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Sample records for affect treatment response

  1. Reinforcement sensitivity underlying treatment-seeking smokers' affect, smoking reinforcement motives, and affective responses.

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    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

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    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  3. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

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    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  4. Factors affecting cognitive remediation response in schizophrenia: the role of COMT gene and antipsychotic treatment.

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    Bosia, Marta; Zanoletti, Andrea; Spangaro, Marco; Buonocore, Mariachiara; Bechi, Margherita; Cocchi, Federica; Pirovano, Adele; Lorenzi, Cristina; Bramanti, Placido; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2014-06-30

    Cognitive remediation is the best available tool to treat cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and has evidence of biological validity; however results are still heterogeneous and significant predictors are lacking. Previous studies showed that cognitive remediation is able to induce changes in PFC function and dopaminergic transmission and thus the study of possible sources of variability at these levels (i.e. antipsychotic treatments and genetic variability) might help to gain a deeper understanding of neurobiological correlates and translate into optimization and personalization of interventions. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between pharmacological treatment (clozapine vs typical/atypical D2 blockers) and COMT rs4680 polymorphism on cognitive changes after cognitive remediation therapy, in a sample of 98 clinically stabilized patients with schizophrenia. The General Linear Model showed a significant interaction of pharmacological treatment and COMT polymorphism on the improvement in "Symbol Coding" subtest, a global measure of speed of processing. Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between COMT genotypes, when treated with D2 blockers, with worse results among Val/Val patients. These preliminary results suggest that genetic variability, influencing prefrontal dopamine, might affect individual capacity to improve with different patterns, depending on antipsychotic treatment.

  5. Cereblon and IRF4 Variants Affect Risk and Response to Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

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    Butrym, Aleksandra; Łacina, Piotr; Rybka, Justyna; Chaszczewska-Markowska, Monika; Mazur, Grzegorz; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2017-01-12

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma-cell malignancy derived from an early precursor of the B-cell lineage characterised by bone-marrow infiltration, lytic bone lesions, and the presence of a monoclonal protein in serum and/or urine. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator in B-cell development and function that is required during immune response for lymphocyte activation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Immunomodulatory drugs, derivatives of thalidomide, are commonly used in therapy against MM. They are known to target a protein called cereblon (CRBN); however, the exact mechanism remains unknown. The present study aimed to assess the association of two (rs12203592 and rs872071) polymorphisms within the IRF4 gene and two (rs711613 and rs1045433) in the CRBN gene with MM susceptibility, progression, and response to treatment. For this purpose, 144 MM patients and 126 healthy individuals were genotyped for the IRF4 and CRBN alleles. The presence of the IRF4 (rs872071) G allele was more frequently detected in patients than healthy individuals (OR 1.78; P = 0.034), and this relationship was especially pronounced in women (OR 2.83; P = 0.012). The CRBN (rs711613) A allele-carriers were better responders to the treatment (P = 0.012), in particular to thalidomide including therapy (P = 0.023). These results underline the prognostic significance of the IRF4 and CRBN polymorphisms in patients with MM.

  6. Proliferation rate but not mismatch repair affects the long-term response of colon carcinoma cells to 5FU treatment.

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    Choudhary, B; Hanski, M L; Zeitz, M; Hanski, C

    2012-07-01

    The role of mismatch repair (MMR) in the response of colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is not well understood. In most of the in vitro studies only short-term response was investigated. We focussed here on the influence of MMR status on the mechanism of the short- and long-term response to clinically relevant 5FU concentrations by using isogenic or semiisogenic cell line pairs expressing/nonexpressing the hMLH1 protein, an important component of the MMR system. We show that the lower survival of MMR-proficient than of MMR-deficient cells in the clonogenic survival assay is due to a more frequent early cell arrest and to subsequent senescence. By contrast, the long-term cell growth after treatment, which is also affected by long-term arrest and senescence, is independent from the MMR status. The overall effect on the long-term cell growth is a cumulative result of cell proliferation rate-dependent growth inhibition, apoptosis and necrotic cell death. The main long-term cytotoxic effect of 5FU is the inhibition of growth while apoptosis and the necrotic cell death are minor contributions.

  7. Treatment of HCV Infection in Multitransfused Thalassemic Patients: Does Liver Iron Status Affect the Outcome of Response?

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    Shahram Mirmomen

    2005-03-01

    investigationalsituations(8.The concept that hepatic iron content might influence the response to interferon therapy was first described in 1994 by Van Thiel et al.(9 and by Olynyk et al. in 1995(10. They retrospectively measured hepatic iron concentration (HIC in HCV infected patients who had been treated with interferon and showed that the biochemical and virological response was better in subjects with less HIC and majority of the patients with HIC more than 1100 mg/g of dry weight of liver had not responded to interferon therapy. Based on the above studies during 1990s, it was not unwise to theorize that TDT patients who have a very high HIC due to secondary hemochromatosis would have a poor response to IFN monotherapy. However, there were two studies that evaluated the response of IFN monotherapy in thalassemic children, both of which were against the above theory; the first was the Clemente study in 1994(11, which reported a sustained virological response (SVR after 6 Correspondence:Shahram Mirmomen, Associate Professor ofGastroenterology and Hepatology, Tehran University ofMedical Sciences, Tehran, IranTel: + 98 912 146 7202E-mail: Mirmomen@ams.ac.ir months of IFN monotherapy in thalassemic children (with mean age of 14 years old with chronic HCV infection and the second one was Di Marco study in 1997(12, which showed that 28 out of 70 (40% of children (mean age 14.1 years old with thalassemia achieved an SVR after 12 months of interferon monotherapy. Considering the Poynard et al. meta analysis in 1996(13, whichshowed that the overall SVR with IFN monotherapy in non-thalassemic subjects was less than 30%, a preliminary conclusion could have struck our mind that the high HIC of HCV infected thalassemic children does not affect the response to IFN monotherapy. So other host or viral factors such as patient’s age, short duration of infection (because according to Thalassemic International Federation [TIF] guideline, all thalassemic patients should undergo at least annual screening

  8. Unconscious Affective Responses to Food

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    Sato, Wataru; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Fushiki, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Affective or hedonic responses to food are crucial for humans, both advantageously (e.g., enhancing survival) and disadvantageously (e.g., promoting overeating and lifestyle-related disease). Although previous psychological studies have reported evidence of unconscious cognitive and behavioral processing related to food, it remains unknown whether affective reactions to food can be triggered unconsciously and its relationship with daily eating behaviors. We investigated these issues by using the subliminal affective priming paradigm. Photographs of food or corresponding mosaic images were presented in the peripheral visual field for 33 ms. Target photos of faces with emotionally neutral expressions were then presented, and participants rated their preferences for the faces. Eating behaviors were also assessed using questionnaires. The food images, relative to the mosaics, increased participants’ preference for subsequent target faces. Furthermore, the difference in the preference induced by food versus mosaic images was positively correlated with the tendency to engage in external eating. These results suggest that unconscious affective reactions are elicited by the sight of food and that these responses contribute to daily eating behaviors related to overeating. PMID:27501443

  9. What are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible for the hearing complaint in the hearing loss for ototoxicity after the oncological treatment?

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    Liberman, Patricia Helena Pecora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The neurosensory bilateral simetric hearing loss resulting of the oncological treatment is underestimated, because the patients has the hearing detection preserved, reporting complaints in determined situation, or the not comprehension of part of the message. Objective: Investigate which are the audiometric frequencies affected are the responsible by the presence of hearing complaints. Method: Prospective study evaluating 200 patients with cancer in the childhood out of the oncological treatment in at least 8 years, with average age to the diagnosis of 6,21 years (4,71. Was applied anamnesis to investigate the presence of hearing complaints and performed a tonal threshold audiometry. To check the association between the complaint and the hearing loss, was applied the Exact test of Fisher, with one error a=5%, the patients were split into: normal hearing, hearing loss in 8kHz, loss in 6-8 kHz, loss in 4-8 kHz, loss in 2-8 kHz and loss in < 1-8 kHz. Results: We found 125 patients with hearing loss, 10 presented hearing complaints. Between the patients with hearing loss, 16 presented loss only at 8kHz, and 1 with complaint; 22 with loss in 6-8 kHz, being 3 with complaint; 16 with loss in 4-8 kHz, from them 10 with complaint; 15 with loss 2-8 kHz, being 14 with complaint and 6 with loss in < 1-8 kHz all with complaints. There were a significant relationship between the loss and hearing complaint (p<0,001, when the frequency of 4 kHz was involved. Conclusion: The bigger the number of affected frequencies the bigger the occurrence of hearing complaint, most of all when the speech frequencies are involved, and the involvement of 4 kHz already determines the appearing of the complaints.

  10. Do changes in prescription practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with biological agents affect treatment response and adherence to therapy? Results from the nationwide Danish DANBIO Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, M L; Lindegaard, H M; Hansen, A;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prescription practice for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors has changed towards treating patients with lower disease activity. OBJECTIVE: To determine the trend in treatment response in cohorts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who started TNFalpha inhibitor...... treatment between 2000 and 2005. METHODS: 1813 patients with RA starting treatment with biological agents in 2000-5 were registered prospectively in the nationwide DANBIO Registry. Baseline disease activity and 12 months' treatment responses were determined in cohorts based on start year (2000/1; 2002; 2003...

  11. Hepatitis C comorbidities affecting the course and response to therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the outcome of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is profoundly influenced by a variety of comorbidities. Many of these comorbidities have a significant influence on the response to antiviral therapy. These comorbidities negatively affect the course and outcome of liver disease, often reducing the chance of achieving a sustained virological response with PEGylated interferon and ribavirin treatments. Comorbidities affecting response to antiviral therapy reduce compliance and adherence to inadequate doses of therapy. The most important comorbidities affecting the course of CHC include hepatitis B virus coinfection, metabolic syndrome, and intestinal bacterial overgrowth.Comorbidities affecting the course and response to therapy include schistosomiasis, iron overload, alcohol abuse, and excessive smoking. Comorbidities affecting response to antiviral therapy include depression,anemia, cardiovascular disease, and renal failure.

  12. Mental imagery affects subsequent automatic defense responses

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    Muriel A Hagenaars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing during subsequent analogue trauma (affective picture viewing. Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders, and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (N = 51, again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations.

  13. Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?

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    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-11-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

  14. Foveal morphology affects self-perceived visual function and treatment response in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a cohort study.

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    Yousif Subhi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between foveal morphology and self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD and whether foveal characteristics are associated with Ranibizumab treatment response on the self-perceived visual function. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients with newly diagnosed neovascular AMD found eligible for treatment with Ranibizumab. Foveal morphology of both eyes was assessed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and all patients were interviewed using the 39-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ. Patients were re-interviewed 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment with Ranibizumab. We evaluated foveal morphology at baseline in relation to VFQ scores at baseline and clinically meaningful changes in VFQ after 3 and 12 months. RESULTS: VFQ scores correlated with central foveal thickness, central foveal thickness of neuroretina (CFN, foveal RPE elevation, foveal integrity of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction (IS/OS, and external limiting membrane. In a multiple linear regression model, only best-corrected visual acuity of the better eye (p<0.001 and the IS/OS status in the better eye (p = 0.012 remained significant (Adjusted R(2 = 0.418. Lower baseline VFQ and a baseline CFN within 170-270 µm in the better eye were both associated with a clinically meaningful increase in the VFQ scores after 3 and 12 months. An absent foveal IS/OS band in the better eye was associated with a clinically meaningful decrease in the VFQ scores at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Foveal morphology in the better eye influences the self-perceived visual function in patients with neovascular AMD and possesses a predictive value for change in the self-perceived visual function at 3 and 12 months after initiation of treatment. These findings may help clinicians provide patients more individualized information of their

  15. Postpartum affective disorders: incidence and treatment.

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    Ugarriza, D N

    1992-05-01

    1. Postpartum depression is a culture-bound syndrome found in Western societies. The lack of supportive rites and rituals for postpartum women shape depressive symptoms. 2. Postpartum depression is a term used for three distinct syndromes: postpartum "blues," postpartum psychosis, and postpartum depression. 3. Treatment issues surrounding each postpartum affective disorder are different and require education and support of family members as well as postpartum women.

  16. Psychophysiological response patterns to affective film stimuli.

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    Marieke G N Bos

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological research on emotion utilizes various physiological response measures to index activation of the defense system. Here we tested 1 whether acoustic startle reflex (ASR, skin conductance response (SCR and heart rate (HR elicited by highly arousing stimuli specifically reflect a defensive state and 2 the relation between resting heart rate variability (HRV and affective responding. In a within-subject design, participants viewed film clips with a positive, negative and neutral content. In contrast to SCR and HR, we show that ASR differentiated between negative, neutral and positive states and can therefore be considered as a reliable index of activation of the defense system. Furthermore, resting HRV was associated with affect-modulated characteristics of ASR, but not with SCR or HR. Interestingly, individuals with low-HRV showed less differentiation in ASR between affective states. We discuss the important value of ASR in psychophysiological research on emotion and speculate on HRV as a potential biological marker for demarcating adaptive from maladaptive responding.

  17. Early growth trajectories affect sexual responsiveness.

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    Lee, Who-Seung; Metcalfe, Neil B; Réale, Denis; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2014-02-22

    The trajectory of an animal's growth in early development has been shown to have long-term effects on a range of life-history traits. Although it is known that individual differences in behaviour may also be related to certain life-history traits, the linkage between early growth or development and individual variation in behaviour has received little attention. We used brief temperature manipulations, independent of food availability, to stimulate compensatory growth in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. Here, we examine how these manipulated growth trajectories affected the sexual responsiveness of the male fish at the time of sexual maturation, explore associations between reproductive behaviour and investment and lifespan and test whether the perceived time stress (until the onset of the breeding season) influenced such trade-offs. We found a negative impact of growth rate on sexual responsiveness: fish induced (by temperature manipulation) to grow slowest prior to the breeding season were consistently quickest to respond to the presence of a gravid female. This speed of sexual responsiveness was also positively correlated with the rate of development of sexual ornaments and time taken to build a nest. However, after controlling for effects of growth rate, those males that had the greatest sexual responsiveness to females had the shortest lifespan. Moreover, the time available to compensate in size before the onset of the breeding season (time stress) affected the magnitude of these effects. Our results demonstrate that developmental perturbations in early life can influence mating behaviour, with long-term effects on longevity.

  18. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

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    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  19. Pharmacogenetics and antipsychotic treatment response.

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    Naumovska, Z; Nestorovska, A K; Filipce, A; Sterjev, Z; Brezovska, K; Dimovski, A; Suturkova, L J

    2015-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic disorder. The lack of antipsychotic response and treatment-induced side-effects, such as neuroleptic syndrome, polydipsia, metabolic syndrome, weight gain, extrapyramidal symptoms, tardive dyskinesia or prolactin increase, are the two main reasons for non-compliance and increased morbidity in schizophrenic patients. During the past decades intensive research has been done in order to determine the influence of genetic variations on antipsychotics dosage, treatment efficacy and safety. The present work reviews the molecular basis of treatment response of schizophrenia. It highlights the most important findings about the impact of functional polymorphisms in genes coding the CYP450 metabolizing enzymes, ABCB1 transporter gene, dopaminergic and serotonergic drug targets (DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, 5-HT1, 5HT-2A, 5HT-2C, 5HT6) as well as genes responsible for metabolism of neurotransmitters and G signalling pathways (5-HTTLPR, BDNF, COMT, RGS4) and points their role as potential biomarkers in everyday clinical practice. Pharmacogenetic testing has predictive power in the selection of antipsychotic drugs and doses tailored according to the patient's genetic profile. In this perception pharmacogenetics could help in the improvement of treatment response by using different medicinal approaches that would avoid potential adverse effects, reduce stabilization time and will advance the prognosis of schizophrenic patients.

  20. Pivotal Response Treatment: Case Reports.

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    Ventola, Pamela; Friedman, Hannah; Oosting, Devon

    2015-01-01

    The current paper provides an overview of an evidence-based treatment, Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT), for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper describes PRT principles and then illustrates the approach using two case reports. The children are preschool-aged children with high-functioning ASD. They were participating in a four-month clinical trial of PRT. At the start of treatment, they presented with significant social communication impairments, including a minimal understanding of reciprocity, limited play skills, and repetitive behaviors and speech. The paper outlines how behavioral treatment goals were identified and then how activities were designed, using principles of PRT, to target skill acquisition. Following the treatment course, both children made substantial and meaningful gains in social communication skill development.

  1. Abnormal hypothalamic response to light in Seasonal Affective Disorder

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    Gilles, Vandewalle; Marc, Hébert; Catherine, Beaulieu; Laurence, Richard; Véronique, Daneault; Marie-Lou, Garon; Jean, Leblanc; Didier, Grandjean; Pierre, Maquet; Sophie, Schwartz; Marie, Dumont; Julien, Doyon; Julie, Carrier

    2017-01-01

    Background Vulnerability to the reduction in natural light associated with fall/winter is generally accepted as the main trigger of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), while light therapy is a treatment of choice of the disorder. However, the relationship between exposure to light and mood regulation remains unclear. As compared to green light, blue light was shown to acutely modulate emotion brain processing in healthy individuals. Here, we investigated the impact of light on emotion brain processing in patients with SAD and healthy controls and its relationship with retinal light sensitivity. Methods Fourteen symptomatic untreated patients with SAD (34.5 ± 8.2 y.o.; 9F) and sixteen healthy controls (32.3 ± 7.7 y.o.; 11F) performed an auditory emotional task in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during the fall/winter season, while being exposed to alternating blue and green monochromatic light. Scotopic and photopic retinal light sensitivities were then evaluated using electroretinography. Results Blue light enhanced responses to auditory emotional stimuli in the posterior hypothalamus in patients with SAD, while green light decreased these responses. These effects of blue and green light were not observed in healthy controls despite similar retinal sensitivity in SAD and control subjects. Conclusions; These results point to the posterior hypothalamus as the neurobiological substrate involved in specific aspects of SAD, including a distinctive response to light and altered emotional responses. PMID:21820647

  2. Affect, Reason, and Persuasion: Advertising Strategies That Predict Affective and Analytic-Cognitive Responses.

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    Chaudhuri, Arjun; Buck, Ross

    1995-01-01

    Develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship of specific advertising strategies to affective and analytic cognitive responses of the audience. Analyses undergraduate students' responses to 240 advertisements. Demonstrates that advertising strategy variables accounted substantially for the variance in affective and analytic cognition.…

  3. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

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    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  4. Stimulus-response compatibility and affective computing: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.M.C.; Haan, A. de; Galen, G.P. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Affective computing, a human–factors effort to investigate the merits of emotions while people are working with human–computer interfaces, is gaining momentum. Measures to quantify affect (or its influences) range from EEG, to measurements of autonomic–nervous–system responses (e.g., heart rate, blo

  5. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

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    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  6. Affective response to social comparison in the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Kuyper, H.; Van der Zee, Y.G.

    2005-01-01

    In a study among 609 secondary school students, the affective reactions to social comparisons of grades were examined. Overall, the students reported more frequent responses to upward than to downward comparison, more identification than contrast in their comparisons, and more frequent responses imp

  7. Protease Inhibitors Do Not Affect Antibody Responses to Pneumococcal Vaccination.

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    De La Rosa, Indhira; Munjal, Iona M; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Yu, Xiaoying; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Mendoza, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    HIV(+) subjects on optimal antiretroviral therapy have persistently impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccination. We explored the possibility that this effect may be due to HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). We found that in humans and mice, PIs do not affect antibody production in response to pneumococcal vaccination.

  8. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise P Kirsch

    Full Text Available Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer's general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS and zygomaticus major (ZM muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation.

  9. Image-Word Pairing-Congruity Effect on Affective Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Z., Jorge C.; Cho, Youngil; Sambai, Ami; Yamanaka, Toshimasa

    The present study explores the effects of familiarity on affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to Japanese ad elements, based on the schema incongruity theory. Print ads showing natural scenes (landscapes) were used to create the stimuli (images and words). An empirical study was conducted to measure subjects' affective responses to image-word combinations that varied in terms of incongruity. The level of incongruity was based on familiarity levels, and was statistically determined by a variable called ‘pairing-congruity status’. The tested hypothesis proposed that even highly familiar image-word combinations, when combined incongruously, would elicit strong affective responses. Subjects assessed the stimuli using bipolar scales. The study was effective in tracing interactions between familiarity, pleasure and arousal, although the incongruous image-word combinations did not elicit the predicted strong effects on pleasure and arousal. The results suggest a need for further research incorporating kansei (i.e., creativity) into the process of stimuli selection.

  10. ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE AFFECTED BY AGING AND CHOLINERGIC NEUROTRANSMITTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Hansen; SUN Wei

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic startle response has been used to evaluate tinnitus and hyperacusis in animal models. Gap induced prepulse in-hibition of the acoustic startle reflex (gap-PPI) is affected by tinnitus and loudness changes. Since tinnitus and reduced sound tolerance are commonly seen in elderly, we measured gap-PPI in Fischer 344 rats, an aging related hearing loss model, at dif-ferent ages: 3-5 months, 9-12 months, and 15-17 months. The startle response was induced by three different intensity of sound:105, 95 and 85 dB SPL. Gap-PPI was induced by different duration of silent gaps from 1 to 100 ms. When the startle was induced by 105 dB SPL sound intensity, the gap-PPI induced by 50 ms silent gap was significantly lower than those in-duced by 25 or 100 ms duration, showing a“notch”in the gap-PPI function. The“notch”disappeared with the reduction of startle sound, suggesting the“notch”may be related with hyper-sensitivity to loud sound. As the intensity of the stimulus de-creased, the appearance of the hyperacusis-like effect decreased more quickly for the youngest group of rats. We also tested scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, and mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antago-nist, on the effect of gap-PPI. When scopolamine was administered, the results indicated no addition effect on the hyperacu-sis-like phenomenon in the two older groups. Mecamylamine, the nicotinic antagonist also showed effects on the appearance of hyperacusis on rats in different ages. The information derived from the study will be fundamental for the further research in determining the cause and treatment for hyperacusis.

  11. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  12. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meesters Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ybe Meesters,1 Marijke CM Gordijn,2,3 1University Center for Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Department of Chronobiology, GeLifes, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Chrono@Work B.V., Groningen, the Netherlands Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD, winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. Keywords: seasonal affective disorder, review, light treatment, medication, psychotherapy, prevention

  13. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  14. Changes in affect during treatment for depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Persons, Jacqueline B; Thomas, Cannon

    2007-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the tripartite model [Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and psychometric implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316-336] can be extended to account for change during treatment for anxiety and depression. Forty-one patients treated naturalistically in private practice with cognitive behavior therapy completed weekly measures of depression, anxiety, negative affect (NA), positive affect (PA), and anxious arousal (AA). Consistent with the model, NA was associated with anxiety and depression during treatment, PA was more strongly related to depression than to anxiety, and AA was more strongly related to anxiety than to depression. As predicted, symptoms of depression and anxiety and NA all decreased during treatment. As predicted, AA also decreased, particularly for patients with panic disorder. PA increased during treatment, but only for patients who showed a significant decline in depression and only over an extended period of treatment. Nearly two-thirds of the variance in anxiety change was accounted for by changes in depression and NA, and just over three-fourths of the variance in depression change was accounted for by changes in anxiety and NA, indicating that much of the change in anxiety and depression across the course of treatment is shared in common.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Sonne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP, Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ. Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly

  16. Sex differences in affective response to opioid withdrawal during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Stephen R; Hofford, Rebecca S.; Roberts, Kris W.; Eitan, Dvora; Wellman, Paul J.; Eitan, Shoshana

    2009-01-01

    Drug withdrawal is suggested to play a role in precipitating mood disorders in individuals with familial predisposition. Age-related differences in affective responses to withdrawal might explain the increased risk of mental illnesses when drug use begins during adolescence. Recently we observed that, in contrast to adult male mice, adolescent males exhibited a decrease in immobility in the forced swim test on the third day of withdrawal, as compared with controls. Thus, the present study exa...

  17. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis.

  18. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Rogers

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis.

  19. Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carly K; Gravens, Laura C; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2011-06-01

    Ostracism arouses negative affect. However, little is known about variables that influence the intensity of these negative affective responses. Two studies fill this void by incorporating work on approach- and withdrawal-related emotional states and their associated cortical activations. Study 1 found that following ostracism anger related directly to relative left frontal cortical activation. Study 2 used unilateral hand contractions to manipulate frontal cortical activity prior to an ostracizing event. Right-hand contractions, compared to left-hand contractions, caused greater relative left frontal cortical activation during the hand contractions as well as ostracism. Also, right-hand contractions caused more self-reported anger in response to being ostracized. Within-condition correlations revealed patterns of associations between ostracism-induced frontal asymmetry and emotive responses to ostracism consistent with Study 1. Taken together, these results suggest that asymmetrical frontal cortical activity is related to angry responses to ostracism, with greater relative left frontal cortical activity being associated with increased anger.

  20. Automatic imitation? Imitative compatibility affects responses at high perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Imitation involves matching the visual representation of another's action onto the observer's own motor program for that action. However, there has been some debate regarding the extent to which imitation is "automatic"-that is, occurs without attention. Participants performed a perceptual load task in which images of finger movements were presented as distractors. Responses to target letter stimuli were performed via finger movements that could be imitatively compatible (requiring the same finger movement) or incompatible with the distractor movements: In this common stimulus-response compatibility manipulation, the stimulus set comprises images of the response movements, producing an imitative compatibility effect. Attention to the distractor movements was manipulated by altering perceptual load through increasing the number of nontarget letter stimuli. If imitation requires attention, then at high perceptual load, imitative compatibility should not affect response times. In contrast, imitative compatibility influenced response times at high perceptual load, demonstrating that distractor movements were processed. However, the compatibility effect was reversed, suggesting that longer response times at high perceptual load tap into an inhibitory stage of distractor movement processing. A follow-up experiment manipulating temporal delay between targets and distractor movements supported this explanation. Further experiments confirmed that nonmovement distractor stimuli in the same configuration produced standard perceptual load effects and that results were not solely due to effector compatibility. These data suggest that imitation can occur without attention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Non-response to osteoporosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Roger M

    2004-06-01

    There are now a number of effective treatments for osteoporosis, which increase bone mineral density (BMD) and decrease the risk of fractures. There is no clear consensus on the optimal method for assessing response to treatment in the individual patient. The goal of osteoporosis treatment is to prevent fractures after minimal trauma, but these are relatively uncommon events and cannot be totally avoided by the use of currently available therapies. Alternative methods of assessing response to treatment include serial measurement of BMD or the biochemical markers of bone turnover, but the observed changes may be misleading if they do not exceed the least significant change. The proportion of patients who fail to respond to osteoporosis treatments is difficult to quantify. Clinical trials show continuing bone loss in up to 15% of participants on hormone replacement therapy or bisphosphonates. Non-response to treatment is probably more common in clinical practice, but may be due to poor adherence to treatment recommendations. Other potential causes of an apparent failure to respond to treatment include the use of a weak antiresorptive agent, differences in bioavailability, low dietary calcium intake, vitamin D insufficiency and underlying causes of secondary osteoporosis. The management of patients who fail to respond to treatment includes confirmation that they are adhering to treatment and have an adequate dietary calcium intake and vitamin D status and excluding causes of secondary osteoporosis. Consideration should also be given to the addition of calcium and vitamin D supplementation and the use of alternative treatments for osteoporosis.

  2. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...... correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression...... outcome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. METHOD: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme...

  3. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  4. Food Restriction Affects Inflammatory Response and Nutritional State in Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Julieta Leticia; Cutrera, Ana Paula; Zenuto, Roxana Rita

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient or unbalanced food intake typically has a negative impact on immune responses. The understanding of this effect is, however, hampered by the effect that food has on general condition, which, in turn, affects immunity, and the interaction among general condition, immunocompetence, and concurrent infections. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction and methionine supplementation on immunity in tuco-tucos (Ctenomys talarum). Effects of diet manipulations on nutritional state, inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and other immune parameters (bacterial killing capacity, natural antibodies, and leukocyte profile) were evaluated. Health and stress parameters and endoparasite loads were assessed to understand more deeply potential effects of treatments on immune status. Individuals under food restriction presented an altered nutritional state as well as increased stress levels (higher N: L ratios) compared with individuals fed ad libitum, and a marked reduction in the inflammatory response to PHA. Supplementation with methionine did not affect any of the parameters analyzed. Endoparasite loads were not affected by treatments. Our results support the idea that food insufficiency can modulate the individual's immune responsiveness through the lack of adequate essential nutrients, metabolic fuel and energetic reserves, or by a detrimental effect of the stress caused by nutrient limitation. We show that the response to PHA previously reported as nonenergetically costly for C. talarum, implies a nutritional cost; an opposite pattern to that previously found for the adaptive antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the same species.

  5. Cerebral haemodynamic response or excitability is not affected by sildenafil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W;

    2009-01-01

    .3+/-6.6 kg), the effect of sildenafil on a visual (reversing checkerboard) and a hypercapnic (6% CO2 inhalation) response was evaluated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, 3 T MR scanner). On separate occasions, visual-evoked potential (VEP) measurements (latency (P100) and maximal amplitude......) were performed. The measurements were applied at baseline and at both 1 and 2 h after ingestion of 100 mg of sildenafil. Blood pressure, heart rate and side effects, including headache, were obtained. Headache was induced in all but one subject on both study days. Sildenafil did not affect VEP...

  6. Prediction of treatment response to adalimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Sophine B; Dehlendorff, C; Hetland, M L;

    2016-01-01

    At least 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not respond to biologic agents, which emphasizes the need of predictive biomarkers. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) predictive of response to adalimumab in 180 treatment-naïve RA patients enrolled in the OPtimized treatment...

  7. Emotional & electroencephalographic responses during affective picture viewing after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, James B; Smith, J Carson; Dishman, Rod K

    2007-02-28

    We examined the effects of 30 min of cycling exercise at a moderate intensity of 50% peak oxygen uptake, compared to 30 min of rest, on changes in emotional responses to pictorial foreground stimuli that reliably elicit unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant affect. Emotional responses were measured by self-reports of valence (unpleasant to pleasant) and arousal (low to high) and by hemispheric asymmetry (R-L) of frontal and parietal brain electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in 13 females and 21 males (24+/-3 y). Compared to after rest, self-reports of arousal in response to unpleasant slides were diminished after exercise, but self-reports of valence and frontal asymmetry of alpha frequencies were generally unchanged. Even so, there were differential responses in asymmetry in the beta frequencies in the frontal region and for alpha and beta frequencies in the parietal region, indicative of decreased activity in the left frontal and right parietal regions after exercise compared to after rest. We conclude that moderately intense cycling exercise generally does not alter emotional responding to pleasant and neutral pictures, but may reduce emotional arousal during exposure to unpleasant stimuli.

  8. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Inmaculada; Rodrigo, María José; Quiñones, Ileana; Hernández, Juan Andrés; Lage, Agustín; Padrón, Iván; Bobes, María Antonieta

    2014-01-01

    Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz) and lower alpha (8-10 Hz) bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  9. Electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli in neglectful mothers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada León

    Full Text Available Results illustrating an atypical neural processing in the early and late differentiation of infant faces have been obtained with neglectful mothers. The present study explores whether a different pattern of response is observed when using non-infant affective pictures. We examined the event-related evoked potentials and induced delta, theta and alpha activity in 14 neglectful mothers and 14 control mothers elicited while categorizing positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Self-reports of anhedonia and empathy were also recorded. Early posterior negativity, P200 and late positive potential components were modulated by the emotional content of pictures in both groups. However, the LPP waveform had a more delayed and more attenuated maximum in neglectful mothers than in control mothers. Oscillatory responses indicated lower power increases for neglectful mothers than for control mothers in delta (1-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz and lower alpha (8-10 Hz bands at frontal sites, and a more consistent increase for neglectful mothers in theta and lower alpha bands at occipital sites, especially for negative pictures. These findings help us to better understand the limits of emotional insensitivity in neglectful mothers.

  10. Testing whether and when abstract symmetric patterns produce affective responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bertamini

    Full Text Available Symmetry has a central role in visual art, it is often linked to beauty, and observers can detect it efficiently in the lab. We studied what kind of fast and automatic responses are generated by visual presentation of symmetrical patterns. Specifically, we tested whether a brief presentation of novel symmetrical patterns engenders positive affect using a priming paradigm. The abstract patterns were used as primes in a pattern-word interference task. To ensure that familiarity was not a factor, no pattern and no word was ever repeated within each experiment. The task was to classify words that were selected to have either positive or negative valence. We tested irregular patterns, patterns containing vertical and horizontal reflectional symmetry, and patterns containing a 90 deg rotation. In a series of 7 experiments we found that the effect of affective congruence was present for both types of regularity but only when observers had to classify the regularity of the pattern after responding to the word. The findings show that processing abstract symmetrical shapes or random pattern can engender positive or negative affect as long as the regularity of the pattern is a feature that observers have to attend to and classify.

  11. Acute caffeine administration affects zebrafish response to a robotic stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Mwaffo, Violet; Li, Jasmine; Macrì, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Zebrafish has been recently proposed as a valid animal model to investigate the fundamental mechanisms regulating emotional behavior and evaluate the modulatory effects exerted by psychoactive compounds. In this study, we propose a novel methodological framework based on robotics and information theory to investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish exposed to acute caffeine treatment. In a binary preference test, we studied the response of caffeine-treated zebrafish to a replica of a shoal of conspecifics moving in the tank. A purely data-driven information theoretic approach was used to infer the influence of the replica on zebrafish behavior as a function of caffeine concentration. Our results demonstrate that acute caffeine administration modulates both the average speed and the interaction with the replica. Specifically, zebrafish exposed to elevated doses of caffeine show reduced locomotion and increased sensitivity to the motion of the replica. The methodology developed in this study may complement traditional experimental paradigms developed in the field of behavioral pharmacology.

  12. Affective and inflammatory responses among orchestra musicians in performance situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, Alexander; Haslacher, Helmuth; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Böhm, Karl; Budinsky, Alexandra; Girard, Angelika; Klien, Katharina; Jordakieva, Galateja; Pezawas, Lukas; Wagner, Oswald; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Winker, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that mental challenge under controlled experimental conditions is associated with elevations in inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, relatively little work has been done on the effects of 'naturalistic' stressors on acute changes in inflammatory markers. The present study examined whether perceived arousal, valence and dominance in musicians are associated with pro-inflammatory and oxidative responses to a concert situation. Blood and salivary samples obtained from 48 members of a symphony orchestra on the day of rehearsal (i.e., control situation) and on the following day of premiere concert (i.e., test situation) were used to determine changes in salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory markers (plasma myeloperoxidase, serum CRP, plasma IL-6), oxidative stress markers (paraoxonase1 activity and malondialdehyde), and homocysteine, a risk factor for vascular disease. Results of regression analyses showed a significant trend to increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) response in individuals with low valence score. Both affective states, valence and arousal, were identified as significant predictors of cortisol response during concert. In addition, control levels of plasma malondialdehyde were positively correlated with differences in IL-6 levels between premiere and rehearsal (r=.38, p=.012), pointing to higher oxidative stress in individuals with pronounced IL-6 response. Our results indicate that stress of public performance leads to increased concentrations of plasma MPO (20%), IL-6 (27%) and salivary cortisol (44%) in musicians. The decreasing effect of pleasantness on the MPO response was highly pronounced in non-smokers (r=-.60, p<.001), suggesting a significant role of emotional valence in stress-induced secretion of MPO. Additional studies are needed to assess the generalizability of these findings to other 'naturalistic' stress situations.

  13. Dynamically Tracking Anxious Individuals' Affective Response to Valenced Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fua, Karl C; Teachman, Bethany A

    2017-03-30

    Past research has shown that an individual's feelings at any given moment reflect currently experienced stimuli as well as internal representations of similar past experiences. However, anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of interrelated valenced information (vs. reactions to static stimuli that are arguably less ecologically valid) are rarely tracked. The present study provided a first examination of the newly developed Tracking Affect Ratings Over Time (TAROT) task to continuously assess anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of information that systematically change valence. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed the TAROT task in which they listened to narratives containing positive, negative, and neutral physically- or socially-relevant events, and indicated how positive or negative they felt about the information they heard as each narrative unfolded. The present study provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the task. Within scenarios, participants higher (vs. lower) in anxiety showed many expected negative biases, reporting more negative mean ratings and overall summary ratings, changing their pattern of responding more quickly to negative events, and responding more negatively to neutral events. Furthermore, individuals higher (vs. lower) in anxiety tended to report more negative minimums during and after positive events, and less positive maximums after negative events. Together, findings indicate that positive events were less impactful for anxious individuals, whereas negative experiences had a particularly lasting impact on future affective responses. The TAROT task is able to efficiently capture a number of different cognitive biases, and may help clarify the mechanisms that underlie anxious individuals' biased negative processing. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  15. Vicarious experience affects patients' treatment preferences for depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A Berkowitz

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Depression is common in primary care but often under-treated. Personal experiences with depression can affect adherence to therapy, but the effect of vicarious experience is unstudied. We sought to evaluate the association between a patient's vicarious experiences with depression (those of friends or family and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms. METHODS: We sampled 1054 English and/or Spanish speaking adult subjects from July through December 2008, randomly selected from the 2008 California Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System, regarding depressive symptoms and treatment preferences. We then constructed a unidimensional scale using item analysis that reflects attitudes about antidepressant pharmacotherapy. This became the dependent variable in linear regression analyses to examine the association between vicarious experiences and treatment preferences for depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Our sample was 68% female, 91% white, and 13% Hispanic. Age ranged from 18-94 years. Mean PHQ-9 score was 4.3; 14.5% of respondents had a PHQ-9 score >9.0, consistent with active depressive symptoms. Analyses controlling for current depression symptoms and socio-demographic factors found that in patients both with (coefficient 1.08, p = 0.03 and without (coefficient 0.77, p = 0.03 a personal history of depression, having a vicarious experience (family and friend, respectively with depression is associated with a more favorable attitude towards antidepressant medications. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with vicarious experiences of depression express more acceptance of pharmacotherapy. Conversely, patients lacking vicarious experiences of depression have more negative attitudes towards antidepressants. When discussing treatment with patients, clinicians should inquire about vicarious experiences of depression. This information may identify patients at greater risk for non-adherence and lead to more tailored patient-specific education about

  16. FDG-PET/CT based response-adapted treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Geus-Oei, Lioe-Fee; Vriens, Dennis; Arens, Anne I J

    2012-01-01

    and adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction, in order to investigate whether the use of PET-guided treatment individualization results in a survival benefit. In Hodgkin lymphoma and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, several trials are ongoing. Some studies aim to investigate the use of PET in early...... identification of metabolic non-responders in order to intensify treatment to improve survival. Other studies aim at reducing toxicity without adversely affecting cure rates by safely de-escalating therapy in metabolic responders. In solid tumors the first PET response-adjusted treatment trials have been...... realized in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. These trials showed that patients with an early metabolic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy benefit from this treatment, whereas metabolic non-responders should switch early to surgery, thus reducing the risk of tumor progression during...

  17. Sex differences in affective response to opioid withdrawal during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Stephen R; Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Eitan, Dvora; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-09-01

    Drug withdrawal is suggested to play a role in precipitating mood disorders in individuals with familial predisposition. Age-related differences in affective responses to withdrawal might explain the increased risk of mental illnesses when drug use begins during adolescence. Recently we observed that, in contrast to adult male mice, adolescent males exhibited a decrease in immobility in the forced swim test on the third day of withdrawal, as compared with controls. Thus, the present study examined forced swim test behaviors of adolescent female mice during opioid withdrawal. Similar to the male study, adolescent female mice were injected with two morphine regimens which differed in dosage. Three and nine days following discontinuation of morphine administration, forced swim test immobility time and locomotion were evaluated. In contrast to males, which exhibited a decrease in immobility, no significant differences in immobility were observed in female adolescents undergoing withdrawal as compared with saline-injected controls. This sex difference in forced swim test behaviors was not due to changes in overall motor activity, since differences in locomotion were not observed in either male or female adolescent mice. Thus, this study demonstrates sex differences in forced swim test behavior during opioid withdrawal. Forced swim test behaviors are classically used to evaluate mood in rodents, thus this study suggests that opioid withdrawal might affect mood differentially across sexes.

  18. Treatment responses to tooth whitening in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Patricia M A; Biesbrock, Aaron; Gerlach, Robert; Corby, Andrea L; Moreira, Alexandre; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine heritability estimates of treatment responses to a 10% hydrogen peroxide strip-based whitening system in twins. Eighty-five twin pairs were randomly assigned to 10% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips or placebo strips without peroxide. Both twins (monozygotic or dizygotic) received the same treatment. Maxillary teeth were treated for 30 minutes twice daily for 7 days. Efficacy was measured objectively as L* (light-dark), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue) color change from digital images at baseline (∆) and day 8. Heritability estimates for tooth whitening treatment responses for changes from day 8 to baseline were obtained using variance-component methodologies. Whitening treatment responses were highly heritable (h(2) = 71.0) for ∆b* and ∆a*(p < .0001), but not for ∆L* (h(2) = 27.0), which was essentially modulated by environmental factors. This study has demonstrated that both genetic and environmental factors significantly contributed to seven-day whitening treatment responses achieved with 10% hydrogen peroxide strips.

