be differently accumulated and/or phosphorylated between the two rootstock combinations. Downregulation in tolerant plants upon CTV infection was detected for proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and defense response, suggesting a probable acclimation response able to minimize the systemic effects of virus infection. Some of these proteins resulted to be modulated also in absence of virus infection, revealing a rootstock effect on scion proteome modulation. Moreover, the phospho-modulation of proteins involved in ROS scavenging and defense response, further supports their involvement either in scion-rootstock crosstalk or in the establishment of tolerance/susceptibility to CTV infection. PMID:26459956

  12. Biologically effective dose and definitive radiation treatment for localized prostate cancer. Treatment gaps do affect the risk of biochemical failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not clear if prolongation of definitive external radiation therapy for prostate cancer has an effect on biochemical failure. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the biologically effective dose (BED), and in particular the duration of radiotherapy, intended as overall treatment time, has an effect on biochemical failure rates and to develop a nomogram useful to predict the 6-year probability of biochemical failure. A total of 670 patients with T1-3 N0 prostate cancer were treated with external beam definitive radiotherapy, to a total dose of 72-79.2 Gy in 40-44 fractions. The computed BED values were treated with restricted cubic splines. Variables were checked for colinearity using Spearman's test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR) rates. The Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse in the final most performing model and to create a nomogram. Concordance probability estimate and calibration methods were used to validate the nomogram. Neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation was administered to 475 patients (70 %). The median follow-up was 80 months (range 20-129 months). Overall, the 6-year FFBR rate was 88.3 %. BED values were associated with higher biochemical failure risk. Age, iPSA, risk category, and days of radiotherapy treatment were independent variables of biochemical failure. A prolongation of RT (lower BED values) is associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. The nomogram may be helpful in decision making for the individual patient. (orig.)

  13. METABOLIC SYNDROME - THE CONSEQUENCE OF LIFELONG TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Grahovac, Tanja; Petranović, Duška; Graovac, Mirjana; Žarković Palijan, Tija

    2010-01-01

    Mood disturbances are characteristic and dominant feature of Mood disorders. Bipolar Affective Disorder (BAD) is a mood disorder which occurs equally in both sexes. BAD may occur in co morbidity with other mental diseases and disorders such as: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, Attention Deficit, Panic Disorder and Social Phobia. However, medical disorders (one or more) can also coexist with BAD. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of developing ...

  14. Treatment of Ischemic Apoplexy Based on the Theory of "Lingering Illness Affecting Collaterals"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Lingmei; Sun Yan; Duan Shumin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ischemic apoplexy, also called ischemic cerebrovascular disease (including cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism and transient cerebral ischemic attack), belongs to the TCM category of "wind-stroke syndrome". The increasingly high incidence of the disease has imposed serious influence on life quality of people. Based on the theory of "lingering illness affecting collaterals", we have treated the disease by acupuncture and oral administration of leech capsule and centipede capsule,with good therapeutic results reported as follows.

  15. Identifying the Impact of Individual Differences on the Basis of Affect Intensity Measure on Consumers Response to Advertising Appeals

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study aims (i) to find out the individuals scoring on Larsen Affect intensity measurement Scale (AIM) for emotional ads and (ii) to know whether the individual differences of response diminishes when they are exposed to the nonemotional (rational) advertisements, (iii) to know whether the cultural differences among other countries and Pakistan mediate the applicability and implications of AIM scale in the field of advertising research. Variety of researchers including consumers behavior,...

  16. Arousal Regulation and Affective Adaptation to Human Responsiveness by a Robot that Explores and Learns a Novel Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine eHiolle; Matthew eLewis; Lola eCañamero

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a ``baby'' robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a ``caregiver'' to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two ``idealized'' robot profiles -- a ``needy...

  17. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  18. Natural Parasite Infection Affects the Tolerance but Not the Response to a Simulated Secondary Parasite Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Lutermann; Chimoné Bodenstein; Nigel C. Bennett

    2012-01-01

    Parasites deplete the resources of their host and can consequently affect the investment in competing traits (e.g. reproduction and immune defence). The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that testosterone (T) mediates trade-offs between parasite defence and reproductive investment by suppressing immune function in male vertebrates while more recently a role for glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol (C)) in resource allocation has been suggested. These hypotheses however, have not always fo...

  19. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  20. GADL1 variant and medication adherence in predicting response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jung-Chen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders. Aims To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder. Method Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n=215). Results GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence. Conclusions GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703793

  1. Environmental Parameters Affecting the Algal Diversity in a Sewage Water Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was carried out at a tertiary sewage water treatment plant located at El-Kattameya city, Cairo, Egypt, for a duration period of 12 months during 2004. The present work aimed to study the algal diversity (phyto benthos and phytoplankton) of the different tanks (collector, oxidation, settling and effluent) included in the tertiary sewage treatment system with respect to changes in physico-chemical characteristics of sewage water during the different seasons to be used for golf course irrigation. The treatment system is of the physico-biological type. Representing data of the physico-chemical parameters are air and water temperatures, ph, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended salts (TSS), total alkalinity, nutrients (nitrate, ammonia, phosphate, ortho-phosphorus, phosphorus and silicate), as well as major ions (calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate and chloride). In addition, the treatment efficiency of the system was evaluated and the suitability of using the effluent in irrigation purposes was discussed