  19. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  20. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response and Treatment Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Rose Levinstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a complex and heterogeneous disorder affecting millions of Americans. There are several different medications and other treatments that are available and effective for many patients with depression. However, a substantial percentage of patients fail to achieve remission with these currently available interventions, and relapse rates are high. Therefore, it is necessary to determine both the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response and the differences between responders and non-responders to treatment. Delineation of these mechanisms largely relies on experiments that utilize animal models. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the various mouse models that are currently used to assess the antidepressant response, such as chronic mild stress, social defeat, and chronic corticosterone. We discuss how these mouse models can be used to advance our understanding of the differences between responders and non-responders to antidepressant treatment. We also provide an overview of experimental treatment modalities that are used for treatment-resistant depression, such as deep brain stimulation and ketamine administration. We will then review the various genetic polymorphisms and transgenic mice that display resistance to antidepressant treatment. Finally, we synthesize the published data to describe a potential neural circuit underlying the antidepressant response and treatment resistance.

  1. Alterations of the Host Microbiome Affect Behavioral Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Walker, Deena M.; Calipari, Erin S.; Labonte, Benoit; Issler, Orna; Pena, Catherine J.; Ribeiro, Efrain A.; Russo, Scott J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria. Animals with reduced gut bacteria showed an enhanced sensitivity to cocaine reward and enhanced sensitivity to the locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration. These behavioral changes were correlated with adaptations in multiple transcripts encoding important synaptic proteins in the brain’s reward circuitry. This study represents the first evidence that alterations in the gut microbiota affect behavioral response to drugs of abuse. PMID:27752130

  2. The markers predicting response to Hepatitis C virus treatment and evaluation of treatment responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Günal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently pegylated interferon alpha (peg-IFN and ribavirin treatment is recommended for chronic hepatitis Ctreatment. The aim of treatment is to provide sustained viral response (SVR.Material and methods: A total of 125 patients, who have been treated for chronic hepatitis C diagnosis and are followed upuntil 6 months after treatment, were enrolled into the study. Markers, which have indicated treatment response against hepatitisC virus treatment, treatment responses according to peg-IFNα type used, and experienced side effects in patients havebeen compared.Results: Of patients, 103 were (82.4% female and 22 were (17.6% male and mean of age was 54.74±7.93 years. Markersindicating SVR in our study were calculated as rapid viral response (RVR (p2 (p<0.034. Predictive parameters for EVR in our studywere defined as absence of diabetes in patients, high baseline lymphocyte numbers (2024.74±625.93 and high baseline cholesterollevel (in EVR positive patients 180.47±32.77 mg/dl; in EVR negatives 152.00±24.56. There was no statistical differencebetween peg-IFN type in patients and RVR, EVR and SVR. Also there was no statistical difference in hematological side effects(neutropenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia in both treatment groups.Conclusions: As the efficacy of treatment against HCV is defined, predictive markers for the treatment response are becomingmore significant. Therefore, it is concluded that these factors should also be considered in patient treatment plans. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2012; 2(3: 100-108Key words: Treatment of Hepatitis C, Sustained Viral Response, Markers of Treatment

  3. Cryotherapy in treatment of keloids: Evaluation of factors affecting treatment outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Barara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids are cosmetically disfiguring benign fibrous outgrowths, which present as a major therapeutic dilemma due to their frequent recurrence. Despite a wide therapeutic armamentarium available for these scars, none has been found to be completely effective and satisfactory. Cryosurgery has offered some promise in the treatment of keloids.We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of cryotherapy in treatment of keloids and to relate the treatment outcome with the clinico-etiological factors. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based interventional study was conducted in 30 patients of keloids. Patients received two freeze thaw cycles of 15 seconds each at four weekly intervals for six sessions or flattening greater than 75%; whichever occurred earlier. Patients were assessed after three treatment sessions and at treatment completion regarding thickness and firmness of lesions. Patient satisfaction scale was used to evaluate the treatment outcome at completion of six treatment sessions. Paired Students t-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Results: Average flattening noted after 3 and 6 sessions of cryotherapy was 30.76% and 58.13%, respectively. The duration of lesions and thickness of keloids correlated significantly with the result of treatment. The site and aetiology did not influence the outcome of cryosurgical treatment. Conclusion: Cryotherapy seems to be an effective treatment modality for keloids of recent onset, particularly smaller lesions. Duration and thickness of the keloids were found to be the most important factors in determining treatment outcome with cryotherapy in our study. Larger studies are, however, required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment modality and to validate our findings of the factors affecting treatment outcome.

  4. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKane, Aimee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  5. Factors affecting treatment adherence to atomoxetine in ADHD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuer T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tamás Treuer,1 Luis Méndez,2 William Montgomery,3 Shenghu Wu4 1Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Budapest, Hungary; 2Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Patient Outcomes and Real World Evidence, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Neuroscience Research, Eli Lilly Asia, Inc, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the literature related to research about the factors affecting treatment adherence and discontinuation of atomoxetine in pediatric, adolescent, and adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Medline was systematically searched using the following prespecified terms: “ADHD”, “Adherence”, “Compliance”, “Discontinuation”, and “Atomoxetine”. We identified 31 articles that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. The findings from this review indicate that persistence and adherence to atomoxetine treatment were generally high. Factors found to influence adherence and nonadherence to atomoxetine treatment in ADHD in this review include age, sex, the definition of response used, length of treatment, initial dose of treatment, comorbid conditions, and reimbursement. Tolerability was cited as an important reason for treatment discontinuation. More research is needed to understand those factors that can help to identify patients at risk for poor adherence and interventions that could improve treatment adherence early in the stage of this illness to secure a better long-term prognosis. Keywords: atomoxetine, treatment discontinuation, adherence, compliance, ADHD medication, relapse

  6. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  7. Time-Varying Affective Response for Humanoid Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkina, Lilia; Arkin, Ronald C.; Lee, Jamee K.; Jung, Hyunryong

    This paper describes the design of a complex time-varying affective architecture. It is an expansion of the TAME architecture (traits, attitudes, moods, and emotions) as applied to humanoid robotics. It particular it is intended to promote effective human-robot interaction by conveying the robot’s affective state to the user in an easy-to-interpret manner.

  8. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T; Teie, David

    2010-02-23

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech ('motherese') influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations into corresponding pieces of music. We compared music composed for tamarins with that composed for humans. Tamarins were generally indifferent to playbacks of human music, but responded with increased arousal to tamarin threat vocalization based music, and with decreased activity and increased calm behaviour to tamarin affective vocalization based music. Affective components in human music may have evolutionary origins in the structure of calls of non-human animals. In addition, animal signals may have evolved to manage the behaviour of listeners by influencing their affective state.

  9. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Philippa B.; Camuzeaux, Stephane S.M.; Footitt, Emma J.; Mills, Kevin A.; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B.; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I.; Livingston, John H.; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F.; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W. Kling; Pitt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin

  10. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: Treatment implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes. The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time. The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female’s sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes. The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function. The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman’s sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions. The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women’s problematic sexual experiences.

  11. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Duisin, Dragana; Barisić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes.The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time.The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female's sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes.The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function.The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman's sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions.The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women's problematic sexual experiences.

  12. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHENG; Rong-rong SUN; Fei-yan WANG; Zhen PENG; Fu-ling KONG; Jian WU; Jia-shu CAO; Gang LU

    2012-01-01

    Objective:High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit.Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants.This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit.Methods:An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd,1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 ℃) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage.Results:Of the 10101 tomato probe sets represented on the array,127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits,compared with those under normal conditions,functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction,defense responses,oxidation reduction,and hormone responses.However,only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits,which were involved in primary metabolism,signal transduction,hormone responses,transcription factors,and stress responses.Meanwhile,55 genes involved in energy metabolism,cell wall metabolism,and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits.Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage.

  13. How Source Affects Response to Public Service Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jerry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports that public service advertising attributed to the Advertising Council elicited higher message ratings than did public service advertising attributed to a commercial source, a noncommercial source, or no source; however, it produced the lowest behavioral responses. (GT)

  14. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses f

  15. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5

  16. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicace

  17. Cerebral haemodynamic response or excitability is not affected by sildenafil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W;

    2009-01-01

    ) were performed. The measurements were applied at baseline and at both 1 and 2 h after ingestion of 100 mg of sildenafil. Blood pressure, heart rate and side effects, including headache, were obtained. Headache was induced in all but one subject on both study days. Sildenafil did not affect VEP...

  18. EEG Responses to Auditory Stimuli for Automatic Affect Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettich, Dirk T.; Bolinger, Elaina; Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Spüler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Brain state classification for communication and control has been well established in the area of brain-computer interfaces over the last decades. Recently, the passive and automatic extraction of additional information regarding the psychological state of users from neurophysiological signals has gained increased attention in the interdisciplinary field of affective computing. We investigated how well specific emotional reactions, induced by auditory stimuli, can be detected in EEG recordings. We introduce an auditory emotion induction paradigm based on the International Affective Digitized Sounds 2nd Edition (IADS-2) database also suitable for disabled individuals. Stimuli are grouped in three valence categories: unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant. Significant differences in time domain domain event-related potentials are found in the electroencephalogram (EEG) between unpleasant and neutral, as well as pleasant and neutral conditions over midline electrodes. Time domain data were classified in three binary classification problems using a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We discuss three classification performance measures in the context of affective computing and outline some strategies for conducting and reporting affect classification studies. PMID:27375410

  19. Effectiveness of treatment of patients affected by trochanter major enthesitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad Kaljić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enthesitis of the trochanter major is characterized by pain and often by limping when walking, then pain, tension, swelling, increased warmth and redness in the area of trochanter, and hip weaknessespecially when performing exercises with resistance. Research goals: Determine the effectiveness of treatment of major trochanter enthesitis, and analyze the representation of it in patients of both gender, different ages and professions.Methods: Retrospective analysis of data from the clinic "Praxis" in the period from 01.01.2001. to 31.12.2011. year because of the major trochanter enthesitis 30 patients were treated. Criteria for inclusion in the study were those people with symptoms and diagnosis of of the trochanter major enthesitis who have accessed treatment, while the criteria for exclusion were inadequate diagnosis, treatment abandonment and lack ofpatient data. The process of therapy included the evaluation of the functional status of patients graded 0-5, then conducted physical therapy that included: bed rest, manual massage and local instillation of depot corticosteroids, and assessment of treatment success ranging from 0 to 5.Research results: The mean score for condition of respondents was 3.27 before therapy, while after treatment it was 4.33. The mean score for status of respondents was 3.13 before treatment, and after therapy itwas 4.33.Conslusion: Based on these data we can conclude that treatment in the clinic "Praxis" leads to the improvement in patients suffering from the enthesitis of trochanter major.

  20. The Sinorhizobium meliloti stringent response affects multiple aspects of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Derek H; Long, Sharon R

    2002-03-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti and host legumes enter into a nitrogen-fixing, symbiotic relationship triggered by an exchange of signals between bacteria and plant. S. meliloti produces Nod factor, which elicits the formation of nodules on plant roots, and succinoglycan, an exopolysaccharide that allows for bacterial invasion and colonization of the host. The biosynthesis of these molecules is well defined, but the specific regulation of these compounds is not completely understood. Bacteria control complex regulatory networks by the production of ppGpp, the effector molecule of the stringent response, which induces physiological change in response to adverse growth conditions and can also control bacterial development and virulence. Through detailed analysis of an S. meliloti mutant incapable of producing ppGpp, we show that the stringent response is required for nodule formation and regulates the production of succinoglycan. Although it remains unknown whether these phenotypes are connected, we have isolated suppressor strains that restore both defects and potentially identify key downstream regulatory genes. These results indicate that the S. meliloti stringent response has roles in both succinoglycan production and nodule formation and, more importantly, that control of bacterial physiology in response to the plant and surrounding environment is critical to the establishment of a successful symbiosis.

  1. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  2. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

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    Cornelle W Noorlander

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  3. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment affects hippocampal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlander, Cornelle W; Tijsseling, Deodata; Hessel, Ellen V S; de Vries, Willem B; Derks, Jan B; Visser, Gerard H A; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery, to enhance fetal lung maturation. The benefit of this treatment is well established, however caution is necessary because of possible unwanted side effects on development of different organ systems, including the brain. Actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by corticosteroid receptors, which are highly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in cognitive functions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a single antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the development of the mouse hippocampus. A clinically relevant dose of dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) was administered to pregnant mice at embryonic day 15.5 and the hippocampus was analyzed from embryonic day 16 until adulthood. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment on anatomical changes, apoptosis and proliferation in the hippocampus, hippocampal volume and on total body weight. Our results show that dexamethasone treatment reduced body weight and hippocampal volume transiently during development, but these effects were no longer detected at adulthood. Dexamethasone treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampus until birth, but postnatally no effects of dexamethasone treatment on apoptosis were found. During the phase with increased apoptosis, dexamethasone treatment reduced the number of proliferating cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The number of proliferative cells was increased at postnatal day 5 and 10, but was decreased again at the adult stage. This latter long-term and negative effect of antenatal dexamethasone treatment on the number of proliferative cells in the hippocampus may have important implications for hippocampal network function.

  4. Traumatic Experience in Infancy: How Responses to Stress Affect Development

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    Witten, Molly Romer

    2010-01-01

    Responses to traumatic stress during the earliest years of life can change quickly and can be difficult to identify because of the young child's rapid rate of development. The symptoms of traumatic stress will depend on the child's developmental level and individual coping styles, as well as the quality and nature of the child's most important…

  5. Aversive Pavlovian Responses Affect Human Instrumental Motor Performance

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    Rigoli, Francesco; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioral control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed) and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm), have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioral experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behavior, and psychopathology. PMID:23060738

  6. Living with Smartphones: Does Completion Device Affect Survey Responses?

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    Lambert, Amber D.; Miller, Angie L.

    2015-01-01

    With the growing reliance on tablets and smartphones for internet access, understanding the effects of completion device on online survey responses becomes increasing important. This study uses data from the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project, a multi-institution online alumni survey designed to obtain knowledge of arts education, to explore…

  7. Aversive Pavlovian responses affect human instrumental motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRigoli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In neuroscience and psychology, an influential perspective distinguishes between two kinds of behavioural control: instrumental (habitual and goal-directed and Pavlovian. Understanding the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction is fundamental for the comprehension of decision-making. Animal studies (as those using the negative auto-maintenance paradigm, have demonstrated that Pavlovian mechanisms can have maladaptive effects on instrumental performance. However, evidence for a similar effect in humans is scarce. In addition, the mechanisms modulating the impact of Pavlovian responses on instrumental performance are largely unknown, both in human and non-human animals. The present paper describes a behavioural experiment investigating the effects of Pavlovian conditioned responses on performance in humans, focusing on the aversive domain. Results showed that Pavlovian responses influenced human performance, and, similar to animal studies, could have maladaptive effects. In particular, Pavlovian responses either impaired or increased performance depending on modulator variables such as threat distance, task controllability, punishment history, amount of training, and explicit punishment expectancy. Overall, these findings help elucidating the computational mechanisms underlying the instrumental-Pavlovian interaction, which might be at the base of apparently irrational phenomena in economics, social behaviour, and psychopathology.

  8. Variation in postsampling treatment of avian blood affects ecophysiological interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    1. The fluid component of blood is widely used in ecophysiological investigations, including measures of immune function and stable isotope ecology. After blood collection, delayed separation of blood extracellular fluids from red blood cells is known to affect the concentration of a wide range of b

  9. Poor Response to Periodontal Treatment May Predict Future Cardiovascular Disease.

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    Holmlund, A; Lampa, E; Lind, L

    2017-03-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether the response to the treatment of periodontal disease affects this association has not been investigated in any large prospective study. Periodontal data obtained at baseline and 1 y after treatment were available in 5,297 individuals with remaining teeth who were treated at a specialized clinic for periodontal disease. Poor response to treatment was defined as having >10% sites with probing pocket depth >4 mm deep and bleeding on probing at ≥20% of the sites 1 y after active treatment. Fatal/nonfatal incidence rate of CVD (composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) was obtained from the Swedish cause-of-death and hospital discharge registers. Poisson regression analysis was performed to analyze future risk of CVD. During a median follow-up of 16.8 y (89,719 person-years at risk), those individuals who did not respond well to treatment (13.8% of the sample) had an increased incidence of CVD ( n = 870) when compared with responders (23.6 vs. 15.3%, P 4 mm, and number of teeth, the incidence rate ratio for CVD among poor responders was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.53; P = 0.007) as opposed to good responders. The incidence rate ratio among poor responders increased to 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.73; P = 0.002) for those with the most remaining teeth. Individuals who did not respond well to periodontal treatment had an increased risk for future CVD, indicating that successful periodontal treatment might influence progression of subclinical CVD.

  10. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp.

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    Ulloa Rojas, J B; Verreth, J A J; Amato, S; Huisman, E A

    2003-09-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 gkg(-1) molasses for 2 and 3 months, (2) aerobic decomposition for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days, (3) aerobic bacterial inoculation (Bacillus sp.) for 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Ensiled CoP (E-CoP) showed higher fat and ash contents than oven-dried-CoP (OD-CoP; P<0.05). Similarly, true protein values tended to increase. The cellulose and total phenols levels of E-CoP were lower than OD-CoP (P<0.05). The E-CoP tannins levels tended to be lower than OD-CoP whereas caffeine levels remained unaffected. Improvement in the nutritional quality of E-CoP was associated with higher fat and protein contents and reduction of cellulose, total phenols and tannins. The aerobic decomposition treatment improved the nutritional quality of CoP by increasing true protein and fat contents. In addition, total phenols, tannins, caffeine and cellulose contents were reduced by an increase in treatment time (P<0.05). Bacterial treatment increased the protein content of CoP after 21 days (from 137 to 392 gkg(-1)) and decreased it after 28 days. Cellulose, total phenols, tannins and caffeine contents reduced with an increase in time of bacterial degradation. Bacterial treatment improved the CoP quality by increasing protein content and reducing cellulose and ANFs, especially after 21 days of treatment. Both the aerobic decomposition (after 21-28 days) and the aerobic bacterial degradation of CoP (after 21 days) appeared more suitable to improve the nutritional quality of CoP than the ensiling.

  11. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

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    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  12. Measuring treatment response in psychotic depression

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    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Meyers, Barnett S; Flint, Alastair J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no established psychometric instrument dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new composite rating scale, the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS), covering both the psychotic...... and the depressive domains of PD, could detect differences in effect between two psychopharmacological treatment regimens. METHODS: We reanalyzed the data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD), which compared the effect of Olanzapine+Sertraline (n=129) versus Olanzapine+Placebo (n=130......). The response to the two regimens was compared using both a mixed effects model and effect size statistics on the total scores of three rating scales: the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), its 6-item melancholia subscale (HAM-D6), and the 11-item PDAS consisting of the HAM-D6 plus five items...

  13. Tardive dyskinesia affected by occlusal treatment--a case report.

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    Kai, S; Kai, H; Tashiro, H

    1994-07-01

    The following is a case report of occlusal treatment for involuntary mandibular movement occurring in a 79-year old woman. This was diagnosed as sulpiride-induced tardive dyskinesia. The patient had been treated with sulpiride to improve gastrointestinal symptoms for five years until the onset of involuntary mandibular movement. The involuntary movement worsened even after discontinuation of the drug for 10 weeks. The dyskinesia improved in the course of treatment with an occlusal splint placed over her upper denture. After wearing the new denture with increased occlusal vertical dimension, the dyskinesia disappeared almost completely. Sirognathographic observation showed that previous denture wear evoked remarkable involuntary movement of the mandible once again. It is uncertain whether such improvement may result from discontinuation of the drug or from the occlusal treatment. However, it appears that occlusal factors played an important role in orofacial manifestation of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in this case.

  14. MHC-associated immunopotentiation affects the embryo response to teratogens.

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    Torchinsky, A; Fein, A; Carp, H J; Toder, V

    1994-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate whether the effect of environmental teratogens can be modified by maternal immunostimulation. Two chemicals, cyclophosphamide (CP) and 2,3-quinoxalinedimetanol,1,4-dioxide (QD) were used as the reference teratogens (RT). The response to these RT was investigated in two animal models: (i) primigravid C57Bl/6 mice who underwent intrauterine immunization with allogeneic paternal (CBA/J), third-party (BALB/c) or syngeneic male splenocytes 21 days before mating; (ii) C57Bl/6 and CBA/J mice who were treated with RT during the second pregnancy only, after a different mating combination (syngeneic or allogeneic) in the first and the second pregnancy. Different doses of CP and QD were injected on days 12 and 9 of pregnancy, respectively. On day 19 of pregnancy implantation sites, resorptions, live and dead fetuses were recorded and live fetuses were examined for external and internal malformations with methods routinely used in teratological study. It was shown that intrauterine immunopotentiation with allogeneic paternal splenocytes clearly enhances the tolerance of F1 embryos to RT. Thus, in CP-treated females the resorption rate and the proportion of malformed fetuses were significantly reduced. It was followed by an almost two-fold increase in fetal weight. The protective effect of such immunization in QD-treated females was manifested as a dramatic decrease of the proportion of malformed fetuses and the resorption rate. Syngeneic splenocytes could not significantly influence an embryo's sensitivity to RT. The response to RT was also significantly weaker in the second pregnancy of female mice mated twice allogeneically than that observed in allogeneically mated primigravid mice. These results show that the embryo's response to environmental teratogens may be influenced by fetomaternal immune interactions.

  15. Landscape fragmentation affects responses of avian communities to climate change.

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    Jarzyna, Marta A; Porter, William F; Maurer, Brian A; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Finley, Andrew O

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the consequences of climate change is contingent upon our understanding of the relationship between biodiversity patterns and climatic variability. While the impacts of climate change on individual species have been well-documented, there is a paucity of studies on climate-mediated changes in community dynamics. Our objectives were to investigate the relationship between temporal turnover in avian biodiversity and changes in climatic conditions and to assess the role of landscape fragmentation in affecting this relationship. We hypothesized that community turnover would be highest in regions experiencing the most pronounced changes in climate and that these patterns would be reduced in human-dominated landscapes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified temporal turnover in avian communities over a 20-year period using data from the New York State Breeding Atlases collected during 1980-1985 and 2000-2005. We applied Bayesian spatially varying intercept models to evaluate the relationship between temporal turnover and temporal trends in climatic conditions and landscape fragmentation. We found that models including interaction terms between climate change and landscape fragmentation were superior to models without the interaction terms, suggesting that the relationship between avian community turnover and changes in climatic conditions was affected by the level of landscape fragmentation. Specifically, we found weaker associations between temporal turnover and climatic change in regions with prevalent habitat fragmentation. We suggest that avian communities in fragmented landscapes are more robust to climate change than communities found in contiguous habitats because they are comprised of species with wider thermal niches and thus are less susceptible to shifts in climatic variability. We conclude that highly fragmented regions are likely to undergo less pronounced changes in composition and structure of faunal communities as a result of climate change

  16. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  17. Causal explanations affect judgments of the need for psychological treatment

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    Nancy S. Kim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowing what event precipitated a client's abnormal behaviors makes the client appear more normal than if the event is not known (Meehl, 1973. Does such knowledge also influence judgments of the need for psychological treatment, and if so, does it matter whether the precipitating event was inside or outside the client's control? We presented undergraduates with cases of hypothetical clients exhibiting abnormal behaviors and manipulated whether they were also told of a precipitating event explaining those behaviors. Knowing the precipitant significantly reduced perceptions of clients' need for treatment, but only when the precipitating event was outside the client's control. These findings call into question the notion that it need always be beneficial for an outside reasoner to uncover the root cause of a client's psychological problems, particularly when the root cause is still unknown to the client. The rationality of the effect and additional implications for decision-making are discussed.

  18. Psoriatic arthritis treatment: biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, P J; Antoni, C E

    2005-03-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders as a result of the development and application of targeted biological therapies. The elucidation of the overlapping cellular and cytokine immunopathology of such diverse conditions as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease, and psoriasis points to specific targets for bioengineered proteins or small molecules. Similar to clinical trials in RA, trials in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown excellent clinical results with the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) blockers, etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab in a variety of domains including the joints, quality of life, function, and slowing of disease progress as evidenced radiologically. In addition, these agents have shown benefit in domains more unique to PsA, such as the skin lesions of psoriasis, enthesitis, and dactylitis, pointing out the similar pathogenesis of the disease in the skin, the tendons, and the synovial membrane. This therapy has been generally safe and well tolerated in clinical trials of PsA. Other logical candidates for targeted therapy in development include other anti-TNF agents, costimulatory blockade agents that affect T cell function, blockers of other cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, 6, 12, 15, or 18, and B cell modulatory medicines. Also, it will be useful to learn more about the effects of combining traditional disease modifying drugs and the newer biologicals.

  19. Human monocyte differentiation stage affects response to arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Alvarez, Elizabeth; Pelaez, Carlos A; García, Luis F; Rojas, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    AA-induced cell death mechanisms acting on human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), U937 promonocytes and PMA-differentiated U937 cells were studied. Arachidonic acid induced apoptosis and necrosis in monocytes and U937 cells but only apoptosis in MDM and U937D cells. AA increased both types of death in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells and increased the percentage of TNFalpha+ cells and reduced IL-10+ cells. Experiments blocking these cytokines indicated that AA-mediated death was TNFalpha- and IL-10-independent. The differences in AA-mediated cell death could be explained by high ROS, calpain and sPLA-2 production and activity in monocytes. Blocking sPLA-2 in monocytes and treatment with antioxidants favored M. tuberculosis control whereas AA enhanced M. tuberculosis growth in MDM. Such evidence suggested that AA-modulated effector mechanisms depend on mononuclear phagocytes' differentiation stage.

  20. Historical temperature variability affects coral response to heat stress.

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    Jessica Carilli

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching is the breakdown of symbiosis between coral animal hosts and their dinoflagellate algae symbionts in response to environmental stress. On large spatial scales, heat stress is the most common factor causing bleaching, which is predicted to increase in frequency and severity as the climate warms. There is evidence that the temperature threshold at which bleaching occurs varies with local environmental conditions and background climate conditions. We investigated the influence of past temperature variability on coral susceptibility to bleaching, using the natural gradient in peak temperature variability in the Gilbert Islands, Republic of Kiribati. The spatial pattern in skeletal growth rates and partial mortality scars found in massive Porites sp. across the central and northern islands suggests that corals subject to larger year-to-year fluctuations in maximum ocean temperature were more resistant to a 2004 warm-water event. In addition, a subsequent 2009 warm event had a disproportionately larger impact on those corals from the island with lower historical heat stress, as indicated by lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, a lipid utilized for energy, as well as thinner tissue in those corals. This study indicates that coral reefs in locations with more frequent warm events may be more resilient to future warming, and protection measures may be more effective in these regions.

  1. Does the Environment Responsibility Affect the Management Control System?

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    Hichem DKHILI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature suggests a problem emerging between management controls systems with the new responsibilities that companies must take into consideration. This study examines a system design management control tool orientation as behaviors that can overcome the uncertainties related to the environment and register the company in a voluntary approach which takes into account the environmental dimensions. A questionnaire survey sent to 306 Tunisian industrial companies was conducted. The results of the exploratory and confirmatory analysis are required. The results of the principal component factor analysis evidenced by Cronbach's alpha and KMO test, helped to cleanse the items selected from the literature. Similarly, the results of structural equations with indices of structural adjustment and parcimonies have devoted a good quality adjustment. Overall, findings suggest that most of the firm’s environment is uncertain, more tools to include in its environmental dimensions. On the other hand, the voluntary integration of an environmental approach is part of a strategy of cost leadership in the Tunisian industrial companies.

  2. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...... and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. CONCLUSIONS: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with outcomes on most of the rating scales, but correlations were modest in size, possibly due to the number of different factors influencing...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  3. Seeing red: affect modulation and chromatic color responses on the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Stein, Michelle B; Slavin-Mulford, Jenelle; Bello, Iruma; Sinclair, S Justin; Blais, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Psychoanalytic theories suggest that color perception on the Rorschach relates to affective modulation. However, this idea has minimal empirical support. Using a clinical sample, the authors explored the cognitive and clinical correlates of Rorschach color determinants and differences among four affective modulation subtypes: Controlled, Balanced, Under-Controlled, and Flooded. Subtypes were differentiated by measures of affective regulation, reality testing/confusion, and personality traits. Initial support for the relationship of chromatic color response styles and affective modulation was found.

  4. Decreased calcification affects photosynthetic responses of Emiliania huxleyi exposed to UV radiation and elevated temperature

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    E. W. Helbling

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in calcification of coccolithophores may affect their photosynthetic responses to both, ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm and temperature. We operated semi-continuous cultures of Emiliania huxleyi (strain CS-369 at reduced (0.1 mM, LCa and ambient (10 mM, HCa Ca2+ concentrations and, after 148 generations, we exposed cells to six radiation treatments (>280, >295, >305, >320, >350 and >395 nm by using Schott filters and two temperatures (20 and 25 °C to examine photosynthesis and calcification responses. Overall, our study has demonstrated that: (1 decreased calcification resulted in a down regulation of photoprotective mechanisms (i.e., as estimated via non-photochemical quenching, NPQ, pigment contents and photosynthetic carbon fixation; (2 Calcification (C and photosynthesis (P (as well as their ratio have different responses related to UVR with cells grown under the high Ca2+ concentration having a better performance as compared to those grown under the low Ca2+ level; (3 elevated temperature increased photosynthesis and calcification of E. huxleyi grown at high Ca2+ concentrations whereas the opposite was observed in low Ca2+ grown cells. Therefore, a decrease in calcification rates in E. huxleyi is expected to decrease photosynthesis rates and producing also a negative feedback, further reducing calcification.

  5. Effective NSAID treatment indicates that hyperprostaglandinism is affecting the clinical severity of childhood hypophosphatasia

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    Collmann H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypophosphatasia (HP is an inborn error of bone metabolism characterized by a genetic defect in the gene encoding the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP. There is a lack of knowledge as to how the variability and clinical severity of the HP phenotype (especially pain and walking impairment are related to metabolic disturbances or impairments, subsequent to the molecular defect. Methods We analyzed the changes in clinical symptoms and the prostaglandin (PG metabolism in response to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in six children affected by childhood HP. In addition, by exposing HP fibroblasts to pyridoxal phosphate and/or calcium pyrophosphate in vitro, we analyzed whether the alterations in PG levels are sequelae related to the metabolic defect. Results Childhood HP patients, who often complain about pain in the lower limbs without evident fractures, have systemic hyperprostaglandinism. Symptomatic anti-inflammatory treatment with NSAIDs significantly improved pain-associated physical impairment. Calcium pyrophosphate, but not pyridoxal phosphate, induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 gene expression and PG production in HP and normal fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion Clinical features of childhood HP related to pain in the lower legs may be, at least in part, sequelae related to elevated PG levels, secondary to the primary metabolic defect. Consequently, NSAID treatment does improve the clinical features of childhood HP.

  6. COSTS AND BENEFITS OF HOSPITAL AND DAY TREATMENT WITH COMMUNITY CARE OF AFFECTIVE AND SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, D; KLUITER, H; NIENHUIS, FJ; RUPHAN, M; GIEL, R

    1995-01-01

    Background. A randomised controlled trial of day treatment with community care for patients with schizophrenic and affective disorders, referred for in-patient psychiatric treatment, was conducted to evaluate patterns of treatment and the course of illness with its psychosocial consequences over a p

  7. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  8. Regional brain activity and strenuous exercise: predicting affective responses using EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Petruzzello, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Previous research using the model proposed by Davidson has shown that resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry can predict affective responses to aerobic exercise at moderate intensities. Specifically, greater relative left frontal activity has been shown to predict positive affect (i.e., energy) following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if resting frontal EEG asymmetry would predict affective responses following strenuous exercise. Thirty participants (13 women, 17 men) completed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill. EEG was recorded prior to exercise. Affect was measured by the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List prior to the graded exercise test, immediately following, 10 and 20-min following exercise. Greater relative left frontal activity predicted tiredness and calmness during recovery from exercise, but not tension or energy. Tiredness and calmness following exercise covaried, suggesting that tiredness following exercise might not have been linked with displeasure. These findings offer further support for the link between EEG asymmetry and affective responses to exercise.

  9. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  10. Trait Mindfulness Modulates Neuroendocrine and Affective Responses to Social Evaluative Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Methods Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. Results In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. Conclusions The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. PMID:22626868

  11. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  12. Microstructural response to heat affected zone cracking of prewelding heat-treated Inconel 939 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M.A., E-mail: mgonzalez@comimsa.com.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Martinez, D.I., E-mail: dorairma@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Perez, A., E-mail: betinperez@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME-UANL), Av. Universidad s/n. Ciudad Universitaria, C.P.66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Guajardo, H., E-mail: hguajardo@frisa.com [FRISA Aerospace, S.A. de C.V., Valentin G. Rivero No. 200, Col. Los Trevino, C.P. 66150, Santa Caterina N.L. (Mexico); Garza, A., E-mail: agarza@comimsa.com [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V. (COMIMSA), Ciencia y Tecnologia No.790, Saltillo 400, C.P. 25295 Saltillo Coah. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    The microstructural response to cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a nickel-based IN 939 superalloy after prewelding heat treatments (PWHT) was investigated. The PWHT specimens showed two different microstructures: 1) spherical ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates (357-442 nm), with blocky MC and discreet M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides dispersed within the coarse dendrites and in the interdendritic regions; and 2) ordered {gamma} Prime precipitates in 'ogdoadically' diced cube shapes and coarse MC carbides within the dendrites and in the interdendritic regions. After being tungsten inert gas welded (TIG) applying low heat input, welding speed and using a more ductile filler alloy, specimens with microstructures consisting of spherical {gamma} Prime precipitate particles and dispersed discreet MC carbides along the grain boundaries, displayed a considerably improved weldability due to a strong reduction of the intergranular HAZ cracking associated with the liquation microfissuring phenomena. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous microstructures of {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides of Ni base superalloys through preweld heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet MC carbides reduce the intergranular HAZ liquation and microfissuring of Nickel base superalloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructure {gamma} Prime spheroids and discreet blocky type MC carbides, capable to relax the stress generated during weld cooling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low welding heat input welding speeds and ductile filler alloys reduce the HAZ cracking susceptibility.

  13. Sharing the pain: perceptions of fairness affect private and public response to hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Adger, W. Neil; Quinn, Tara; Lorenzoni, Irene; Murphy, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Structural causes of vulnerability to hazards are well established in geographical research. But what facilitates individual adaptive behavior? How does the performance of government intervention affect such behavior? Drawing on political economy, environmental psychology, and climate justice perspectives, we explore how perceived fairness of responses to weather-related extreme events affects the public and private distribution of responsibility and action. We focus on flood risk and examine...

  14. Negative Affective Spillover from Daily Events Predicts Early Response to Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; Butler, Andrew C.; Parrish, Brendt P.; Wenze, Susan J.; Beck, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to…

  15. Gravity affects the responsiveness of Runx2 to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feima; Dai, Zhongquan; Wu, Feng; Liu, Zhaoxia; Tan, Yingjun; Wan, Yumin; Shang, Peng; Li, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    Bone loss resulting from spaceflight is mainly caused by decreased bone formation, and decreased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Transcription factor Runx2 plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation and function by responding to microenvironment changes including cytokine and mechanical factors. The effects of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) on Runx2 in terms of mechanical competence is far less clear. This study describes how gravity affects the response of Runx2 to VD3. A MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc osteoblast model was constructed in which the activity of Runx2 was reflected by reporter luciferase activity identifed by bone-related cytokines. The results showed that luciferase activity in MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc cells transfected with Runx2 was twice that of the vacant vector. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was increased in MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc cells by different concentrations of IGF-I and BMP2. MC3T3-6OSE2-Luc cells were cultured under simulated microgravity or centrifuge with or without VD3. In simulated microgravity, luciferase activity was decreased after 48 h of clinorotation culture, but increased in the centrifuge culture. Luciferase activity was increased after VD3 treatment in normal conditions and simulated microgravity, the increase in luciferase activity in simulated microgravity was lower than that in the 1 g condition when simultaneously treated with VD3 and higher than that in the centrifuge condition. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that the interaction between the VD3 receptor (VDR) and Runx2 was decreased by simulated microgravity, but increased by centrifugation. From these results, we conclude that gravity affects the response of Runx2 to VD3 which results from an alteration in the interaction between VDR and Runx2 under different gravity conditions.

  16. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Patricia Z; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Dahl, Ronald E; Nelson, Eric E; Stroud, Laura J; Siegle, Greg J; Morgan, Judith K; Silk, Jennifer S

    2014-04-01

    Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths' emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent-adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents' neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  17. Associations between maternal negative affect and adolescent's neural response to peer evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Z. Tan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parenting is often implicated as a potential source of individual differences in youths’ emotional information processing. The present study examined whether parental affect is related to an important aspect of adolescent emotional development, response to peer evaluation. Specifically, we examined relations between maternal negative affect, observed during parent–adolescent discussion of an adolescent-nominated concern with which s/he wants parental support, and adolescent neural responses to peer evaluation in 40 emotionally healthy and depressed adolescents. We focused on a network of ventral brain regions involved in affective processing of social information: the amygdala, anterior insula, nucleus accumbens, and subgenual anterior cingulate, as well as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Maternal negative affect was not associated with adolescent neural response to peer rejection. However, longer durations of maternal negative affect were associated with decreased responsivity to peer acceptance in the amygdala, left anterior insula, subgenual anterior cingulate, and left nucleus accumbens. These findings provide some of the first evidence that maternal negative affect is associated with adolescents’ neural processing of social rewards. Findings also suggest that maternal negative affect could contribute to alterations in affective processing, specifically, dampening the saliency and/or reward of peer interactions during adolescence.

  18. High antibody titer in an adult with Pompe disease affects treatment with alglucosidase alfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Juna M; van der Beek, Nadine A M E; Kroos, Marian A; Ozkan, Lale; van Doorn, Pieter A; Richards, Susan M; Sung, Crystal C C; Brugma, Jan-Dietert C; Zandbergen, Adrienne A M; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Reuser, Arnold J J

    2010-12-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alfa in infants, children and adults with Pompe disease. Recent studies have shown that high antibody titers can occur in patients receiving ERT and counteract the effect of treatment. This particularly occurs in those patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease that do not produce any endogenous acid α-glucosidase (CRIM-negative). It is still unclear to what extent antibody formation affects the outcome of ERT in adults with residual enzyme activity. We present the case of a patient with adult-onset Pompe disease. He was diagnosed at the age of 39years by enzymatic testing (10.7% residual activity in fibroblasts) and DNA analysis (genotype: c.-32-13T>G/p.Trp516X). Infusion-associated reactions occurred during ERT and the patient's disease progressed. Concurrently, the antibody titer rose to a similarly high level as reported for some CRIM-negative patients with classic-infantile Pompe disease. Using newly developed immunologic-assays we could calculate that approximately 40% of the administered alglucosidase alfa was captured by circulating antibodies. Further, we could demonstrate that uptake of alglucosidase alfa by cultured fibroblasts was inhibited by admixture of the patient's serum. This case demonstrates that also patients with an appreciable amount of properly folded and catalytically active endogenous acid α-glucosidase can develop antibodies against alglucosidase alfa that affect the response to ERT.

  19. Rapid Response to Treatment for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, Terence G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response among 108 patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 16-week treatments: fluoxetine, placebo, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus fluoxetine, or CBT plus placebo. Rapid response, defined as 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week, was determined…

  20. Laxative Treatment With Polyethylene Glycol Does Not Affect Lipid Absorption in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Cuperus, Frans J. C.; Stellaard, Frans; van Dijk, Theo H.; Dekker, Jan; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; Groen, Albert K.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a frequently used laxative agent. It is unknown, however, whether PEG affects the absorptive capacity of the intestine. Reduced lipid (dietary fat and cholesterol) absorption induced by long-term PEG treatment could negatively affect growth in children. We te

  1. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  2. Affective-Motivational Brain Responses to Direct Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylliainen, Anneli; Wallace, Simon; Coutanche, Marc N.; Leppanen, Jukka M.; Cusack, James; Bailey, Anthony J.; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unclear why children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to be inattentive to, or even avoid eye contact. The goal of this study was to investigate affective-motivational brain responses to direct gaze in children with ASD. To this end, we combined two measurements: skin conductance responses (SCR), a robust arousal…

  3. Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers’ Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yong; Robinson, Jason D.; Engelmann, Jeffrey M.; Lam, Cho Y.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Karam-Hage, Maher; Wetter, David W.; Dani, John A; Kosten, Thomas R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintena...

  4. Social choice with partial knowledge of treatment response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); H.K. van Dijk (Herman); F. Manski

    2005-01-01

    textabstractEconomists have long sought to learn the effect of a "treatment" on some outcome of interest, just as doctors do with their patients. A central practical objective of research on treatment response is to provide decision makers with information useful in choosing treatments. Often the

  5. The guardians' perspective on paediatric cancer treatment in Malawi and factors affecting adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israels, T.; Chirambo, C.; Caron, H.; de Kraker, J.; Molyneux, E.; Reis, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Abandonment of paediatric cancer treatment is a common problem in developing countries. Little is known about the guardians' perspective on cancer treatment in these countries, especially the factors that affect adherence. Methods: Following a pilot study enquiring into the possible caus

  6. Startle response and prepulse inhibition modulation by positive- and negative-induced affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, Luis Gonzalo; Mena, Auxiliadora; Puentes, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The startle response, a set of reflex behaviours intended to prepare the organism to face a potentially threatening stimulus, can be modulated by several factors as, for example, changes in affective state, or previous presentation of a weak stimulus (a phenomenon termed Pre-Pulse Inhibition [PPI]). In this paper we analyse whether the induction of positive or negative affective states in the participants modulates the startle response and the PPI phenomenon. The results revealed a decrease of the startle response and an increase of the PPI effect when registered while the participants were exposed to pleasant images (Experiment 1), and an increase of the startle response and of the PPI effect when they were exposed to a video-clip of unpleasant content (Experiment 2). These data are interpreted considering that changes in affective states correlate with changes in the startle reflex intensity, but changes in PPI might be the result of an attentional process.

  7. [Emotional responsiveness of substance abusers under outpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Juan; Pérez-García, Ana M; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The emotions predispose to action providing information from both internal and external environment. There is evidence indicating that the emotional response in drugdependent patients is different from that of the not consuming population. The present work analyzed the emotions of drugdependent under ambulatory treatment (N=57), following the Lang's theory of emotion, considering the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance or control, across the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), individually applied. The results were contrasted with a control group of not consuming persons (N=44) of similar age, since this variable concerns emotional experience. The influence of sex was also analyzed, considering the possible differences between men and women in emotional experience. The results can be summarized in the following points: (1) There were significant differences between substance abusers and not consumers in the dimension of valence, valuing the consumers the emotional stimuli of the most extreme form (the agreeable ones as better, and the disagreeable ones as worse); (2) there were no differences between both groups in the arousal and dominance dimensions; and (3) women reported more arousal before aversive images, and less before the sexual ones, than males, independently of they were or not substance abusers. Finally, it is suggested the need to deep into the analysis of sex differences and into the images selected, as well as into the usefulness of the emotion centred therapies for the treatment of drugdependency.

  8. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieringa, Hylke W; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects ∼500,000 women worldwide, and ∼275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%. One of the factors thought to contribute to treatment failure is the ability of tumor cells to repair chemoradiotherapy-induced DNA damage. Therefore, sensitization of tumor cells for chemoradiotherapy via inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) as a novel strategy to improve therapy effect, is currently studied pre-clinically as well as in the clinic. Almost invariably, cervical carcinogenesis involves infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), which inactivates part of the DNA damage response. This HPV-mediated partial inactivation of the DDR presents therapeutic targeting of the residual DDR as an interesting approach to achieve chemoradio-sensitization for cervical cancer. How the DDR can be most efficiently targeted, however, remains unclear. The fact that cisplatin and radiotherapy activate multiple signaling axes within the DDR further complicates a rational choice of therapeutic targets within the DDR. In this review, we provide an overview of the current preclinical and clinical knowledge about targeting the DDR in cervical cancer.

  9. Do Aging and Tactile Noise Stimulation Affect Responses to Support Surface Translations in Healthy Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dettmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular responses to support surface perturbations are crucial to prevent falls, but aging-related anatomical and physiological changes affect the appropriateness and efficiency of such responses. Low-level noise application to sensory receptors has shown to be effective for postural improvement in a variety of different balance tasks, but it is unknown whether this intervention may have value for improvement of corrective postural responses. Ten healthy younger and ten healthy older adults were exposed to sudden backward translations of the support surface. Low-level noise (mechanical vibration to the foot soles was added during random trials and temporal (response latency and spatial characteristics (maximum center-of-pressure excursion and anterior-posterior path length of postural responses were assessed. Mixed-model ANOVA was applied for analysis of postural response differences based on age and vibration condition. Age affected postural response characteristics, but older adults were well able to maintain balance when exposed to a postural perturbation. Low-level noise application did not affect any postural outcomes. Healthy aging affects some specific measures of postural stability, and in high-functioning older individuals, a low-level noise intervention may not be valuable. More research is needed to investigate if recurring fallers and neuropathy patients could benefit from the intervention in postural perturbation tasks.

  10. CLINICAL ANALYSIS ON TREATMENT OF LUMBAR VERTEBRAL RETROGRADE AFFECTION WITH ACUPUNCTURE, TDP-IRRADIATION AND CUPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper, 70 cases of retrograde affection of the lumbar vertebrae are randomly and evenly divided into treatment group and control group. Shenshu (BL 23), Qihaishu (BL 24), Dachangshu (BL 25),Weizhong (BL 40), Jiaji (EX-B 2), etc. are used. In treatment group, acupuncture, TDP irradiation and cupping are performed, and in control group, only acupuncture is given. After 30 sessions (3 therapeutic courses) of treatment, in treatment and control groups, the total effective rates are 91.43 % and 71.43 % respectively. The therapeutic effect of comprehensive treatment is significantly superior to that of simple acupuncture therapy (P < 0.05).

  11. Response of cortical bone to antiresorptive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, J T; Sørensen, T K;

    2001-01-01

    A total of 113 postmenopausal women (69 controls, 33 using hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and 11 using bisphosphonate) were evaluated twice over 2 years with a new noninvasive, radiogrammetry-based technique called digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and conventional bone densitometry of the s...... treatment regimens used in the prevention of osteoporosis....

  12. 单双相抑郁患者的情感气质特征及其与抗抑郁治疗反应的关系%Characteristics of affective temperaments and their relations with antidepressant treatment responses in unipolar depression and bipolar depression patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林康广; 卢睿; 陈玲玉; 陈琨; 欧阳惠怡; 党亚梅; 徐贵云

    2016-01-01

    Hospital of Jiˊnan University. Their affective temperaments were assessed by the Chinese TEMPS - A(Temperament Evaluation of Memphis Pisa Paris and San Diego - Auto questionnaire)and the severity of depression by the Hamilton Depression Scale- 17 item(HAMD - 17). Primary outcome measures were score - reducing rate of HAMD - 17 at the 4th and 6th week compared with baseline. Results Patients with bipolar I disorder score was significantly higher than patients with unipolar depression and patients with bipolar II disorder on the hyperthymic temperament subscale(F = 6. 562,P = 0. 002). Patients with bipolar II disorder score was significantly higher than unipolar depression disorder patients on the cyclothymic temperament subscales(F = 12. 89,P < 0. 01). The score - reducing rate of HAMD - 17 at the 6th week in patients with dominant hyperthymic temperament was better than patients without the dominant hyperthymic temperament(F = 6. 44,P = 0. 011). Conclusion The hyperthymic temperament may be overrepresented inpatients with bipolar I disorder,while the cyclothymic temperament may be overrepresented in patients with bipolar II disorder. The hyperthymic temperament was measured by TEMPS - A may be assist in predicting antidepressant treatment response in patients with major affective disorders suffering a major depressive episode.

  13. [Individual response to treatments using Teuscher activator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, I L; Lagerström, L O

    1991-12-01

    Variations in facial growth and dentoalveolar development were studied in a group of 40 patients treated with the Teuscher appliance, a functional appliance which is a combination of an activator and a high-pull headgear. Patients were selected for this study on the basis of an initial Class II Division 1 malocclusion and on being consecutively treated with this appliance. The results showed that in 80% of the patients the maxilla either remained unchanged in it's relationship to the anterior cranial base (NSL) or became more retrusive during the treatment period. The mandible in 70% of the patients became more prognathic, only in four cases did the mandible become slightly more retrognathic. The analysis further showed that no statistically significant change occurred in the inclination of the mandible during treatment. Correlation analysis of the association between pretreatment mandibular plane angle and the changes during treatment showed no association. The dentoalveolar changes were characterized by retroclination of the maxillary incisors in 90% of the patients which occurred in spite of the torque springs, intended to maintain the inclination of these teeth. In contrast, the mandibular incisors on average showed no statistically significant change during treatment. This may be attributed to the capping of these teeth. Analysis of the association between the pretreatment inclination and the change during treatment of the mandibular incisors showed an inverse relationship. Mandibular incisors, that initially were proclined, tended to become more upright which is in contrast to previous studies indicating that functional appliance treatment generally increases the inclination of these teeth. The results of this study suggest that the correction of the skeletal component of the Class II malocclusion with the Teuscher appliance in most instances takes place by restriction of forward development of the maxilla in combination with downward-forward growth of the

  14. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of dextromethorphan/quinidine in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedel, Kerri A; Morrow, Sarah A; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration–effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug’s side effects) and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a variety of other medical problems and are on numerous other medications, they may not tolerate DM/Q adverse effects, or may be at risk for drug interactions. Some caution is warranted when initiating DM/Q treatment, particularly in patients

  15. Chronic morphine treatment decreases acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The reward-related effects of addictive drugs primarily act via the dopamine system, which also plays an important role in sensorimotor gating. The mesolimbic dopamine system is the common pathway of drug addiction and sensorimotor gating. However, the way in which addictive drugs affect sensorimotor gating is currently unclear. In previous studies, we examined the effects of morphine treatment on sensory gating in the hippocampus. The present study investigated the effects of morphine on sensorimotor gating in rats during chronic morphine treatment and withdrawal. Rats were examined during treatment with morphine for 10 successive days, followed by a withdrawal period. Acoustic startle responses to a single startle stimulus (115 dB SPL) and prepulse inhibition responses were recorded. The results showed that acoustic startle responses were attenuated during morphine treatment, but not during withdrawal. PPI was impaired in the last 2 morphine treatment days, but returned to a normal level during withdrawal.

  16. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.

  17. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  18. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  19. Multicenter study of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: exposure-response relationship and factors affecting concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E; Chen, Sharon C-A; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect posaconazole concentrations. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received posaconazole and had ≥1 concentration measured at six hospitals in Australia. Data from 86 patients with 541 posaconazole concentrations were included in the study. Among 72 patients taking posaconazole for prophylaxis against IFIs, 12 patients (17%) developed a breakthrough fungal infection; median posaconazole concentrations were significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal infection (median [range], 289 [50 to 471] ng/ml versus 485 [0 to 2,035] ng/ml; P posaconazole concentration was a significant predictor of breakthrough fungal infection via binary logistic regression (P posaconazole exposure, including coadministration with proton pump inhibitors, metoclopramide, phenytoin or rifampin, and the H(2) antagonist ranitidine (P posaconazole exposure (P posaconazole concentrations are common and are associated with breakthrough fungal infection, supporting the utility of monitoring posaconazole concentrations to ensure optimal systemic exposure.

  20. Patterns of physiological and affective responses to vehicle pass-by noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Notbohm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is considered causing annoyance and severe health effects like cardiovascular disease (CVD. The present laboratory study examines the importance of individual factors, namely age, gender and personality traits on short term physiological and affective response to vehicle pass-by noises. Four groups of subjects (20-30 vs. 40-55 year-old male or female, n = 66 in total were exposed to a series of vehicle pass-by noises. Physiological responses (finger-pulse amplitude [FPA], skin conductance level [SCL] were registered during the exposure; affective responses and judgements regarding the sounds were assessed by questionnaires. Noise sensitivity and sensation seeking were measured by validated questionnaires. The results show different patterns of response depending on age, gender and personality. The strongest sympathetic stress reaction as measured by SCL was found for the older female group. In regression analysis, the SCL response was predicted by the female gender and low score of sensation seeking only (adjusted R2 = 0.139. The FPA response was strongest among the young men and age was the only significant predictor. For affective responses of pleasantness and activation, regression analysis proved noise sensitivity and sensation seeking to be significant predictors (adjusted R2 = 0.187 respectively 0.154. Age, gender and personality influence physiological and affective reactions to traffic noise, which might affect health conditions. Especially, a potential risk of older women for CVD owing to noise should be investigated further. Individual sensitiveness in terms of noise sensitivity or sensation seeking proves to be important for explaining differences in response to noise.

  1. Food-cue affected motor response inhibition and self-reported dieting success: a pictorial affective shifting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition is one of the basic facets of executive functioning and is closely related to self-regulation. Impulsive reactions, i.e. low inhibitory control, have been associated with higher body-mass-index (BMI, binge eating, and other problem behaviors (e.g. substance abuse, pathological gambling, etc.. Nevertheless, studies which investigated the direct influence of food-cues on behavioral inhibition have been fairly inconsistent. In the current studies, we investigated food-cue affected behavioral inhibition in young women. For this purpose, we used a go/no-go task with pictorial food and neutral stimuli in which stimulus-response mapping is reversed after every other block (affective shifting task. In study 1, hungry participants showed faster reaction times to and omitted fewer food than neutral targets. Low dieting success and higher BMI were associated with behavioral disinhibition in food relative to neutral blocks. In study 2, both hungry and satiated individuals were investigated. Satiation did not influence overall task performance, but modulated associations of task performance with dieting success and self-reported impulsivity. When satiated, increased food craving during the task was associated with low dieting success, possibly indicating a preload-disinhibition effect following food intake. Food-cues elicited automatic action and approach tendencies regardless of dieting success, self-reported impulsivity, or current hunger levels. Yet, associations between dieting success, impulsivity, and behavioral food-cue responses were modulated by hunger and satiation. Future research investigating clinical samples and including other salient non-food stimuli as control category is warranted.

  2. Causal attribution and affective response as mediated by task performance and self-acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T D; Bailey, R C; Zinser, O; Williams, D E

    1994-12-01

    Predictions derived from cognitive consistency theories, self-esteem theories, and ego-serving-bias theory concerning how students would make attributional and affective responses to their academic performance were investigated. 202 university students completed a measure of self-acceptance of their college ability and made attributional and affective responses to an hypothetical examination performance. Analyses showed that students receiving positive feedback perceived greater internal causality and responded with greater positive affect than students receiving negative feedback. Self-acceptance did not moderate the attributions or affective reactions. The results supported the ego-serving-bias theory and provided partial support for self-esteem theory. Findings did not support predictions from cognitive-consistency theory.

  3. Psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective response to exercise in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Margaret L.; Kwan, Bethany M.

    2013-01-01

    ObjectivesTo further understanding of the factors influencing adolescents’ motivations for physical activity, the relationship of variables derived from Self-Determination Theory to adolescents’ affective response to exercise was examined.DesignCorrelational.MethodAdolescents (N = 182) self-reported psychological needs satisfaction (perceived competence, relatedness, and autonomy) and intrinsic motivation related to exercise. In two clinic visits, adolescents reported their affect before, dur...

  4. Understanding and predicting online purchase intention: Development of a model for cognitive-affective shopper responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, KJ

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a model for online purchase intention in a B2C environment, integrating cognitive and affective responses based on the theory of reasoned action. Seven hypotheses were developedand tested on a dataset of 532 observations collected via a questionnaire survey. The results of this study indicate that both cognitive and affective judgements are important for online transactions.A contribution of this study is that it extends our understanding of how online purchase inte...

  5. Maternal responses to adolescent positive affect are associated with adolescents' reward neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Yap, Marie B H; Yücel, Murat; Sheeber, Lisa; Simmons, Julian G; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2009-09-01

    The development of reward-based learning and decision-making, and the neural circuitry underlying these processes, appears to be influenced negatively by adverse child-rearing environments characterized by abuse and other forms of maltreatment. No research to-date has investigated whether normative variations in the child-rearing environment have effects on adolescent brain structure. We examined whether normative variations in maternal responses to adolescents' positive affective behavior were associated with morphometric measures of the adolescents' affective neural circuitry, namely the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Healthy adolescents (N = 113) participated in laboratory-based interaction tasks with their mothers, and underwent high-resolution (3T) structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mother-adolescent interactions included a pleasant event-planning interaction (EPI) and a conflictual problem-solving interaction (PSI). Adolescents, whose mothers displayed more punishing responses to their positive affective behavior during both tasks, and only during the PSI, had larger left dorsal ACC and bilateral OFC volumes, respectively. In addition, boys whose mothers evidenced this pattern of behavior during the EPI had larger right amygdala volumes. These results suggest that normative variations in maternal responses to affective behavior are associated with the structural characteristics of adolescents' affective neural circuitry, which may have implications for the development of their social, cognitive and affective functioning.

  6. Negative affect and neural response to palatable food intake in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Binge eating is often preceded by reports of negative affect, but the mechanism by which affect may lead to binge eating is unclear. This study evaluated the effect of negative affect on neural response to anticipation and receipt of palatable food in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) versus healthy controls. We also evaluated connectivity between the amygdala and reward-related brain regions. Females with and without BN (n=26) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless solution. We measured negative affect just prior to the scan. Women with BN showed a positive correlation between negative affect and activity in the putamen, caudate, and pallidum during anticipated receipt of milkshake (versus tasteless solution). There were no significant relations between negative affect and receipt of milkshake. Connectivity analyses revealed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula during anticipated receipt of milkshake in the bulimia group relative to the control group. The opposite pattern was found for the taste of milkshake; the control group showed a greater relation of amygdala activity to activation in the left putamen and insula in response to milkshake receipt than the bulimia group. Results show that as negative affect increases, so does responsivity of reward regions to anticipated intake of palatable food, implying that negative affect may increase the reward value of food for individuals with bulimia nervosa or that negative affect has become a conditioned cue due to a history of binge eating in a negative mood.

  7. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in a Patient Affected by Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poggi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The currently recommended treatment for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV is pegilated interferon α (IFN α plus ribavirin. Despite the numerous benefits of this therapy, there is an increasing concern regarding his tolerance. Among the most common side effects, interferon may trigger the onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases. When chronic hepatitis C coexists with an autoimmune disorder, it is not clear whether using interferon is better than avoiding it. We evaluated the disease state of a 55-year old female affected by sistemic sclerosis (SSc, during and after therapy with IFNα pegilated plus ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. We were worried about the potential worsening of the autoimmune disease during the therapy, but we were confident that we would give our patient a short course of peginterferon and ribavirin. A mild, asymptomatic worsening of lung SSc was observed during IFN administration, without life threatening symptoms. After 24 months follow up we observed the maintenance of the virological response and a good control of the rheumatological disease. Thus, in liver disease at high risk of progression and concomitant SSc, the antiviral therapy with IFNα is a feasible approach.

  8. Attachment and affect regulation: a framework for family treatment of conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K

    2002-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), a pervasive adolescent disorder with clinically significant antisocial behaviors, has been a difficult syndrome to treat successfully. Recently, research on affect regulation and attachment has suggested that attachment and affect regulation strategies may underlie the development of conduct disorder in adolescents, implying that attention to these factors might improve family treatment for CD. In this review of the research literature, I discuss the role of attachment and affect regulation in the development and treatment of CD. In addition, I present information about the framework, intervention protocol, and preliminary evidence of effectiveness of an attachment- and affect regulation-based intervention that has been developed and implemented with multiple-family groups of parents and incarcerated adolescents.

  9. Role of transportation in the persuasion process: cognitive and affective responses to antidrug narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study examined transportation effects of first- and third-person narratives as well as the role of transportation in the persuasion process. In particular, the authors evaluated the role of transportation in affecting cognitive and affective responses. Last, they addressed the relation between (a) cognitive and affective responses and (b) antidrug expectancies. Participants were 500 undergraduate students at a large northern university in the United Kingdom who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: first- or third-person narratives on cocaine use. The results demonstrated that there was no difference between first- and third-person narratives in terms of transportation. However, overall, greater transportation was associated with more favorable cognitive responses, and more favorable cognitive response was associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. In terms of affective responses, results indicated the mediating role of sadness and contentment in the association between transportation and anticocaine expectancies. In particular, increased transportation was associated with greater sadness and lower contentment. Lower sadness and contentment were associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.

  10. Predictors of Treatment Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Drake, Kelly L.; Grados, Marco A.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines predictors of treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is a severe mental illness causing distress and impaired functioning. Summarized findings of psychosocial factors and medication interventions are presented.

  11. How does enhancing cognition affect human values? How does this translate into social responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Laura Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rise in the use of different technologies aimed at enhancing cognition of normal healthy individuals. While values have been acknowledged to be an important aspect of cognitive enhancement practices, the discussion has predominantly focused on just a few values, such as safety, peer pressure, and authenticity. How are values, in a broader sense, affected by enhancing cognitive abilities? Is this dependent on the type of technology or intervention used to attain the enhancement, or does the cognitive domain targeted play a bigger role in how values are affected? Values are not only likely to be affected by cognitive enhancement practices; they also play a crucial role in defining the type of interventions that are likely to be undertaken. This paper explores the way values affect and are affected by enhancing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it argues that knowledge of the interplay between values and cognitive enhancement makes a strong case for social responsibility around cognitive enhancement practices.

  12. Shrub resprouting response after fuel reduction treatments: comparison of prescribed burning, clearing and mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Vega, José A; Fonturbel, Teresa

    2013-03-15

    Fuel reduction treatments are commonly used to reduce the risk of severe wildfire. However, more information about the effects on plant resprouting is needed to help land managers select the most appropriate treatment. To address this question, we evaluated the resprouting ability of five shrub species after the application of different types of fuel reduction methods (prescribed burning, clearing and mastication) in two contrasting shrubland areas in northern Spain. The shrub species were Erica australis, Pterospartum tridentatum and Halimium lasianthum spp. alyssoides, Ulex gallii and Erica cinerea. For most of the species under study (E. australis, P. tridentatum, H. lasianthum spp. alyssoides and U. gallii), neither plant mortality nor the number nor length of sprouted shoots per plant differed between treatments, although in E. cinerea the number of shoots was more negatively affected by prescribed burning than by clearing or mastication. The pre-treatment plant size did not affect plant mortality or plant resprouting response, suggesting that this parameter alone is not a good indicator of plant resprouting after fuel reduction treatments. Stem minimum diameter after treatments, a proxy of treatment severity, was not related to plant mortality, number or length of resprouted shoots. The duration of temperatures higher than 300 °C during burning in plant crown had a negative effect on the length of resprouted shoots, only in E. cinerea. The results show that fuel reduction treatments did not prevent shrub response in any case. Some reflections on the applicability of treatments are discussed.

  13. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Kopotiyenko, Konstantin; Zhdanova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF) and dark (DF) flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn), while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe) responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM) reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation (RSP) led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals), responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex), and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that PCE modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by PCE may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological interventions.

  14. Prenatal and acute cocaine exposure affects neural responses and habituation to visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Brooke Riley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants have many effects on visual function, from adverse, following acute and prenatal exposure to therapeutic, on attention deficit. To determine the impact of prenatal and acute cocaine exposure on visual processing, we studied neuronal responses to visual stimuli in two brain regions of a transgenic larval zebrafish expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP-HS. We found that both red light (LF and dark (DF flashes elicited similar responses in the optic tectum neuropil (TOn, while the dorsal telencephalon (dTe responded only to LF. Acute cocaine (0.5 μM reduced neuronal responses to LF in both brain regions but did not affect responses to DF. Repeated stimulus presentation led to habituation of dTe neurons to LF. Acute cocaine prevented habituation. TOn habituated to DF, but not LF, and DF habituation was not modified by cocaine. Remarkably, prenatal cocaine exposure prevented the effects of acute cocaine on LF response amplitude and habituation later in development in both brain regions, but did not affect DF responses. We discovered that, in spite of similar neural responses to LF and DF in the TO (superior colliculus in mammals, responses to LF are more complex, involving dTe (homologous to the cerebral cortex, and are more vulnerable to cocaine. Our results demonstrate that acute cocaine exposure affects visual processing differentially by brain region, and that prenatal cocaine exposure modifies zebrafish visual processing in multiple structures in a stimulus-dependent manner. These findings are in accordance with the major role that the optic tectum and cerebral cortex play in sustaining visual attention, and support the hypothesis that modification of these areas by prenatal cocaine exposure may be responsible for visual deficits noted in humans. This model offers new methodological approaches for studying the adverse and therapeutic effects of psychostimulants on attention, and for the development of new pharmacological

  15. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  16. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  17. Prediction of Response to Multimodality Treatment in Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RalfMetzger; HuanXi; FutoshiMiyazono; HiroshiHigashi; UteWarnecke-Eberz; StephanE.Baldus; JanBrabender; PaulM.Schneider

    2004-01-01

    Patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer have a dismal prognosis when treated exclusively by surgery. This fact prompted many investigators to apply neoadjuvant treatment strategies in an effort to improve survival. Results from phase Ⅲ randomized trials are encouraging however, they revealed that only patients with major histopathological response will benefit from treatment. Therefore, predictive molecular markers indicating response or non-response to neoadjuvant treatment would be extremely helpful in selecting patients for current and future treatment protocols. In this paper we review the role of the molecular markers ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing 1 gene) and c-erbB-2 (synonym:HER2/neu) in predicting response to radiochemotherapy and outcome for patients with locally advanced resectable esophageal cancers (cT2-4, Nx, M0). The results are promising and it appears that we might expect to unequivocally identify with ERCC1 and c-erbB-2 respectively, approximately up to one third of patients who fulfil the criteria for neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer but will not benefit from our treatment protocol. Integration of such markers in the clinical setting might prevent a substantial number of patients from expensive, non-effective and potentially harmful therapies, and could lead to a more individualized type of combined multimodality treatment in the near future.

  18. Evaluating the safety and efficacy of dextromethorphan/quinidine in the treatment of pseudobulbar affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoedel KA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kerri A Schoedel,1 Sarah A Morrow,2 Edward M Sellers3,4 1Altreos Research Partners, Inc., Toronto, 2Western University, London, 3DL Global Partners, Inc., Toronto, 4University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a common manifestation of brain pathology associated with many neurological diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and traumatic brain injury. PBA is defined by involuntary and uncontrollable expressed emotion that is exaggerated and inappropriate, and also incongruent with the underlying emotional state. Dextromethorphan/quinidine (DM/Q is a combination product indicated for the treatment of PBA. The quinidine component of DM/Q inhibits the cytochrome P450 2D6-mediated metabolic conversion of dextromethorphan to its active metabolite dextrorphan, thereby increasing dextromethorphan systemic bioavailability and driving the pharmacology toward that of the parent drug and away from adverse effects of the dextrorphan metabolite. Three published efficacy and safety studies support the use of DM/Q in the treatment of PBA; significant effects were seen on the primary end point, the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale, as well as secondary efficacy end points and quality of life. While concentration–effect relationships appear relatively weak for efficacy parameters, concentrations of DM/Q may have an impact on safety. Some special safety concerns exist with DM/Q, primarily because of the drug interaction and QT prolongation potential of the quinidine component. However, because concentrations of dextrorphan (which is responsible for many of the parent drug’s side effects and quinidine are lower than those observed in clinical practice with these drugs administered alone, some of the perceived safety issues may not be as relevant with this low dose combination product. However, since patients with PBA have a

  19. How will surface treatments affect the translucency of porcelain laminate veneers?

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Sedanur; Bagis, Bora; Ayaz, Elif Aydogan; Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Ulusoy, Kıvanç Utku; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether surface treatments affect the translucency of laminate veneers with different shades and thicknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 224 disc-shaped ceramic veneers were prepared from A1, A3, HT (High Translucent) and HO (High Opaque) shades of IPS e.max Press (Ivoclar Vivadent) with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thicknesses. The ceramics were divided into four groups for surface treatments. Group C: no surface treatments; Group HF: etched with ...

  20. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  1. Deficient beta-mannosylation of Candida albicans phospholipomannan affects the proinflammatory response in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Devillers

    Full Text Available Candida albicans produces a complex glycosphingolipid called phospholipomannan (PLM, which is present on the cell-wall surface of yeast and shed upon contact with host cells. The glycan moiety of PLM is composed of β-mannosides with degrees of polymerization up to 19 in C. albicans serotype A. PLM from serotype B strains displays a twofold decrease in the length of the glycan chains. In this study we compared the proinflammatory activities of PLMs purified from C. albicans serotype A and serotype B strains and from a bmt6Δ mutant of C. albicans, whose PLM is composed of short truncated oligomannosidic chain. We found that PLMs activate caspase-1 in murine macrophage cell line J774 independent of the glycan chain length although IL-1β secretion is more intense with long glycan chain. None of the tested PLMs stimulate ROS production, indicating that caspase-1 activation may occur through a ROS-independent pathway. On the other hand, only long-chain oligomannosides present on PLM from serotype A strain (PLM-A are able to induce TNF-α production in macrophages, a property that is not affect by blocking endocytosis through latrunculin A treatment. Finally, we demonstrate that soluble and not cell surface-bound galectin-3, is able to potentiate PLM-A-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. PLMs from C. albicans serotype B and from bmt6∆ mutant are not able to induce TNF-α production and galectin-3 pretreatment does not interfere with this result. In conclusion, we show here that PLMs are able to evoke a proinflammatory state in macrophage, which is in part dependent on their glycosylation status. Long-glycan chains favor interaction with soluble galectin-3 and help amplify inflammatory response.

  2. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera;

    (AMX), cefataxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and cecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity...... in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran was decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes...... were found in any treatment group. Antibiotic induced changes in microbiota could be linked to intestinal permeability, although changes in permeability did not always result from major changes in microbiota and vice versa....

  3. Effect of apolipoprotein E and butyrylcholinesterase genotypes on cognitive response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment at different stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C E; Todd, S A; Passmore, A P

    2011-12-01

    Factors that influence response to drug treatment are of increasing importance. We report an analysis of genetic factors affecting response to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in 165 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) allele was associated with early and late cognitive response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment in mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥21) (P<0.01). In moderate-to-severe AD (MMSE ≤15), presence of the BCHE-K variant was associated with late response to cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (P=0.02). Testing for APOE and BCHE genotypes may be useful in therapeutic decision making.

  4. The involvement of XPC protein in the cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan WANG; Alan DOMBKOWSKI; Lynn CHUANG; Xiao Xin S XU

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of DNA damage is a critical step for DNA damage-mediated cellular response. XPC is an important DNA damage recognition protein involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). We have studied the XPC protein in cisplatin DNA damaging treatment-mediated cellular response. Comparison of the microarray data from both normal and XPCdefective human fibroblasts identified 861 XPC-responsive genes in the cisplatin treatment (with minimum fold change≥1.5).The cell cycle and cell proliferation-related genes are the most affected genes by the XPC defect in the treatment. Many other cellular function genes, especially the DNA repair and signal transduction-related genes, were also affected by the XPC defect in the treatment. To validate the microarray data, the transcription levels of some microarray-identified genes were also determined by an RT-PCR based real time PCR assay. The real time PCR results are consistent with the microarray data for most of the tested genes, indicating the reliability of the microarray data. To further validate the microarray data, the cisplatin treatment-mediated caspase-3 activation was also determined. The Western blot hybridization results indicate that the XPC defect greatly attenuates the cisplatin treatment-mediated Caspase-3 activation. We elucidated the role of p53 protein in the XPC protein DNA damage recognition-mediated signaling process. The XPC defect reduces the cisplatin treatment-mediated p53 response. These results suggest that the XPC protein plays an important role in the cisplatin treatment-mediated cellular response. It may also suggest a possible mechanism of cancer cell drug resistance.

  5. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism: Convergent evidence on chronic antidepressant treatment response in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ik; Dournes, Carine; Sillaber, Inge; Uhr, Manfred; Asara, John M.; Gassen, Nils C.; Rein, Theo; Ising, Marcus; Webhofer, Christian; Filiou, Michaela D.; Müller, Marianne B.; Turck, Christoph W.

    2016-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of psychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD). For unknown reasons a substantial number of patients do not show any improvement during or after SSRI treatment. We treated DBA/2J mice for 28 days with paroxetine and assessed their behavioral response with the forced swim test (FST). Paroxetine-treated long-time floating (PLF) and paroxetine-treated short-time floating (PSF) groups were stratified as proxies for drug non-responder and responder mice, respectively. Proteomics and metabolomics profiles of PLF and PSF groups were acquired for the hippocampus and plasma to identify molecular pathways and biosignatures that stratify paroxetine-treated mouse sub-groups. The critical role of purine and pyrimidine metabolisms for chronic paroxetine treatment response in the mouse was further corroborated by pathway protein expression differences in both mice and patients that underwent chronic antidepressant treatment. The integrated -omics data indicate purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathway activity differences between PLF and PSF mice. Furthermore, the pathway protein levels in peripheral specimens strongly correlated with the antidepressant treatment response in patients. Our results suggest that chronic SSRI treatment differentially affects purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, which may explain the heterogeneous antidepressant treatment response and represents a potential biosignature. PMID:27731396

  6. Multicenter Study of Posaconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring: Exposure-Response Relationship and Factors Affecting Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Dolton, Michael J; Ray, John E.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Posaconazole has an important role in the prophylaxis and salvage treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), although poor and variable bioavailability remains an important clinical concern. Therapeutic drug monitoring of posaconazole concentrations has remained contentious, with the use of relatively small patient cohorts in previous studies hindering the assessment of exposure-response relationships. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between posaco...

  7. Effect of Readthrough Treatment in Fibroblasts of Patients Affected by Lysosomal Diseases Caused by Premature Termination Codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalonga, Leslie; Arias, Ángela; Tort, Frederic; Ferrer-Cortés, Xènia; Garcia-Villoria, Judit; Coll, Maria Josep; Gort, Laura; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin, may induce premature termination codon (PTC) readthrough and elude the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay mechanism. Because PTCs are frequently involved in lysosomal diseases, readthrough compounds may be useful as potential therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify patients responsive to gentamicin treatment in order to be used as positive controls to further screen for other PTC readthrough compounds. With this aim, fibroblasts from 11 patients affected by 6 different lysosomal diseases carrying PTCs were treated with gentamicin. Treatment response was evaluated by measuring enzymatic activity, abnormal metabolite accumulation, mRNA expression, protein localization, and cell viability. The potential effect of readthrough was also analyzed by in silico predictions. Results showed that fibroblasts from 5/11 patients exhibited an up to 3-fold increase of enzymatic activity after gentamicin treatment. Accordingly, cell lines tested showed enhanced well-localized protein and/or increased mRNA expression levels and/or reduced metabolite accumulation. Interestingly, these cell lines also showed increased enzymatic activity after PTC124 treatment, which is a PTC readthrough-promoting compound. In conclusion, our results provide a proof-of-concept that PTCs can be effectively suppressed by readthrough drugs, with different efficiencies depending on the genetic context. The screening of new compounds with readthrough activity is a strategy that can be used to develop efficient therapies for diseases caused by PTC mutations.

  8. Quiescence does not affect p53 and stress response by irradiation in human lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jiawen [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Itahana, Koji, E-mail: koji.itahana@duke-nus.edu.sg [Cancer and Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School (Singapore); Baskar, Rajamanickam, E-mail: r.baskar@nccs.com.sg [Molecular Radiobiology Laboratory, Division of Cellular and Molecular Research (Singapore); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre (Singapore)

    2015-02-27

    Cells in many organs exist in both proliferating and quiescent states. Proliferating cells are more radio-sensitive, DNA damage pathways including p53 pathway are activated to undergo either G{sub 1}/S or G{sub 2}/M arrest to avoid entering S and M phase with DNA damage. On the other hand, quiescent cells are already arrested in G{sub 0}, therefore there may be fundamental difference of irradiation response between proliferating and quiescent cells, and this difference may affect their radiosensitivity. To understand these differences, proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.10–1 Gy of γ-radiation. The response of key proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were examined. Interestingly, p53 and p53 phosphorylation (Ser-15), as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, were induced similarly in both proliferating and quiescent cells after irradiation. Furthermore, the p53 protein half-life, and expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, or cytochrome c expression as well as histone H2AX phosphorylation were comparable after irradiation in both phases of cells. The effect of radioprotection by a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor on p53 pathway was also similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. Our results showed that quiescence does not affect irradiation response of key proteins involved in stress and DNA damage at least in normal fibroblasts, providing a better understanding of the radiation response in quiescent cells, which is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration. - Highlights: • p53 response by irradiation was similar between proliferating and quiescent cells. • Quiescent cells showed similar profiles of cell cycle proteins after irradiation. • Radioprotection of GSK-3β inhibitor caused similar effects between these cells. • Quiescence did not affect p53 response despite its

  9. One day at a time: The impact of daily satisfaction with spouse responses on pain, negative affect and catastrophizing among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Susan; Delongis, Anita

    2007-09-01

    The majority of research on pain catastrophizing has focused on its negative consequences for adjustment to chronic pain, with few investigations of factors that influence catastrophizing or its detrimental effects. Using a daily process methodology, the current study examined, first, the extent to which a supportive social environment plays a role in reduced catastrophizing, and second, the extent to which support might protect against the detrimental effects of catastrophizing on well-being. Sixty-nine married individuals with rheumatoid arthritis took part in an initial background interview, followed by twice daily telephone interviews (regarding pain intensity, negative affect, catastrophizing and satisfaction with spouse responses) for 1 week. Multi-level modeling indicated several pathways through which satisfaction with spouse responses disrupts the vicious cycle of pain, negative affect and catastrophizing. Consistent with past research, catastrophizing was associated with increases in pain and negative affect. However, when individuals reported increases in satisfaction with spouse responses they were less likely to experience increases in negative affect due to catastrophizing. Satisfaction with spouse responses also reduced the likelihood of feeling overwhelmed and helpless in dealing with daily pain. The relationship between pain and catastrophizing was attenuated in the context of increases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Negative affect was associated with increases in catastrophizing, but only when individuals reported decreases in satisfaction with spouse responses. Overall, findings were consistent with a model in which satisfaction with spouse responses serves as a coping resource, and suggests the importance of involving close others in treatments to reduce pain and catastrophizing.

  10. Bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism affects stress response in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Noriko; Tanaka, Sigefumi; Ardiyanti, Astrid; Katoh, Kazuo; Sato, Shusuke

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the associations between growth hormone (GH) gene polymorphism and behavioral and physiological responses to stressors and learning ability in Japanese Black cattle. Flight distance test was conducted in the first experiment. Steers with haplotype C of GH gene polymorphism avoided human approaches at a significantly greater distance than ones without haplotype C (C: 1.9 ± 0.9, non-C: 1.0 ± 0.2 m, P affect stress responses through GH concentration in steers.

  11. Association between diabetes treatment adherence and parent-child agreement regarding treatment responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Blake Mark; Gadaire, Dana M; Holman, Kathryn; LeBlanc, Linda A

    2015-06-01

    When primary responsibility for Type 1 diabetes (DM1) treatment adherence transfers from parents to adolescents, glycemic control often suffers. Low rates of treatment adherence during this transition are possibly attributable to decreased parental involvement, disagreements between parents and children regarding treatment responsibilities, and increased family conflict. The current investigation assessed the relationships between each of these variables and glycemic control among youth diagnosed with DM1. Parent and child report questionnaires were completed by 64 parent-child dyads (ages 8-18) with a child diagnosed with DM1. HbA1c readings served as measures of glycemic control. Parental involvement in their children's treatment was reported to decline with age, however absolute levels of parent involvement were not significantly correlated with youth HbA1c levels. Parent-child agreement regarding treatment responsibility and reports of diabetes-related conflict were significant predictors of glycemic control. Results support previous findings implicating parent-child agreement regarding treatment responsibilities and family conflict as predictors of treatment adherence among youth with DM1. The current study found this relationship to be significant for a larger population of children for which past research has failed to find such an effect. Taken together, these findings suggest further research is warranted to identify effective methods for transferring treatment responsibilities from parents to children.

  12. Expectation, the placebo effect and the response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Walter A

    2015-05-01

    What we believe we will experience from a treatment--our expectation--has a substantial impact on what we actually experience. Expectation has been established as a key process behind the placebo effect. Studies in both laboratory and clinical settings consistently show that when people ingest a pharmacologically inert substance (placebo) but believe that it is an active substance, they experience both the subjective sensations and physiologic effects expected from that active substance. Expectation has an important place in the response to "real" treatment as well. This paper provides an overview of the data which point to the role of expectation in both the placebo effect and the response to treatment. These data suggest that clinicians might enhance the benefit of all treatments by promoting patients' positive expectations.

  13. Interactions between glucocorticoid treatment and cis-regulatory polymorphisms contribute to cellular response phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Maranville

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs mediate physiological responses to environmental stress and are commonly used as pharmaceuticals. GCs act primarily through the GC receptor (GR, a transcription factor. Despite their clear biomedical importance, little is known about the genetic architecture of variation in GC response. Here we provide an initial assessment of variability in the cellular response to GC treatment by profiling gene expression and protein secretion in 114 EBV-transformed B lymphocytes of African and European ancestry. We found that genetic variation affects the response of nearby genes and exhibits distinctive patterns of genotype-treatment interactions, with genotypic effects evident in either only GC-treated or only control-treated conditions. Using a novel statistical framework, we identified interactions that influence the expression of 26 genes known to play central roles in GC-related pathways (e.g. NQO1, AIRE, and SGK1 and that influence the secretion of IL6.

  14. Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces As Enabling Technology for Responsive Psychiatric Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Moritz, Chet T

    2014-04-01

    There is a pressing clinical need for responsive neurostimulators, which sense a patient's brain activity and deliver targeted electrical stimulation to suppress unwanted symptoms. This is particularly true in psychiatric illness, where symptoms can fluctuate throughout the day. Affective BCIs, which decode emotional experience from neural activity, are a candidate control signal for responsive stimulators targeting the limbic circuit. Present affective decoders, however, cannot yet distinguish pathologic from healthy emotional extremes. Indiscriminate stimulus delivery would reduce quality of life and may be actively harmful. We argue that the key to overcoming this limitation is to specifically decode volition, in particular the patient's intention to experience emotional regulation. Those emotion-regulation signals already exist in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and could be extracted with relatively simple BCI algorithms. We describe preliminary data from an animal model of PFC-controlled limbic brain stimulation and discuss next steps for pre-clinical testing and possible translation.

  15. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed.