  2. Methotrexate treatment affects effector but not regulatory T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic-Calasan, Maja; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Scholman, Rianne C.; Verweij, Frederik; Klein, Mark; Wulffraat, Nico W.; Prakken, Berent J.; van Wijk, Femke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The balance between Treg and effector T cells (Teff) is crucial for immune regulation in JIA. How MTX, the cornerstone treatment in JIA, influences this balance in vivo is poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative and qualitative effects of MTX on Treg and T

  3. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of high-pressure (HP) treatment and two different methods of brine addition (important for lysosomal membrane destabilisation) on lysosomal enzymes activity and protein degradation, pork semitendinosus muscle was brine enhanced by injection or tumbling, and HP treated...

  4. Analysis of factors affecting the early hypothyroidism following 131I treatment of Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: It is a retrospective study designed to evaluate the early therapeutic outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and determine whether the outcome of radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease depends on thyroid volume, function, thyreo-stasis, therapeutic dosage, 131I uptake, age, sex, and absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. Methods: One year after treatment, 342 patients were divided into two groups according to whether there was hypothyroidism, t test and x2 test were used to compare the variable parameters between the two groups. Results: 92.1% were cured with a single dose of 131I, and 21.2% contracted hypothyroidism at 12 months after treatment. The outcome of treatment at 12 months depended on the volume of thyroid and the absorbed doses by per gram of thyroid tissue. And pretreatment with thyreo-stasis did not reduce the therapeutic efficacy of 131I in hyperthyroidism if antithyroid drugs were discontinued at least 3 days before 131I treatment. Conclusions: Since most hypothyroidism occurred in patients whose thyroid volume is small, appropriate reduction of target dose is recommended here for those patients

  5. Some physiological changes in faba bean seedlings as affected by the treatment with the fungicide zineb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effect of 10 ppm of the fungicide zineb (zine ethylene -1,2-bis dithiocarbamate) on photosynthesis, respiration and endogenous hormones levels of faba bean seedlings were studied after seed treatment or foliar application utilizing radiotracer techniques. A suggested scheme for faba bean treatment with zineb and a flow diagram for extraction, purification and separation of endogenous hormones are presented. The data obtained (seed treatment) revealed a marked reduction (41.8%) in the amount of 14CO2 fixed or incorporated in different cell components of seedlings. On the other hand, respiratory activity was significantly increased recording 176.5% and manifesting a respired/fixed radio about 4 times of the corresponding control. In case of foliar application, the amount of 14CO2 fixed showed remarkable decrease (50%) after 24 h of application then declined to reach almost control values after 72 h. The respiratory 14CO2 showed a continuos increase with time reaching 398% after 72 h. Respired/fixed ratio amounted 0.8 after 72 h. Both treatments led to an increase in the amounts of endogenous hormones; cytokinines, auxins and ABA when compared with control values recording the highest values after 24 h. A substational reduction in the amount of gibberellin-like substances was observed. Zineb induced high stress on faba bean seedlings and had the impact to reduce the intensity of certain natural processes such as photosynthesis and respiration and increased the endogenous hormones

  6. Psychosocial co-morbidity affects treatment outcome in children with fecal incontinence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everdingen-Faasen, E.Q. van; Gerritsen, B.J.; Mulder, P.G.; Fliers, E.A.; Groeneweg, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in children. Many children with fecal incontinence have psychosocial co-morbidity. In this study, the effect of psychosocial co-morbidity on the treatment outcome of children with fecal incontinence was evaluated. One hundred and fifty children with fecal inco

  7. Transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of affective disorders in patients with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, A T; Vil'yanov, V B; Raigorodskii, Yu M; Rogozina, M A

    2009-06-01

    Transcranial magnetotherapy (TMT) was used in 32 patients with alcoholism (study group) on the background of basal treatment (nootropes, hepatoprotectors, vitamin/mineral formulations, etc.). The influence of this treatment was compared with a control group (30 subjects), in which TMT was replaced with an appropriate (placebo) procedure. All patients, who were aged from 35 to 64 years, had second-degree alcoholism with disease durations of 4-12 years. Patients were in a post-abstinence state during the treatment period. Courses of TMT consisted of 10 daily procedures with exposures of 10-20 min. Somatic, neurological, and laboratory studies were performed before and after treatment and included cardiointervalography, electroencephalography, assessments of the state of the autonomic nervous system, and use of psychometric scales to evaluate levels of anxiety and depression. TMT was followed by improvements in wellbeing, mood, and sleep, with increases in physical exercise tolerance and decreases in alcohol craving in 75% of patients in the study group and 30% of patients in the control group. Improvements in patients' status were supported by paraclinical investigations (electrophysiological, measures of the state of the autonomic nervous system, etc.) and psychometric scales. PMID:19430982

  8. Applications of text messaging, and bibliotherapy for treatment of patients affected by depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Taleban

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment.

  9. Ruby laser for treatment of tattoos: technical considerations affecting clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert E.