  16. Does nitrate co-pollution affect biological responses of an aquatic plant to two common herbicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttens, A; Chatellier, S; Devin, S; Guignard, C; Lenouvel, A; Gross, E M

    2016-08-01

    Aquatic systems in agricultural landscapes are subjected to multiple stressors, among them pesticide and nitrate run-off, but effects of both together have rarely been studied. We investigated possible stress-specific and interaction effects using the new OECD test organism, Myriophyllum spicatum, a widespread aquatic plant. In a fully factorial design, we used two widely applied herbicides, isoproturon and mesosulfuron-methyl, in concentration-response curves at two nitrate levels (219.63 and 878.52mg N-NO3). We applied different endpoints reflecting plant performance such as growth, pigment content, content in phenolic compounds, and plant stoichiometry. Relative growth rates based on length (RGR-L) were affected strongly by both herbicides, while effects on relative growth rate based on dry weight (RGR-DW) were apparent for isoproturon but hardly visible for mesosulfuron-methyl due to an increase in dry matter content. The higher nitrate level further reduced growth rates, specifically with mesosulfuron-methyl. Effects were visible between 50 and 500μgL(-1) for isoproturon and 0.5-5μgL(-1) for mesosulfuron-methyl, with some differences between endpoints. The two herbicides had opposite effects on chlorophyll, carotenoid and nitrogen contents in plants, with values increasing with increasing concentrations of isoproturon and decreasing for mesosulfuron-methyl. Herbicides and nitrate level exhibited distinct effects on the content in phenolic compounds, with higher nitrate levels reducing total phenolic compounds in controls and with isoproturon, but not with mesosulfuron-methyl. Increasing concentrations of mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decline of total phenolic compounds, while isoproturon had little effect. Contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changed depending on the stressor combination. We observed higher phosphorus levels in plants exposed to certain concentrations of herbicides, potentially indicating a metabolic response. The C:N molar ratio

  17. Behavioral responses to intravenous meta-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients with seasonal affective disorder and control subjects before and after phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, F M; Mueller, E A; Rosenthal, N E; Rogers, S; Hill, J L; Murphy, D L

    1994-05-01

    A comparison of the baseline and post-infusion effects of the serotonin agonist meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) in 10 patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and 11 healthy control subjects revealed significantly different subjective response profiles between the groups. Several baseline and m-CPP-stimulated responses in symptoms putatively related to serotonergic function changed significantly after a week's exposure to phototherapy in the SAD patients but not the control subjects. Before phototherapy, depressed patients with SAD reported activation-euphoria responses to m-CPP and significant decreases in carbohydrate hunger, but insignificant changes in feeling slowed or sleepy, while control subjects reported no mood or appetite changes but significant increases in feeling slowed down following m-CPP. After phototherapy, which led to a significant reduction in baseline depressive symptom rating to near-euthymic levels in the SAD patients, almost all of the patients' responses to m-CPP were normalized and no longer differed from the control subjects' responses. These results provide evidence of a possible dysregulation in serotonergic neurotransmission in depressed SAD patients that normalizes following treatment with phototherapy.

  18. Affective responses of high and low body satisfied men to viewing physique slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausenblas, Heather A; Janelle, Christopher M; Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hagan, Amy L

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute affective responses of high and low body satisfied (BS) men who viewed physique slides of the male ideal (model-slides), physique slides of themselves (self-slides), and nonphysique slides (control-slides). During three laboratory visits the participants viewed the slides from one of the three conditions, and they completed pre-, in-, and post-task affective measures. It was found that the: (a) high BS group reported less mood disturbance than the low BS group; (b) participants reported an increase in depression, anger, and body dissatisfaction after viewing the self-slides; (c) participants indicated a decrease in body dissatisfaction after viewing the model-slides; and (d) viewing the control-slides did not result in affective changes. Findings suggest that viewing physique slides results in increased mood disturbance, regardless of BS level.

  19. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  20. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-01-30

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore.

  1. Coordination of cortisol response to social evaluative threat with autonomic and inflammatory responses is moderated by stress appraisals and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-07-01

    Recent approaches to stress regulation have emphasized coordination among multiple biological systems. This study builds on evidence that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity should be considered in coordination with other stress-sensitive biological systems to characterize healthy responses. Healthy African-Americans (n=115) completed the Trier Social Stress Test, and biological responses were assessed through salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), alpha amylase (sAA), and C-reactive protein (sCRP). Multilevel modeling demonstrated that cortisol responses typically aligned with changes in DHEA-S, sAA, and sCRP across the session. At the same time, the degree of cortisol coordination with sAA and sCRP varied by participants' subjective stress following the task; participants with higher secondary stress appraisals showed greater cortisol-sAA alignment, whereas those experiencing more negative affect showed greater cortisol-sCRP alignment. Results highlight the importance of a multisystem approach to stress and suggest that positive HPA axis coordination with the autonomic response, but not with the immune/inflammatory response, may be adaptive.

  2. Treatment of trauma-affected refugees with venlafaxine versus sertraline combined with psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Lohmann, Jessica Mariana Carlsson; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    and sertraline on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression and functional impairment in trauma-affected refugees. Methods: The study was a randomised pragmatic trial comparing venlafaxine and sertraline in combination with psychotherapy and social counselling. PTSD symptoms were measured on the Harvard......: Two hundred seven adult refugee patients were included in the trial (98 in the venlafaxine and 109 in the sertraline group). Of these, 195 patients were eligible for intention-to-treat analyses. Small but significant pre-treatment to post-treatment differences were found on the Harvard Trauma...

  3. Immunoparesis status in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis at diagnosis affects response and survival by regimen type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, Eli; Dispenzieri, Angela; Kumar, Shaji K.; Dingli, David; Lacy, Martha Q.; Buadi, Francis K.; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Kapoor, Prashant; Leung, Nelson; Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; Russell, Stephen; Lust, John A.; Lin, Yi; Go, Ronald S.; Zeldenrust, Steven; Kyle, Robert A.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Gertz, Morie A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical tools to guide in the appropriate treatment selection in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis are not well developed. We evaluated the response and outcome for various regimens at first-line treatment (n=681) and first progression (n=240) stratified by the immunoparesis status at diagnosis. Immunoparesis was assessed by the average relative difference of the uninvolved immunoglobulins, classifying patients into a negative average relative difference (i.e. significant immunoparesis) or a positive average relative difference (no/modest immunoparesis). Treatment was categorized as autologous stem cell transplant and four non-transplant regimens (melphalan-based; bortezomib-based, immunomodulatory drug-based and dexamethasone alone). Patients with significant immunoparesis who underwent stem cell transplant had a significantly lower rate of very good partial response or better response (58%), progression-free survival (median 30 months) and overall survival (108 months), compared to those without significant immunoparesis (80%, 127 months, median not reached, respectively; Pcomparisons). Among the non-transplant regimens, melphalan resulted in an unfavorable progression-free survival (11 vs. 27 months; Pcompared to those without significant immunoparesis. In contrast, no significant difference in outcomes between the immunoparesis groups was seen for those treated with bortezomib or immunomodulatory drugs. At first progression, immunoparesis status did not impact response or survival of any regimen. Melphalan at first-line provided poorer outcomes for patients with significant immunoparesis, while bortezomib or immunomodulatory drugs were more likely to overcome the adverse prognosis associated with significant immunoparesis. PMID:27479823

  4. Task difficulty and response complexity modulate affective priming by emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Federica; Campoy, Guillermo; Castillo, Alejandro; Inuggi, Alberto; Fuentes, Luis J

    2014-05-01

    In this study we used an affective priming task to address the issue of whether the processing of emotional facial expressions occurs automatically independent of attention or attentional resources. Participants had to attend to the emotion expression of the prime face, or to a nonemotional feature of the prime face, the glasses. When participants attended to glasses (emotion unattended), they had to report whether the face wore glasses or not (the glasses easy condition) or whether the glasses were rounded or squared (the shape difficult condition). Affective priming, measured on valence decisions on target words, was mainly defined as interference from incongruent rather than facilitation from congruent trials. Significant priming effects were observed just in the emotion and glasses tasks but not in the shape task. When the key-response mapping increased in complexity, taxing working memory load, affective priming effects were reduced equally for the three types of tasks. Thus, attentional load and working memory load affected additively to the observed reduction in affective priming. These results cast some doubts on the automaticity of processing emotional facial expressions.

  5. Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Butchart, Stuart H M; Sekercioğlu, Cağan H; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services.

  6. Configurational affects on the compaction response of CeO2 powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattelbaum D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Initial configuration, which can include particle size and shape, initial density, and void location, can affect the measured compaction responses of initially porous materials. In this work, both the low- and high-strain-rate compaction response of several different morphology CeO2 powders are investigated experimentally. Quasi-static compaction curves are found to exhibit distinct differences between the morphologies, where initial packing efficiencies and particle aspect ratios are found to dominate the low pressure response. At low-strain-rates, the largest particles with the highest aspect ratio are found to exhibit the stiffest response, while those that most resemble spherical particles offer the least resistance to initial densification. At high-strain-rates a transition in compliance is observed, where smaller equiaxed particles are found to exhibit greater resistances to densification. The role of particle morphology and its affect on the communication of particle-level stresses during quasi-static and dynamic densification are discussed, and emphasis is placed on the mechanisms that cause the morphology-based transition in compliance.

  7. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  8. The Antidepressant Treatment Response Index as a Predictor of Reboxetine Treatment Outcome in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Marissa M; Hunter, Aimee M; Cook, Ian A; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers to predict clinical outcomes early during the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) could reduce suffering and improve outcomes. A quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) biomarker, the Antidepressant Treatment Response (ATR) index, has been associated with outcomes of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in patients with MDD. Here, we report the results of a post hoc analysis initiated to evaluate whether the ATR index may also be associated with reboxetine treatment outcome, given that its putative mechanism of action is via norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI). Twenty-five adults with MDD underwent qEEG studies during open-label treatment with reboxetine at doses of 8 to 10 mg daily for 8 weeks. The ATR index calculated after 1 week of reboxetine treatment was significantly associated with overall Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) improvement at week 8 (r=0.605, P=.001), even after controlling for baseline depression severity (P=.002). The ATR index predicted response (≥50% reduction in HAM-D) with 70.6% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity, and remission (final HAM-D≤7) with 87.5% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity. These results suggest that the ATR index may be a useful biomarker of clinical response during NRI treatment of adults with MDD. Future studies are warranted to investigate further the potential utility of the ATR index as a predictor of noradrenergic antidepressant treatment response.

  9. Amygdala-prefrontal pathways and the dopamine system affect nociceptive responses in the prefrontal cortex

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    Onozawa Kitaro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated nociceptive discharges to be evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. The nociceptive responses recorded in the PFC are conceivably involved in the affective rather than the sensory-discriminative dimension of pain. The PFC receives dense projection from the limbic system. Monosynaptic projections from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA to the PFC are known to produce long-lasting synaptic plasticity. We examined effects of high frequency stimulation (HFS delivered to the BLA on nociceptive responses in the rat PFC. Results HFS induced long lasting suppression (LLS of the specific high threshold responses of nociceptive neurons in the PFC. Microinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor antagonists (2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV, dizocilpine (MK-801 and also metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR group antagonists (α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG, and 2-[(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl]-3-(9H-xanthen-9-yl-D-alanine (LY341495, prevented the induction of LLS of nociceptive responses. We also examined modulatory effects of dopamine (DA on the LLS of nociceptive responses. With depletion of DA in response to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA injection into the ipsilateral forebrain bundle, LLS of nociceptive responses was decreased, while nociceptive responses were normally evoked. Antagonists of DA receptor subtypes D2 (sulpiride and D4 (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] methyl}-1H-pyrrolo [2, 3-b] pyridine (L-745,870, microinjected into the PFC, inhibited LLS of nociceptive responses. Conclusions Our results indicate that BLA-PFC pathways inhibited PFC nociceptive cell activities and that the DA system modifies the BLA-PFC regulatory function.

  10. Factors affecting the dynamic response of pre-stressed anchors after transient excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huijun; Li Qingfeng

    2011-01-01

    The wide application of pre-stressed bolting technology in coal mine tunnels has made the nondestructive stress wave reflection method of determining bolting quality an important one.The effect of the support plate on the dynamic response of the pre-stressed anchor is of particular interest.A theoreticalanalysis and numerical simulations are used to identify the factors affecting the contact stress between the support plate and the rock wall.A formula allowing the calculation of contact stress is presented.Stress wave propagation through the nut,support plate,and rock wall are predicted.The dynamic response signals were measured in the field using prestressed anchors pre-tightened to different torques.The effects from the support plate on the dynamic response were recorded and the results compared to the predictions of pre-stressed anchor.This work provides a theoretical reference for the signal processing of dynamic reflected wave signals in anchor bolts.

  11. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

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    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  12. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

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    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  13. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

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    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion.

  14. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

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    Remesar Xavier

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1 and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4 by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα values showed overexpression (198%. Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism.

  15. Applications of Text Messaging, and Bibliotherapy for Treatment of Patients Affected by Depressive Symptoms

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    Taleban, Roya; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Moafi, Mohammad; Jiryaee, Nasrin; Khadivi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intensity of depressive symptoms could be exacerbated due to the paucity of appropriate treatments. We assessed the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and text messaging, which aimed at amelioration of patient's behavior and consciousness, which could lead to suicide prevention. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial implemented in rural health centers of Isfahan district (Iran). Health centers were assigned in three trials consisting of the booklet, text messaging, and control groups. Each group consisted of 70 patients. Inclusion criteria were being affected by depressive symptom, <18 years, and cell phone accessibility. Mental retardation, drug and alcohol abuse, visual disability, dementia, suicide attempt history, electrotherapy, and receiving psychological interventions were our not met criteria. Our patient outcomes comprised intensity of depressive symptom and treatment compliance. The first two trials were requested to study instructive booklets in 30 days while the second cohort was demanded to study the booklet in accordance with the daily delivered text messaging. Results: Out of 210 individuals, 198 patients finished this study. The intensity of depressive symptom was significantly affected through time and group factors as well as time-group interaction (F = 12.30, P < 0.001). Based on treatment compliance, the interactive effect of group factor and the time factor was statistically significant. Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment. PMID:27076884

  16. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

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    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  17. Ketamine-induced affective switch in a patient with treatment-resistant depression

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    Girish Banwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence to support the rapid, albeit short-lived antidepressant effect of subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar depression. Ketamine is known to cause transient mood elevation or euphoria, psychotomimetic effects, and dissociative symptoms, but its use in unipolar or bipolar depression has not been reported to induce an affective switch amounting to persistent or prolonged hypomania/mania or manic-like syndrome. We report the case of a 52-year-old male with first episode, continuous, nonpsychotic, treatment-resistant, unipolar major depression of 10 years duration, who manifested a switch from depression to mania while being treated with subanesthetic dose of ketamine, given intramuscularly. This case suggests that polarity switch should be considered as a potential side effect while using ketamine for treatment-resistant depression.

  18. State of the art psychopharmacological treatment options in seasonal affective disorder.

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    Yildiz, Mesut; Batmaz, Sedat; Songur, Emrah; Oral, Esat Timuçin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is defined as a subtype of mood disorders in DSM 5, and it is characterized by a seasonal onset. SAD is proposed to be related to the seasonal changes in naturally occurring light, and the use of bright light therapy for depressive symptoms has been shown to reduce them in placebo controlled trials. Cognitive behavioral therapy has also been demonstrated to be effective in SAD. This review article aims to focus on the psychopharmacological treatment options for SAD. According to clinical trial results, first line treatment options seem to be sertraline and fluoxetine, and are well tolerated by the patients. There is some evidence that other antidepressants (e.g. bupropion) might be effective as well. Although clinical trials have shown that some of these antidepressants may be of benefit, a recent review has concluded that there is not enough evidence to support the use of any of these agents for the treatment of SAD yet. Moreover, more studies are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of other treatment options, e.g., propranolol, melatonin, hypericum, etc. In addition to the above proposed treatments, patients with seasonal depressive symptoms should thoroughly be evaluated for any cues of bipolarity, and their treatment should be planned accordingly.

  19. Seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L. inbred lines affected by seed treatment with pesticides

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    Tamindžić Gordana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a common way of fungicide and insecticide use nowadays, since this way of pesticide application can provide the best protection in the vicinity of the future plant. The aim of research was to evaluate the effects of different seed treatments on germination and seedling growth in three maize inbred lines. The research included the seed treatment with several combinations of a fungicide Maxim XL 035-FS (a.i. metalaxil-M + fludioxonil and neonicotinoid insecticides Gaucho 600-FS (a.i. imidacloprid and Cruiser 350-FS (a.i. thiamethoxam, as well as untreated seed (control. The results indicated that inbred lines 21202 x 21101 NS and 317659 NS had a highly vigourous seed which was not affected by the seed treatments. The seed treatments with Maxim XL 035- FS+Gaucho 600-FS and Maxim XL 035-FS+Cruiser 350-FS led to a decrease in germination (90.25% and 89.50%, respectively of maize inbred line 306081 NS as well as a decrease in root length (126.75 mm and 125.25 mm, respectively and dry root weight (0.135 g and 0.1875 g, respectively of maize inbred line 21202 x 21101 NS. All seed treatments had positive effects on root growth, as well as on fresh root weight of maize inbred lines 306081 NS and 317659 NS. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073: Improvement of maize and sorghum under stress

  20. Maternal stress and plural breeding with communal care affect development of the endocrine stress response in a wild rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Carolyn M; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Davis, Garrett T; Romero, L Michael

    2015-09-01

    Maternal stress can significantly affect offspring fitness. In laboratory rodents, chronically stressed mothers provide poor maternal care, resulting in pups with hyperactive stress responses. These hyperactive stress responses are characterized by high glucocorticoid levels in response to stressors plus poor negative feedback, which can ultimately lead to decreased fitness. In degus (Octodon degus) and other plural breeding rodents that exhibit communal care, however, maternal care from multiple females may buffer the negative impact on pups born to less parental mothers. We used wild, free-living degus to test this hypothesis. After parturition, we manipulated maternal stress by implanting cortisol pellets in 0%, 50-75%, or 100% of adult females within each social group. We then sampled pups for baseline and stress-induced cortisol, negative feedback efficacy, and adrenal sensitivity. From groups where all mothers were implanted with cortisol, pups had lower baseline cortisol levels and male pups additionally had weaker negative feedback compared to 0% or 50-75% implanted groups. Contrary to expectations, stress-induced cortisol did not differ between treatment groups. These data suggest that maternal stress impacts some aspects of the pup stress response, potentially through decreased maternal care, but that presence of unstressed mothers may mitigate some of these effects. Therefore, one benefit of plural breeding with communal care may be to buffer post-natal stress.

  1. Vascular adaptive responses to physical exercise and to stress are affected differently by nandrolone administration

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    T. Bruder-Nascimento

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load. One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im. Acute immobilization stress (2 h was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g: sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.

  2. NOD2 and ATG16L1 polymorphisms affect monocyte responses in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dylan M Glubb; Richard B Gearry; Murray L Barclay; Rebecca L Roberts; John Pearson; Jacqui I Keenan; Judy McKenzie; Robert W Bentley

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether polymorphisms in NOD2 and ATG16L1 affect cytokine responses and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) survival in monocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients.METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients of known genotype for common single nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD2 and ATG16L1 .Monocytes were challenged with MAP and bacterial persistence assessed at subsequent time-points. Cytokine responses were assayed using a Milliplex multi-analyte profiling assay for 13 cytokines.RESULTS: Monocytes heterozygous for a NOD2 polymorphism (R702W, P268S, or 1007fs) were more permissive for growth of MAP (P = 0.045) than those without. There was no effect of NOD2 genotype on subsequent cytokine expression. The T300A polymorphism of ATG16L1 did not affect growth of MAP in our model (P= 0.175), but did increase expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 (P = 0.047) and IL-6 (P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: CD-associated polymorphisms affected the elimination of MAP from ex vivo monocytes (NOD2 ), or expression of certain cytokines (ATG16L1 ), implying independent but contributory roles in the pathogenesis of CD.

  3. How gender and task difficulty affect a sport-protective response in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, David B.; Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response of raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon (‘low difficulty’), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least 5 of 8 balls (‘high difficulty’). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants’ left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (p = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (p = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (p < .001) and acceleration (p = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (p < .001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296

  4. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

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    Zhiguo Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER assays and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  5. Early developmental conditions affect stress response in juvenile but not in adult house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Adám Z; Loiseau, Claire; Sorci, Gabriele; Chastel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term consequences of developmental conditions on fitness have received growing attention because the environmental conditions during early life may influence growth, condition at independence, recruitment, reproductive success or survival. We tested here, in a natural house sparrow population, if early conditions during nestling stage affected the stress response of the birds (i) shortly after fledging and (ii) next year, during their first breeding. We experimentally manipulated brood size to mimic different rearing conditions, creating reduced (-2 chicks) and enlarged broods (+2 chicks), while in a third group brood size was not manipulated. Nestling nutrition state decreased with post-manipulation brood sizes as indicated by lower body mass. Fledglings with higher body mass at the age of ten days showed lower stress response than birds that were leaner at the same age. Fledglings reared in large broods showed a higher response to stress protocol than chicks from small broods, and this effect was in significant interaction with the age of fledglings at capture. This interaction indicates that the effects of the brood size became gradually smaller as the fledglings grew older and were further from their nestling period. The effects of early conditions vanished by the next year: the stress response of adult first time breeders was unrelated to the brood size they fledged from. These results suggest that stress response may reflect the actual state of an individual, rather than its developmental history.

  6. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Chen, Yanping; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Li, Wenfeng; Yan, Limin; Shi, Liangen; Wu, Lyman; Sohr, Alex; Su, Songkun

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  7. As Far as the Eye Can See: Relationship between Psychopathic Traits and Pupil Response to Affective Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicola S.; Snowden, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals show a range of affective processing deficits, typically associated with the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy. However, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether psychopathy, within both offender and community populations, is associated with deficient autonomic responses to the simple presentation of affective stimuli. Changes in pupil diameter occur in response to emotionally arousing stimuli and can be used as an objective indicator of physiological reactivity to emotion. This study used pupillometry to explore whether psychopathic traits within a community sample were associated with hypo-responsivity to the affective content of stimuli. Pupil activity was recorded for 102 adult (52 female) community participants in response to affective (both negative and positive affect) and affectively neutral stimuli, that included images of scenes, static facial expressions, dynamic facial expressions and sound-clips. Psychopathic traits were measured using the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Pupil diameter was larger in response to negative stimuli, but comparable pupil size was demonstrated across pleasant and neutral stimuli. A linear relationship between subjective arousal and pupil diameter was found in response to sound-clips, but was not evident in response to scenes. Contrary to predictions, psychopathy was unrelated to emotional modulation of pupil diameter across all stimuli. The findings were the same when participant gender was considered. This suggests that psychopathy within a community sample is not associated with autonomic hypo-responsivity to affective stimuli, and this effect is discussed in relation to later defensive/appetitive mobilisation deficits. PMID:28118366

  8. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H; Shinkareva, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli.

  9. Identifying Core Affect in Individuals from fMRI Responses to Dynamic Naturalistic Audiovisual Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wang, Jing; Wedell, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that affective states elicited by viewing pictures varying in valence and arousal are identifiable from whole brain activation patterns observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Identification of affective states from more naturalistic stimuli has clinical relevance, but the feasibility of identifying these states on an individual trial basis from fMRI data elicited by dynamic multimodal stimuli is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether affective states can be similarly identified when participants view dynamic naturalistic audiovisual stimuli. Eleven participants viewed 5s audiovisual clips in a passive viewing task in the scanner. Valence and arousal for individual trials were identified both within and across participants based on distributed patterns of activity in areas selectively responsive to audiovisual naturalistic stimuli while controlling for lower level features of the stimuli. In addition, the brain regions identified by searchlight analyses to represent valence and arousal were consistent with previously identified regions associated with emotion processing. These findings extend previous results on the distributed representation of affect to multimodal dynamic stimuli. PMID:27598534

  10. Neurobehavioral response to increased treatment dosage in chronic, severe aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Mozeiko

    2014-04-01

    •\tIncreased activation in S2’s bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following the second treatment session indicates that a second Treatment Period can influence continued neuroplastic change in severe, chronic aphasia. •\tS1 appears to show the most activation following Treatment Period I. It is possible that his greater lesion volume or site did not allow for benefit from a second dose to the same degree as S2. •\tActivation changes (or lack thereof in both cases corresponded with performance on the naming task in the scanner, reflecting the effect of treatment. •\tFor S2, neuroimaging supported the behavioral results which favor a second dose of ILAT. For S1, behavioral results, particularly in his consistent increases on the BNT, are not supported by either the behavioral results in the scanner or the BOLD response.

  11. Palliative radiation treatment of cutaneous mycosis fungoides - a dose response

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    Cotter, G.W.; Baglan, R.J.; Wasserman, T.H.; Mill, W.

    1983-10-01

    Between 1966 and 1981, 20 patients (191 lesions) underwent palliative radiation therapy for control of biopsy-proven cutaneous mycosis fungoides. Six patients (47 lesions) and an additional 34 lesions from the remaining 14 patients with complete response to treatment were excluded from the study because of follow-up of less than one year. Included in the remaining 110 lesions were all recurrences and all partial responses. The modalities for treatment included superficial X rays, Cobalt-60 or electron beam irradiation. The total tumor doses employed ranged from 600-4000 cGy. The 110 lesions (14 patients) were retrospectively analyzed to determine the dose required for local control of the lesions. Fifty-three percent of the lesions were classified as plaques, 20% as tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter, and 27% as tumors > 3 cm in diameter. Complete response to treatment was observed in 95% of the plaque lesions, 95% of the tumors less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter and 93% of tumor > 3 cm in diameter. A complete response to treatment was noted in all lesions receiving greater than 2000 cGy. In the total population of lesions having a complete response, a local infield recurrence rate of 42% was noted in the group receiving less than or equal to 1000 cGy, 32% in those receiving 1001-2000 cGy, 21% in those receiving 2001-3000 cGy, and 0% in the group receiving > 3000 cGy. The data from this study indicate that tumor doses equivalent to at least 3000 cGy at 200 cGy per fraction, five fractions per week (TDF greater than or equal to) are needed for adquate local control of cutaneous mycosis fungoides lesions.

  12. Plasma treatment of polystyrene thin films affects more than the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calchera, Angela R; Curtis, Alexander D; Patterson, James E

    2012-07-25

    Plasma treatment of polymer materials introduces chemical functionalities and modifies the material to make the native hydrophobic surface more hydrophilic. It is generally assumed that this process only affects the surface of the material. We used vibrationally resonant sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to observe changes in the orientation of phenyl groups in polystyrene (PS) thin films on various substrates before and after plasma treatment. VR-SFG selectively probes regions of broken symmetry, such as surfaces, but can also detect the emergence of anisotropy. On dielectric substrates, such as fused silica, the spectroscopic peak corresponding to the symmetric stretching (ν2) mode of the phenyl rings was undetectable after plasma treatment, showing that surface phenyl rings were altered. This peak also diminished on conducting substrates, but the intensity of another peak corresponding to the same mode in a bulklike environment increased significantly, suggesting that plasma treatment induces partial ordering of the bulk polymer. This ordering is seen on conducting substrates even when the polymer is not directly exposed to the plasma. Annealing reverses these effects on the polystyrene bulk; however, the surface phenyl rings do not return to the orientation observed for untreated films. These results call into question the assumption that the effects of plasma treatment are limited to the free surface and opens up other possibilities for material modification with low-temperature plasmas.

  13. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH: conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Bullio FRAGELLI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48 were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05 for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05 for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p < 0.05 at both periods, and between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05 at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  14. Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH): conservative treatment management to restore affected teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragelli, Camila Maria Bullio; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Loiola; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 12-month clinical performance of glass ionomer restorations in teeth with MIH. First permanent molars affected by MIH (48) were restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC) and evaluated at baseline, at 6 and at 12 months, by assessing tooth enamel breakdown, GIC breakdown and caries lesion associations. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and actuarial survival analysis. The likelihood of a restored tooth remaining unchanged at the end of 12 months was 78%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p > 0.05) for a 6-month period, or between increased MIH severity and previous unsatisfactory treatment at baseline (p > 0.05) for both a 6- and 12-month period. A statistically significant difference was observed in the association between increased MIH severity and extension of the restoration, involving 2 or more surfaces (p < 0.05) at both periods, and between increased MIH severity and caries at baseline (p < 0.05) at a 12-month period. Because the likelihood of maintaining the tooth structures with GIC restorations is high, invasive treatment should be postponed until the child is sufficiently mature to cooperate with the treatment, mainly of teeth affected on just one face.

  15. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon response at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2014-10-03

    Aging-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. By using multiorgan genome-wide analysis of aged mice, we found that the choroid plexus, an interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent gene expression profile that was also found in aged human brains. In aged mice, this response was induced by brain-derived signals, present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the aged brain partially restored cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis and reestablished IFN-II-dependent choroid plexus activity, which is lost in aging. Our data identify a chronic aging-induced IFN-I signature, often associated with antiviral response, at the brain's choroid plexus and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a target for ameliorating cognitive decline in aging.

  16. Daytime and nighttime wind differentially affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping; Wan, Xianchong; Lieffers, Victor J

    2016-05-01

    This study tested how wind in daytime and nighttime affects hydraulic properties and thigmomorphogenic response of poplar saplings. It shows that wind in daytime interrupted water balance of poplar plants by aggravating cavitation in the stem xylem under high xylem tension in the daytime, reducing water potential in midday and hence reducing gas exchange, including stomatal conductance and CO2 assimilation. The wind blowing in daytime significantly reduced plant growth, including height, diameter, leaf size, leaf area, root and whole biomass, whereas wind blowing in nighttime only caused a reduction in radial and height growth at the early stage compared with the control but decreased height:diameter ratios. In summary, the interaction between wind loading and xylem tension exerted a negative impact on water balance, gas exchanges and growth of poplar plants, and wind in nighttime caused only a small thigmomorphogenic response.

  17. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  18. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics...... above 400 000 IU/mL were strongly associated with slower second phase declines of HCV RNA. Genotype 2/3 infections responded more rapidly than genotype 1, reaching week 4 negativity (RVR) in 59%vs 22%. We conclude that baseline response predictors such as age, fibrosis and viral load were well reflected...

  19. Factors affecting response to hepatitis b vaccine among hemodialysis patients in a large Saudi Hemodialysis Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al Saran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination in patients on hemodialysis (HD and to identify the factors that could affect this response. This retrospective study was carried out during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 in the Prince Salman Center for Kidney Diseases (PSCKD, Riyadh, and included 144 patients (78 males and 66 females on regular HD, all of whom received hepatitis B vacci-nation. Patients were divided into two groups according to the level of hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb: Responders group (>10 IU/L and non-responders group (<10 IU/L. The study looked at the factors that may affect the responsiveness to hepatitis B vaccination, like gender, age, co-existence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, dialysis adequacy that was evaluated by urea reduction ratio (URR and Kt/V, hemoglobin level, albumin level, protein catabolic rate (PCR, body mass index (BMI, subjective global nutritional status (SGA and HbA1c. There were 129 patients (89.6% in the responders group including 69 males and 60 females and 15 patients (10.4% in the non-responders group including nine males and six females. The mean age in the responders group and the non-responders group was 50.56 ± 15.35 and 56.87 ± 12.52 years, respectively (P = 0.128. The mean value of the PCR was 1.03 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17 g/kg/day in the responders group and non-responders group, respectively (P = 0.002. There was no statically significant difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of HCV infection, age, gender, diabetes mellitus, URR, Kt/V, hemoglobin level and albumin level. We report a high response rate (89% for HBV vaccination in our HD patients. The PCR was the only factor that affected the response to HBV vaccination in these patients.

  20. Postural threat differentially affects the feedforward and feedback components of the vestibular-evoked balance response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Callum J; Tersteeg, M C A; Reynolds, Raymond F; Loram, Ian D

    2013-10-01

    Circumstances may render the consequence of falling quite severe, thus maximising the motivation to control postural sway. This commonly occurs when exposed to height and may result from the interaction of many factors, including fear, arousal, sensory information and perception. Here, we examined human vestibular-evoked balance responses during exposure to a highly threatening postural context. Nine subjects stood with eyes closed on a narrow walkway elevated 3.85 m above ground level. This evoked an altered psycho-physiological state, demonstrated by a twofold increase in skin conductance. Balance responses were then evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation. The sway response, which comprised a whole-body lean in the direction of the edge of the walkway, was significantly and substantially attenuated after ~800 ms. This demonstrates that a strong reason to modify the balance control strategy was created and subjects were highly motivated to minimise sway. Despite this, the initial response remained unchanged. This suggests little effect on the feedforward settings of the nervous system responsible for coupling pure vestibular input to functional motor output. The much stronger, later effect can be attributed to an integration of balance-relevant sensory feedback once the body was in motion. These results demonstrate that the feedforward and feedback components of a vestibular-evoked balance response are differently affected by postural threat. Although a fear of falling has previously been linked with instability and even falling itself, our findings suggest that this relationship is not attributable to changes in the feedforward vestibular control of balance.

  1. [Affective disorders and their treatment during pregnancy and after birth -- a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félegyházy, Zsolt; Adler, Mats

    2013-03-01

    Treatment and management of affective disorders associated with pregnancy is still an underemphasized field receiving little attention, furthermore, it is burdened with misinformation as well as incomplete or missing knowledge. Professionals of related fields (psychiatrists, obstetrician-gynecologists) often provide patients with contradicting information or, due to their lack of sufficient knowledge, keep referring the patient for information between different services. However, there is an increasing amount of data and information available, suitable for drawing conclusions and making it possible to provide adequate and credible counselling and information for pregnant women or family planning couples. In the present paper we aim to facilitate this process by reviewing the currently available information.

  2. Renal function affects absorbed dose to the kidneys and haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Johanna; Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Waengberg, Bo [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, Maria [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Forssell-Aronsson, Eva; Bernhardt, Peter [University of Gothenburg, Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Bioengineering, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2015-05-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has become an important treatment option in the management of advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Long-lasting responses are reported for a majority of treated patients, with good tolerability and a favourable impact on quality of life. The treatment is usually limited by the cumulative absorbed dose to the kidneys, where the radiopharmaceutical is reabsorbed and retained, or by evident haematological toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate how renal function affects (1) absorbed dose to the kidneys, and (2) the development of haematological toxicity during PRRT treatment. The study included 51 patients with an advanced neuroendocrine tumour who received {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment during 2006 - 2011 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg. An average activity of 7.5 GBq (3.5 - 8.2 GBq) was given at intervals of 6 - 8 weeks on one to five occasions. Patient baseline characteristics according to renal and bone marrow function, tumour burden and medical history including prior treatment were recorded. Renal and bone marrow function were then monitored during treatment. Renal dosimetry was performed according to the conjugate view method, and the residence time for the radiopharmaceutical in the whole body was calculated. A significant correlation between inferior renal function before treatment and higher received renal absorbed dose per administered activity was found (p < 0.01). Patients with inferior renal function also experienced a higher grade of haematological toxicity during treatment (p = 0.01). The residence time of {sup 177}Lu in the whole body (range 0.89 - 3.0 days) was correlated with grade of haematological toxicity (p = 0.04) but not with renal absorbed dose (p = 0.53). Patients with inferior renal function were exposed to higher renal absorbed dose per administered activity and developed a higher grade of haematological toxicity during {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. The study confirms the

  3. Implicit Learning Abilities Predict Treatment Response in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    30/15 Simons Foundation 1.8 CM Ext Advancing a Standardized Research Protocol to Study Treatment Effects in Individuals with Autism Spectrum...participants, collecting data from all of the research subjects and is responsible for performing analyses. Funding Support: RFA 336363 Lord (PI) 7... Autism Spectrum Disorder Role: Co-Investigator Name: BJ Casey Project Role: Co-Investigator Research Identifier: BJCASEY (era commons) Nearest

  4. GaAs wafer overlay performance affected by annealing heat treatment: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Black, Iain

    2002-07-01

    Further analysis on how wafer distortion affecting the overlay performance during annealing treatment in GaAs wafer fabrication was conducted quantitatively using MONO-LITH software. The experimental results were decomposed as wafer translation, scaling at X and Y direction, rotation and orthogonality. The grid residual was used to describe non- correctable distortion of the wafers, which fits the equations given below: Residual equals Measured - Modeled, which is not a modeled component. The Vector Map displays distribution of error vectors over the wafer or field for various components or overall effect. Based on the component analysis that the misalignment caused by translation and scaling can be compensated by heat treatment if the wafer is placed at a favorable orientation. This can help mitigate the effects of substrate quality in manufactory.

  5. Housing conditions affect rat responses to two types of ambiguity in a reward-reward discrimination cognitive bias task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard M A; Paul, Elizabeth S; Burman, Oliver H P; Browne, William J; Mendl, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Decision-making under ambiguity in cognitive bias tasks is a promising new indicator of affective valence in animals. Rat studies support the hypothesis that animals in a negative affective state evaluate ambiguous cues negatively. Prior automated operant go/go judgement bias tasks have involved training rats that an auditory cue of one frequency predicts a Reward and a cue of a different frequency predicts a Punisher (RP task), and then measuring whether ambiguous cues of intermediate frequency are judged as predicting reward ('optimism') or punishment ('pessimism'). We investigated whether an automated Reward-Reward (RR) task yielded similar results to, and was faster to train than, RP tasks. We also introduced a new ambiguity test (simultaneous presentation of the two training cues) alongside the standard single ambiguous cue test. Half of the rats experienced an unpredictable housing treatment (UHT) designed to induce a negative state. Control rats were relatively 'pessimistic', whilst UHT rats were quicker, but no less accurate, in their responses in the RR test, and showed less anxiety-like behaviour in independent tests. A possible reason for these findings is that rats adapted to and were stimulated by UHT, whilst control rats in a predictable environment were more sensitive to novelty and change. Responses in the new ambiguity test correlated positively with those in single ambiguous cue tests, and may provide a measure of attention bias. The RR task was quicker to train than previous automated RP tasks. Together, they could be used to disentangle how reward and punishment processes underpin affect-induced cognitive biases.

  6. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Suzanne Ho-Wai; Begemann, Marieke J H; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E

    2016-10-04

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual's responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals' cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed.

  7. Relationship between neuroticism, childhood trauma and cognitive-affective responses to auditory verbal hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Suzanne Ho-wai; Begemann, Marieke J. H.; Gong, Xianmin; Sommer, Iris E.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroticism has been shown to adversely influence the development and outcome of psychosis. However, how this personality trait associates with the individual’s responses to psychotic symptoms is less well known. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been reported by patients with psychosis and non-clinical individuals. There is evidence that voice-hearers who are more distressed by and resistant against the voices, as well as those who appraise the voices as malevolent and powerful, have poorer outcome. This study aimed to examine the mechanistic association of neuroticism with the cognitive-affective reactions to AVH. We assessed 40 psychotic patients experiencing frequent AVHs, 135 non-clinical participants experiencing frequent AVHs, and 126 healthy individuals. In both clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers alike, a higher level of neuroticism was associated with more distress and behavioral resistance in response to AVHs, as well as a stronger tendency to perceive voices as malevolent and powerful. Neuroticism fully mediated the found associations between childhood trauma and the individuals’ cognitive-affective reactions to voices. Our results supported the role of neurotic personality in shaping maladaptive reactions to voices. Neuroticism may also serve as a putative mechanism linking childhood trauma and psychological reactions to voices. Implications for psychological models of hallucinations are discussed. PMID:27698407

  8. The impoverished brain: disparities in maternal education affect the neural response to sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-30

    Despite the prevalence of poverty worldwide, little is known about how early socioeconomic adversity affects auditory brain function. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are underexposed to linguistically and cognitively stimulating environments and overexposed to environmental toxins, including noise pollution. This kind of sensory impoverishment, we theorize, has extensive repercussions on how the brain processes sound. To characterize how this impoverishment affects auditory brain function, we compared two groups of normal-hearing human adolescents who attended the same schools and who were matched in age, sex, and ethnicity, but differed in their maternal education level, a correlate of socioeconomic status (SES). In addition to lower literacy levels and cognitive abilities, adolescents from lower maternal education backgrounds were found to have noisier neural activity than their classmates, as reflected by greater activity in the absence of auditory stimulation. Additionally, in the lower maternal education group, the neural response to speech was more erratic over repeated stimulation, with lower fidelity to the input signal. These weaker, more variable, and noisier responses are suggestive of an inefficient auditory system. By studying SES within a neuroscientific framework, we have the potential to expand our understanding of how experience molds the brain, in addition to informing intervention research aimed at closing the achievement gap between high-SES and low-SES children.

  9. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Hui, Charles; Rahman, Prinon; Ingleby, David; Akl, Elie A.; Russell, Grant; Ling, Li; Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services. PMID:28165380

  10. Affects, agency, and self-regulation: complexity theory in the treatment of children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    In an increasingly unsettled and violent world, with swelling numbers of children who are abused, abandoned, or neglected, emotionally if not physically, and an increasing population of aggressive preschool children with anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders who cannot be contained in ordinary settings, psychoanalysts can make a contribution. Early intervention is essential. In very early childhood, new procedural memories for interacting with others and for regulating affects can be formed more easily than they can ever be again. Intervention should aim toward helping the child develop a sense of agency, establish moral standards, assume self-responsibility, and attain the capacity for emotional regulation. The principles of complex dynamic systems can inform psychoanalytic treatment strategies, as demonstrated with five children whose cases are presented.

  11. Factors influencing response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiyama J

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 150 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from 1990 to 1996 (i to evaluate the frequency of drug resistance, (ii to elucidate factors influencing the response to chemotherapy, and (iii to attempt to improve the therapeutic approach. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains were not found. By univariate analysis, there were 8 factors associated with an increased sputum conversion time: male gender, prior treatment, complications, progressive chest radiographic findings, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, lymphocytopenia, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and hypoproteinemia. Complications, prior treatment, a high Ziehl-Neelsen stain score, and a high ESR were independent predictive factors in a Cox proportional hazard model. Recursive partitioning and amalgamation (RPA defined 3 subgroups that responded to treatment. In order to reduce the time to sputum conversion, poor responders according to the RPA should be treated with a 4-drug regimen containing pyrazinamide.

  12. Atomoxetine pharmacogenetics: associations with pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob T; Bishop, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and is predominantly metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme. Differences in pharmacokinetic parameters as well as clinical treatment outcomes across CYP2D6 genotype groups have resulted in dosing recommendations within the product label, but clinical studies supporting the use of genotype guided dosing are currently lacking. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies have primarily focused on extensive as compared with poor metabolizers, with little information known about other metabolizer categories as well as genes involved in the pharmacodynamics of atomoxetine. This review describes the pharmacogenetic associations with atomoxetine pharmacokinetics, treatment response and tolerability with considerations for the clinical utility of this information.

  13. Adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD): profiles and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, María; Matalí, Josep Lluís; García-Sánchez, Sara; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, María; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina

    2016-10-07

    Demand for treatment for problems related to the use of video games have increased significantly in adolescents. Most cases have a comorbid mental disorder that jeopardises both pathologies. The aim of this study is to describe profiles of adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) according to comorbidity and analyze treatment response at 3 and 6 months. A sample of 86 patients which consulted in the Addictive Behavior Unit of a hospital was assessed with diagnostic criteria for IGD, the interview K-SADS-PL for mental disorders and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) to treatment progress. Of the initial sample, 68,6% (n = 59) met diagnostic criteria for IGD. Of these, the 45,76% matched an internalizing profile, presenting comorbidity with Mood Disorders (44,4%), Anxiety Disorders (44,4%) and Personality Disorders (11,1%). The externalizing profile would comprise 52,54% of the sample presenting Disruptive Behavior Disorder (48,4%=, ADHD (29%) and Disruptive Behavior Disorders not otherwise specified (22,6%). Unlike externalizing, the internalizing patients had a family history of psychiatric problems (63%), difficulties in social relationships (77,8%) and seemed to use video games preferably to escape discomfort (66,7%). After 3 months the externalizing profile showed improvements. Comorbid disorders allow the discrimination of two IGD profiles in adolescents and these could influence treatment response. Therefore, it is important to assess comorbidities to design a more accurate intervention focused on the specificities of each profile.

  14. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fortune, Anne F

    2012-02-01

    Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available. We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and\\/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5). Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective. Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) 37 months from diagnosis were 80% and 52%, respectively. Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.

  15. PGC-1alpha down-regulation affects the antioxidant response in Friedreich's ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marmolino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells from individuals with Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA show reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes and cannot up-regulate their expression when exposed to oxidative stress. This blunted antioxidant response may play a central role in the pathogenesis. We previously reported that Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARgamma Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1alpha, a transcriptional master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant responses, is down-regulated in most cell types from FRDA patients and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used primary fibroblasts from FRDA patients and the knock in-knock out animal model for the disease (KIKO mouse to determine basal superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 levels and the response to oxidative stress induced by the addition of hydrogen peroxide. We measured the same parameters after pharmacological stimulation of PGC-1alpha. Compared to control cells, PGC-1alpha and SOD2 levels were decreased in FRDA cells and did not change after addition of hydrogen peroxide. PGC-1alpha direct silencing with siRNA in control fibroblasts led to a similar loss of SOD2 response to oxidative stress as observed in FRDA fibroblasts. PGC-1alpha activation with the PPARgamma agonist (Pioglitazone or with a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK agonist (AICAR restored normal SOD2 induction. Treatment of the KIKO mice with Pioglitazone significantly up-regulates SOD2 in cerebellum and spinal cord. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PGC-1alpha down-regulation is likely to contribute to the blunted antioxidant response observed in cells from FRDA patients. This response can be restored by AMPK and PPARgamma agonists, suggesting a potential therapeutic approach for FRDA.

  16. How the number of learning trials affects placebo and nocebo responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloca, Luana; Petrovic, Predrag; Wager, Tor D.; Ingvar, Martin; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Conditioning procedures are used in many placebo studies because evidence suggests that conditioning-related placebo responses are usually more robust than those induced by verbal suggestions alone. However, it has not been shown whether there is a causal relation between the number of conditioning trials and the resistance to extinction of placebo and nocebo responses. Here we test the effects of either one or four sessions of conditioning on the modulation of both non-painful and painful stimuli delivered to the dorsum of the foot. Placebo and nocebo manipulations were obtained by pairing green or red light to a series of stimuli that were made lower or higher with respect to a yellow light associated with a series of control stimuli. Subjects were told that the lights would indicate a treatment that would reduce or increase non-painful and painful stimuli to the foot. They were randomly assigned to either Group 1 or 2. Group 1 underwent one session of conditioning and Group 2 received four sessions of conditioning. We found that one session of conditioning (Group 1) induced nocebo responses, but not placebo responses in no pain condition. After one session of conditioning, we observed both nocebo and placebo responses to painful stimulation. However, these effects extinguished over time. Conversely, four sessions of conditioning (Group 2) induced robust placebo and nocebo responses to both non-painful and painful stimuli that persisted over the entire experiment. These findings suggest that the strength of learning may be clinically important for producing long-lasting placebo effects. PMID:20817355

  17. Catatonia: Etiopathological diagnoses and treatment response in a tertiary care setting: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Catatonia is caused by a variety of psychiatric and organic conditions. The onset, clinical profile, and response to treatment may vary depending on the underlying cause. The study is an attempt to explore clinical profile, possible etiological correlates with neurotic/psychotic spectrum illnesses, and response to treatment and outcome in patients of catatonia. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart analysis by using semistructured data sheet for the analysis of sociodemographic data, clinical profile, precipitating event, and response to treatment in patients with catatonic symptoms admitted to IHBAS (Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, India from January 2009 to December 2010 was undertaken. Results: Catatonia was commonly observed in patients with the following profile - late twenties, female, Hindu religion, urban background, and housewives. Psychotic spectrum disorder (57%, N=35 was the most commonly entertained diagnosis and affective disorder (18%, N=11 being the second common. Thirty four percent of the subjects responded to lorazepam treatment and rest required modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT. Conclusion: Catatonia is more likely to be associated with Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders in Indian settings. Majority of patients responded to therapy either by lorazepam alone or to its augmentation with modified ECT. The study being a retrospective one, the sample being representative of the treatment seeking group only, and unavailability of the follow up data were the limitations of the study

  18. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  19. Global phosphoproteome profiling reveals unanticipated networks responsive to cisplatin treatment of embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pines, Alex; Kelstrup, Christian D; Vrouwe, Mischa G

    2011-01-01

    Cellular responses to DNA-damaging agents involve the activation of various DNA damage signaling and transduction pathways. Using quantitative and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, we determined global changes in protein level and phosphorylation site profiles following treatment of SILAC...... (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-labeled murine embryonic stem cells with the anticancer drug cisplatin. Network and pathway analyses indicated that processes related to the DNA damage response and cytoskeleton organization were significantly affected. Although the ATM (ataxia...... rearrangements. Integration of transcriptomic and proteomic data revealed a poor correlation between changes in the relative levels of transcripts and their corresponding proteins, but a large overlap in affected pathways at the levels of mRNA, protein, and phosphoprotein. This study provides an integrated view...

  20. 'Ecstasy' as a social drug: MDMA preferentially affects responses to emotional stimuli with social content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Margaret C; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-08-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') is used recreationally to improve mood and sociability, and has generated clinical interest as a possible adjunct to psychotherapy. One way that MDMA may produce positive 'prosocial' effects is by changing responses to emotional stimuli, especially stimuli with social content. Here, we examined for the first time how MDMA affects subjective responses to positive, negative and neutral emotional pictures with and without social content. We hypothesized that MDMA would dose-dependently increase reactivity to positive emotional stimuli and dampen reactivity to negative stimuli, and that these effects would be most pronounced for pictures with people in them. The data were obtained from two studies using similar designs with healthy occasional MDMA users (total N = 101). During each session, participants received MDMA (0, 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg oral), and then rated their positive and negative responses to standardized positive, negative and neutral pictures with and without social content. MDMA increased positive ratings of positive social pictures, but reduced positive ratings of non-social positive pictures. We speculate this 'socially selective' effect contributes to the prosocial effects of MDMA by increasing the comparative value of social contact and closeness with others. This effect may also contribute to its attractiveness to recreational users.

  1. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannika De Rubeis

    Full Text Available Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing. We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52 and disorganized attachment status (n = 45. Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051. These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  2. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  3. Phylogeny affects host's weight, immune response and parasitism in damselflies and dragonflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are an intriguing part of ecology, and understanding how hosts are able to withstand parasitic attacks, e.g. by allocating resources to immune defence, is important. Damselflies and dragonflies show a variety of parasitism patterns, but large-scale comparative immune defence studies are rare, and it is difficult to say what the interplay is between their immune defence and parasitism. The aim of this study was to find whether there are differences in immune response between different damselfly and dragonfly species and whether these could explain their levels of gregarine and water mite parasitism. Using an artificial pathogen, a piece of nylon filament, we measured the encapsulation response of 22 different damselfly and dragonfly species and found that (i) there are significant encapsulation differences between species, (ii) body mass has a strong association with encapsulation and parasite prevalences, (iii) body mass shows a strong phylogenetic signal, whereas encapsulation response and gregarine and water mite prevalences show weak signals, and (iv) associations between the traits are affected by phylogeny. We do not know what the relationship is between these four traits, but it seems clear that phylogeny plays a role in determining parasitism levels of damselflies and dragonflies. PMID:28018621

  4. Phylogeny affects host's weight, immune response and parasitism in damselflies and dragonflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilvonen, Jaakko J; Suhonen, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    Host-parasite interactions are an intriguing part of ecology, and understanding how hosts are able to withstand parasitic attacks, e.g. by allocating resources to immune defence, is important. Damselflies and dragonflies show a variety of parasitism patterns, but large-scale comparative immune defence studies are rare, and it is difficult to say what the interplay is between their immune defence and parasitism. The aim of this study was to find whether there are differences in immune response between different damselfly and dragonfly species and whether these could explain their levels of gregarine and water mite parasitism. Using an artificial pathogen, a piece of nylon filament, we measured the encapsulation response of 22 different damselfly and dragonfly species and found that (i) there are significant encapsulation differences between species, (ii) body mass has a strong association with encapsulation and parasite prevalences, (iii) body mass shows a strong phylogenetic signal, whereas encapsulation response and gregarine and water mite prevalences show weak signals, and (iv) associations between the traits are affected by phylogeny. We do not know what the relationship is between these four traits, but it seems clear that phylogeny plays a role in determining parasitism levels of damselflies and dragonflies.

  5. Deletion of the homeobox gene PRX-2 affects fetal but not adult fibroblast wound healing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip; Thomas, David W; Fong, Steven; Stelnicki, Eric; Meijlink, Fritz; Largman, Corey; Stephens, Phil

    2003-01-01

    The phenotype of fibroblasts repopulating experimental wounds in vivo has been shown to influence both wound healing responses and clinical outcome. Recent studies have demonstrated that the human homeobox gene PRX-2 is strongly upregulated in fibroblasts within fetal, but not adult, mesenchymal tissues during healing. Differential homeobox gene expression by fibroblasts may therefore be important in mediating the scarless healing exhibited in early fetal wounds. RNase protection analysis demonstrated that murine Prx-2 expression was involved in fetal but not adult wound healing responses in vitro. Using fibroblasts established from homozygous mutant (Prx-2-/-) and wild-type (Prx-2+/+) murine skin tissues it was demonstrated that Prx-2 affected a number of fetal fibroblastic responses believed to be important in mediating scarless healing in vivo; namely cellular proliferation, extracellular matrix reorganization, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and hyaluronic acid production. These data demonstrate how Prx-2 may contribute to the regulation of fetal, but not adult, fibroblasts and ultimately the wound healing phenotype. This study provides further evidence for the importance of homeobox transcription factors in the regulation of scarless wound healing. A further understanding of these processes will, it is hoped, enable the targeting of specific therapies in wound healing, both to effect scarless healing and to stimulate healing in chronic, nonhealing wounds such as venous leg ulcers.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Güray; Perendeci, Altunay; Tanyolaç, Abdurrahman

    2008-08-30

    Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater produced during cheese manufacture was studied as an alternative treatment method for the first time in literature. Through the preliminary batch runs, appropriate electrode material was determined as iron due to high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity. The electrochemical treatment conditions were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM), where applied voltage was kept in the range, electrolyte concentration was minimized, waste concentration and COD removal percent were maximized at 25 degrees C. Optimum conditions at 25 degrees C were estimated through RSM as 11.29 V applied voltage, 100% waste concentration (containing 40 g/L lactose) and 19.87 g/L electrolyte concentration to achieve 29.27% COD removal. However, highest COD removal through the set of runs was found as 53.32% within 8h. These results reveal the applicability of electrochemical treatment to the deproteinated whey wastewater as an alternative advanced wastewater treatment method.

  7. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  8. Does Oxidative Stress Induced by Alcohol Consumption Affect Orthodontic Treatment Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcia, Jorge M.; Portolés, Sandra; Portolés, Laura; Urdaneta, Alba C.; Ausina, Verónica; Pérez-Pastor, Gema M. A.; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS Ethanol, Periodontal ligament, Extracellular matrix, Orthodontic movement. Alcohol is a legal drug present in several drinks commonly used worldwide (chemically known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol). Alcohol consumption is associated with several disease conditions, ranging from mental disorders to organic alterations. One of the most deleterious effects of ethanol metabolism is related to oxidative stress. This promotes cellular alterations associated with inflammatory processes that eventually lead to cell death or cell cycle arrest, among others. Alcohol intake leads to bone destruction and modifies the expression of interleukins, metalloproteinases and other pro-inflammatory signals involving GSKβ, Rho, and ERK pathways. Orthodontic treatment implicates mechanical forces on teeth. Interestingly, the extra- and intra-cellular responses of periodontal cells to mechanical movement show a suggestive similarity with the effects induced by ethanol metabolism on bone and other cell types. Several clinical traits such as age, presence of systemic diseases or pharmacological treatments, are taken into account when planning orthodontic treatments. However, little is known about the potential role of the oxidative conditions induced by ethanol intake as a possible setback for orthodontic treatment in adults. PMID:28179886

  9. Foliar Potassium Fertilizer Additives Affect Soybean Response and Weed Control with Glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in 2004 and 2005 determined the effects of foliar-applied K-fertilizer sources (0-0-62-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O-%S, 0-0-25-17, 3-18-18-0, and 5-0-20-13 and additive rates (2.2, 8.8, and 17.6 kg K ha−1 on glyphosate-resistant soybean response and weed control. Field experiments were conducted at Novelty and Portageville with high soil test K and weed populations and at Malden with low soil test K and weed populations. At Novelty, grain yield increased with fertilizer additives at 8.8 kg K ha−1 in a high-yield, weed-free environment in 2004, but fertilizer additives reduced yield up to 470 kg ha−1 in a low-yield year (2005 depending on the K source and rate. At Portageville, K-fertilizer additives increased grain yield from 700 to 1160 kg ha−1 compared to diammonium sulfate, depending on the K source and rate. At Malden, there was no yield response to K sources. Differences in leaf tissue K (P=0.03, S (P=0.03, B (P=0.0001, and Cu (P=0.008 concentrations among treatments were detected 14 d after treatment at Novelty and Malden. Tank mixtures of K-fertilizer additives with glyphosate may provide an option for foliar K applications.

  10. Enteric microbiome metabolites correlate with response to simvastatin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Kaddurah-Daouk

    Full Text Available Although statins are widely prescribed medications, there remains considerable variability in therapeutic response. Genetics can explain only part of this variability. Metabolomics is a global biochemical approach that provides powerful tools for mapping pathways implicated in disease and in response to treatment. Metabolomics captures net interactions between genome, microbiome and the environment. In this study, we used a targeted GC-MS metabolomics platform to measure a panel of metabolites within cholesterol synthesis, dietary sterol absorption, and bile acid formation to determine metabolite signatures that may predict variation in statin LDL-C lowering efficacy. Measurements were performed in two subsets of the total study population in the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (CAP study: Full Range of Response (FR, and Good and Poor Responders (GPR were 100 individuals randomly selected from across the entire range of LDL-C responses in CAP. GPR were 48 individuals, 24 each from the top and bottom 10% of the LDL-C response distribution matched for body mass index, race, and gender. We identified three secondary, bacterial-derived bile acids that contribute to predicting the magnitude of statin-induced LDL-C lowering in good responders. Bile acids and statins share transporters in the liver and intestine; we observed that increased plasma concentration of simvastatin positively correlates with higher levels of several secondary bile acids. Genetic analysis of these subjects identified associations between levels of seven bile acids and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs4149056, in the gene encoding the organic anion transporter SLCO1B1. These findings, along with recently published results that the gut microbiome plays an important role in cardiovascular disease, indicate that interactions between genome, gut microbiome and environmental influences should be considered in the study and management of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic

  11. Pleasant for some and unpleasant for others: a protocol analysis of the cognitive factors that influence affective responses to exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfitt Gaynor

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At exercise intensities around ventilatory threshold (VT, the extent to which individuals experience pleasure or displeasure from the exercise varies between individuals. One source of this variability is proposed to be the cognitive appraisal that occurs during the exercise which influences the generation of the affective response. When individuals self-select their own intensity they choose to exercise around VT and experience more positive affective responses, again the explanation being that cognitive appraisal processes influence the choice of intensity and resulting affective response. However, the specific factors that comprise this appraisal process have not been thoroughly explored. In addition, it is not clear if activity status influences this appraisal and different cognitive factors play a role in the generation of affective responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive factors that influence the affective response experienced during prescribed and self-selected intensity exercise in low-active and high-active women. Methods Seventeen low-active and 15 high-active women (M age = 45 years, SD = 10 completed a graded exercise test and two 30 min bouts of treadmill exercise, one at a self-selected intensity and one prescribed at an intensity around VT. Using 'think aloud' procedures, every five min, the women were asked to provide an affective response and explain the thought processes that caused them to report that affective response. Using inductive content analysis, the verbal reports provided by the women were analysed for key themes and categories that emerged as explaining the factors that underpinned the generation of the affective response. Data from the low-active and high-active women were analysed separately. Results Concepts relating to pre-exercise affective state, perceptions of ability, immediate and anticipated outcomes, attentional focus and perceptions of control

  12. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  13. Predictors of response in the treatment of moderate depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre G. Bastos

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify neurocognitive and sociodemographic variables that could be associated with clinical response to three modalities of treatment for depression, as well as variables that predicted superior response to one treatment over the others. Method: The present study derives from a research project in which depressed patients (n=272 received one of three treatments – long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (n=90, fluoxetine therapy (n=91, or a combination thereof (n=91 – over a 24-month period. Results: Sociodemographic variables were not found to be predictive. Six predictive neurocognitive variables were identified: three prognostic variables related to working memory and abstract reasoning; one prescriptive variable related to working memory; and two variables found to be moderators. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate subgroups of patients who might benefit from specific therapeutic strategies and subgroups that seem to respond well to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and combined therapy. The moderators found suggest that abstract reasoning and processing speed may influence the magnitude and/or direction of clinical improvement.

  14. Stressors affect the response of male and female rats to clomipramine in a model of behavioral despair (forced swim test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Daniele; Fedotova, Julia; Micale, Vincenzo; Sapronov, Nikolay S; Drago, Filippo

    2005-09-27

    blunted the hormonal response. However, severe shocks were followed by a surge of plasma corticosterone levels in both male and female clomipramine-treated rats. These results demonstrate that duration and intensity of stressful stimuli may deeply affect the behavioral response of rats in forced swim test and influence clomipramine effect in this behavioral model depending on gender-based variables, probably of the hormonal type. Plasma corticosterone levels correlate with the behavioral response to clomipramine treatment suggesting that reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress may be involved in the antidepressant effect of this drug.

  15. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  16. GH deficiency status combined with GH receptor polymorphism affects response to GH in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsesia, Armand; Chatelain, Pierre; Stevens, Adam; Peterkova, Valentina A; Belgorosky, Alicia; Maghnie, Mohamad; Antoniazzi, Franco; Koledova, Ekaterina; Wojcik, Jerome; Farmer, Pierre; Destenaves, Benoit; Clayton, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analysis has shown a modest improvement in first-year growth response to recombinant human GH (r-hGH) for carriers of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor (GHRd3) polymorphism but with significant interstudy variability. The associations between GHRd3 and growth response to r-hGH over 3 years in relation to severity of GH deficiency (GHD) were investigated in patients from 14 countries. Treatment-naïve pre-pubertal children with GHD were enrolled from the PREDICT studies (NCT00256126 and NCT00699855), categorized by peak GH level (peak GH) during provocation test: ≤4 μg/l (severe GHD; n=45) and >4 to GH level. GH peak level (higher vs lower) and GHRd3 (fl/fl vs d3 carriers) combined status was associated with height change over 3 years (PGH had lower growth than subjects with fl/fl (median difference after 3 years -3.3 cm; -0.3 SDS). Conversely, GHRd3 carriers with higher peak GH had better growth (+2.7 cm; +0.2 SDS). Similar patterns were observed for GH-dependent biomarkers. GE profiles were significantly different between the groups, indicating that the interaction between GH status and GHRd3 carriage can be identified at a transcriptomic level. This study demonstrates that responses to r-hGH depend on the interaction between GHD severity and GHRd3 carriage.

  17. Carnitine deprivation adversely affects cardiovascular response to bacterial endotoxin (LPS) in the anesthetized neonatal pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, D; Zhang, L; Bobrowski, P J; Quinn, M; Liu, X; McDonough, K H

    1998-11-01

    Sepsis and endotoxemia are important stressors for the neonate. Newborn infants receiving total parenteral nutrition are routinely deprived of carnitine. To investigate whether carnitine deprivation affects the neonate's ability to respond to endotoxin, 19 newborn piglets received parenteral nutrition for 2-3 weeks that was either carnitine free (CARN-) or supplemented (CARN+) with L-carnitine (400 mg/L). Cardiovascular performance, i.e., heart rate; blood pressure (BP); cardiac output (CO); systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and metabolic response, i.e., plasma glucose; lactate; tumor necrosis factor alpha; tissue nitric oxide; and urinary nitrites, were studied serially in anesthetized piglets for 3 h after endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 250 microg/kg intravenous bolus) or vehicle administration. Plasma and tissue carnitine values were lower in CARN- than in CARN+ piglets. Prior to LPS, no differences were found for most parameters (excepting lower diastolic BP and SVR in CARN- animals). Systolic, diastolic, and mean BP fell after LPS but recovered by the end of the experiment. Nadirs were lower in CARN- than in CARN+ piglets. CO tended to be higher in CARN- than in CARN+ animals and fell after LPS. SVR fell after LPS and was lower in CARN- than in CARN+ piglets. LPS-treated animals transiently increased urinary flow. By all measures (plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha, glucose and lactate, tissue nitric oxide, and urinary nitrite excretion), LPS provocation was similar for both groups. Chronologically, BP changes were more closely related to SVR than to CO. Our findings suggest that carnitine deprivation diminishes tissue carnitine concentrations and adversely affects cardiovascular response to LPS, in part mediated by the peripheral vasculature.

  18. Identification of Regulatory Mutations in SERPINC1 Affecting Vitamin D Response Elements Associated with Antithrombin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderici, Mara; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Antón, Ana Isabel; Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Herranz, María Teresa; Fernández, Nuria; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a crucial anticoagulant serpin whose even moderate deficiency significantly increases the risk of thrombosis. Most cases with antithrombin deficiency carried genetic defects affecting exons or flanking regions of SERPINC1.We aimed to identify regulatory mutations inSERPINC1 through sequencing the promoter, intron 1 and 2 of this gene in 23 patients with antithrombin deficiency but without known genetic defects. Three cases with moderate antithrombin deficiency (63–78%) carried potential regulatory mutations. One located 200 bp before the initiation ATG and two in intron 1. These mutations disrupted two out of five potential vitamin D receptor elements (VDRE) identified in SERPINC1 with different software. One genetic defect, c.42-1060_-1057dupTTGA, was a new low prevalent polymorphism (MAF: 0.01) with functional consequences on plasma antithrombin levels. The relevance of the vitamin D pathway on the regulation of SERPINC1 was confirmed in a cell model. Incubation of HepG2 with paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, increased dose-dependently the levels of SERPINC1transcripts and antithrombin released to the conditioned medium. This study shows further evidence of the transcriptional regulation of SERPINC1 by vitamin D and first describes the functional and pathological relevance of mutations affecting VDRE of this gene. Our study opens new perspectives in the search of new genetic defects involved in antithrombin deficiency and the risk of thrombosis as well as in the design of new antithrombotic treatments. PMID:27003919

  19. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity.

  20. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Fischer

    Full Text Available How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers, low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers. We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  1. Maternal mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy affect infants' neural responses to sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Donkers, Franc C L; Winkler, István; Otte, Renée A; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2015-03-01

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy has been consistently shown to negatively affect offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of positive maternal traits/states during pregnancy on the offspring. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of the mother's mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy on the infant's neurocognitive functioning at 9 months of age. Mothers reported mindfulness using the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory and anxiety using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) at ± 20.7 weeks of gestation. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured from 79 infants in an auditory oddball paradigm designed to measure auditory attention-a key aspect of early neurocognitive functioning. For the ERP responses elicited by standard sounds, higher maternal mindfulness was associated with lower N250 amplitudes (P mindfulness was also positively associated with the P150 amplitudes (P mindfulness devote fewer attentional resources to frequently occurring irrelevant sounds. The results show that positive traits and experiences of the mother during pregnancy may also affect the unborn child. Emphasizing the beneficial effects of a positive psychological state during pregnancy may promote healthy behavior in pregnant women.

  2. The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2 Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise conditions, a control condition with no stimuli and two test conditions; one supplemented with a self-selected video and the other self-selected music. The Feeling Scale (FS was administered prior to, every 10 min during, immediately following, and 10 min post exercise. (3 Results: These data demonstrate a significant condition effect for FS during exercise. The condition effect was due to FS being greater in the video and distraction conditions. There was no time by condition interaction seen during exercise. (4 Conclusion: These data indicate that distraction may be effective in supporting a more pleasant exercise experience and could potentially increase exercise adherence.

  3. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual.

  4. Common European harmful algal blooms affect the viability and innate immune responses of Mytilus edulis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rijcke, M; Vandegehuchte, M B; Vanden Bussche, J; Nevejan, N; Vanhaecke, L; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Janssen, C R

    2015-11-01

    Like marine diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs) are globally increasing in frequency, severity and geographical scale. As a result, bivalves will have to face the combined threat of toxic algae and marine pathogens more frequently in the (near) future. These stressors combined may further affect the recruitment of ecologically and economically important bivalve species as HABs can affect the growth, viability and development of their larvae. To date, little is known on the specific effects of HABs on the innate immune system of bivalve larvae. This study therefore investigates whether two common harmful algae can influence the larval viability, development and immunological resilience of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Embryos of this model organism were exposed (48 h) to five densities of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries or Prorocentrum lima cells. In addition, the effect of six concentrations of their respective toxins: domoic acid (DA) and okadaic acid (OA) were assessed. OA was found to significantly reduce larval protein phosphatase activity (p larval viability (p < 0.01) at concentrations as low as 37.8 μg l(-1). P. multiseries (1400 cells ml(-1)), P. lima (150 cells ml(-1)) and DA (dosed five times higher than typical environmental conditions i.e. 623.2 μg l(-1)) increased the phenoloxidase (PO) innate immune activity of the mussel larvae. These results suggest that the innate immune response of even the earliest life stages of bivalves is susceptible to the presence of HABs.

  5. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  6. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  7. Sperm treatment affects capacitation parameters and penetration ability of ejaculated and epididymal boar spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matás, C; Sansegundo, M; Ruiz, S; García-Vázquez, F A; Gadea, J; Romar, R; Coy, P

    2010-11-01

    This work was designed to study how this ability is affected by different sperm treatments routinely used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay. In this study, boar sperm samples from epididymal or ejaculated origin were processed by three different methods: left unwashed (NW group), washed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.1% BSA (BSA group), and washed on a Percoll(®) gradient (PERCOLL group). After preparation of semen samples, changes in motility patterns were studied by CASA, calcium uptake by spectrofluorimetry, and ROS generation, spontaneous acrosome reaction, and lipid disorder by means of flow cytometry. Finally IVF assays were also performed with the different semen samples and penetrability results evaluated at 2 and 4 h post insemination (hpi). Independently of the sperm treatment, epididymal spermatozoa showed higher values of progressive motility, percentage of live cells with low lipid disorder, and penetration ability at 4 hpi than the corresponding ejaculated spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa showed higher levels of calcium uptake, ROS generation and percentage of spontaneous acrosome reaction than epididymal sperm. Regarding sperm treatments, PERCOLL group showed the highest values for some motility parameters (linearity of the curvilinear trajectory, straightness, and average path velocity/curvilinear velocity), ROS generation and penetration ability at 2 and 4 hpi; however this same group showed the lowest values for sperm curvilinear velocity and lateral head displacement. From all experimental groups, ejaculated-PERCOLL-treated spermatozoa showed the highest fertilization ability after 2 hpi. Results suggest that capacitation pathways can be regulated by suitable treatments making the ejaculated sperm able to reach capacitation and fertilize oocytes in similar levels than epididymal spermatozoa, although most of the studied capacitation-associated changes do not correlate with this ability.

  8. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. CONCLUSIONS: Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an

  9. Pleasant for some and unpleasant for others: a protocol analysis of the cognitive factors that influence affective responses to exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Parfitt Gaynor; Rose Elaine A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background At exercise intensities around ventilatory threshold (VT), the extent to which individuals experience pleasure or displeasure from the exercise varies between individuals. One source of this variability is proposed to be the cognitive appraisal that occurs during the exercise which influences the generation of the affective response. When individuals self-select their own intensity they choose to exercise around VT and experience more positive affective responses, again th...

  10. Chronic Cluster Headache with an Atypical Presentation and Treatment Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of cluster headache (CH may be challenging. We report a 50-year-old male with recurrent attacks of dull and severe unilateral periorbital pain, lasting 30–45 minutes, twice a day, exclusively during sleep, and accompanied by ipsilateral rhinorrhea and lacrimation. The pain switched sides within every attack. CH treatment was initiated but the patient maintained recurrence rates compatible with chronic CH, even after increasing verapamil to 460 mg/day. Afterwards we decided to add lithium (800 mg/day. With this treatment the severity and recurrence of CH substantially decreased, despite the patient’s autonomous decision to take lithium only during the acute phase of the cluster. The exclusively alternating location and the excellent response to short cycles of lithium represent two unique features of CH.

  11. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry

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    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1 were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level.

  12. Transcriptomic Response to Nitric Oxide Treatment in Larix olgensis Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Yang, Jingli; Li, Chenghao

    2015-12-02

    Larix olgensis Henry is an important coniferous species found in plantation forests in northeastern China, but it is vulnerable to pathogens. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule involved in plant resistance to pathogens. To study the regulatory role of NO at the transcriptional level, we characterized the transcriptomic response of L. olgensis seedlings to sodium nitroprusside (SNP, NO donor) using Illumina sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly. A significant number of putative metabolic pathways and functions associated with the unique sequences were identified. Genes related to plant pathogen infection (FLS2, WRKY33, MAPKKK, and PR1) were upregulated with SNP treatment. This report describes the potential contribution of NO to disease resistance in L. olgensis as induced by biotic stress. Our results provide a substantial contribution to the genomic and transcriptomic resources for L. olgensis, as well as expanding our understanding of the involvement of NO in defense responses at the transcriptional level.

  13. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Clinical Features, Endoscopic Findings and Response to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Enns

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE is a motility disorder of the esophagus that typically presents with dysphagia. The objective of the present study was to explore patient characteristics, clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment of patients with EE. Patients were selected retrospectively based on a review of biopsy results from previous endoscopies performed between 2004 and 2008. A total of 54 patients (41 men and 13 women with biopsy-proven EE were included in the study. Further information regarding the patients’ clinical and endoscopic features, and response to treatment were obtained through chart reviews and patient telephone interviews. The mean age of the patients at symptom onset was 30 years. All patients complained of dysphagia, 81% had a history of bolus obstruction, 43% had a history of asthma and 70% had a history of environmental allergies. Thirty-three per cent had a family history of asthma, while 52% had a family history of food or seasonal allergies. The most common endoscopic findings were rings and/or corrugations, which were found in 63% of patients. Swallowed fluticasone therapy resulted in symptom resolution in 74% of patients; however, 79% of these patients relapsed after discontinuing fluticasone therapy and required repeat treatments. Esophageal dilation was complication free and resulted in improvement in 80% of patients. However, 83% of those reporting improvement relapsed within one year. The clinical and endoscopic findings were similar to those found in the literature, with most patients requiring ongoing, repeated therapies. Further studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of treatment modalities ideally suited to patients with EE.

  15. Morphogenesis in Mucor mucedo: mutations affecting gamone response and organ differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, T; Jockusch, H

    1978-02-27

    Mutants of Mucor mucedo minus strain that are affected in their trisporic acid (TA) mediated zygophore formation have been isolated. We have found mutants with cold sensitive (cs), with temperature sensitive (ts) and without zygophore formation as well as mutants with unstable zygophores (Zst-). From the appearence of certain pleiotropic phenotypes we deduce a one-dimensional sequence of states of competence of the mycelium to form different organs. TA appears to be a growth substance for zygophores acting on one transient state of competence. The fact that all isolates with lowered response to TA also have a lowered response to the mating type specific TA-precursor P strongly suggests that P has to be converted into TA before inducing zygophore growth. Furthermore, one mutant with lowered sensitivity to TA exhibits an excess zygophore formation in the presence of high TA-concentrations, while high concentrations of P cause a depressed zygophore formation (Fig. 6). Our interpretation of this behaviour is that P acts as an antagonist to TA in the regulation of zygophore growth.

  16. Schistosomiasis differentially affects vasoconstrictor responses: up-regulation of 5-HT receptor-mediated aorta contraction

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    Suellen D'Arc dos Santos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, classified by the World Health Organization as a neglected tropical disease, is an intravascular parasitic disease associated to a chronic inflammatory state. Evidence implicating inflammation in vascular dysfunction continues to mount, which, broadly defined, reflects a failure in the control of intracellular Ca2+ and consequently, vascular contraction. Therefore, we measured aorta contraction induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and endothelin-1 (ET-1, two important regulators of vascular contraction. Isometric aortic contractions were determined in control and Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice. In the infected animals, 5-HT induced a 50% higher contraction in relation to controls and we also observed an increased contraction in response to Ca2+ mobilisation from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Nevertheless, Rho kinase inhibition reduced the contraction in response to 5-HT equally in both groups, discarding an increase of the contractile machinery sensitivity to Ca2+. Furthermore, no alteration was observed for contractions induced by ET-1 in both groups. Our data suggest that an immune-vascular interaction occurs in schistosomiasis, altering vascular contraction outside the mesenteric portal system. More importantly, it affects distinct intracellular signalling involved in aorta contraction, in this case increasing 5-HT receptor signalling.

  17. DHA Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Affects Infants' Cellular but Not Humoral Immune Response

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    Esther Granot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is currently recommended that diet of pregnant mothers contain 200–300 mg DHA/day. Aim. To determine whether DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation affects infants' immune response. Methods. 60 women in ≥3rd pregnancy studied; 30 randomly assigned to receive DHA 400 mg/day from 12th week gestation until 4 months postpartum. From breast-fed infants, blood obtained for anti-HBs antibodies, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subset phenotyping, and intracellular cytokine production. Results. CD4+ lymphocytes did not differ between groups, but CD4CD45RA/CD4 (naïve cells significantly higher in infants in DHA+ group. Proportion of CD4 and CD8 cells producing IFNγ significantly lower in DHA+ group, with no differences in proportion of IL4-producing cells. Immunoglobulins and anti-HBs levels did not differ between groups. Conclusions. In infants of mothers receiving DHA supplementation, a higher percentage of CD4 naïve cells and decreased CD4 and CD8 IFNγ production is compatible with attenuation of a proinflammatory response.

  18. Amount and distribution of dietary protein affects clinical response to levodopa in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J H; Nutt, J G; Woodward, W R; Hatcher, L F; Trotman, T L

    1989-04-01

    Reducing dietary protein improves the effectiveness of levodopa (LD) but the most effective distribution of a low-protein diet (0.8 g/kg) is unclear. We compared a 1.6 g/kg protein diet, a 0.8 g/kg diet with protein evenly distributed between meals, and a 0.8 g/kg diet with protein restricted to the evening meal in 5 parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations. We monitored clinical response, plasma LD, and plasma large amino acids (LNAAs) hourly throughout the day. Mean "on" times were 51% (1.6 g/kg diet), 67% (0.8 g/kg evenly distributed), and 77% (0.8 g/kg restricted). Hourly averages of plasma LD did not differ between the diets. The mean plasma LNAAs were 732 nmol/ml (1.6 g/kg diet), 640 (0.8 g/kg distributed), and 542 (0.8 g/kg restricted), and the diurnal pattern reflected the distribution of protein intake. In conclusion, the amount and distribution of dietary protein affect clinical response to LD. These effects are not related to LD absorption but are explained by the variation in plasma LNAAs.

  19. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-07

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.

  20. Understanding the neuroinflammatory response following concussion to develop treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Zachary R; Holahan, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) have been associated with long-term cognitive deficits relating to trauma-induced neurodegeneration. These long-term deficits include impaired memory and attention, changes in executive function, emotional instability, and sensorimotor deficits. Furthermore, individuals with concussions show a high co-morbidity with a host of psychiatric illnesses (e.g., depression, anxiety, addiction) and dementia. The neurological damage seen in mTBI patients is the result of the impact forces and mechanical injury, followed by a delayed neuroimmune response that can last hours, days, and even months after the injury. As part of the neuroimmune response, a cascade of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released and can be detected at the site of injury as well as subcortical, and often contralateral, regions. It has been suggested that the delayed neuroinflammatory response to concussions is more damaging then the initial impact itself. However, evidence exists for favorable consequences of cytokine production following traumatic brain injuries as well. In some cases, treatments that reduce the inflammatory response will also hinder the brain's intrinsic repair mechanisms. At present, there is no evidence-based pharmacological treatment for concussions in humans. The ability to treat concussions with drug therapy requires an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological and neuroinflammatory changes that accompany concussive injuries. The use of neurotrophic factors [e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF)] and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct for the management of post-concussion symptomology will be explored in this review.

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE NEUROINFLAMMATORY RESPONSE FOLLOWING CONCUSSION TO DEVELOP TREATMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI have been associated with long-term cognitive deficits relating to trauma-induced neurodegeneration. These long-term deficits include impaired memory and attention, changes in executive function, emotional instability and sensorimotor deficits. Furthermore, individuals with concussions show a high co-morbidity with a host of psychiatric illnesses (e.g. depression, anxiety, addiction and dementia. The neurological damage seen in mTBI patients is the result of the direct impact and mechanical injury, followed by a delayed neuroimmune response that can last hours, days and even months after the injury. As part of the neuroimmune response, a cascade of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released and can be detected at the site of injury as well as subcortical, and often contralateral, regions. It has been suggested that the delayed neuroinflammatory response to concussions is more damaging then the initial impact itself. However, evidence exists for favourable consequences of cytokine production following traumatic brain injuries as well. In some cases, treatments that reduce the inflammatory response will also hinder the brain's intrinsic repair mechanisms. At present, there is no evidence-based pharmacological treatment for concussions in humans. The ability to treat concussions with drug therapy requires an in-depth understanding of the pathophysiological and neuroinflammatory changes that accompany concussive injuries. The use of neurotrophic factors (e.g. nerve growth factor and anti-inflammatory agents as an adjunct for the management of post-concussion symptomology will be explored in this review.

  2. Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huijding (Jorg); P.J. de Jong (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. Th

  3. Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijdlng, J; de Jong, PJ; Huijding, J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. The EAST and t

  4. SAPHO syndrome with affection of the mandible: diagnosis, treatment, and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemann, Wolfgang; Pau, Mauro; Feichtinger, Matthias; Ferra-Matschy, Barbara; Kaercher, Hans

    2011-02-01

    The synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology. Involvement of the mandible is found in almost 10% of cases. In the literature, conservative treatment is recommended most often, because decortication and partial resection are found to be ineffective and of temporary profit. We report a case of SAPHO syndrome in a 44-year-old women with unilateral hyperostosis of the mandible and massive painful swelling of the surrounding soft tissues. Owing to facial disfiguration and pain, resection of the affected bone followed by immediate reconstruction with a microvascular iliac crest flap were performed. The aim of this paper was to present the necessity of surgical intervention in SAPHO syndrome of the mandible in cases of esthetic and functional limitation.