    1990-06-01

    Recent clinical research on the use of ruby lasers for the treatment of tattoos and FIlk approval of a commercial system have renewed interest in this device. In this paper the principles of Q-switched ruby laser operation are reviewed, and potential sources of error in the estimation of delivered fluence are discussed.

  10. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  11. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  12. Evaluation of Endodontic Treatment Failure of Teeth With Periapical Radiolucent Areas and Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khedmat

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Failure of endodontic treatment is determined on the basis of radiographic findings and clinical signs and/ or symptoms of the treated teeth.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine endodontic treatment failure in relation to various factors influencing it in teeth with periapical lesions (clinically and radiographically.Materials and Methods: Teeth which had periapical lesions before treatment were selected from a series of teeth treated by endodontics’ postgraduate students over 5-year period (1997-2001 in Faculty of Dentistry Tehran university of Medical Science.post operative follow up in 50 patients was possible .The patient’s ages ranged between 16 to 62 years old. 40 of patients were female and 10 were male. At the recall appointment,first the clinical information (pain, swelling, tenderness to palpation, percussion, … were recorded in a questionnaire form, then two radiographies were obtained from each tooth.The radiographies were assessed separately by three to five endodontists. Strindberg's criteria were used to Judge the failure of endodontic treatment. The observation periodranged from 1 to 5 years. The Data were analyzed statistically by using chi-square, Fisher’s exact test and MC Nemar test.Results: Among different factors considered in this study, Fistula and sensation to percussion were reduced significantly (MC Nemar test, P=0.004. There were no significant difference between the extention of root canal filling, age and type of coronal restorationand endodontic failure which may be due to the small sample size of this study.Conclusion: The rate of endodontic failure was 16%, which means 84% success rate,which is similar to results obtained from previous studies. The high success rate of endodontic treatment in teeth with periapical lesion may be explained by the fact that obturation has a definitive effect on reducing inflammation in periradicular area.

  13. Measurement bias between optical coherence tomography instruments can affect access to treatment: a new lottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidess A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrej Kidess, Adonis El Salloukh, Poonam Dutt, Pearse A Keane, Marie D Tsaloumas, Alastair K DennistonQueen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UKIt is with great interest that we read the publication entitled "Critical appraisal of ranibizumab in the treatment of diabetic macular edema" by Stewart.1 The author emphasized the importance of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME. As highlighted in that article, the anti-VEGF ranibizumab is a superior treatment compared to traditional argon photocoagulation, leading to better anatomical and functional results.In April 2013, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE of the UK approved the use of ranibizumab as a treatment option to treat diabetic macular edema of the eye if it has a central macular thickness (CMT of 400 μm or more at the beginning of the treatment.2 The guidelines did not specify which optical coherence tomography (OCT device(s should be used for this assessment. This is important as, although good consistency has been shown in using the same instrument, there is a known divergence in CMT measurements between different instruments.3–6 For example, the Spectralis® OCT (Heidelberg Engineering; Carsbad, CA, USA generally shows higher values of mean CMT in a normal eye compared to most other instruments, in part due to the retinal segmentation algorithm that it employs.4 We hypothesized that similar (or increased differences might be observed in DME, and that for those countries (such as the UK where a fixed CMT is used to define eligibility for treatment, the "lottery" of OCT instruments may influence eligibility.View original paper by Stewart.

  14. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  15. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  16. The rate of training response to aerobic exercise affects brain function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Mimura, Tatsuya; Pajk, Melitta; Abraham, Dora; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing volume of data connecting capacity to respond to exercise training with quality of life and aging. In this study, we used a rat model in which animals were selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance to test t whether genetic segregation for trainability is associated with brain function and signaling processes in the hippocampus. Rats selected for low response (LRT) and high response training (HRT) were randomly divided into control or exercise group that trained five times a week for 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max. All four groups had similar running distance before training. With training, HRT rats showed significantly greater increases in VO2max and running distance than LRT rats (p brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ratio of phospho and total cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and apoptotic index, also showed significant differences between LRT and HRT groups. These findings suggest that aerobic training responses are not localized to skeletal muscle, but differently involve signaling processes in the brain of LRT and HRT rats. PMID:27262284

  17. Immune history profoundly affects broadly protective B cell responses to influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah F.; Huang, Yunping; Kaur, Kaval; Popova, Lyubov I.; Ho, Irvin Y.; Pauli, Noel T.; Dunand, Carole J. Henry; Taylor, William M; Lim, Samuel; Huang, Min; Qu, Xinyan; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Salgado-Ferrer, Marlene; Krammer, Florian; Palese, Peter; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Generating a broadly protective influenza vaccine is critical to global health. Understanding how immune memory influences influenza immunity is central to this goal. We undertook an in-depth study of the B cell response to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine over consecutive years. Analysis of monoclonal Abs generated from vaccine-induced plasmablasts demonstrated that individuals with low preexisting serological titers to the vaccinating strain generated a broadly reactive, HA stalk-biased, response. Higher preexisting serum antibody levels correlated with a strain-specific HA head-dominated response. We demonstrate that this HA head immunodominance encompasses poor accessibility of the HA stalk epitopes. Further, we show polyreactivity of HA stalk-reactive antibodies that could cause counterselection of these cells. Thus, preexisting memory against HA head epitopes predominate, inhibiting a broadly protective response against the HA stalk upon revaccination with similar strains. Consideration of influenza exposure history is critical for new vaccine strategies designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26631631

  18. Seasonal timing of glyphosate ripener application affects sugarcane’s response in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is applied as a ripener to ratoon sugarcane in Louisiana to increase theoretically recoverable sugar (TRS) in harvested sugarcane. While glyphosate is applied as a ripener throughout the harvest season, recommendations for these applications have been based primarily on the response of s...