  5. The dopamine hypothesis of bipolar affective disorder: the state of the art and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, A H; Marques, T R; Jauhar, S; Nour, M M; Goodwin, G M; Young, A H; Howes, O D

    2017-03-14

    Bipolar affective disorder is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are incompletely understood, the dopamine hypothesis has been a key theory of the pathophysiology of both manic and depressive phases of the illness for over four decades. The increased use of antidopaminergics in the treatment of this disorder and new in vivo neuroimaging and post-mortem studies makes it timely to review this theory. To do this, we conducted a systematic search for post-mortem, pharmacological, functional magnetic resonance and molecular imaging studies of dopamine function in bipolar disorder. Converging findings from pharmacological and imaging studies support the hypothesis that a state of hyperdopaminergia, specifically elevations in D2/3 receptor availability and a hyperactive reward processing network, underlies mania. In bipolar depression imaging studies show increased dopamine transporter levels, but changes in other aspects of dopaminergic function are inconsistent. Puzzlingly, pharmacological evidence shows that both dopamine agonists and antidopaminergics can improve bipolar depressive symptoms and perhaps actions at other receptors may reconcile these findings. Tentatively, this evidence suggests a model where an elevation in striatal D2/3 receptor availability would lead to increased dopaminergic neurotransmission and mania, whilst increased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) levels would lead to reduced dopaminergic function and depression. Thus, it can be speculated that a failure of dopamine receptor and transporter homoeostasis might underlie the pathophysiology of this disorder. The limitations of this model include its reliance on pharmacological evidence, as these studies could potentially affect other monoamines, and the scarcity of imaging evidence on dopaminergic function. This model, if confirmed, has implications for developing new treatment strategies such as reducing the dopamine synthesis and/or release in

  6. Seasonality affects macroalgal community response to increases in pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Baggini

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is expected to alter marine systems, but there is uncertainty about its effects due to the logistical difficulties of testing its large-scale and long-term effects. Responses of biological communities to increases in carbon dioxide can be assessed at CO2 seeps that cause chronic exposure to lower seawater pH over localised areas of seabed. Shifts in macroalgal communities have been described at temperate and tropical pCO2 seeps, but temporal and spatial replication of these observations is needed to strengthen confidence our predictions, especially because very few studies have been replicated between seasons. Here we describe the seawater chemistry and seasonal variability of macroalgal communities at CO2 seeps off Methana (Aegean Sea. Monitoring from 2011 to 2013 showed that seawater pH decreased to levels predicted for the end of this century at the seep site with no confounding gradients in Total Alkalinity, salinity, temperature or wave exposure. Most nutrient levels were similar along the pH gradient; silicate increased significantly with decreasing pH, but it was not limiting for algal growth at all sites. Metal concentrations in seaweed tissues varied between sites but did not consistently increase with pCO2. Our data on the flora are consistent with results from laboratory experiments and observations at Mediterranean CO2 seep sites in that benthic communities decreased in calcifying algal cover and increased in brown algal cover with increasing pCO2. This differs from the typical macroalgal community response to stress, which is a decrease in perennial brown algae and proliferation of opportunistic green algae. Cystoseira corniculata was more abundant in autumn and Sargassum vulgare in spring, whereas the articulated coralline alga Jania rubens was more abundant at reference sites in autumn. Diversity decreased with increasing CO2 regardless of season. Our results show that benthic community responses to ocean

  7. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13–19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved. PMID:27635134

  8. Treatment-associated severe thrombocytopenia affects survival rate in esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y M Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer is commonly treated with surgery, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, or a combination of both. The correlation between the hematological parameters during CCRT and early survival of esophageal cancer has not been fully evaluated. Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 65 esophageal cancer patients treated by CCRT between 2007 and 2010 retrospectively. The association between CCRT-associated myelosuppression, demographic variables, and survival rates were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The univariate analysis showed that tumor extent of T3-4, a higher stage of tumor, a lower albumin level, grade 3 or higher anemia and thrombocytopenia, and interruptions in treatment affected survival rates. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV (P = 0.030 is an independently negative prognostic factor for a one-year survival rate. Stage IV (P = 0.035, tumor extent of T3-4 (P = 0.002, and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.015 are independently negative prognostic factors for a two-year survival rate. Conclusions: Severe decrease in platelet count during CCRT independently affects survival of esophageal cancer patients in addition to stage of the tumor.

  9. Mutations of Cx43 that affect B cell spreading in response to BCR signaling

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    Letitia Falk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The gap junction (GJ protein connexin 43 (Cx43 is both necessary and sufficient for B cell receptor (BCR-mediated cell spreading. To address how Cx43 mediates this effect, we blocked its function genetically, by expressing mutants of Cx43, and pharmacologically, by using chemical inhibitors. While various point mutations of Cx43 inhibited B cell spreading, treatment with channel blocking drugs did not, suggesting that this response was independent of channel function. The critical region of Cx43 appears to be the cytoplasmic carboxyl-terminal (CT domain, which has previously been shown to be important for B cell spreading. Consistent with this, mutations of either tyrosine 247 or 265 found in the CT were sufficient to inhibit spreading. Thus Cx43 may influence B cell spreading by mechanisms requiring protein binding to, or modification of, these sites in the CT tail.

  10. Affect Intensity and Phasic REM Sleep in Depressed Men before and after Treatment with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofzinger, Eric A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored relationship between daytime affect and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep in 45 depressed men before and after treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy and in control group of 43 healthy subjects. For depressed subjects only, intensity of daytime affect correlated significantly and positively with phasic REM sleep measures at pre- and…

  11. Polymorphisms within beta-catenin encoding gene affect multiple myeloma development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrym, Aleksandra; Rybka, Justyna; Łacina, Piotr; Gębura, Katarzyna; Frontkiewicz, Diana; Bogunia-Kubik, Katarzyna; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that cereblon (CRBN) is essential for the anti-myeloma (MM) activity of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and lenalidomide, and that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be one of possible reasons of lenalidomide resistance. This prompted us to analyze the effect of polymorphisms within the genes coding for cereblon (CRBN (rs121918368 C>T)) and β-catenin (CTNNB1 (rs4135385 A>G; rs4533622 A>C)). MM patients (n=142) and healthy individuals (n=123) were genotyped using the Light SNiP assays. The presence of the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) A allele was more frequently detected in patients presented with stage II-III disease according to International Staging System (63/82 vs. 26/44, p=0.043) and Durie-Salmon criteria (75/99 vs. 14/26, p=0.049). The CTNNB1 (rs4135385) AA homozygosity was more frequent among patients with better response to CTD, i.e., cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (18/23 vs. 32/60, p=0.047). Patients carrying the CTNNB1 (rs4533622) AA genotype were better responders to the first line therapy with thalidomide containing regimens (pCRBN polymorphism. These results suggest that the CTNNB1 polymorphisms may affect the clinical course and response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma.

  12. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  13. Dietary electrolyte balance affects growth performance, amylase activity and metabolic response in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Peixoto, Maria-João; Pereira, Luis; Silva-Brito, Francisca; Fontinha, Filipa; Gonçalves, José F M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Schrama, Johan W; Ozório, Rodrigo O A

    2017-03-16

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60-66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90-96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance.

  14. Paradoxical response during antituberculous treatment for abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Mi Jeong; Chang, Hyuk Won; Hwang, Jae Seok; Cho, Kwang Bum; Park, Kyung Sik; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate clinical and CT findings of paradoxical response during treatment for abdominal tuberculosis. Authors reviewed the patient records of 138 patients with abdominal tuberculosis during a recent 6-year period and we selected 11 patients with a paradoxical response. The CT findings and pathologic findings of the initial lesions and new lesions were reviewed. The intervals between initiation of therapy and the detection of new lesions, improvement of new lesion and the final follow-up were evaluated. At the initial presentation, we identified tuberculous peritonitis in 8 patients, tuberculous lymphadenitis in 3 patients and ileocolic tuberculosis in two patients. New lesions were identified at 2-10 months (mean: 3.8 months) after the initiation of therapy and following improvement of the initial lesions. The new lesions were perihepatic caseous abscess (n=4), hepatic tuberculoma (n=3), hepatic caseous abscess (n=1), tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3), ileocolic tuberculosis (n=3), and splenic tuberculoma (n=1). Improvement of new lesions was noted at 4-14 months (mean: 7.6 months). At the final follow-up of seven patients, the new lesions disappeared and four patients still had small residual lesions. New lesions that develop in a patient with initial improvement should be considered a paradoxical response that will ultimately improve with continuation of the original medication.

  15. A proteomic analysis of rice seed germination as affected by high temperature and ABA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-05-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the specific events associated with seed germination are still not fully understood. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to investigate the changes in the proteome during imbibition of Oryza sativa seeds at optimal temperature with or without abscisic acid (ABA) and high temperature (germination thermoinhibition) to further identify and quantify key proteins required for seed germination. A total of 121 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (1.5-fold increase/decrease) during germination under all conditions. Among these proteins, we found seven proteins specifically associated with seed germination including glycosyl hydrolases family 38 protein, granule-bound starch synthase 1, Os03g0842900 (putative steroleosin-B), N-carbamoylputrescine amidase, spermidine synthase 1, tubulin α-1 chain and glutelin type-A; and a total of 20 imbibition response proteins involved in energy metabolism, cell growth, cell defense and storage proteins. High temperature inhibited seed germination by decreasing the abundance of proteins involved in methionine metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, reserve degradation, protein folding and stress responses. ABA treatment inhibited germination and decreased the abundance of proteins associated with methionine metabolism, energy production and cell division. Our results show that changes in many biological processes including energy metabolism, protein synthesis and cell defense and rescue occurred as a result of all treatments, while enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and weakening of cell wall specifically accumulated when the seeds germinated at the optimal temperature.

  16. Vessel noise affects beaked whale behavior: results of a dedicated acoustic response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement.

  17. Vessel noise affects beaked whale behavior: results of a dedicated acoustic response study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pirotta

    Full Text Available Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas. A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement.

  18. Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module for Depressed Mood: A preliminary investigation of treatment-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, Dana L; Siegle, Greg J; Shirk, Stephen R

    2011-06-01

    Positive affective functioning (PAF) is critical to the development, course and treatment of depressive symptoms. Targeting key features of PAF during treatment may provide a new angle through which to improve affective functioning and reduce symptoms. The current study was a treatment development trial for the Positive Affect Stimulation and Sustainment (PASS) Module. PASS is conceptualized as a means of capitalizing on positive events (e.g. planned through behavioral activation) by enhancing and sustaining positive affective states through savoring, and establishing positive attributions and expectancies. Participants were 27 female college students with dysphoric symptoms. There was a moderate effect of PASS on depressive symptoms. There was also a significant within session increase in positive affect from pre to post session among the PASS group, relative to active control; and a significant decrease in positive affect from pre (baseline) to post (follow-up) treatment among the control group, relative to PASS. Results provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the treatment module among young adults with depressed mood, and lay the foundation for future research.

  19. Chronic treatment with ivabradine does not affect cardiovascular autonomic control in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A low resting heart rate (HR would be of great benefit in cardiovascular diseases. Ivabradine – a novel selective inhibitor of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated (HCN channels– has emerged as a promising HR lowering drug. Its effects on the autonomic HR control are little known. This study assessed the effects of chronic treatment with ivabradine on the modulatory, reflex and tonic cardiovascular autonomic control and on the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. Male Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups, receiving intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (VEH or ivabradine (IVA during 7 or 8 consecutive days. Rats were submitted to vessels cannulation to perform arterial blood pressure (AP and HR recordings in freely moving rats. Time series of resting pulse interval and systolic AP were used to measure cardiovascular variability parameters. We also assessed the baroreflex, chemoreflex and the Bezold-Jarish reflex sensitivities. To better evaluate the effects of ivabradine on the autonomic control of the heart, we performed sympathetic and vagal autonomic blockade. As expected, ivabradine-treated rats showed a lower resting (VEH: 362 ± 16 bpm vs. IVA: 260 ± 14 bpm, p=0.0005 and intrinsic HR (VEH: 369 ± 9 bpm vs. IVA: 326 ± 11bpm, p=0.0146. However, the chronic treatment with ivabradine did not change normalized HR spectral parameters LF (nu (VEH: 24.2 ± 4.6 vs. IVA: 29.8 ± 6.4; p>0.05; HF (nu (VEH: 75.1 ± 3.7 vs. IVA: 69.2 ± 5.8; p>0.05, any cardiovascular reflexes, neither the tonic autonomic control of the HR (sympathovagal index; VEH: 0.91± 0.02 vs. IVA: 0.88 ± 0.03, p=0.3494. We performed the AP, HR and RSNA recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats. The chronic treatment with ivabradine reduced the resting HR (VEH: 364 ± 12 bpm vs. IVA: 207 ± 11 bpm, p<0.0001, without affecting RSNA (VEH: 117 ± 16 vs. IVA: 120 ± 9 spikes/sec, p=0.9100 and mean arterial pressure (VEH: 70 ± 4 vs. IVA: 77 ± 6 mmHg, p=0

  20. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Lai

    Full Text Available Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3 acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01, though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture

  1. The degree of virulence does not necessarily affect MRSA biofilm strength and response to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelfetouh, Alaa A Y; Nafee, Noha A; Moussa, Nihal K

    2016-02-01

    Biofilm formation transforms infections from acute to chronic, increasing patient mortality and significantly increasing healthcare costs. We are studying the prevalence of some virulence genes among methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates relative to biofilm formation and the potential of photoactivated hypericin to treat these infections. Isolates were collected from three Egyptian governorates over seven months in 2011, 100 isolates were identified as MRSA. Biofilm formation was established using crystal violet staining and 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction. Twenty two percent of the isolates formed biofilms, of which 68.2% were moderate to strong. The virulence genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. spaX (x-region of protein A) was most prevalent. All biofilm-formers lacked cap5 (capsular polysaccharide 5), the other genes were: nuc (thermonuclease) > clfA (clumping factor) > spaIgG (IgG binding site of protein A), fnbA (fibronectin protein A), cap8 (capsular polysaccharide 8), agr (accessory-gene-regulator locus) > fnbB (fibronectin protein B). agr-locus was only found in 22.22% of moderate biofilm-formers, the remaining genes were almost equally prevalent among biofilm-formers and negative controls. Photoactivated hypericin efficiently inhibited 92.2-99.9% of biofilm viability, irrespective of the number of virulence genes. To conclude, biofilm formation, and treatment might be affected by a myriad of virulence factors rather than a single gene, however, photoactivated hypericin remains a potential antibiofilm approach.

  2. Toll Like Receptor 4 Affects the Cerebral Biochemical Changes Induced by MPTP Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Carmela; Roscini, Luca; Sardella, Roccaldo; Mariucci, Giuseppina; Scorzoni, Stefania; Beccari, Tommaso; Corte, Laura

    2017-01-21

    The etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest a critical role of the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in inflammatory response and neuronal death. Neuroinflammation may be associated with the misfolding and aggregation of proteins accompanied by a change in their secondary structure. Recent findings also suggest that biochemical perturbations in cerebral lipid content could contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including PD. Thus, it is of great importance to determine the biochemical changes that occur in PD. In this respect, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy represents a useful tool to detect molecular alterations in biological systems in response to stress stimuli. By relying upon FTIR approach, this study was designed to elucidate the potential role of TLR4 in biochemical changes induced by methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin in a mouse model of PD. The analysis of the FTIR spectra was performed in different brain regions of both wild type (WT) and toll like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) mice. It revealed that each brain region exhibited a characteristic molecular fingerprint at baseline, with no significant differences between genotypes. Conversely, WT and TLR4(-/-) mice showed differential biochemical response to MPTP toxicity, principally related to lipid and protein composition. These differences appeared to be characteristic for each brain area. Furthermore, the present study showed that WT mice resulted more vulnerable than TLR4(-/-) animals to striatal dopamine (DA) depletion following MPTP treatment. These results support the hypothesis of a possible involvement of TLR4 in biochemical changes occurring in neurodegeneration.

  3. Does foraging mode affect metabolic responses to feeding? A study of pygopodid lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael WALL, Michael B. THOMPSON, Richard SHINE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foraging mode (ambush vs. active profoundly affects many aspects of organismal biology, including metabolic rates and their relationship with food intake. Previous studies on snakes suggest that ambushers tend to have lower standard metabolic rates (SMR and higher energetic costs of digestion and assimilation of prey (specific dynamic action, or SDA than do active foragers. However, phylogenetic considerations may be at least partly responsible for such patterns, as foraging mode is strongly conserved evolutionarily and most SDA studies have focused on species from only two lineages of ambush foragers (pythonid and viperid snakes and one lineage of active foragers (colubrid snakes. We sought to deconfound the effects of phylogeny and foraging mode, investigating SMR and SDA in two closely related pygopodid lizards, the common scaly-foot Pygopus lepidopodus (active forager and Burton’s legless lizard Lialis burtonis (ambush forager. Consistent with the pattern seen in snakes, L. burtonis exhibits a significantly lower SMR and a higher SDA than does P. lepidopodus. The magnitude of SDA in L. burtonis is comparable to that of some pythons and vipers, providing yet more evidence for the remarkable convergence between this species and ambush-foraging snakes [Current Zoology 59 (5: 618–625, 2013]. 

  4. The Dynamical Response of Dark Matter to Galaxy Evolution Affects Direct-Detection Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Michael S; Weinberg, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    Over a handful of rotation periods, dynamical processes in barred galaxies induce non-axisymmetric structure in dark matter halos. Using n-body simulations of a Milky Way-like barred galaxy, we identify both a trapped dark-matter component, a shadow bar, and a strong response wake in the dark-matter distribution that affects the predicted dark-matter detection rates for current experiments. The presence of a baryonic disk together with well-known dynamical processes (e.g. spiral structure and bar instabilities) increase the dark matter density in the disk plane. We find that the magnitude of the combined stellar and shadow bar evolution, when isolated from the effect of the axisymmetric gravitational potential of the disk, accounts for >30% of this overall increase in disk-plane density. This is significantly larger that of previously claimed deviations from the standard halo model. The dark-matter density and kinematic wakes driven by the Milky Way bar increase the detectability of dark matter overall, espec...

  5. Bacterial formyl peptides affect the innate cellular antimicrobial responses of larval Galleria mellonella (Insecta: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavo, Thiery B C; Dunphy, Gary B

    2004-04-01

    The non-self cellular (hemocytic) responses of Galleria mellonella larvae, including the attachment to slides and the removal of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis from the hemolymph, were affected by N-formyl peptides. Both N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and the ester derivative decreased hemocyte adhesion in vitro, and both elevated hemocyte counts and suppressed the removal of both X. nematophila and B. subtilis from the hemolymph in vivo. The amide derivative and the antagonist tertiary-butoxy-carbonyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (tBOC) increased hemocyte attachment to glass. The fMLF suppressed protein discharge from monolayers of granular cells with and without bacterial stimulation, while tBOC stimulated protein discharge. The peptide tBOC offset the effects of fMLF in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report implying the existence of formyl peptide receptors on insect hemocytes in which the compounds fMLF and tBOC inhibited and activated hemocyte activity, respectively.

  6. The diageotropica gene differentially affects auxin and cytokinin responses throughout development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, C; Lomax, T L

    1998-05-01

    The interactions between the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin throughout plant development are complex, and genetic investigations of the interdependency of auxin and cytokinin signaling have been limited. We have characterized the cytokinin sensitivity of the auxin-resistant diageotropica (dgt) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in a range of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated responses. Intact, etiolated dgt seedlings showed cross-resistance to cytokinin with respect to root elongation, but cytokinin effects on hypocotyl growth and ethylene synthesis in these seedlings were not impaired by the dgt mutation. Seven-week-old, green wild-type and dgt plants were also equally sensitive to cytokinin with respect to shoot growth and hypocotyl and internode elongation. The effects of cytokinin and the dgt mutation on these processes appeared additive. In tissue culture organ regeneration from dgt hypocotyl explants showed reduced sensitivity to auxin but normal sensitivity to cytokinin, and the effects of cytokinin and the mutation were again additive. However, although callus induction from dgt hypocotyl explants required auxin and cytokinin, dgt calli did not show the typical concentration-dependent stimulation of growth by either auxin or cytokinin observed in wild-type cells. Cross-resistance of the dgt mutant to cytokinin thus was found to be limited to a small subset of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated growth processes affected by the dgt mutation, indicating that auxin and cytokinin regulate plant growth through both shared and separate signaling pathways.

  7. Factors Affecting Antioxidant Response in Fish from a Long-term Mercury-Contaminated Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcikova, M; Modra, H; Blahova, J; Dobsikova, R; Kalina, J; Zitka, O; Kizek, R; Svobodova, Z

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate antioxidant defence and oxidative damage in organs (liver, gills, kidney, and brain) of five fish species (Aspius aspius, Esox lucius, Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Rutilus rutilus) from the long-term mercury-contaminated Skalka Reservoir in the Czech Republic. Special emphasis was placed on a comprehensive assessment of the factors that may affect the antioxidant response to mercury in fish. Antioxidant enzymes (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase) did not significantly respond to mercury contamination. Levels of the analysed enzymes and oxidative damage to lipids were predominantly determined by a separate organ factor or species factor, or by the combination of both (p mercury contamination in combination with their specific organ distribution (p mercury contamination with respect to effects on antioxidant defence in fish under field conditions. Our findings suggest that the main antioxidant defensive mechanism in fish from the studied long-term mercury contaminated site was the inter-tissue distribution of glutathione.

  8. Dynamical response of dark matter to galaxy evolution affects direct-detection experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael S.; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, Martin D.

    2016-12-01

    Over a handful of rotation periods, dynamical processes in barred galaxies induce nonaxisymmetric structure in dark matter halos. Using n -body simulations of a Milky Way-like barred galaxy, we identify both a trapped dark matter component, a shadow bar, and a strong response wake in the dark matter distribution that affects the predicted dark matter detection rates for current experiments. The presence of a baryonic disk, together with well-known dynamical processes (e.g. spiral structure and bar instabilities), increases the dark matter density in the disk plane. We find that the magnitude of the combined stellar and shadow bar evolution, when isolated from the effect of the axisymmetric gravitational potential of the disk, accounts for >30 % of this overall increase in disk-plane density. This is significantly larger than that of previously claimed deviations from the standard halo model. The dark matter density and kinematic wakes driven by the Milky Way bar increase the detectability of dark matter overall, especially for the experiments with higher vmin . These astrophysical features increase the detection rate by more than a factor of 2 when compared to the standard halo model and by a factor of 10 for experiments with high minimum recoil energy thresholds. These same features increase (decrease) the annual modulation for low (high) minimum recoil energy experiments. We present physical arguments for why these dynamics are generic for barred galaxies such as the Milky Way rather than contingent on a specific galaxy model.

  9. Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog Affects the Replication Stress Response through Regulation of RNA Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Gina; Zhao, Runxiang; Guo, Yan; Mohni, Kareem N.; Glick, Gloria; Lacy, Monica E.; Hutson, M. Shane; Ascano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Accurate replication of DNA is imperative for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog (ERH) using a whole-genome RNA interference (RNAi) screen to discover novel proteins that function in the replication stress response. Here we report that ERH is important for DNA replication and recovery from replication stress. ATR pathway activity is diminished in ERH-deficient cells. The reduction in ATR signaling corresponds to a decrease in the expression of multiple ATR pathway genes, including ATR itself. ERH interacts with multiple RNA processing complexes, including splicing regulators. Furthermore, splicing of ATR transcripts is deficient in ERH-depleted cells. Transcriptome-wide analysis indicates that ERH depletion affects the levels of ∼1,500 transcripts, with DNA replication and repair genes being highly enriched among those with reduced expression. Splicing defects were evident in ∼750 protein-coding genes, which again were enriched for DNA metabolism genes. Thus, ERH regulation of RNA processing is needed to ensure faithful DNA replication and repair. PMID:26100022

  10. Pioglitazone does not affect vascular or inflammatory responses after endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Kolodjaschna, J; Pleiner, J; Mittermayer, F; Kapiotis, S; Schmetterer, L; Wolzt, M

    2008-08-01

    PPARgamma agonists have been proposed to exert more than metabolic benefits, particularly by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We hypothesized that pioglitazone might modulate inflammatory and vascular responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In a placebo-controlled parallel-group study in 18 healthy male subjects, the E. coli endotoxin model of inflammation (20 IU/kg i. v.) was employed to test the effect of 60 mg pioglitazone over nine days on inflammatory cytokines. Macrovascular function and microvascular blood flow were assessed by brachial artery ultrasound and retinal blood flow parameters, respectively. Pioglitazone increased brachial artery diameter by 5.6% but had no effect on other outcome parameters under resting conditions. LPS increased cytokine levels to peak concentrations of 91.3+/-22.5 ng/ml (IL-6), 261.4+/-60.0 ng/ml (TNFalpha), and 524.5+/-15.3 ng/ml (VCAM-1). The endotoxin caused microvascular vasodilation and increased retinal white blood cell flux, while baseline brachial artery diameter remained unchanged. Pioglitazone had no effect on inflammatory cytokine or adhesion molecule release but mitigated LPS-induced hypotension (p<0.05). Neither brachial artery function nor microvascular blood flow was altered by pioglitazone. In conclusion, acute immune reactions to LPS are not affected by pioglitazone, which exerts subtle vascular effects alone and during endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory properties of short-term pioglitazone to endotoxins in healthy subjects are therefore limited.

  11. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  12. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  13. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  14. Lithium treatment induces a hypersensitive-like response in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Miguel A; Romero, Carlos; Bellés, José M; Montesinos, Consuelo; Vicente, Oscar; Serrano, Ramón

    2003-07-01

    Treatment of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants with lithium induces the formation of necrotic lesions and leaf curling as in the case of incompatible pathogen interactions. Further similarities at the molecular level include accumulation of ethylene and of salicylic and gentisic acids, and induced expression of pathogenesis-related PR-P, PR5 and PR1 genes. With the exception of PR1 induction, lithium produced the same effects in transgenic tobacco plants that do not accumulate salicylate because of overexpression of the bacterial hydroxylase gene nahG. On the other hand, inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis with aminoethoxyvinylglycine prevented lithium-induced cell death and PR5 expression. These results suggest that lithium triggers a hypersensitive-like response where ethylene signalling is essential.

  15. Autonomic nervous system modulation affects the inflammatory immune response in mice with acute Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Paulo Ribeiro; Rocha, Aletheia Moraes; de Oliveira, Lucas Felipe; de Cuba, Marília Beatriz; de Oliveira Loss, Igor; Castellano, Lucio Roberto; Silva, Marcus Vinicius; Machado, Juliana Reis; Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Paiva, Luciano Henrique; Savino, Wilson; Junior, Virmondes Rodrigues; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antonio Maximo; Silva, Eliane Lages; Montano, Nicola; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; Dias da Silva, Valdo Jose

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of changes to the autonomic nervous system in mice during the acute phase of Chagas disease, which is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The following types of mice were inoculated with T. cruzi (CHG): wild-type (WT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter knockdown (KDVAChT) C57BL/6j mice; wild-type non-treated (NT) FVB mice; FVB mice treated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) or salbutamol (SALB); and β(2)-adrenergic receptor knockout (KOβ2) FVB mice. During infection and at 18-21 days after infection (acute phase), the survival curves, parasitaemia, electrocardiograms, heart rate variability, autonomic tonus and histopathology of the animals were evaluated. Negative control groups were matched for age, genetic background and treatment. The KDVAChT-CHG mice exhibited a significant shift in the electrocardiographic, autonomic and histopathological profiles towards a greater inflammatory immune response that was associated with a reduction in blood and tissue parasitism. In contrast, the CHG-PYR mice manifested reduced myocardial inflammation and lower blood and tissue parasitism. Similar results were observed in CHG-SALB animals. Unexpectedly, the KOβ2-CHG mice exhibited less myocardial inflammation and higher blood and tissue parasitism, which were associated with reduced mortality. These findings could have been due to the increase in vagal tone observed in the KOβ2 mice, which rendered them more similar to the CHG-PYR animals. In conclusion, our results indicate a marked immunomodulatory role for the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous systems, which inhibit both the inflammatory immune response and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental Chagas heart disease in mice.

  16. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.; Shutz, M.; Nalls, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.

  17. Duration of fasting but not diurnal variation affects the response to glucagon in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilor, C; Glock, R; Gilor, S

    2015-10-01

    The role of glucagon disturbances in diabetes is increasingly recognized. Glucagon stimulation tests (GSTs) have been described in cats previously, but information is lacking on the response of cats to glucagon under specific conditions. The aim of this study was to assess a novel protocol for GST using human-recombinant glucagon and the effect of diurnal variation and duration of fasting using this protocol in healthy cats. All intravenous doses resulted in occasional vomiting and nausea, and eventually, a 20-μg/kg intramuscular dose was chosen. Five healthy cats were then used in a repeated-measures study. Cats were free-fed regularly at 7:30 AM and 5:30 PM for 30 min. In each cat, GST was performed at 7 PM after a 25-h fast (PM25), at 9 AM after a 25-h fast (AM25), and at 9 AM after a 15-h fast (AM15). Glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at -15, 0, 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min after stimulation. Baseline and peak concentrations were compared using the Friedman test. Baseline glucose and insulin did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Peak glucose concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.0085) at AM15 (mean ± standard deviation = 185.2 ± 43.0 mg/dL) vs AM25 (144.4 ± 10.5 mg/dL) and PM25 (128.0 ± 18.4 mg/dL). Similarly, peak insulin concentrations occurred at 15 min and were significantly higher (P = 0.04) at AM15 (1,911 ± 1,153 pg/mL) vs AM25 (739 ± 52 pg/mL) or PM25 (549 ± 366 pg/mL). In conclusion, prolonged fasting significantly blunted the glycemic response to glucagon compared with shorter fasting, but diurnal variation had no significant effect on glucose or insulin responses.

  18. Factors affecting treatment of palm oil mill effluent using enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaphaso, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdered enzyme was produced by freeze-drying the enzyme solution extracted from 3 days culture of Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 on palm cake with the addition of 0.2% glucose and 2% urea. The product yield was 38% by weight. The half-life of the enzyme was 9 months keeping at 4ºC. The enzyme was tested with decanter effluent with different characteristics from two palm oil mills. The decanter effluent possessing high suspended solid (SS and low oil (9.5 g/l content was selected for studying the factors affecting the separation of SS and oil as bulking solid. Results indicated that the effluent must contain oil not less than 15 g/l so that the bulking solid would occur from the reaction of the enzyme (with xylanase activity of 200 U/ ml after incubation at 40ºC for 6 h. Minimum concentrations of the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 and commercial xylanase (Meicellase were 200 and 600 U/ml, respectively. The optimum pH was 4.5. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 for 3 h under the optimum conditions resulted in 78% separation of suspended solids with oil & grease removal of 95% and COD reduction of 35%.

  19. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-06

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage.

  20. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Hill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW, such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage.

  1. Neurocognitive predictors of treatment response to randomized treatment in adults with tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Hallion, Lauren S; Reese, Hannah E; Woods, Douglas W; Peterson, Alan; Walkup, John T; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Deckersbach, Thilo; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2017-03-06

    Tourette's disorder (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CTD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by involuntary vocal and motor tics. Consequently, TS/CTD have been conceptualized as disorders of cognitive and motor inhibitory control. However, most neurocognitive studies have found comparable or superior inhibitory capacity among individuals with TS/CTD relative to healthy controls. These findings have led to the hypothesis that individuals with TS/CTD develop increased inhibitory control due to the constant need to inhibit tics. However, the role of cognitive control in TS/CTD is not yet understood, particularly in adults. To examine the role of inhibitory control in TS/CTD, the present study investigated this association by assessing the relationship between inhibitory control and treatment response in a large sample of adults with TS/CTD. As part of a large randomized trial comparing behavior therapy versus supportive psychotherapy for TS/CTD, a battery of tests, including tests of inhibitory control was administered to 122 adults with TS/CTD at baseline. We assessed the association between neuropsychological test performance and change in symptom severity, as well as compared the performance of treatment responders and non-responders as defined by the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Results indicated that change in symptoms, and treatment response were not associated with neuropsychological performance on tests of inhibitory control, intellectual ability, or motor function, regardless of type of treatment. The finding that significant change in symptom severity of TS/CTD patients is not associated with impairment or change in inhibitory control regardless of treatment type suggests that inhibitory control may not be a clinically relevant facet of these disorders in adults.

  2. Growth status significantly affects the response of human lung cancer cells to antitumor polyamine-analogue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Diane L; Devereux, Wendy L; Hacker, Amy; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2002-08-01

    Human solid tumors frequently have a relatively small growth fraction,which interferes with the action of many chemotherapeutic agents that target actively cycling cells. Several polyamine analogues are currently being developed for clinical application against human solid tumors including N1,N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine. Therefore, an effort was made to examine the effects of growth rate on polyamine-analogue efficacy. Low growth fraction (LGF) cell cultures of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H157 were generated to partially mimic solid tumors with low mitotic indices. Log-phase cells were compared with LGF cells with respect to cell survival and biochemical effects after exposure to polyamine analogues. The results demonstrate generally that LGF NCI-H157 cells were sensitive to analogue treatment. However, the dose necessary to elicit a response in LGF cells was an order of magnitude higher than the dose needed in log-phase cells. Additionally, the biochemical effects of analogues were similar between log phase and LGF cells with regard to a down-regulation of polyamine biosynthesis as measured by ornithine decarboxylase activity and an increase in polyamine catabolism as indicated by an increase in spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. However, biochemical effects were less dramatic in the LGF cells than those observed in the log-phase cells. The overall results of these studies suggest that the growth status of solid tumors can significantly affect the response to antitumor polyamine analogues, and growth fraction must be considered in the continued development and use of the polyamine analogues.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (100-1000 mg/l) can affect vitamin E response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Renata; Kołodziej, Karolina; Ślesak, Ireneusz; Zimak-Piekarczyk, Paulina; Orzechowska, Aleksandra; Gabruk, Michał; Żądło, Andrzej; Habina, Iwona; Knap, Wiesław; Burda, Květoslava; Kruk, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    In the present study we analyze the effect of seed treatment by a range of nano-TiO2 concentrations on the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants, on the vitamin E content and the expression of its biosynthetic genes, as well as activity of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation. To conduct the mechanistic analysis of nano-TiO2 on plants growth and antioxidant status we applied nanoparticles concentrations that are much higher than those reported in the environment. We find that as the concentration of nano-TiO2 increases, the biomass, and chlorophyll content in 5-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana plants decrease in a concentration dependent manner. In opposite, higher nano-TiO2 concentration enhanced root growth. Our results indicate that a high concentration of nano-TiO2 induces symptoms of toxicity and elevates the antioxidant level. We also find that the expression levels of tocopherol biosynthetic genes were either down- or upregulated in response to nano-TiO2. Thermoluminescence analysis shows that higher nano-TiO2 concentrations cause lipid peroxidation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the effect of nano-TiO2 on vitamin E status in plants. We conclude that nano-TiO2 affects the antioxidant response in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This could be an effect of a changes in vitamin E gene expression that is diminished under lower tested nano-TiO2 concentrations and elevated under 1000 μg/ml.

  4. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  5. Crowdsourced assessment of common genetic contribution to predicting anti-TNF treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberts, Solveig K.; Zhu, Fan; García-García, Javier; Stahl, Eli; Pratap, Abhishek; Pandey, Gaurav; Pappas, Dimitrios; Aguilar, Daniel; Anton, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Eksi, Ridvan; Fornés, Oriol; Guney, Emre; Li, Hongdong; Marín, Manuel Alejandro; Panwar, Bharat; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Poglayen, Daniel; Cui, Jing; Falcao, Andre O.; Suver, Christine; Hoff, Bruce; Balagurusamy, Venkat S. K.; Dillenberger, Donna; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Norman, Thea; Aittokallio, Tero; Ammad-ud-din, Muhammad; Azencott, Chloe-Agathe; Bellón, Víctor; Boeva, Valentina; Bunte, Kerstin; Chheda, Himanshu; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Dumontier, Michel; Goldenberg, Anna; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Hajiloo, Mohsen; Hidru, Daniel; Jaiswal, Alok; Kaski, Samuel; Khalfaoui, Beyrem; Khan, Suleiman Ali; Kramer, Eric R.; Marttinen, Pekka; Mezlini, Aziz M.; Molparia, Bhuvan; Pirinen, Matti; Saarela, Janna; Samwald, Matthias; Stoven, Véronique; Tang, Hao; Tang, Jing; Torkamani, Ali; Vert, Jean-Phillipe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wennerberg, Krister; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Xiao, Guanghua; Xie, Yang; Yeung, Rae; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhao, Cheng; Calaza, Manuel; Elmarakeby, Haitham; Heath, Lenwood S.; Long, Quan; Moore, Jonathan D.; Opiyo, Stephen Obol; Savage, Richard S.; Zhu, Jun; Greenberg, Jeff; Kremer, Joel; Michaud, Kaleb; Barton, Anne; Coenen, Marieke; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli, Corinne; Shadick, Nancy; Weinblatt, Michael; de Vries, Niek; Tak, Paul P.; Gerlag, Danielle; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Kurreeman, Fina; Allaart, Cornelia F.; Louis Bridges Jr., S.; Criswell, Lindsey; Moreland, Larry; Klareskog, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Friend, Stephen; Plenge, Robert; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Oliva, Baldo; Guan, Yuanfang; Mangravite, Lara M.

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects millions world-wide. While anti-TNF treatment is widely used to reduce disease progression, treatment fails in ∼one-third of patients. No biomarker currently exists that identifies non-responders before treatment. A rigorous community-based assessment of the utility of SNP data for predicting anti-TNF treatment efficacy in RA patients was performed in the context of a DREAM Challenge (http://www.synapse.org/RA_Challenge). An open challenge framework enabled the comparative evaluation of predictions developed by 73 research groups using the most comprehensive available data and covering a wide range of state-of-the-art modelling methodologies. Despite a significant genetic heritability estimate of treatment non-response trait (h2=0.18, P value=0.02), no significant genetic contribution to prediction accuracy is observed. Results formally confirm the expectations of the rheumatology community that SNP information does not significantly improve predictive performance relative to standard clinical traits, thereby justifying a refocusing of future efforts on collection of other data. PMID:27549343

  6. Differences in Phyllotreta cruciferae and Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) responses to neonicotinoid seed treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M

    2008-02-01

    Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata.

  7. Dynamic Association between Negative Affect and Alcohol Lapses following Alcohol Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Villarroel, Nadia Aracelliz

    2009-01-01

    Clinical research has found a strong association between negative affect and returning to alcohol use after a period of abstinence. Yet little is known about the probability of a lapse given a particular level of negative affect or whether there is a reciprocal relationship between negative affect and alcohol use across time. The goal of the…

  8. Sitagliptin treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes does not affect CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Perrin C; Chamberlain-Shea, Heidi; de la Morena, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitors have recently become widely used for treating type 2 diabetes, but in meta-analyses are associated with a mildly increased risk of all-cause infections. CD26 is a cell-surface form of DPP4 which can costimulate T-cell proliferation, raising the possibility that DPP4 inhibitors might adversely affect immune function. To address this issue in an observational study, two groups of 20 subjects each were recruited from a private endocrinology practice; one group consisted of type 2 diabetes patients treated for at least 6 months with the DPP4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, whereas patients in the other group had never been treated with this agent. The groups were similar with regard to sex and racial composition, body mass index, hemoglobin A(1c), and use of other medications for diabetes, but the sitagliptin group was slightly older. A blood sample from each patient was analyzed for CD4+ T-cell activation in response to phytohemagglutinin using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated bioluminescence. There was not a significant difference in T-cell activation between the treatment groups (median, 419 and 481 ng/ml ATP in the groups that were and were not treated with sitagliptin, respectively). Thus the observed increased rate of infection in diabetic patients treated with sitagliptin cannot be explained by a major effect on T-cell activation. Randomized studies, preferably using several assays of immune function, should be performed to confirm and extend these findings.

  9. Treatment heterogeneity in asthma: genetics of response to leukotriene modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, John J

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, asthma continues to be a significant health and economic burden. Although asthma cannot be cured, several drugs, including beta2 agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene (LT) modifiers, are well tolerated and effective in minimizing symptoms, improving lung function, and preventing exacerbations. However, inter-patient variability in response to asthma drugs limits their effectiveness. It has been estimated that 60-80% of this inter-patient variability may be attributable to genetic variation. LT modifiers, in particular, have been associated with heterogeneity in response. These drugs exert their action by inhibiting the activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent bronchoconstrictors and pro-inflammatory agents. Two classes of LT modifiers are 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) inhibitors (zileuton) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) [montelukast, pranlukast, and zarfirlukast]. LT modifiers can be used as alternatives to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in mild persistent asthma, as add-on therapy to low- to medium-dose ICS in moderate persistent asthma, and as add-on to high-dose ICS and a long-acting ss2 agonist in severe persistent asthma. At least six genes encode key proteins in the LT pathway: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), ALOX5 activating protein (ALOX5AP [FLAP]), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), the ATP-binding cassette family member ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 [MRP1]), and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1). Studies have reported that genetic variation in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, and ABCC1 influences response to LT modifiers. Plasma concentrations of LTRAs vary considerably among patients. Physio-chemical characteristics make it likely that membrane efflux and uptake transporters mediate the absorption of LTRAs into the systemic circulation following oral administration. Genes that encode efflux and uptake transport proteins harbor many variants that could

  10. Personality and treatment response in agoraphobia with panic attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, A L; Oei, T P; Evans, L

    1992-01-01

    The present study investigated the association of specific personality characteristics with agoraphobia, and whether they predicted long-term outcome following a group cognitive behavior therapy program. Thirty-three patients with agoraphobia with panic attacks, 18 with social phobia, and 26 "normals" were used in the study. Personality factors were measured with the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), and the Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior Scale (FIRO-B). The results showed that (1) agoraphobics are more extroverted and more likely to include others in their activities than are social phobics; however, they are less extroverted, more neurotic, more hostile and intropunitive, and less likely to include others in their activities than are normals; (2) social phobics are similarly less extroverted, more neurotic, and more hostile and intropunitive than normals, but, in addition, are less likely to exert control over others, more likely to want to be controlled, and less expressive of affection than normals; and (3) personality characteristics did not predict treatment outcome.