  19. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  20. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  1. Three-dimensional matrix stiffness and adhesive ligands affect cancer cell response to toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zustiak, Silviya Petrova; Dadhwal, Smritee; Medina, Carlos; Steczina, Sonette; Chehreghanianzabi, Yasaman; Ashraf, Anisa; Asuri, Prashanth

    2016-02-01

    There is an immediate need to develop highly predictive in vitro cell-based assays that provide reliable information on cancer drug efficacy and toxicity. Development of biomaterial-based three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models as drug screening platforms has recently gained much scientific interest as 3D cultures of cancer cells have been shown to more adequately mimic the in vivo tumor conditions. Moreover, it has been recognized that the biophysical and biochemical properties of the 3D microenvironment can play key roles in regulating various cancer cell fates, including their response to chemicals. In this study, we employed alginate-based scaffolds of varying mechanical stiffness and adhesive ligand presentation to further explore the role of 3D microenvironmental cues on glioblastoma cell response to cytotoxic compounds. Our experiments suggested the ability of both matrix stiffness and cell-matrix adhesions to strongly influence cell responses to toxins. Cells were found to be more susceptible to the toxins when cultured in softer matrices that emulated the stiffness of brain tissue. Furthermore, the effect of matrix stiffness on differential cell responses to toxins was negated by the presence of the adhesive ligand RGD, but regained when integrin-based cell-matrix interactions were inhibited. This study therefore indicates that both 3D matrix stiffness and cell-matrix adhesions are important parameters in the design of more predictive in vitro platforms for drug development and toxicity screening.

  2. Use of a test of perceived authenticity to trigger affective responses when testing food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutrolle, I.; Delarue, J.; Köster, E.P.; Aranz, D.; Danzart, M.

    2009-01-01

    Food developers frequently check the liking for their recipes by asking consumers to state their preferences. This approach is often criticised for the lack of commitment of the participants and the artificiality of the hedonic response. This study tested whether an authenticity test could also be u

  3. Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...

  4. Amygdala atrophy affects emotion-related activity in face-responsive regions in frontotemporal degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Peeters, Ronald; Jastorff, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    In the healthy brain, modulatory influences from the amygdala commonly explain enhanced activation in face-responsive areas by emotional facial expressions relative to neutral expressions. In the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) facial emotion recognition is impaired and has been a

  5. Chlorogenic acid differentially affects postprandial glucose and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Regular coffee consumption significantly lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Coffee contains thousands of compounds; however, the specific component(s) responsible for this reduced risk is unknown. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) found in brewed coffee inhibit intestinal glucose uptake in vitro. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which CGA acts to mediate blood glucose response in vivo. Conscious, unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats were chronically catheterized and gavage-fed a standardized meal (59% carbohydrate, 25% fat, 12% protein), administered with or without CGA (120 mg·kg(-1)), in a randomized crossover design separated by a 3-day washout period. Acetaminophen was co-administered to assess the effects of CGA on gastric emptying. The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured. GLP-1 response in the presence of glucose and CGA was further examined, using the human colon cell line NCI-H716. Total area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose was significantly attenuated in rats fed CGA (p gastric emptying was not altered. Plasma GIP response was blunted in rats fed CGA, with a lower peak concentration and AUC up to 180 min postprandially (p alterations seen in GIP concentrations. Given the widespread consumption and availability of coffee, CGA may be a viable prevention tool for T2D. PMID:21977912

  6. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

  7. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis According to Disease Stage and HIV Status

    OpenAIRE

    Knaute, Damaris Fröhlich; Graf, Nicole; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Weber, Rainer; Bosshard, Philipp P.

    2012-01-01

    Background.  Serology is the mainstay for syphilis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We investigated serological response to treatment of syphilis according to disease stage and HIV status. Methods.  A retrospective cohort study of 264 patients with syphilis was conducted, including 90 primary, 133 secondary, 33 latent, and 8 tertiary syphilis cases. Response to treatment as measured by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and a specific IgM (immunoglobulin M) capture enzyme...

  8. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis According to Disease Stage and HIV Status

    OpenAIRE

    Knaute, Damaris Fröhlich; Graf, Nicole; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Weber, Rainer; Bosshard, Philipp P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Serology is the mainstay for syphilis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We investigated serological response to treatment of syphilis according to disease stage and HIV status. Methods. A retrospective cohort study of 264 patients with syphilis was conducted, including 90 primary, 133 secondary, 33 latent, and 8 tertiary syphilis cases. Response to treatment as measured by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and a specific IgM (immunoglobulin M) capture enzyme-l...

  9. Do 'enabling technologies' affect customer performance in price-responsive load programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price-responsive load (PRL) programs vary significantly in overall design, the complexity of relationships between program administrators, load aggregators, and customers, and the availability of ''enabling technologies''. Enabling technologies include such features as web-based power system and price monitoring, control and dispatch of curtailable loads, communications and information systems links to program participants, availability of interval metering data to customers in near real time, and building/facility/end-use automation and management capabilities. Two state agencies - NYSERDA in New York and the CEC in California - have been conspicuous leaders in the demonstration of demand response (DR) programs utilizing enabling technologies. In partnership with key stakeholders in these two states (e.g., grid operator, state energy agencies, and program administrators), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed 56 customers who worked with five contractors participating in CEC or NYSERDA-sponsored DR programs. We combined market research and actual load curtailment data when available (i.e., New York) or customer load reduction targets in order to explore the relative importance of contractor's program design features, sophistication of control strategies, and reliance on enabling technologies in predicting customer's ability to deliver load reductions in DR programs targeted to large commercial/industrial customers. We found preliminary evidence that DR enabling technology has a positive effect on load curtailment potential. Many customers indicated that web-based energy information tools were useful for facilitating demand response (e.g., assessing actual performance compared to load reduction contract commitments), that multiple notification channels facilitated timely response, and that support for and use of backup generation allowed customers to achieve significant and predictable load

  10. Predictors of Treatment Response for Suicidal Youth Referred for Emergency Psychiatric Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Jr., Stanley J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Pickrel, Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated factors that predicted poor treatment response for 70 suicidal youth (ages 10 to 17 years; 67% African American) who received either multisystemic therapy (MST) or inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Following treatment, suicidal youth were classified as either treatment responders or nonresponders based on caregiver or…

  11. Brief Parent Training in Pivotal Response Treatment for Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolican, Jamesie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evidence of improved outcomes with early behavioural intervention has placed the early treatment of autism as a health priority. However, long waiting lists for treatment often preclude timely access, raising the question of whether parents could be trained in the interim. Parent training in pivotal response treatment (PRT) has been…

  12. Microbial communities associated with healthy and White syndrome-affected Echinopora lamellosa in aquaria and experimental treatment with the antibiotic ampicillin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic and ciliate communities of healthy and aquarium White Syndrome (WS-affected coral fragments were screened using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. A significant difference (R = 0.907, p < 0.001 in 16S rRNA prokaryotic diversity was found between healthy (H, sloughed tissue (ST, WS-affected (WSU and antibiotic treated (WST samples. Although 3 Vibrio spp were found in WS-affected samples, two of these species were eliminated following ampicillin treatment, yet lesions continued to advance, suggesting they play a minor or secondary role in the pathogenesis. The third Vibrio sp increased slightly in relative abundance in diseased samples and was abundant in non-diseased samples. Interestingly, a Tenacibaculum sp showed the greatest increase in relative abundance between healthy and WS-affected samples, demonstrating consistently high abundance across all WS-affected and treated samples, suggesting Tenacibaculum sp could be a more likely candidate for pathogenesis in this instance. In contrast to previous studies bacterial abundance did not vary significantly (ANOVA, F2, 6 = 1.000, p = 0.422 between H, ST, WSU or WST. Antimicrobial activity (assessed on Vibrio harveyi cultures was limited in both H and WSU samples (8.1% ±8.2 and 8.0% ±2.5, respectively and did not differ significantly (Kruskal-Wallis, χ2 (2 = 3.842, p = 0.146. A Philaster sp, a Cohnilembus sp and a Pseudokeronopsis sp. were present in all WS-affected samples, but not in healthy samples. The exact role of ciliates in WS is yet to be determined, but it is proposed that they are at least responsible for the neat lesion boundary observed in the disease.

  13. FDG-PET/CT response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthijs; H; van; Gool; Tjeerd; S; Aukema; Koen; J; Hartemink; Renato; A; Valdés; Olmos; Houke; M; Klomp; Harm; van; Tinteren

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years,[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography acquired together with low dose computed tomography(FDG-PET/CT)has proven its role as a staging modality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).The purpose of this review was to present the evidence to use FDG-PET/CT for response evaluation in patients with NSCLC,treated with epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors(TKI).All published articles from 1November 2003 to 1 November 2013 reporting on 18FFDG-PET response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC were collected.In total 7studies,including data of 210 patients were eligible for analyses.Our report shows that FDG-PET/CT responseduring EGFR-TKI therapy has potential in targeted treatment for NSCLC.FDG-PET/CT response is associated with clinical and radiologic response and with survival.Furthermore FDG-PET/CT response monitoring can be performed as early as 1-2 wk after initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment.Patients with substantial decrease of metabolic activity during EGFR-TKI treatment will probably benefit from continued treatment.If metabolic response does not occur within the first weeks of EGFR-TKI treatment,patients may be spared(further)unnecessary toxicity of ineffective treatment.Refining FDG-PET response criteria may help the clinician to decide on continuation or discontinuation of targeted treatment.