  11. C’mon Get Happy: Reduced Magnitude and Duration of Response During a Positive Affect Induction in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Michelle S.; Siegle, Greg J.; Schwartz, Robert M.; Price, Rebecca B.; Haggerty, Agnes E.; Collier, Amanda; Friedman, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression involves decreased positive affect. Whether this is due to a failure to achieve or maintain positive emotion in response to discrete stimuli is unclear. Understanding the nature of decreased positive affect could help to address how to intervene on the phenomenon, e.g., how to structure interventions using positive and rewarding stimuli in depression. Thus, we examined the time course of affect following exposure to positive stimuli in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods Seventy-one adults with major depressive disorder and 34 never-depressed controls read a self-generated highly positive script and continuously rated their affect for seven minutes. Results Both groups quickly achieved increased positive affect, however, compared to controls, depressed participants did not achieve the same level of positive affect, did not maintain their positive affect, spent less time rating their affect as happy, and demonstrated larger drops in mood. Conclusions These data indicate that depressed and non-depressed individuals can generate positive reactions to happy scripts, but depressed individuals cannot achieve or sustain equivalent levels of positive affect. Interventions for depression might fruitfully focus on increasing depressed individuals’ ability to maintain initial engagement with positive stimuli over a sustained period of time. PMID:24643964

  12. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  13. Managing the risk of lithium-induced nephropathy in the long-term treatment of patients with recurrent affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Severus, Emanuel; Bauer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lithium has been the most effective psychopharmacological drug in the long-term treatment of patients with recurrent unipolar and bipolar affective illness. As a result of its widespread and longtime use in patients with recurrent affective disorders, psychiatrists have become increasingly aware of the whole spectrum of lithium's potential side effects. One of the side effects associated with its chronic use is lithium-induced nephropathy. In a recent cross-sectional study published in BMC Me...

  14. Influence of a Dissection Video Clip on Anxiety, Affect, and Self-Efficacy in Educational Dissection: A Treatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Randler, Christoph; Demirhan, Eda; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Desch, Inga H.

    2016-01-01

    In science education, dissections of animals are an integral part of teaching, but they often evoke negative emotions. We aimed at reducing negative emotions (anxiety, negative affect [NA]) and increasing positive affect (PA) and self-efficacy by an experimental intervention using a predissection video to instruct students about fish dissection. We compared this treatment with another group that watched a life history video about the fish. The participants were 135 students studying to become...

  15. Neural correlates of emotional processing in depression: Changes with cognitive behavioral therapy and predictors of treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Dolcos, Florin; Eddington, Kari M.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the presence of disturbances in emotional processing. However, the neural correlates of these alterations, and how they may be affected by therapeutic interventions, remain unclear. The present study addressed these issues in a preliminary investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural responses to positive, negative, and neutral pictures in unmedicated MDD patients (N = 22) versus controls (N = 14). After this initial scan, MDD patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and scanned again after treatment. Within regions that showed pre-treatment differences between patients and controls, we tested the association between pre-treatment activity and subsequent treatment response as well as activity changes from pre- to post-treatment. This study yielded three main findings. First, prior to treatment and relative to controls, patients exhibited overall reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), diminished discrimination between emotional and neutral items in the amygdala, caudate, and hippocampus, and enhanced responses to negative versus positive stimuli in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and right dorsolateral PFC. Second, CBT-related symptom improvement in MDD patients was predicted by increased activity at baseline in ventromedial PFC as well as the valence effects in the ATL and dorsolateral PFC. Third, from pre- to post-treatment, MDD patients exhibited overall increases in ventromedial PFC activation, enhanced arousal responses in the amygdala, caudate, and hippocampus, and a reversal of valence effects in the ATL. The study was limited by the relatively small sample that was able to complete both scan sessions, as well as an inability to determine the influence of comorbid disorders within the current sample. Nevertheless, components of the neural networks corresponding to emotion processing disturbances in MDD appear to resolve

  16. Response of barley plants to Fe deficiency and Cd contamination as affected by S starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, S; Zuchi, S; Neumann, G; Cesco, S; Sanità di Toppi, L; Pinton, R

    2012-02-01

    Both Fe deficiency and Cd exposure induce rapid changes in the S nutritional requirement of plants. The aim of this work was to characterize the strategies adopted by plants to cope with both Fe deficiency (release of phytosiderophores) and Cd contamination [production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins] when grown under conditions of limited S supply. Experiments were performed in hydroponics, using barley plants grown under S sufficiency (1.2 mM sulphate) and S deficiency (0 mM sulphate), with or without Fe(III)-EDTA at 0.08 mM for 11 d and subsequently exposed to 0.05 mM Cd for 24 h or 72 h. In S-sufficient plants, Fe deficiency enhanced both root and shoot Cd concentrations and increased GSH and phytochelatin levels. In S-deficient plants, Fe starvation caused a slight increase in Cd concentration, but this change was accompanied neither by an increase in GSH nor by an accumulation of phytochelatins. Release of phytosiderophores, only detectable in Fe-deficient plants, was strongly decreased by S deficiency and further reduced after Cd treatment. In roots Cd exposure increased the expression of the high affinity sulphate transporter gene (HvST1) regardless of the S supply, and the expression of the Fe deficiency-responsive genes, HvYS1 and HvIDS2, irrespective of Fe supply. In conclusion, adequate S availability is necessary to cope with Fe deficiency and Cd toxicity in barley plants. Moreover, it appears that in Fe-deficient plants grown in the presence of Cd with limited S supply, sulphur may be preferentially employed in the pathway for biosynthesis of phytosiderophores, rather than for phytochelatin production.

  17. Dietary supplementation of probiotics affects growth, immune response and disease resistance of Cyprinus carpio fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akhil; Gupta, Paromita; Dhawan, Asha

    2014-12-01

    The effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans (MTCC 9872), Bacillus licheniformis (MTCC 6824) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (MTCC 122) supplementation on growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection were evaluated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio fry. Laboratory maintained B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa were used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy fish fry were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. Fish were fed for 80 days with control basal diet (B0) and experimental diets containing B. coagulans (B1), B. licheniformis (B2) and P. polymyxa (B3) at 10(9) CFU/g diet. Fish fry (mean weight 0.329 ± 0.01 g) were fed these diets and growth performance, various non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 80 days post-feeding. The antagonism study showed inhibition zone against A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi. All the probiotic bacterial strains were harmless to fish fry as neither mortality nor morbidities were observed of the challenge. The growth-promoting influences of probiotic supplemented dietary treatments were observed with fish fry and the optimum survival, growth and feed utilization were obtained with P. polymyxa (B3) supplemented diet. Study of different non-specific innate immunological parameters viz. lysozyme activity, respiratory burst assay and myeloperoxidase content showed significant (p < 0.05) higher values in fish fry fed B3 diet at 10(9) CFU/g. The challenge test showed dietary supplementation of B. coagulans, B. licheniformis and P. polymyxa significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the resistance of fish fry against bacterial challenge. These results collectively suggests that P. polymyxa is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve growth, feed utilization, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of fry common carp, C. carpio.

  18. The effects of slow breathing on affective responses to pain stimuli: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Alex J; Fasman, Robert; Davis, Mary C; Craig, Arthur D Bud

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether breathing rate affected self-reported pain and emotion following thermal pain stimuli in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM: n=27) or age-matched healthy control women (HC: n=25). FM and HC were exposed to low and moderate thermal pain pulses during paced breathing at their normal rate and one-half their normal rate. Thermal pain pulses were presented in four blocks of four trials. Each block included exposure to both mild and moderate pain trials, and periods of both normal and slow paced breathing. Pain intensity and unpleasantness were recorded immediately following each pain trial, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of each block of trials. Compared to normal breathing, slow breathing reduced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, particularly for moderately versus mildly painful thermal stimuli. The effects of slow breathing on pain ratings were less reliable for FM patients than for HCs. Slow versus normal breathing decreased negative affect ratings following thermal pain pulses for both groups, and increased positive affect reports, but only for healthy controls with high trait negative affect. Participants who reported higher levels of trait positive affect prior to the experiment showed greater decreases in negative affect as a result of slow versus normal breathing. These experimental findings provide support for prior reports on the benefits of yogic breathing and mindful Zen meditation for pain and depressed affect. However, chronic pain patients may require more guidance to obtain therapeutic benefit from reduced breathing rates.

  19. Neuroticism and social comparison orientation as moderators of affective responses to social comparison at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 72 nurses, the affective consequences of social comparison were examined and related to neuroticism, (N) and to social comparison orientation (SCO). Participants were confronted with a bogus interview with an upward versus a downward comparison target. Positive affect and identifica

  20. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  1. Cytokines as effectors and predictors of responses in the treatment of bladder cancer by bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxuan; Dowell, Alexander C; Patel, Prashant; Viney, Richard P; Foster, Michael C; Porfiri, Emilio; James, Nicholas D; Bryan, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    The most effective intravesical treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is instillation of live Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). BCG stimulates the release of cytokines, contributing directly or indirectly to its effectiveness. However, the function of specific cytokines is not well understood. We have undertaken a nonsystematic review of primary evidence regarding cytokine detection, activation and response in BCG patients. Cytokines IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α appear to be essential for effective BCG therapy and nonrecurrence, while IL-10 may have an inhibitory effect on BCG responses. IL-2, IL-8, TRAIL and TNF-α are potentially predictive of response to BCG. Alterations in genes encoding cytokines may also affect responses. There are significant data showing the association of certain cytokines with successful BCG treatment, and which may be useful predictive markers. Isolating those cytokines mediating efficacy may hold the key to ameliorating BCG's side effects and improving efficacy and patient compliance.

  2. The genetic background affects the vascular response in T-type calcium channels 3.2 deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Hansen, Pernille B L

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav ) are important regulators of vascular tone and are attractive targets for pharmacological treatment of hypertension. The clinical used calcium blockers are often not selective for one channel but affect several types of calcium channels (Hansen 2015). L...

  3. Theorizing Affect in Foreign Language Learning: An Analysis of One Learner's Responses to a Communicative Portuguese Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Paula; Young, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explore a student's affective responses to classroom foreign language learning. In 2 meetings each week throughout an 8-week Portuguese course for beginners, the first author described her language learning experiences to the second author. Sessions were transcribed and then coded and analyzed. A theoretical model grounded in the…

  4. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje

  5. Activity of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase (PKG) Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Habituation in "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Ricarda; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Erber, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) has many cellular functions in vertebrates and insects that affect complex behaviors such as locomotion and foraging. The "foraging" ("for") gene encodes a PKG in "Drosophila melanogaster." Here, we demonstrate a function for the "for" gene in sensory responsiveness and nonassociative learning. Larvae of the…

  6. RESPONSE TO THE RICHARD ERSKINES ARTICLE RELATIONAL HEALING OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 3 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides four responses from senior psychotherapists and supervisors to Erskine’s articleRelational Healing of Early Affect-Confusion. The authors approach the third part of case study trilogy from their particular perspective and provide both challenge and respect for the author’s work.

  7. Children's cognitive and affective responses about a narrative versus a non-narrative cartoon designed for an active videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article presents the results of interviews conducted with children regarding their cognitive and affective responses toward a narrative and a non-narrative cartoon. The findings will be used to further explore the role of a narrative in motivating continued active videogame play. Twenty childre...

  8. Factors that Affect Science and Mathematics Teachers' Initial Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment Using a Classroom Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Feldman, Allan; Beatty, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to uncover and understand the factors that affect secondary science and mathematics teachers' initial implementation of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA), a pedagogy developed for teaching with classroom response system (CRS) technology. We sought to identify the most common and strongest factors, and to…

  9. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia after nivolumab treatment in Hodgkin lymphoma responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Magalie P; Gastaud, Lauris; Boscagli, Annick; Peyrade, Frederic; Gallamini, Andrea; Thyss, Antoine

    2016-08-19

    The patients with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma have a poor prognosis. The nivolumab, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody inhibiting the program death 1 pathway has recently demonstrated its efficacy and its safety in patients with heavily pretreated refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. The side effects of this immunotherapy include autoimmune-like syndromes. A 75-year-old woman with no significant comorbidities was treated by nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 wk) as a third-line treatment for refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. A clinical response was observed with the first injection of nivolumab, with a reduction in superficial lymph nodes. After the second injection, the patient presented an authentic autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a profound anemia at 64 g/L and biologic characteristics of hemolysis (elevated unconjugated bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, and reticulocytes). The direct antiglobulin test was strongly positive for IgG antibodies, and the indirect antiglobulin test became positive with a very high level of autoantibodies. After 2 injections of nivolumab, the patient underwent a fluodeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography-computed tomography, showing a partial response according to modified Cheson criteria. A treatment with prednisone (2 mg/kg), initiated after transfusion of 2 units of red blood cells, permitted the complete resolution of this autoimmune reaction after 3 months of corticotherapy. The fluodeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography-computed tomography performed at the end of the corticotherapy showed a clear disease progression. Considering the very good response achieved after only 2 injections of nivolumab, the limited therapeutic resources for this old woman, and the complete resolution of the autoimmune hemolytic anemia, nivolumab was reintroduced at the same dose, with close clinical and biological monitoring. She received 6 more injections of nivolumab without recurrence of hemolysis.

  10. Length of outpatient treatment affected by extraversion : Still waters run long

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P; VanderDoes, AJW; Sanderman, R; van der Does, A.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    It has often been shown that in outpatient settings, about half of the treatments are terminated after only a few sessions. The present study sought to investigate the contribution of personality traits to length of treatment in a behaviour therapy-oriented outpatient treatment setting. All patients

  11. Interactive effects of emotional and restrained eating on responses to chocolate and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    To examine differences and interactions between emotional and restrained-eating healthy adults (56 women, 53 men) were classified into emotional or restrained eaters, and persons scoring high or low on both dimensions. Participants tasted different types of chocolate (with 30, 70, 85, or 99% cocoa content) and completed questionnaires on affect and attitudes towards chocolate. Emotional eaters reported increased craving for and increased consumption of chocolate, whereas restrained eaters experienced chocolate-related guilt. However, restrained eaters rated plain chocolate (70% and 85% cocoa) as more pleasant than other groups. Persons scoring high on both dimensions showed heightened negative affect and may be prone to disturbances of eating and affect.

  12. The Psycho-Neurology of Cross-Species Affective/Social Neuroscience: Understanding Animal Affective States as a Guide to Development of Novel Psychiatric Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.

  13. NMDA-dependent mechanisms only affect the BOLD response in the rat dentate gyrus by modifying local signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Regina; Krautwald, Karla; Fincke, Anja; Angenstein, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The role of N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated mechanisms in the formation of a blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was studied using electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. Stimulation of this fiber bundle triggered BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and in the left entorhinal cortex. The perforant pathway projects to and activates the dentate gyrus monosynaptically, activation in the contralateral entorhinal cortex is multisynaptic and requires forwarding and processing of signals. Application of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 during stimulation had no effect on BOLD responses in the right dentate gyrus, but reduced the BOLD responses in the left entorhinal cortex. In contrast, application of MK801 before the first stimulation train reduced the BOLD response in both regions. Electrophysiological recordings revealed that the initial stimulation trains changed the local processing of the incoming signals in the dentate gyrus. This altered electrophysiological response was not further changed by a subsequent application of MK801, which is in agreement with an unchanged BOLD response. When MK801 was present during the first stimulation train, a dissimilar electrophysiological response pattern was observed and corresponds to an altered BOLD response, indicating that NMDA-dependent mechanisms indirectly affect the BOLD response, mainly via modifying local signal processing and subsequent propagation. PMID:22167232

  14. How does the entering of copper nanoparticles into biological wastewater treatment system affect sludge treatment for VFA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Li, Xiang; Luo, Jingyang

    2014-10-15

    Usually the studies regarding the effect of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), which are released to wastewater treatment plant, on sludge anaerobic treatment in the literature have been conducted by directly adding NPs to sludge treatment system. Actually, NPs must enter into the wastewater treatment facility from influent before sludge being treated. Thus, the documented results can not reflect the real situations. During sludge anaerobic treatment for producing volatile fatty acids (VFA, the preferred carbon source for wastewater biological nutrient removal), it was found in this study that the entering of CuNPs to biological wastewater treatment system had no significant effect on sludge-derived VFA generation, while direct addition of CuNPs to sludge fermentation reactor caused a much lower VFA production, when compared to the control test. Further investigation revealed that the entering of CuNPs into wastewater biological treatment system improved sludge solubilization due to the decline of sludge particle size and the increase of sludge microorganism cells breakage. In addition, there was no obvious influence on hydrolysis, while significant inhibition was observed on acidification, resulting in the final VFA production similar to the control. When CuNPs were directly added to the fermentation system, the solubilization was little influenced, however the hydrolysis and acidification were seriously inhibited, causing the ultimate VFA generation decreased. Therefore, selecting proper method close to the real situation is vital to accurately assess the toxicity of nanoparticles on sludge anaerobic fermentation.

  15. Treatment of impaired affective information processing and social cognition in neuropsychiatric patients: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingbermuhle, Ellen; Roelofs, R.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Impairments in affective information processing (AIP) and social cognition (SC) have been associated with psychiatric disorders, inadequate social interaction, and lowered self-esteem. Consequently, problems in AIP and SC impede daily functioning and affect quality of life. Promoting impr

  16. Neural correlates of inhibition and contextual cue processing related to treatment response in PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, Sanne J H; Geuze, Elbert; Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R; Vink, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Thirty to fifty percent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients do not respond to treatment. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying treatment response could contribute to improve response rates. PTSD is often associated with decreased inhibition of fear responses in a safe environme

  17. Delayed system response times affect immediate physiology and the dynamics of subsequent button press behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Christin; Hrabal, David; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2014-11-01

    System response time research is an important issue in human-computer interactions. Experience with technical devices and general rules of human-human interactions determine the user's expectation, and any delay in system response time may lead to immediate physiological, emotional, and behavioral consequences. We investigated such effects on a trial-by-trial basis during a human-computer interaction by measuring changes in skin conductance (SC), heart rate (HR), and the dynamics of button press responses. We found an increase in SC and a deceleration of HR for all three delayed system response times (0.5, 1, 2 s). Moreover, the data on button press dynamics was highly informative since subjects repeated a button press with more force in response to delayed system response times. Furthermore, the button press dynamics could distinguish between correct and incorrect decisions and may thus even be used to infer the uncertainty of a user's decision.

  18. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Dispersion Methods Affect Their Aggregation, Deposition, and Biomarker Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    To systematically evaluate how dispersion methods affect the environmental behaviors of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), MWNTs were dispersed in various solutions (e.g., surfactants, natural organic matter (NOM), and etc.) via ultrasonication (SON) and long-term stirring (LT...

  19. Parasitoid-specific induction of plant responses to parasitized herbivores affects colonization by subsequent herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Zheng, S.J.; Zhang, Z.; Heemskerk, N.M.; Cortesero, A.M.; Dicke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants are exposed to a suite of herbivorous attackers that often arrive sequentially. Herbivory affects interactions between the host plants and subsequently attacking herbivores. Moreover, plants may respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attract carnivorous natura

  20. The Polyacetylenes Falcarinol and Falcarindiol Affect Stress Responses in Myotube Cultures in a Biphasic Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Jette F; Christensen, Lars P.; Theil, Peter K.; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the bioactive polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, present in carrots, celery, celeriac and other umbelliferous vegetables, on the stress responses in primary myotube cultures, were studied. Biphasic responses on cellular stress responses in myotube cultures were investigated by exposing them to various concentrations of falcarinol and falcarindiol for 24 h before testing effects of 100 μM H2O2 on the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), transcripti...

  1. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47 and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  2. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Adorni, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent) on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms) over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms) for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47) and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  3. Chronic urinary retention in men: how we define it, and how does it affect treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Carlo L A; Muir, Gordon H

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Chronic urinary retention (CUR) is a poorly defined entity, as the key element of definition, significant postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), has not a worldwide and moreover evidenced-based definition. There is no agreement on which is the threshold value to define a significant PVR and different society produced guidelines with different thresholds ranging from 300 mL to 1000 mL. Diagnosis is difficult, and management has not been defined yet. There is a lack of studies on the best management of these patients, as this group of patients has always been considered at high risk of failure. Only one study compares conservative with the surgical management but it is not a randomised controlled trail. This review offers a systematic appraisal of the most recent publications on CUR. It indicates the absence of a real worldwide agreed definition, as the two keys element of it are not satisfactorily defined yet: significant PVR, is suffering from a lack of evidenced-based definition, and percussable or palpable bladder is a very nebulous concept as it is not a criteria of certainty as different individual variables affect it. This has an important effect on management which is not structured. Most of the trials involving benign prostatic hyperplasia treatments (either medical or surgical) tend to exclude this group of patients, which is a clinically important group, comprising up to a quarter of men undergoing TURP in the UK. Urinary retention describes a bladder that does not empty completely or does not empty at all. Historically, urinary retention has been classified as either acute or chronic the latter is generally classified as high pressure or low pressure according to the bladder filling pressure on urodynamic. A MEDLINE® search for articles written in English and published before January 2010 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention: 'urinary retention', 'chronic urinary retention

  4. Client Preferences Affect Treatment Satisfaction, Completion, and Clinical Outcome: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; McLear, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of client preferences on treatment satisfaction, completion, and clinical outcome. Our search of the literature resulted in 34 empirical articles describing 32 unique clinical trials that either randomized some clients to an active choice condition (shared decision making condition or choice of treatment) or assessed client preferences. Clients who were involved in shared decision making, chose a treatment condition, or otherwise received their preferred treatment evidenced higher treatment satisfaction (ESd = .34; p < .001), increased completion rates (ESOR = 1.37; ESd = .17; p < .001), and superior clinical outcome (ESd = .15; p < .0001), compared to clients who were not involved in shared decision making, did not choose a treatment condition, or otherwise did not receive their preferred treatment. Although the effect sizes are modest in magnitude, they were generally consistent across several potential moderating variables including study design (preference versus active choice), psychoeducation (informed versus uninformed), setting (inpatient versus outpatient), client diagnosis (mental health versus other), and unit of randomization (client versus provider). Our findings highlight the clinical benefit of assessing client preferences, providing treatment choices when two or more efficacious options are available, and involving clients in treatment-related decisions when treatment options are not available. PMID:25189522

  5. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Watts; S.O. Lilienfeld; J.F. Edens; K.S. Douglas; J.L. Skeem; B. Verschuere; A.C. LoPilato

    2015-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response dis

  6. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.; Edens, J.F.; Douglas, K.S.; Skeem, J.L.; Verschuere, B.; LoPilato, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response dis

  7. When idols look into the future: fair treatment modulates the affective forecasting error in talent show candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Marjolein; Anseel, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    People's affective forecasts are often inaccurate because they tend to overestimate how they will feel after an event. As life decisions are often based on affective forecasts, it is crucial to find ways to manage forecasting errors. We examined the impact of a fair treatment on forecasting errors in candidates in a Belgian reality TV talent show. We found that perceptions of fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers (a negative audition decision) but decreased it for winners (a positive audition decision). For winners, this effect was even more pronounced when candidates were highly invested in their self-view as a future pop idol whereas for losers, the effect was more pronounced when importance was low. The results in this study point to a potential paradox between maximizing happiness and decreasing forecasting errors. A fair treatment increased the forecasting error for losers, but actually made them happier.

  8. Factors that affect adherence to recommended treatment among diabetes patients in Kampala

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlén, Elin; Davidsson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is an increasing global health problem and this puts high demands on the health care system. Patients with diabetes demand continuous treatment and monitoring in order to control the disease and avoid complications. Adherence to recommended treatment was important in order for the treatment to give positive effect. In this context adherence was defined as the extent to which the patients follow medical instructions.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify factors that c...

  9. Affective response to a loved one's pain: insula activity as a function of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Mazzola

    Full Text Available Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone. Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

  10. MK-801 treatment affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes more than in astrocytes and neuronal cells: insights for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Guest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a multifactorial disease, the underlying causes of schizophrenia require analysis by multiplex methods such as proteomics to allow identification of whole protein networks. Previous post-mortem proteomic studies on brain tissues from schizophrenia patients have demonstrated changes in activation of glycolytic and energy metabolism pathways. However, it is not known whether these changes occur in neurons or in glial cells. To address this question, we treated neuronal, astrocyte and oligodendrocyte cell lines with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and measured the levels of six glycolytic enzymes by Western blot analysis. MK-801 acts on the glutamatergic system and has been proposed as a pharmacological means of modeling schizophrenia. Treatment with MK-801 resulted in significant changes in the levels of glycolytic enzymes in all cell types. Most of the differences were found in oligodendrocytes, which had altered levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1, enolase 2 (ENO2, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK and phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1 after acute MK-801 treatment (8 hours, and HK1, ENO2, PGK and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI following long term treatment (72 hours. Addition of the antipsychotic clozapine to the cultures resulted in counter-regulatory effects to the MK-801 treatment by normalizing the levels of ENO2 and PGK in both the acute and long term cultures. In astrocytes, MK-801 affected only aldolase C (ALDOC under both acute conditions and HK1 and ALDOC following long term treatment, and TPI was the only enzyme affected under long term conditions in the neuronal cells. In conclusion, MK-801 affects glycolysis in oligodendrocytes to a larger extent than neuronal cells and this may be modulated by antipsychotic treatment. Although cell culture studies do not necessarily reflect the in vivo pathophysiology and drug effects within the brain, these results suggest that neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are affected differently in

  11. Mutations in HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1 affect sugar response and gene expression in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Heisel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient response networks are likely to have been among the first response networks to evolve, as the ability to sense and respond to the levels of available nutrients is critical for all organisms. Although several forward genetic screens have been successful in identifying components of plant sugar-response networks, many components remain to be identified. Towards this end, a reverse genetic screen was conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana to identify additional components of sugar-response networks. This screen was based on the rationale that some of the genes involved in sugar-response networks are likely to be themselves sugar regulated at the steady-state mRNA level and to encode proteins with activities commonly associated with response networks. This rationale was validated by the identification of hac1 mutants that are defective in sugar response. HAC1 encodes a histone acetyltransferase. Histone acetyltransferases increase transcription of specific genes by acetylating histones associated with those genes. Mutations in HAC1 also cause reduced fertility, a moderate degree of resistance to paclobutrazol and altered transcript levels of specific genes. Previous research has shown that hac1 mutants exhibit delayed flowering. The sugar-response and fertility defects of hac1 mutants may be partially explained by decreased expression of AtPV42a and AtPV42b, which are putative components of plant SnRK1 complexes. SnRK1 complexes have been shown to function as central regulators of plant nutrient and energy status. Involvement of a histone acetyltransferase in sugar response provides a possible mechanism whereby nutritional status could exert long-term effects on plant development and metabolism.

  12. The MTHFR C677T variant is associated with responsiveness to disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSpellicy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Disulfiram is a one of the few pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction that shows promise. Since disulfiram and cocaine both affect levels of global methylation we hypothesized the MTHFR gene, whose product is involved in supplying methyl groups for DNA and protein methylation, may be associated with responsiveness to disulfiram in cocaine-dependent individuals. Methods: Sixty-seven cocaine dependent patients were stabilized on methadone for two weeks and then randomized into disulfiram (250 mg/day, N = 32 and placebo groups (N =35 for 10 weeks. Patients were genotyped for the MTHFR (rs1801133, also known as C677T polymorphism and the data was evaluated for association with cocaine-free urines in the disulfiram or placebo groups. Data from patients that completed all ten weeks of the study (N = 56 were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, corrected for population structure. Results: The CT or TT MTHFR genotype group (N = 32 dropped from 73% to 52% on disulfiram (p = 0.0001, while the placebo group showed no treatment effect. The CC MTHFR genotype group (N = 24 showed a reduced, but still significant, reduction in cocaine-positive urines on disulfiram compared to placebo; 81-69% (p = 0.007. Conclusion: This study indicates that a patient’s MTHFR genotype may be used to identify individuals who might show improved response to disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence.

  13. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  14. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  15. Medication Adherence Affects Treatment Modifications in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Denig, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low rates of treatment modification in patients with insufficiently controlled risk factors are common in type 2 diabetes. Although adherence problems are often mentioned in surveys as a reason for not intensifying treatment, observational studies have shown inconclusive results. Objecti

  16. Factors affecting the choice of treatment in occupational therapy practices in hospital-based care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy

  17. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice--plant response and treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsson, Pär; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-03-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied.

  18. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronsson, Paer, E-mail: par.aronsson@vpe.slu.s [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Dahlin, Torleif [Lund University, Department of Electrical Measurements, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Dimitriou, Ioannis [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-03-15

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m{sup 2} plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (<=2160 kg N/ha), chloride (<=8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  19. Shared Responsibility: Massachusetts Legislators, Physicians, and An Act Relative to Substance Use Treatment, Education, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudder, Meghan; Tsao, Lulu; Jack, Helen E

    2016-09-01

    Recent passage of the Massachusetts law, An Act Relative to Substance Use, Treatment, Education, and Prevention, represents an admirable public health approach to substance use disorder (SUD), a stigmatized chronic disease that affects some of society's most vulnerable people. With its seven-day supply limit on first-time opioid prescriptions, this legislation takes an unusual approach to state government involvement in health care. By intervening in individual physicians' practices, state legislators have entered a space traditionally reserved for clinical teams. The seven-day supply limit and the process through which it was developed highlight competing priorities and dialogue between physicians and legislators, limits of physician self-regulation, and standards of evidence in policy making and health care. Addressing these issues requires both physicians and legislators to recognize and fulfill new responsibilities in order to better assist the populations they serve.

  20. Treatment patterns in major depressive disorder after an inadequate response to first-line antidepressant treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Toro Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to determine the most common pharmacological strategies used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD after an inadequate response to first-line antidepressant treatment in clinical practice. Methods Multicenter, non-interventional study in adult outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of MDD and inadequate response to first-line antidepressant medication. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors associated with the adoption of a specific second-line strategy. Results A total of 273 patients were analyzed (mean age: 46.8 years, 67.8% female. Baseline mean Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale total score was 32.1 (95%CI 31.2-32.9. The most common strategies were: switching antidepressant medication (39.6%, augmentation (18.8%, and combination therapy (17.9%. Atypical antipsychotic drugs were the most commonly used agent for augmenting antidepressant effect. The presence of psychotic symptoms and the number of previous major depressive episodes were associated with the adoption of augmenting strategy (OR = 3.2 and 1.2, respectively. Conclusion The switch to another antidepressant agent was the most common second-line therapeutic approach. Psychiatrists chose augmentation based on a worse patients’ clinical profile (number of previous episodes and presence of psychotic symptoms.

  1. "Sharing is Caring": Corporate social responsibility awareness explaining the relationship of information flow with affective commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hoeven, C.L.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication on external stakeholders' perceptions and behaviours have been studied extensively; however, researchers have largely overlooked the effects of CSR communication on internal stakeholders. This study seeks to propose that, b

  2. The strategic Samaritan : How effectiveness and proximity affect corporate responses to external crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Diermeier, Daniel A.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examines how two dimensions of moral intensity involved in a corporation's external crisis response-magnitude of effectiveness and interpersonal proximity-influence observer perceptions of and behavioral intentions toward the corporation. Across three studies, effectiveness decreased n

  3. Gingival fibroblast responsiveness is differentially affected by Porphyromonas gingivalis: implications for the pathogenesis of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, N.; Crielaard, W.

    2013-01-01

    In periodontitis, tissue damage results mainly from aberrant host responses to oral microorganisms. Fibroblasts can play an important role in this. Gingival fibroblasts do not develop tolerance against the lipopolysaccharide of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in periodontitis, which ma

  4. P-glycoprotein activity in the blood-brain barrier is affected by virus-induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorduin, Janine; de Vries, Erik F J; Dierckx, Rudi A; Klein, Hans C

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of schizophrenic patients respond poorly to antipsychotic treatment. This could be explained by inefficient drug transport across the blood-brain barrier due to P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. P-glycoprotein activity and expression in the blood-brain barrier can be affected by inflammation and pharmacotherapy. We therefore investigated the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) induced neuroinflammation and antipsychotic treatment on P-glycoprotein activity. Rats were inoculated with HSV-1 or PBS (control) on day 0 and treated with saline, clozapine or risperidone from day 0 up until day 4 post-inoculation. Positron emission tomography with the P-glycoprotein substrate [11C]verapamil was used to assess P-glycoprotein activity at day 6 post-inoculation. Disease symptoms in HSV-1 inoculated rats increased over time and were not significantly affected by treatment. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]verapamil was significantly lower (10-22%) in HSV-1 inoculated rats than in control rats. In addition, antipsychotic treatment significantly affected the VT of [11C]verapamil in all brain regions, although this effect was drug dependent. In fact, VT of [11C]verapamil was significantly increased (22-39%) in risperidone treated rats in most brain regions when compared to clozapine treated rats and in midbrain when compared to saline treated rats. No interaction between HSV-1 inoculation and antipsychotic treatment on VT of [11C]verapamil was found. In this study we demonstrated that HSV-1 induced neuroinflammation increased and risperidone treatment decreased P-glycoprotein activity. This finding is of importance for the understanding of treatment resistance in schizophrenia, and warrants further investigation of the underlying mechanism and the importance in clinical practice.

  5. Managing the risk of lithium-induced nephropathy in the long-term treatment of patients with recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severus, Emanuel; Bauer, Michael

    2013-02-11

    Lithium has been the most effective psychopharmacological drug in the long-term treatment of patients with recurrent unipolar and bipolar affective illness. As a result of its widespread and longtime use in patients with recurrent affective disorders, psychiatrists have become increasingly aware of the whole spectrum of lithium's potential side effects. One of the side effects associated with its chronic use is lithium-induced nephropathy. In a recent cross-sectional study published in BMC Medicine, Alberto Bocchetta et al. add further information to this topic, demonstrating that duration of lithium treatment is associated with impaired glomerular function in patients with recurrent or chronic affective disorders. The present paper will discuss the implications of this and other related recent research on our management of patients with recurrent affective disorders. In this context the importance of shared decision making and close monitoring of kidney function is highlighted, including the regular assessment of the glomerular filtration rate, to provide best possible care to our patients maintained on lithium treatment.See related research article here http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/33.

  6. The Genetic Response to Short-term Interventions Affecting Cardiovascular Function: Rationale and Design of the HAPI Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Shen, Haiqing; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Pollin, Toni I.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Jaquish, Cashell; Douglas, Julie A.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Sack, Paul; Naglieri, Rosalie; Hines, Scott; Horenstein, Richard B.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Post, Wendy; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Brereton, Nga Hong; Pakyz, Ruth E.; Sorkin, John; Damcott, Coleen M.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Mangano, Charles; Corretti, Mary; Vogel, Robert; Herzog, William; Weir, Matthew R.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is multifactorial. Efforts to identify genes influencing CVD risk have met with limited success to date, likely due to the small effect sizes of common CVD risk alleles and the presence of gene by gene and gene by environment interactions. Methods The Heredity and Phenotype Intervention (HAPI) Heart Study was initiated in 2002 to measure the cardiovascular response to four short-term interventions affecting cardiovascular risk factors and to identify the genetic and environmental determinants of these responses. The measurements included blood pressure responses to the cold pressor stress test and to a high salt diet, triglyceride excursion in response to a high fat challenge, and response in platelet aggregation to aspirin therapy. Results The interventions were carried out in 868 relatively healthy Amish adults from large families. The heritabilities of selected response traits for each intervention ranged from 8–38%, suggesting that some of the variation associated with response to each intervention can be attributed to the additive effects of genes. Conclusions Identifying these response genes may identify new mechanisms influencing CVD and may lead to individualized preventive strategies and improved early detection of high-risk individuals. PMID:18440328

  7. Household water treatment uptake during a public health response to a large typhoid fever outbreak in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Maho; Kweza, Patience F; Slayton, Rachel B; Urayai, Tanaka; Ziro, Odrie; Mushayi, Wellington; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Kuonza, Lazarus R; Ayers, Tracy; Freeman, Molly M; Govore, Emmaculate; Duri, Clemence; Chonzi, Prosper; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Manangazira, Portia; Kilmarx, Peter H; Mintz, Eric; Lantagne, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    Locally manufactured sodium hypochlorite (chlorine) solution has been sold in Zimbabwe since 2010. During October 1, 2011-April 30, 2012, 4,181 suspected and 52 confirmed cases of typhoid fever were identified in Harare. In response to this outbreak, chlorine tablets were distributed. To evaluate household water treatment uptake, we conducted a survey and water quality testing in 458 randomly selected households in two suburbs most affected by the outbreak. Although 75% of households were aware of chlorine solution and 85% received chlorine tablets, only 18% had reportedly treated stored water and had the recommended protective level of free chlorine residuals. Water treatment was more common among households that reported water treatment before the outbreak, and those that received free tablets during the outbreak (P 0.05). Outbreak response did not build on pre-existing prevention programs.

  8. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical ...

  9. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  10. Team members' affective responses to patterns of intragroup interdependence and job complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.; Emans, B.J.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this questionnaire study, the relations between the affective reactions of 114 technical consultants and both intragroup interdependence and job complexity were examined Individual-level task interdependence and job complexity were found to be positively related to individual job satisfaction, te

  11. Attributional, Perceptual, and Affective Responses to Depressed and Nondepressed Marital Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, William P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Husbands of wives with (n=22) or without (n=23) history of depressive disorder indicated their attributions about and affective reactions to real and hypothetical positive and negative events occurring to their wives, rated their wives on personality traits, and reported their own marital satisfaction. Depressed wives were rated more negatively on…

  12. ALOX5 gene variants affect eicosanoid production and response to fish oil supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) gene variants associated with cardiovascular disease affect eicosanoid production by monocytes. The study was a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention trial with fish oil (5.0 g of fish oil daily, containing 2.0 g ...

  13. Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition.

  14. Maternal mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy affect infants’ neural responses to sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, M.I.; Donkers, F.C.L.; Winkler, I.; Otte, R.A.; Van Den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy has been consistently shown to negatively affect offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of positive maternal traits/states during pregnancy on the offspring. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of the mo

  15. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T Evans

    Full Text Available Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge.Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7, did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text.Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention. Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention. Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later.In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective than text-only warnings

  16. Improvement in cognitive and affective theory of mind with observation and imitation treatment in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Pino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main objective of this study is to consider Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to perceive other people in terms of thinking, believing and emotions, as a target for effective rehabilitative intervention, using Emotion and ToM Imitation Training (ETIT, aimed at improving social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia. According to recent literature, ToM is a multidimensional process requiring at least two components: cognitive and affective. Cognitive ToM seems to be a prerequisite for affective ToM, which requires intact empathic ability. Method: seven patients with schizophrenia completed ETIT treatment and were compared to 7 patients who participated in Problem Solving Training (PST. The participants were assessed at pre and post treatment regarding measures of cognitive (Advanced Theory of Mind Task and Social Situation Test and affective (Emotion Attribution Task and Eyes Task ToM and also empathy (Empathy Quotient. Results: our results showed that when compared to the control group, ETIT participants improved in three social cognition components evaluated (cognitive and affective ToM and empathy. Improvement in cognitive and affective ToM was found within the ETIT group pre and post treatment. Conclusions: Action observation and imitation could be important goals for future “low cost” rehabilitation treatment in several disorders in which the deficit of social cognition is considered as “core” to the disease. This represents a new perspective in the rehabilitation field.

  17. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  18. NANOG Expression as a Responsive Biomarker during Treatment with Hedgehog Signal Inhibitor in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Kakiuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of leukemic stem cell (LSCs populations. PF-0444913 (PF-913 is a novel inhibitor that selectively targets Smoothened (SMO, which regulates the Hh pathway. Treatment with PF-913 has shown promising results in an early phase study of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. However, a detailed mode of action for PF-913 and relevant biomarkers remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined bone marrow samples derived from AML patients under PF-913 monotherapy. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA revealed that PF-913 treatment affected the self-renewal signature and cell-cycle regulation associated with LSC-like properties. We then focused on the expression of a pluripotency factor, NANOG, because previous reports showed that a downstream effector in the Hh pathway, GLI, directly binds to the NANOG promoter and that the GLI-NANOG axis promotes stemness and growth in several cancers. In this study, we found that a change in NANOG transcripts was closely associated with GLI-target genes and NANOG transcripts can be a responsive biomarker during PF-913 therapy. Additionally, the treatment of AML with PF-913 holds promise, possibly through inducing quiescent leukemia stem cells toward cell cycling.

  19. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-02

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  20. Chronic dihydroergotoxine treatment affects the number of dopamine recognition sites in rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaini, F.; Govoni, S.; Rius, R.A.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1984-06-01

    Ergot derivatives have been proposed to have ameliorative effects in various pathological conditions where dopaminergic transmission is believed to be impaired, namely Parkinson's disease, amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, and in the treatment of behavioural disturbances of the elderly. To get more insight into a possible involvement of a direct action of ergot derivatives on dopamine receptors we studied the effect of acute and chronic dihydroergotoxine (DHT) treatment on 3H-Spiroperidol and 3H-N-Propylnorapomorphine (3H-NPA) binding to rat striatal membrane preparations. The results are in favor of an interaction of ergot derivatives with dopamine recognition sites both after acute and chronic treatment.