  14. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  15. Spinal cord response to laser treatment of injured peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochkind, S.; Vogler, I.; Barr-Nea, L. (Ichilov Hospital, Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel))

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the changes occurring in the spinal cord of rats subjected to crush injury of the sciatic nerve followed by low-power laser irradiation of the injured nerve. Such laser treatment of the crushed peripheral nerve has been found to mitigate the degenerative changes in the corresponding neurons of the spinal cord and induce proliferation of neuroglia both in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. This suggests a higher metabolism in neurons and a better ability for myelin production under the influence of laser treatment.

  16. An ontology for factors affecting tuberculosis treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogundele OA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olukunle Ayodeji Ogundele,1 Deshendran Moodley,1 Anban W Pillay,1 Christopher J Seebregts1,2 1UKZN/CSIR Meraka Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Health Architecture Laboratory, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, 2Jembi Health Systems NPC, Cape Town, South Africa Purpose: Adherence behavior is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse personal, cultural, and socioeconomic factors that may vary between communities in different regions. Understanding the factors that influence adherence behavior is essential in predicting which individuals and communities are at risk of nonadherence. This is necessary for supporting resource allocation and intervention planning in disease control programs. Currently, there is no known concrete and unambiguous computational representation of factors that influence tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence behavior that is useful for prediction. This study developed a computer-based conceptual model for capturing and structuring knowledge about the factors that influence TB treatment adherence behavior in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Methods: An extensive review of existing categorization systems in the literature was used to develop a conceptual model that captured scientific knowledge about TB adherence behavior in SSA. The model was formalized as an ontology using the web ontology language. The ontology was then evaluated for its comprehensiveness and applicability in building predictive models. Conclusion: The outcome of the study is a novel ontology-based approach for curating and structuring scientific knowledge of adherence behavior in patients with TB in SSA. The ontology takes an evidence-based approach by explicitly linking factors to published clinical studies. Factors are structured around five dimensions: factor type, type of effect, regional variation, cross-dependencies between factors, and treatment phase. The ontology is

  17. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fathia AOUIDI; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It ...

  18. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  19. Prenatal Thyroxine Treatment Disparately Affects Peripheral and Amygdala Thyroid Hormone Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Sittig, Laura J.; Andrus, Brian M; Schaffer, Daniel J.; Batra, Kanchi K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2009-01-01

    A prenatal hypothyroid state is associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats exhibit hypothyroidism and increased depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, the WKY could illuminate the mechanisms by which the reversal of developmental hypothyroidism in humans and animals results in adult behavioral improvement. We examined the outcome of maternal thyroxine (T4) treatment on thyroid hormone-regulated functions and adult behavior of the WKY offspring. Pregna...

  20. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents.

  1. Does a true knowledge of dental crowding affect orthodontic treatment decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, Hywel J; Dunbar, Claire; Crouch-Baker, James; Shah, Kiran; Wallis, Colin; Atack, Nicola E; Sherriff, Martyn; Jonathan R. Sandy; Ireland, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether a true knowledge of crowding alters treatment decisions compared with estimates of crowding.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six orthodontists were asked to estimate crowding using visualization on eight mandibular arch study models and to indicate possible extraction choices. For each model, the intermolar widths, intercanine widths, and clinical scenarios were identical, but the true crowding varied from 0.2 to 8.4mm as to a lesser extent did the curve of Spee. El...

  2. Variables affecting compliance with treatment of post-hospitalized patients with chronic mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Linsky, Miles A.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects in this study were 33 patients aged 18 to 60 years who were first admitted to an outpatient mental health department in a 1-year period and were known to have had two or more hospitalizations in State or private psychiatric institutions in the 2 years before intake. The relationships between four patient variables and compliance with recommended treatment were studied. The four variables were (a) severity of psychopathology at intake, (b) evidence of negative communication in a p...

  3. Loss of response to melatonin treatment is associated with slow melatonin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, W.J.; Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Keijzer, H.; Smits, M.G.; Didden, H.C.M.; Curfs, L.M.G

    2010-01-01

    Background In some of our patients with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems, the initial good response to melatonin disappeared within a few weeks after starting treatment, while the good response returned only after considerable dose reduction. The cause for this loss of response to mel

  4. Loss of Response to Melatonin Treatment Is Associated with Slow Melatonin Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, W.; van Geijlswijk, I.; Keijzer, Henry; Smits, Marcel G.; Didden, Robert; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In some of our patients with intellectual disability (ID) and sleep problems, the initial good response to melatonin disappeared within a few weeks after starting treatment, while the good response returned only after considerable dose reduction. The cause for this loss of response to melatonin is yet unknown. We hypothesise that this…

  5. Membrane voltage differently affects mIPSCs and current responses recorded from somatic excised patches in rat hippocampal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-01-30

    Recent analysis of current responses to exogenous GABA applications recorded from excised patches indicated that membrane voltage affected the GABAA receptor gating mainly by altering desensitization and binding [M. Pytel, K. Mercik, J.W. Mozrzymas, Membrane voltage modulates the GABAA receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, Neuropharmacology, in press]. In order investigate the impact of such voltage effect on GABAA receptors in conditions of synaptic transmission, mIPSCs and current responses to rapid GABA applications were recorded from the same culture of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that I-V relationship for mIPSCs amplitudes showed a clear outward rectification while for current responses an inward rectification was seen, except for very low GABA concentrations. A clear shift in amplitude cumulative distributions indicated that outward rectification resulted from the voltage effect on the majority of mIPSCs. Moreover, the decaying phase of mIPSCs was clearly slowed down at positive voltages and this effect was represented by a shift in cumulative distributions of weighted decaying time constants. In contrast, deactivation of current responses was only slightly affected by membrane depolarization. These data indicate that the mechanisms whereby the membrane voltage modulates synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors are qualitatively different but the mechanism underlying this difference is not clear.

  6. Consequence on Treatment of TB Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS A Conceptual Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarder N. Uddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an ancient malady, which is one of the world’s most wide spread infectious bacterial agents. Fully one-third of the world’s population is already infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the greatest burden of disease and infection borne by people in developing countries. Tuberculosis disease is still out of control. Alarming spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and emergence of drug resistance is now further complicating the major problem. HIV not only makes the diagnosis of TB more difficult; it contributes to an increase in TB incidence. The rate of breakdown to clinical TB in individuals infected both with HIV and tuberculosis is many times higher than in those without HIV. The present vaccine is not sufficient to reduce the death rate by eradicating TB with HIV/AIDS. The present review is based on the prevention and treatment of TB patient and co-infected with HIV/AIDS and effect of HIV/AIDS on the treatment and prevention of TB. It will help assuming idea about future steps in prevention and treatment of TB among HIV/AIDS patients.

  7. Modeling and simulation of placebo response and dropout patterns in treatment of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilla Reddy, Venkatesh; Kozielska, Magdalena; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; de Greef, Rik; Liu, Jing; Groothuis, Genoveva; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Unpredictable variation in placebo response within and among clinical trials can substantially affect conclusions about the efficacy of new antipsychotic medications. Developing a robust placebo model accounting for factors like dropouts, disease progression and trial design is crucial i

  8. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  9. A Case of Devic’s Syndrome Presenting with Tonic Spasm: Response to Levetiracetam Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Leventoğlu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica or Devic’s syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder which is characterized by inflammatory demyelination of the optic nerves and the spinal cord. Clinically, it causes visual loss in one or both eyes, and numbness or paralysis of the arms and legs. Although tonic spasm is the most frequent movement disorder occuring in MS, it has not been definetely described clinical entity for Devic’s syndrome. We hereby describe a case of Devic’s syndrome with tonic spasms treated with levetiracetam as a new approach and discussed the results of the treatment. A 52-year-old woman with Devic’s syndrome with the complaint of painful tonic spasms primarily affecting the abdomen was given levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam therapy resulted in a good response in our patient. Levetiracetam can be a new choice for the treatment of painful tonic spasm with Devic’s syndrome. However, more detailed studies are necessary to investigate efficacy of levetiracetam.

  10. Biologically effective dose and definitive radiation treatment for localized prostate cancer. Treatment gaps do affect the risk of biochemical failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanpaolo, P.; Barbieri, V. [CROB, Rionero in Vulture (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.; Genovesi, D. [' ' G. D' Annunzio Univ., Chieti (Italy). Radiation Oncology Dept.

    2014-08-15

    It is not clear if prolongation of definitive external radiation therapy for prostate cancer has an effect on biochemical failure. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the biologically effective dose (BED), and in particular the duration of radiotherapy, intended as overall treatment time, has an effect on biochemical failure rates and to develop a nomogram useful to predict the 6-year probability of biochemical failure. A total of 670 patients with T1-3 N0 prostate cancer were treated with external beam definitive radiotherapy, to a total dose of 72-79.2 Gy in 40-44 fractions. The computed BED values were treated with restricted cubic splines. Variables were checked for colinearity using Spearman's test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate freedom from biochemical relapse (FFBR) rates. The Cox regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors of biochemical relapse in the final most performing model and to create a nomogram. Concordance probability estimate and calibration methods were used to validate the nomogram. Neoadjuvant and concomitant androgen deprivation was administered to 475 patients (70 %). The median follow-up was 80 months (range 20-129 months). Overall, the 6-year FFBR rate was 88.3 %. BED values were associated with higher biochemical failure risk. Age, iPSA, risk category, and days of radiotherapy treatment were independent variables of biochemical failure. A prolongation of RT (lower BED values) is associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure. The nomogram may be helpful in decision making for the individual patient. (orig.) [German] Es ist nicht geklaert, ob die Verlaengerung einer definitiven Strahlentherapie bei der Behandlung von Prostatakarzinompatienten einen Effekt auf das biochemische Versagen hat. Die vorliegende Studie hat das Ziel zu evaluieren, ob biologisch die effektive Dosis und insbesondere die Gesamtdauer der Behandlung eine Wirkung auf das biochemisches Rezidiv haben koennte. Ferner

  11. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk...... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all ppsychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All...

  12. How individual movement response to habitat edges affects population persistence and spatial spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Gabriel Andreguetto; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2013-07-01

    How individual-level movement decisions in response to habitat edges influence population-level patterns of persistence and spread of a species is a major challenge in spatial ecology and conservation biology. Here, we integrate novel insights into edge behavior, based on habitat preference and movement rates, into spatially explicit growth-dispersal models. We demonstrate how crucial ecological quantities (e.g., minimal patch size, spread rate) depend critically on these individual-level decisions. In particular, we find that including edge behavior properly in these models gives qualitatively different and intuitively more reasonable results than those of some previous studies that did not consider this level of detail. Our results highlight the importance of new empirical work on individual movement response to habitat edges.

  13. Inbreeding and experience affect response to climate change by endangered woodpeckers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiegg, Karin; Pasinelli, Gilberto; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Daniels, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    In recent decades, female red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have laid eggs increasingly earlier in response to a changing climate, as has been observed in several other bird species breeding at north temperate latitudes. Within each year, females that lay earlier are more productive than females that lay later. However, inexperienced females, experienced females who change mates and inbred birds have not adjusted to the changing climate by laying earlier, and have suffered reproduc...

  14. Does Prior Training Affect Acute O2 Supply Responses During Exercise in Desaturator COPD Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Delample, Delphine; Sabate, Meritxell; Préfaut, Christian; Durand, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effects of a prior individualized training program (TP) on the response to acute oxygen supply during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients showing exercise-induced desaturation. Methods: Twenty-two COPD patients (mean [SD] FEV1 = 52.1 [3]% predicted) who desaturated on exercise participated in a TP. Exercise tolerance while breathing compressed air or oxygen was assessed using a walking test (WT) before and after TP. Oxygen ...

  15. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Jannika De Rubeis; Stefan Sütterlin; Diane Lange; Markus Pawelzik; Annette van Randenborgh; Daniela Victor; Claus Vögele

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic ner...

  16. Aging affects response to cyclic tensile stretch: paradigm for intervertebral disc degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Cho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence supports a fundamental role for mechanical forces in modulating differentiation, homeostasis, and remodelling of musculoskeletal cells. Little is known, however, regarding mechanobiology and gene expression of intervertebral disc (IVD cells from older individuals. To characterise the effect of mechanical stimulation on cells from older discs, an in vitro study of IVD cells harvested from different aged pigs was conducted to measure extracellular matrix (ECM gene expression in response to cyclic tensile stress (CTS. Gene expression of annulus fibrosus (AF cells from IVDs of mature and older pigs was quantified for the predominant ECM genes; type I collagen, type II collagen and aggrecan, and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1, a collagenase that degrades fibrillar collagens.AF cells cultured on flexible-bottom plates were stretched 10 % at 0.5 Hz frequency. After 24 h, gene expression was assayed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Basal mRNA levels without stretching for type II collagen and aggrecan were lower in older annular cells whereas MMP-1 levels were higher compared to mature cells. Following CTS, an adaptive response was elicited in annular cells from both age groups. ECM protein genes were upregulated, whereas MMP-1 was downregulated. The magnitude of response was significantly greater in older cells as compared to mature cells. These data suggest that the cells from the AF of older animals manifest lower basal levels of mRNA for type II collagen and aggrecan and higher levels of MMP-1 possibly due to decreased tensile stress experienced in vivo and is not the result of reduced capacity for response.

  17. An Integrated Model to Explain How Corporate Social Responsibility Affects Corporate Financial Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Shien Lin; Ruei-Yuan Chang; Van Thac Dang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on financial performance has important implications for enterprises, communities, and countries, and the significance of this issue cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated model to explain the influence of CSR on financial performance with intellectual capital as a mediator and industry type as a moderator. Empirical results indicate that intellectual capital mediates the relationship between CSR and financial perform...

  18. Affective and physiological responses to stress in girls at elevated risk for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Christian E.; Muhtadie, Luma; Thompson, Renee J.; Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Children of depressed parents are significantly more likely to develop depression and other mental health disorders than are children of never-depressed parents. Investigations of the physiological mechanisms underlying this elevated risk have generally focused on basal functioning. It is important to note, however, that physiological reactivity or responses to stress are also critical determinants of mental and physical health. In the current study, we examined whether children of depressed ...

  19. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune...

  20. KLHL40-related nemaline myopathy with a sustained, positive response to treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natera-de Benito, D; Nascimento, A; Abicht, A; Ortez, C; Jou, C; Müller, J S; Evangelista, T; Töpf, A; Thompson, R; Jimenez-Mallebrera, C; Colomer, J; Lochmüller, H

    2016-03-01

    Congenital myopathies are a group of inherited muscle disorders characterized by hypotonia, weakness and a non-dystrophic muscle biopsy with the presence of one or more characteristic histological features. Neuromuscular transmission defects have recently been reported in several patients with congenital myopathies (CM). Mutations in KLHL40 are among the most common causes of severe forms of nemaline myopathy. Clinical features of affected individuals include fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties at birth. Muscle weakness is usually severe and nearly half of the individuals have no spontaneous antigravity movement. The average age of death has been reported to be 5 months in a recent case series. Herein we present a case of a patient with a nemaline myopathy due to KLHL40 mutations (c.604delG, p.Ala202Argfs*56 and c.1513G>C, p.Ala505Pro) with an impressive and prolonged beneficial response to treatment with high-dose pyridostigmine. Myasthenic features or response to ACEI have not previously been reported as a characteristic of nemaline myopathy or KLHL40-related myopathy.