  1. Stressors can affect immobility time and response to imipramine in the rat forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M

    2009-02-01

    We subjected Wistar rats to the forced swim test (FST) to compare the effects of two doses of imipramine in physically stressed rats (P: unavoidable electric footshocks), emotionally stressed rats (E: odors), or non-stressed rats (C). Stress or control sessions lasted 35 days. Drug treatments began on day 21 and continued for the next 14 days. E rats were placed for 10 min, once per day for 35 days, in a small non-movement-restricting cage impregnated with urine collected from a P rat. E and P rats exhibited opposite changes in locomotion. After 21 days of stress sessions, P rats displayed the longest immobility times in the FST, followed by E rats. In the P group, on day 7 of treatment (day 28 of the study), imipramine (2.5 mg/kg) reduced immobility time to baseline values. In the E group, immobility time decreased only after 14 days of treatment with the low imipramine dose. The high dose of imipramine (5.0 mg/kg) reduced immobility time at day 7 of treatment in all groups. In conclusion, physical and emotional stress similarly increased immobility time in the FST, but emotional stress appears to be more resistant to imipramine treatment.

  2. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Menton, R; Matthews, C; Shutz, M; Nalls, C; Kelly, S

    1995-01-01

    HI-6 (1-2-hydroxyiminomethyl-1-pyridino-3-(4-carbamoyl-1-pyridino -2- oxapropane dichloride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OP and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman. It is concluded that 1) ATR has a large effect on the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 2) the dose of ATR must be carefully selected in studies investigating the efficacy of HI-6 against OP poisoning, 3) the effective dose of ATR in the guinea pig is approximately 16 mg/kg, and 4) diazepam is a useful

  3. Using host response modifiers in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, M John; Donley, Timothy G

    2002-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between microbial plaque, the host's inflammatory response to the plaque, and host modifying factors (e.g., smoking, diabetes, genetics) that may have an impact on the disease process. It is known that plaque initiates periodontal disease but that the host response is responsible for the destruction of periodontal tissues. This article describes why host response modifiers may be used to help control inflammation and tissue destruction as part of the initial phase of periodontal therapy in selected patient groups.

  4. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming

    2004-01-01

    and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified......Bisphosphonates are emerging as an important treatment for osteoporosis. But whether the reduced fracture risk associated with bisphosphonate treatment is due to increased bone mass, improved trabecular architecture and/or increased secondary mineralization of the calcified matrix remains unclear....... We examined the effects of bisphosphonates on both the trabecular architecture and matrix properties of canine trabecular bone. Thirty-six beagles were divided into a control group and two treatment groups, one receiving risedronate and the other alendronate at 5-6 times the clinical dose...

  5. Marijuana Use in Hepatitis C Infection does not Affect Liver Biopsy Histology or Treatment Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marijuana smoking is prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients. The literature assessing the influence of marijuana on liver disease progression and hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment outcomes is conflicting.

  6. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  7. Investigation of parameters affecting treatment time in MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, W. A.; Burtnyk, M.; Chopra, R.; Bronskill, M. J.

    2010-03-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound therapy shows promise for minimally invasive treatment of localized prostate cancer. Real-time MR temperature feedback enables the 3D control of thermal therapy to define an accurate region within the prostate. Previous in-vivo canine studies showed the feasibility of this method using transurethral planar transducers. The aim of this simulation study was to reduce the procedure time, while maintaining treatment accuracy by investigating new combinations of treatment parameters. A numerical model was used to simulate a multi-element heating applicator rotating inside the urethra in 10 human prostates. Acoustic power and rotation rate were varied based on the feedback of the temperature in the prostate. Several parameters were investigated for improving the treatment time. Maximum acoustic power and rotation rate were optimized interdependently as a function of prostate radius and transducer operating frequency, while avoiding temperatures >90° C in the prostate. Other trials were performed on each parameter separately, with the other parameter fixed. The concept of using dual-frequency transducers was studied, using the fundamental frequency or the 3rd harmonic component depending on the prostate radius. The maximum acoustic power which could be used decreased as a function of the prostate radius and the frequency. Decreasing the frequency (9.7-3.0 MHz) or increasing the power (10-20 W.cm-2) led to treatment times shorter by up to 50% under appropriate conditions. Dual-frequency configurations, while helpful, tended to have less impact on treatment times. Treatment accuracy was maintained and critical adjacent tissues like the rectal wall remained protected. The interdependence between power and frequency may require integrating multi-parametric functions inside the controller for future optimizations. As a first approach, however, even slight modifications of key parameters can be sufficient to reduce treatment time.

  8. The pupil's response to affective pictures: Role of image duration, habituation, and viewing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; O'Farrell, Katherine R; Burley, Daniel; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Newton, Naomi V; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-08-01

    The pupil has been shown to be sensitive to the emotional content of stimuli. We examined this phenomenon by comparing fearful and neutral images carefully matched in the domains of luminance, image contrast, image color, and complexity of content. The pupil was more dilated after viewing affective pictures, and this effect was (a) shown to be independent of the presentation time of the images (from 100-3,000 ms), (b) not diminished by repeated presentations of the images, and (c) not affected by actively naming the emotion of the stimuli in comparison to passive viewing. Our results show that the emotional modulation of the pupil is present over a range of variables that typically vary from study to study (image duration, number of trials, free viewing vs. task), and encourages the use of pupillometry as a measure of emotional processing in populations where alternative techniques may not be appropriate.

  9. Bisphosphonate treatment affects trabecular bone apparent modulus through micro-architecture rather than matrix properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J S; Ding, M; Bednarz, P; van der Linden, J C; Mashiba, T; Hirano, T; Johnston, C C; Burr, D B; Hvid, I; Sumner, D R; Weinans, H

    2004-05-01

    Bisphosphonates are emerging as an important treatment for osteoporosis. But whether the reduced fracture risk associated with bisphosphonate treatment is due to increased bone mass, improved trabecular architecture and/or increased secondary mineralization of the calcified matrix remains unclear. We examined the effects of bisphosphonates on both the trabecular architecture and matrix properties of canine trabecular bone. Thirty-six beagles were divided into a control group and two treatment groups, one receiving risedronate and the other alendronate at 5-6 times the clinical dose for osteoporosis treatment. After one year, the dogs were killed, and samples from the first lumbar vertebrae were examined using a combination of micro-computed tomography, finite element modeling, and mechanical testing. By combining these methods, we examined the treatment effects on the calcified matrix and trabecular architecture independently. Conventional histomorphometry and microdamage data were obtained from the second and third lumbar vertebrae of the same dogs [Bone 28 (2001) 524]. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in an increased apparent Young's modulus, decreased bone turnover, increased calcified matrix density, and increased microdamage. We could not detect any change in the effective Young's modulus of the calcified matrix in the bisphosphonate treated groups. The observed increase in apparent Young's modulus was due to increased bone mass and altered trabecular architecture rather than changes in the calcified matrix modulus. We hypothesize that the expected increase in the Young's modulus of the calcified matrix due to the increased calcified matrix density was counteracted by the accumulation of microdamage.

  10. VARNISH LAYER HARDNESS, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, AND GLOSSINESS OF VARIOUS WOOD SPECIES AS AFFECTED BY HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Çakıcıer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different heat treatment and varnish application combinations on hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of wood materials sampled from limba (Terminalia superba, iroko (Chlorophora excelsa, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., and Anatolian chestnut (Castenea sativa Mill. species. The heat treatment was applied at two levels (150 and 180 oC for both 3 and 6 hour periods. After the heat treatment, four types of varnish (cellulose lacquer, synthetic varnish, polyurethane varnish, and water based varnish were applied, and hardness, scratch resistance, and glossiness of varnish film layers of the treated woods were measured. The effects of heat treatment and varnish combination applications on above mentioned variables were analyzed according to the study design (factorial design with 4 (species x 2 (heat x 2(duration x 4 (varnish = 64 experimental units with 10 samples for each combination of parameters. Glossiness increased on wood samples for all of the four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, glossiness values were decreased for all the wood species depending on heating temperature and time. Values of hardness and scratch resistance were also decreased for all the four wood species across all the treatment combinations. The results were obtained from the upper surface of the application process and are thought to contribute to the national economy.

  11. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  12. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  13. Heterogeneity Moderates Treatment Response among Patients with Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Hildebrandt, Tom; Wilson, G. Terence; Wilfley, Denise E.; Agras, W. Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore heterogeneity and differential treatment outcome among a sample of patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Method: A latent class analysis was conducted with 205 treatment-seeking, overweight or obese individuals with BED randomized to interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioral weight loss…

  14. Antibiotic treatment affects intestinal permeability and gut microbial composition in Wistar rats dependent on antibiotic class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera

    2015-01-01

    potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (n=12 per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin...

  15. Chronic lithium treatment with or without haloperidol fails to affect the morphology of the rat cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Rasmus Wentzer; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Smith, D.

    2003-01-01

    We used unbiased stereological principles to determine whether long-term administration of lithium at human therapeutic levels, with or without haloperidol, affects the number or sizes of cerebellar Purkinje cells or the volume of histological layers in the rat cerebellum. Twenty-eight rats were...

  16. Wastewater treatment in tsunami affected areas of Thailand by constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, H.; Laugesen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 destroyed infrastructure in many coastal areas in South-East Asia. In January 2005, the Danish Government gave a tsunami relief grant to Thailand to re-establish the wastewater management services in some of the areas affected by the tsunami. This paper describes...

  17. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  18. Treatment-Resistant Depressed Youth Show a Higher Response Rate If Treatment Ends during Summer School Break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Clarke, Gregory; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Ryan, Neal D.; Birmaher, Boris; Emslie, Graham; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Keller, Martin B.; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is little work on the effect of school on response to treatment of depression, with available research suggesting that children and adolescents with school difficulties are less likely to respond to fluoxetine compared with those with no school difficulties. Method: Depressed adolescents in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in…

  19. The immune response is affected for at least three weeks after extensive surgery for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Anne Craveiro; Mikkelsen, Søren; Hegelund, Iørn

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment of women with ovarian cancer in advanced stages consists of extensive surgery followed by chemotherapy initiated three weeks after surgery. In this study, selected immune parameters were investigated to elucidate when the immune system is normalised following the opera...

  20. Mitochondria in the striatum of subjects with schizophrenia: relationship to treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Shahza M; Lahti, Adrienne C; Conley, Robert R; Roberts, Rosalinda C

    2011-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental illness with neuropathology in many regions, including the striatum. The typical symptoms of this disease are psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions), cognitive impairments, and the deficit syndrome. Not all patients respond to treatment and, in those who do, only psychotic symptoms are improved. Imaging studies support a biological distinction between treatment response and resistance, but postmortem examinations of this issue are rare. This study tests the hypotheses that abnormalities in mitochondria, the energy producing organelles in the cell, may correlate with treatment response. Postmortem striatal tissue was obtained from the Maryland Brain Collection. The density of mitochondria (in various neuropil compartments) and the number of mitochondria per synapse (all types of synapses combined) were tallied using electron microscopy and stereology in striatum from SZ subjects (rated treatment responsive or not) and normal controls. The number of mitochondria per synapse was significantly different among groups for both the caudate nucleus (P mitochondria per synapse in the caudate nucleus and putamen. In the putamen, treatment-responsive subjects also had decreases in this measure compared to treatment-resistant subjects (34%). Our results provide further support for a biological distinction between treatment response and treatment resistance in SZ. Because treatment responders have fewer mitochondria per synapse than controls, although the treatment-resistant subjects have similar results to that of controls, fewer mitochondria per synapse may be related to treatment response.

  1. Effect Anticipation Affects Perceptual, Cognitive, and Motor Phases of Response Preparation: Evidence from an Event-Related Potential (ERP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation.

  2. Effect anticipation affects perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation: evidence from an event-related potential (ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Richard Harrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.

  3. Macular morphology and response to ranibizumab treatment in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervenis N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaos Dervenis, Saad Younis Western Eye Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether specific characteristics of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT affect structural and functional outcomes and number of injections needed in ranibizumab (0.05 mL of 10 mg/mL Lucentis solution-treated wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. Patients and methods: This retrospective case series included 62 newly diagnosed wet AMD patients treated with three monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections followed by monthly follow-up and pro re nata retreatment. The presence of dome-shaped pigment epithelial detachment (PED, disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, and subretinal and intraretinal fluid was associated with changes in Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity, central macular thickness (CMT, and number of injections needed during the 6-month follow-up. Results: The presence of PED was associated with lower values of CMT at presentation (399 µm [±132 µm] vs 310 µm [±51 µm], P=0.005. The presence of RPE disruption was associated with worse visual acuity in month 6 (0.36 [±0.22] vs 0.61 [0.45], P=0.027 and fewer injections (4.23 [±0.92] vs 3.55 [±0.60], P=0.007. The presence of intraretinal fluid at presentation was associated with worse visual acuity outcomes in month 4 (P=0.045 but not in month 6. Conclusion: The dome-shaped PED was associated with lower CMT at presentation, but it did not affect response to treatment. RPE disruption was associated with worse functional outcomes with fewer injections. Intraretinal fluid at presentation may suggest delayed response to treatment. Individualized SD-OCT analysis could lead to individualized approach to wet AMD patients. SD-OCT can offer imaging biomarkers to assess the prognosis of anti-VEGF treatment in AMD patients. Keywords: AMD, spectral domain optical

  4. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanfey Alan G

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Methods Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. Results We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making.

  5. Characteristics of Items in the Eysenck Personality Inventory Which Affect Responses When Students Simulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, R. P.; Macrae, K. D.

    1977-01-01

    A large sample of students completed Form A of the Eysenck Personality Inventory, and four subgroups were later asked to simulate extraversion, introversion, neuroticism or stability. It was found that subjects could simulate these four personalities successfully. The changes in individual item responses were correlated with the items' factor…

  6. Use of a test of perceived authenticity to trigger affective responses when testing food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutrolle, I.; Delarue, J.; Köster, E.P.; Aranz, D.; Danzart, M.

    2009-01-01

    Food developers frequently check the liking for their recipes by asking consumers to state their preferences. This approach is often criticised for the lack of commitment of the participants and the artificiality of the hedonic response. This study tested whether an authenticity test could also be u

  7. The polyacetylenes falcarinol and falcarindiol affect stress responses in myotube cultures in a biphasic manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jette F; Christensen, Lars P; Theil, Peter K; Oksbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the bioactive polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, present in carrots, celery, celeriac and other umbelliferous vegetables, on the stress responses in primary myotube cultures, were studied. Biphasic responses on cellular stress responses in myotube cultures were investigated by exposing them to various concentrations of falcarinol and falcarindiol for 24 h before testing effects of 100 microM H(2)O(2) on the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), transcription of the antioxidative enzyme cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (cGPx), and the heat shock proteins (HSP) HSP70 and HO1. At low concentrations (1.6 to 25 microM) polyacetylenes caused a slightly accelerated intra-cellular ROS formation, increased cGPx transcription and decreased HSP70 and HO1 transcription. The increased cGPx transcription may be interpreted as an adaptive response to the increased ROS formation and may have caused a reduced demand for the protective functions of the HSPs. ROS formation, however, was substantially decreased after pre-incubation with both polyacetylenes at 50 and 100 microM, the cGPx transcription was reduced and the HSP70 and HO1 transcription increased, indicating a need for the protective and repairing functions of the HSPs. In conclusion, pre-incubation with low concentrations of both polyacetylenes prior to H(2)O(2) exposure induced a cytoprotective effect whereas higher concentrations had adverse effects.

  8. Elevated CO2 affects plant responses to variation in boron availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of elevated CO2 on N relations are well studied, but effects on other nutrients, especially micronutrients, are not. We investigated effects of elevated CO2 on response to variation in boron (B) availability in three unrelated species: geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum), barley (Hordeum vulga...

  9. Immune history profoundly affects broadly protective B cell responses to influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah F.; Huang, Yunping; Kaur, Kaval; Popova, Lyubov I.; Ho, Irvin Y.; Pauli, Noel T.; Dunand, Carole J. Henry; Taylor, William M; Lim, Samuel; Huang, Min; Qu, Xinyan; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Salgado-Ferrer, Marlene; Krammer, Florian; Palese, Peter; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Generating a broadly protective influenza vaccine is critical to global health. Understanding how immune memory influences influenza immunity is central to this goal. We undertook an in-depth study of the B cell response to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine over consecutive years. Analysis of monoclonal Abs generated from vaccine-induced plasmablasts demonstrated that individuals with low preexisting serological titers to the vaccinating strain generated a broadly reactive, HA stalk-biased, response. Higher preexisting serum antibody levels correlated with a strain-specific HA head-dominated response. We demonstrate that this HA head immunodominance encompasses poor accessibility of the HA stalk epitopes. Further, we show polyreactivity of HA stalk-reactive antibodies that could cause counterselection of these cells. Thus, preexisting memory against HA head epitopes predominate, inhibiting a broadly protective response against the HA stalk upon revaccination with similar strains. Consideration of influenza exposure history is critical for new vaccine strategies designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26631631

  10. The rate of training response to aerobic exercise affects brain function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Mimura, Tatsuya; Pajk, Melitta; Abraham, Dora; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing volume of data connecting capacity to respond to exercise training with quality of life and aging. In this study, we used a rat model in which animals were selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance to test t whether genetic segregation for trainability is associated with brain function and signaling processes in the hippocampus. Rats selected for low response (LRT) and high response training (HRT) were randomly divided into control or exercise group that trained five times a week for 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max. All four groups had similar running distance before training. With training, HRT rats showed significantly greater increases in VO2max and running distance than LRT rats (p brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ratio of phospho and total cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and apoptotic index, also showed significant differences between LRT and HRT groups. These findings suggest that aerobic training responses are not localized to skeletal muscle, but differently involve signaling processes in the brain of LRT and HRT rats.

  11. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) seed size affects germination response to coumarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inhibition of seed germination by an allelochemical is generally greater in small seeds than in large seeds. This response may have significant impact on weed control by allelopathic cover crops where the small-seeded weeds would be more effectively controlled than large-seeded species. The stu...

  12. Three-dimensional matrix stiffness and adhesive ligands affect cancer cell response to toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zustiak, Silviya Petrova; Dadhwal, Smritee; Medina, Carlos; Steczina, Sonette; Chehreghanianzabi, Yasaman; Ashraf, Anisa; Asuri, Prashanth

    2016-02-01

    There is an immediate need to develop highly predictive in vitro cell-based assays that provide reliable information on cancer drug efficacy and toxicity. Development of biomaterial-based three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models as drug screening platforms has recently gained much scientific interest as 3D cultures of cancer cells have been shown to more adequately mimic the in vivo tumor conditions. Moreover, it has been recognized that the biophysical and biochemical properties of the 3D microenvironment can play key roles in regulating various cancer cell fates, including their response to chemicals. In this study, we employed alginate-based scaffolds of varying mechanical stiffness and adhesive ligand presentation to further explore the role of 3D microenvironmental cues on glioblastoma cell response to cytotoxic compounds. Our experiments suggested the ability of both matrix stiffness and cell-matrix adhesions to strongly influence cell responses to toxins. Cells were found to be more susceptible to the toxins when cultured in softer matrices that emulated the stiffness of brain tissue. Furthermore, the effect of matrix stiffness on differential cell responses to toxins was negated by the presence of the adhesive ligand RGD, but regained when integrin-based cell-matrix interactions were inhibited. This study therefore indicates that both 3D matrix stiffness and cell-matrix adhesions are important parameters in the design of more predictive in vitro platforms for drug development and toxicity screening.

  13. Interactivity in brand web sites: cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses explained by consumers’ online flow experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Web site interactivity creates numerous opportunities for marketers to persuade online consumers and receives extensive attention in the marketing literature. However, research on cognitive and behavioral responses to web site interactivity is scarce, and more importantly, it does not provide empiri

  14. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  15. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Nielsen, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood,

  16. Do 'enabling technologies' affect customer performance in price-responsive load programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Heffner, Grayson

    2002-05-15

    Price-responsive load (PRL) programs vary significantly in overall design, the complexity of relationships between program administrators, load aggregators, and customers, and the availability of ''enabling technologies''. Enabling technologies include such features as web-based power system and price monitoring, control and dispatch of curtailable loads, communications and information systems links to program participants, availability of interval metering data to customers in near real time, and building/facility/end-use automation and management capabilities. Two state agencies - NYSERDA in New York and the CEC in California - have been conspicuous leaders in the demonstration of demand response (DR) programs utilizing enabling technologies. In partnership with key stakeholders in these two states (e.g., grid operator, state energy agencies, and program administrators), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed 56 customers who worked with five contractors participating in CEC or NYSERDA-sponsored DR programs. We combined market research and actual load curtailment data when available (i.e., New York) or customer load reduction targets in order to explore the relative importance of contractor's program design features, sophistication of control strategies, and reliance on enabling technologies in predicting customer's ability to deliver load reductions in DR programs targeted to large commercial/industrial customers. We found preliminary evidence that DR enabling technology has a positive effect on load curtailment potential. Many customers indicated that web-based energy information tools were useful for facilitating demand response (e.g., assessing actual performance compared to load reduction contract commitments), that multiple notification channels facilitated timely response, and that support for and use of backup generation allowed customers to achieve significant

  17. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  18. Change in allosteric network affects binding affinities of PDZ domains: analysis through perturbation response scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nevin Gerek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The allosteric mechanism plays a key role in cellular functions of several PDZ domain proteins (PDZs and is directly linked to pharmaceutical applications; however, it is a challenge to elaborate the nature and extent of these allosteric interactions. One solution to this problem is to explore the dynamics of PDZs, which may provide insights about how intramolecular communication occurs within a single domain. Here, we develop an advancement of perturbation response scanning (PRS that couples elastic network models with linear response theory (LRT to predict key residues in allosteric transitions of the two most studied PDZs (PSD-95 PDZ3 domain and hPTP1E PDZ2 domain. With PRS, we first identify the residues that give the highest mean square fluctuation response upon perturbing the binding sites. Strikingly, we observe that the residues with the highest mean square fluctuation response agree with experimentally determined residues involved in allosteric transitions. Second, we construct the allosteric pathways by linking the residues giving the same directional response upon perturbation of the binding sites. The predicted intramolecular communication pathways reveal that PSD-95 and hPTP1E have different pathways through the dynamic coupling of different residue pairs. Moreover, our analysis provides a molecular understanding of experimentally observed hidden allostery of PSD-95. We show that removing the distal third alpha helix from the binding site alters the allosteric pathway and decreases the binding affinity. Overall, these results indicate that (i dynamics plays a key role in allosteric regulations of PDZs, (ii the local changes in the residue interactions can lead to significant changes in the dynamics of allosteric regulations, and (iii this might be the mechanism that each PDZ uses to tailor their binding specificities regulation.

  19. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  20. Child-focused treatment of pediatric OCD affects parental behavior and family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenstein, Gabriela; Gorenstein, Clarice; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of child-focused pediatric OCD treatment on parental anxiety, family accommodation and family environment. Forty-three parents (72.1% female, mean age±SD=43.1±5.6 years) were evaluated at baseline and after their children's (n=33, 54.5% female, mean age±SD=12.9±2.7 years) randomized treatment with Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or fluoxetine for 14 weeks. Validated instruments were administered by trained clinicians. Parents were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was administered to children. Significant findings after the children's treatment include decreased family accommodation levels (participation, modification and distress/consequences domains); increased cohesion and active-recreational components of the family environment. In addition, changes in the FAS distress/consequences and the FES cohesion subscores were correlated with the children's clinical improvement. These results suggest that child-focused OCD treatment may have a positive impact on family accommodation and family environment. Future studies should further clarify the reciprocal influences of pediatric OCD treatment and family factors.

  1. Early exposure of infants to GI nematodes induces Th2 dominant immune responses which are unaffected by periodic anthelminthic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Wright

    Full Text Available We have previously shown a reduction in anaemia and wasting malnutrition in infants <3 years old in Pemba Island, Zanzibar, following repeated anthelminthic treatment for the endemic gastrointestinal (GI nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. In view of the low intensity of worm infections in this age group, this was unexpected, and it was proposed that immune responses to the worms rather than their direct effects may play a significant role in morbidity in infants and that anthelminthic treatment may alleviate such effects. Therefore, the primary aims of this study were to characterise the immune response to initial/early GI nematode infections in infants and the effects of anthelminthic treatment on such immune responses. The frequency and levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-13, IFN-gamma and IL-10 induced by the worms were evaluated in 666 infants aged 6-24 months using the Whole Blood Assay. Ascaris and hookworm antigens induced predominantly Th2 cytokine responses, and levels of IL-5 and IL-13 were significantly correlated. The frequencies and levels of responses were higher for both Ascaris positive and hookworm positive infants compared with worm negative individuals, but very few infants made Trichuris-specific cytokine responses. Infants treated every 3 months with mebendazole showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection compared with placebo-treated controls at one year following baseline. At follow-up, cytokine responses to Ascaris and hookworm antigens, which remained Th2 biased, were increased compared with baseline but were not significantly affected by treatment. However, blood eosinophil levels, which were elevated in worm-infected children, were significantly lower in treated children. Thus the effect of deworming in this age group on anaemia and wasting malnutrition, which were replicated in this study, could not be explained by modification of cytokine responses but may be related to

  2. Some aspects of salinity responses in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) to NaCl treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Yang, Hetong; Wu, Xiaoqing; Guo, Kai; Li, Jishun

    2015-05-01

    Salinity is a major stress that adversely affects plant growth and crop production. Understanding the cellular responses and molecular mechanisms by which plants perceive and adopt salinity stress is of fundamental importance. In this work, some of the cellular signaling events including cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the behaviors of organelles were analyzed in a salt-tolerant species (Keyuan-1) of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) under NaCl treatment. Our results showed that 200 mM NaCl treatment elicited a distinct progress of cell death with chromatin condensation and caspase-3-like activation and a dramatic burst of ROS which was required for the execution of cell death. The major ROS accumulation occurred in the mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were the sources of ROS production under NaCl stress. Moreover, mitochondrial activity and photosynthetic capacity also exhibited the obvious decrease in the ROS-dependent manner under 200 mM NaCl stress. Furthermore, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) as well as the contents of ascorbate and glutathione changed in the concentration-dependent manner under NaCl stress. Altogether, our data showed the execution of programmed cell death (PCD), the ROS dynamics, and the behaviors of organelles especially mitochondria and chloroplasts in the cellular responses of peppermint to NaCl stress which can be used for the tolerance screening, and contributed to the understanding of the cellular responses and molecular mechanisms of peppermint to salinity stress, providing the theoretic basis for the further development and utilization of peppermint in saline areas.

  3. Short-term teriparatide treatment does not affect NT-proBNP, a marker of cardiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Schwarz, Peter; Hansen, Ann Caroline;

    2012-01-01

    of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is seen in PHPT patients. The N-terminal fragment of the pro-peptide of Brain Natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a risk marker of CVD, has been shown to be elevated in PHPT patients, indicating that continuously high concentrations of PTH affect the heart. Therefore the aim...... of this study was to investigate whether teriparatide treatment is associated with changes in plasma NT-proBNP....

  4. Saving the treatment. Affect intolerance in a boy, his parents, the mental health community, and his analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Psychoanalytic thinkers have been writing about children's struggles with affect for many years (E. Furman, 1956; Katan, 1973; Chused, 1999; Gilmore, 2005). They have reported on mothers' inability to provide containment and fathers' use of physical punishment, attesting to their own affect intolerance and only making matters worse (Axelman, 2009; Bierman, Silverstein, Finesinger, 1958; Coen, 1998). So, what is different about this article? I'm certainly not the first to insist that we live in an affect-intolerant society, with many parents seeking psychotropic assistance rather than attempting to understand their children's feelings. Nor am I the only one who wags her finger at mental health professionals who freely prescribe. But there you have it. I am willing to report on my own countertransference--the villains who threatened to undermine my treatment with a boy named Joey.

  5. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally, cannabis users experienced less satisfaction with life and had a lower probability of having a relationship compared with nonusers. There was little evidence that cannabis-outcome associations were mediated by third variables. An independent impact of cannabis use on psychopathologic outcomes...... treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers...

  6. Membrane voltage differently affects mIPSCs and current responses recorded from somatic excised patches in rat hippocampal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-01-30

    Recent analysis of current responses to exogenous GABA applications recorded from excised patches indicated that membrane voltage affected the GABAA receptor gating mainly by altering desensitization and binding [M. Pytel, K. Mercik, J.W. Mozrzymas, Membrane voltage modulates the GABAA receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, Neuropharmacology, in press]. In order investigate the impact of such voltage effect on GABAA receptors in conditions of synaptic transmission, mIPSCs and current responses to rapid GABA applications were recorded from the same culture of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that I-V relationship for mIPSCs amplitudes showed a clear outward rectification while for current responses an inward rectification was seen, except for very low GABA concentrations. A clear shift in amplitude cumulative distributions indicated that outward rectification resulted from the voltage effect on the majority of mIPSCs. Moreover, the decaying phase of mIPSCs was clearly slowed down at positive voltages and this effect was represented by a shift in cumulative distributions of weighted decaying time constants. In contrast, deactivation of current responses was only slightly affected by membrane depolarization. These data indicate that the mechanisms whereby the membrane voltage modulates synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors are qualitatively different but the mechanism underlying this difference is not clear.

  7. How partial reinforcement of food cues affects the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses. A new model for dieting success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Karolien; Havermans, Remco C; Bouton, Mark E; Jansen, Anita

    2014-10-01

    Animals and humans can easily learn to associate an initially neutral cue with food intake through classical conditioning, but extinction of learned appetitive responses can be more difficult. Intermittent or partial reinforcement of food cues causes especially persistent behaviour in animals: after exposure to such learning schedules, the decline in responding that occurs during extinction is slow. After extinction, increases in responding with renewed reinforcement of food cues (reacquisition) might be less rapid after acquisition with partial reinforcement. In humans, it may be that the eating behaviour of some individuals resembles partial reinforcement schedules to a greater extent, possibly affecting dieting success by interacting with extinction and reacquisition. Furthermore, impulsivity has been associated with less successful dieting, and this association might be explained by impulsivity affecting the learning and extinction of appetitive responses. In the present two studies, the effects of different reinforcement schedules and impulsivity on the acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of appetitive responses were investigated in a conditioning paradigm involving food rewards in healthy humans. Overall, the results indicate both partial reinforcement schedules and, possibly, impulsivity to be associated with worse extinction performance. A new model of dieting success is proposed: learning histories and, perhaps, certain personality traits (impulsivity) can interfere with the extinction and reacquisition of appetitive responses to food cues and they may be causally related to unsuccessful dieting.

  8. Neural Mechanisms of Improvements in Social Motivation after Pivotal Response Treatment: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Tirrell, Jonathan; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Vander Wyk, Brent; Kaiser, Martha D.; McPartland, James C.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Ventola, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is an empirically validated behavioral treatment that has widespread positive effects on communication, behavior, and social skills in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). For the first time, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of successful response to…

  9. Rapid Response Predicts Treatment Outcomes in Binge Eating Disorder: Implications for Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined rapid response in 75 overweight patients with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a randomized clinical trial of guided self-help treatments (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBTgsh] and behavioral weight loss [BWLgsh]). Rapid response, defined as a 65% or greater reduction in binge eating by the 4th treatment week,…

  10. An Evaluation of Response Cost in the Treatment of Inappropriate Vocalizations Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcomata, Terry S.; Roane, Henry S.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.; Kettering, Tracy L.; Keeney, Kris M.

    2004-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the utility of a procedure consisting of noncontingent reinforcement with and without response cost in the treatment of inappropriate vocalizations maintained by automatic reinforcement. Results are discussed in terms of examining the variables that contribute to the effectiveness of response cost as treatment for…

  11. Treatment of Ischemic Apoplexy Based on the Theory of "Lingering Illness Affecting Collaterals"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Lingmei; Sun Yan; Duan Shumin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ischemic apoplexy, also called ischemic cerebrovascular disease (including cerebral thrombosis, cerebral embolism and transient cerebral ischemic attack), belongs to the TCM category of "wind-stroke syndrome". The increasingly high incidence of the disease has imposed serious influence on life quality of people. Based on the theory of "lingering illness affecting collaterals", we have treated the disease by acupuncture and oral administration of leech capsule and centipede capsule,with good therapeutic results reported as follows.

  12. End-of-treatment virologic response does not predict relapse after lamivudine treatment for chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jen Liu; Wen-Ling Huang; Pei-Jer Chen; Ming-Yang Lai; Jia-Horng Kao; Ding-Shinn Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Attaining hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion during lamivudine treatment is assodated with fewer relapses in HBeAg-positive patients. In HBeAg-negative patients,predictors for post-treatment relapse remain largely unknown.We therefore studied whether end-of-treatment virologic response correlated with relapse after lamivudine treatment.METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 12 HBeAg-negative patients and 14 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B, who received at least 9 mo of lamivudine treatment and were followed up for 12 mo post-treatment. Relapse of hepatitis B activity was defined by an elevation of serum ALT level above twice the upper limit of normal as well as reappearance of serum HBV DNA by the branched DNA assay or HBeAg during the follow-up period. The serum viral loads during and at the end of treatment were further determined by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.RESULTS: Relapse occurred in 6 (50.0%) HBeAg-negative patients within 12 mo post-treatment. Two relapsers had end-of-treatment serum viral load < 1000 copies/mL, the proportion was not significantly different from that in the 6 non-relapsers (33.3% vs16.7%; P = 1.00). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels did not correlate with post-treatment relapse in HBeAg-positive patients either. However, genotype C patients tended to have a lower relapse rate than genotype B patients (14.3% vs57.9%, P= 0.08).CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that end-of-treatment virologic response cannot predict post-treatment relapse in patients with HBeAg-negative or -positive chronic hepatitis B. The impact of HBV genotype on the response to lamivudine treatment awaits further studies.

  13. Neuroticism and responsiveness to error feedback: adaptive self-regulation versus affective reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael D; Moeller, Sara K; Fetterman, Adam K

    2010-10-01

    Responsiveness to negative feedback has been seen as functional by those who emphasize the value of reflecting on such feedback in self-regulating problematic behaviors. On the other hand, the very same responsiveness has been viewed as dysfunctional by its link to punishment sensitivity and reactivity. The present 4 studies, involving 203 undergraduate participants, sought to reconcile such discrepant views in the context of the trait of neuroticism. In cognitive tasks, individuals were given error feedback when they made mistakes. It was found that greater tendencies to slow down following error feedback were associated with higher levels of accuracy at low levels of neuroticism but lower levels of accuracy at high levels of neuroticism. Individual differences in neuroticism thus appear crucial in understanding whether behavioral alterations following negative feedback reflect proactive versus reactive mechanisms and processes. Implications for understanding the processing basis of neuroticism and adaptive self-regulation are discussed.

  14. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk...... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all ppsychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All...

  15. How individual movement response to habitat edges affects population persistence and spatial spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Gabriel Andreguetto; Lutscher, Frithjof

    2013-07-01

    How individual-level movement decisions in response to habitat edges influence population-level patterns of persistence and spread of a species is a major challenge in spatial ecology and conservation biology. Here, we integrate novel insights into edge behavior, based on habitat preference and movement rates, into spatially explicit growth-dispersal models. We demonstrate how crucial ecological quantities (e.g., minimal patch size, spread rate) depend critically on these individual-level decisions. In particular, we find that including edge behavior properly in these models gives qualitatively different and intuitively more reasonable results than those of some previous studies that did not consider this level of detail. Our results highlight the importance of new empirical work on individual movement response to habitat edges.

  16. Validating Indicators of Treatment Response: Application to Trichotillomania

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Samuel O.; Rogers, Kate; Rusch, Natalie; McDonough, Lauren; Malloy, Elizabeth J; Falkenstein, Martha J.; Banis, Maria; Haaga, David A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Different studies of the treatment of trichotillomania (TTM) use varying standards to determine the proportion of patients who obtain clinically meaningful benefits, but there is little information on the similarity of results yielded by these methods or on their comparative validity. Data from a stepped care (1. Web-based self-help; 2. Individual behavior therapy) (N = 60) treatment study of TTM were used to evaluate seven potential standards: complete abstinence, >=25% ...

  17. Vessel Noise Affects Beaked Whale Behavior: Results of a Dedicated Acoustic Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    strict accordance with the US Animal Welfare Act following the relevant recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the...Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees and the Animal Welfare and the Ethics Committee of the University of St Andrews. 2.2 Background The exposure...Washington DC: National Academy Press. 192 p. 5. Nowacek DP, Thorne LH, Johnston DW, Tyack PL (2007) Responses of cetaceans to anthropogenic noise. Mammal Rev

  18. The presence of a culturally similar or dissimilar social partner affects neural responses to emotional stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A. Woodcock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.

  19. Ammonia concentration and relative humidity in poultry houses affect the immune response of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F X; Hu, X F; Xu, B; Zhang, M H; Li, S Y; Sun, Q Y; Lin, P

    2015-04-10

    To investigate the effect of ammonia (NH3) and humidity on the immune response of broilers, broilers were exposed to 30 or 70 mg/kg atmospheric NH3 for 21 days. Additionally, birds were exposed to 35, 60, and 85% relative humidity (RH). The relative weights of lymphoid organs, serum total protein, serum globulin, serum albumin, serum lysozyme, proliferation index of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and splenic cytokine gene expression were determined. Exposure to 70 mg/kg NH3 decreased the relative weight of the spleen during the experimental period, serum lysozyme concentration in the first and second weeks, and serum globulin concentration in the third week. The proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was reduced. High levels of NH3 caused increase in IL-1β gene expression in the experimental period and IL-4 gene expression in the first week. Birds exposed to 85% RH had lower thymus and bursa of Fabricius weights in the third week and serum lysozyme concentration in the first week; IL-1β and IL-4 expressions were higher in the second and third weeks and first and second weeks, respectively, than in birds exposed to 60% RH. IL-4 expression was lower during the first week, and IL-1β expression was higher during the second week with 35% RH than with 60% RH. In conclusion, high NH3 level in the poultry house suppressed the immune response of broiler chickens. Neither high nor low RH benefited the immune response of broilers. Furthermore, there was an interactive effect between NH3 and RH on the immune response of broilers.

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Affective Disorder: A Pilot Matched Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekiso, Thekiso B; Murphy, Philip; Milnes, Jennie; Lambe, Kathryn; Curtin, Aisling; Farren, Conor K

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) enhances treatment as usual (TAU) in improving treatment outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid affective disorder. Fifty-two participants were included in the study, of whom 26 were patients with AUD and either depression or bipolar disorder treated with ACT group therapy in parallel with TAU (inpatient integrated treatment) and 26 were matched controls who had received TAU alone. Drinking and craving outcomes were total alcohol abstinence, cumulative abstinence duration (CAD) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) scores at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Affective and anxiety outcomes were Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) scores at these follow-ups. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Retention rates were high: 100% of the ACT group were followed up at 3 and 6 months; 92.3% and 84.6% of the TAU alone group were followed up at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Patients in the ACT group reported significantly higher CAD at 3 and 6 months, significantly lower BDI and BAI scores at 3 and 6 months, and significantly lower OCDS scores at 3 months, than those who received only TAU. No other significant differences in treatment outcomes were found between the groups. ACT provides added benefit to TAU in improving drinking, craving, depression and anxiety outcomes in patients with AUD and comorbid affective disorder. Most treatment improvements were sustained over a 6-month follow-up period.

  1. Trait reappraisal amplifies subjective defeat, sadness, and negative affect in response to failure versus success in nonclinical and psychosis populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Gooding, Patricia A; Wood, Alex M; Taylor, Peter J; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-11-01

    Perceptions of defeat have been linked to a range of clinical disorders including psychosis. Perceived defeat sometimes increases in response to failure, but the strength of this association varies between individuals. The present research investigated whether trait reappraisal, a thought-focused coping style, amplified response to stressful events. Two studies (Study 1, n = 120 nonclinical participants; Study 2, n = 77 participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders) investigated whether trait reappraisal amplified feelings of defeat following an experience of failure versus success. Frequent reappraisers showed the largest increases in subjective defeat after failure versus success in both studies, with nonclinical participants with greater habitual reappraisal also showing larger increases in sadness and general negative affect. Frequent use of reappraisal may confer vulnerability to subjective defeat in response to stressful life events among nonclinical and clinical populations and could be an area for relapse prevention interventions to target.

  2. Acupuncture Affects Autonomic and Endocrine but Not Behavioural Responses Induced by Startle in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dias Villas-Boas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and internal variables, it can be a useful tool to study reaction to stress. Our study evaluated whether acupuncture can change cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability; and behavioural (reactivity and endocrine (cortisol levels parameters in response to startle. Brazilian Sport horses (n=6 were subjected to a model of startle in which an umbrella was abruptly opened near the horse. Before startle, the horses were subjected to a 20-minute session of acupuncture in acupoints GV1, HT7, GV20, and BL52 (ACUP and in nonpoints (NP or left undisturbed (CTL. For analysis of the heart rate variability, ultrashort-term (64 s heart rate series were interpolated (4 Hz and divided into 256-point segments and the spectra integrated into low (LF; 0.01–0.07 Hz; index of sympathetic modulation and high (HF; 0.07–0.50 Hz; index of parasympathetic modulation frequency bands. Acupuncture (ACUP changed the sympathovagal balance with a shift towards parasympathetic modulation, reducing the prompt startle-induced increase in LF/HF and reducing cortisol levels 30 min after startle. However, acupuncture elicited no changes in behavioural parameters.

  3. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I

    2012-10-01

    Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p pain than the typical man showed higher pain thresholds and tolerances. Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales.

  4. Does neoadjuvant sorafenib treatment affect microvessel density count in prostate cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamoulakis, C.; Wijkstra, H.; Kuilman, L.; Visser, M.; Laguna, M.P.; De Reijke, T.M.; De La Rosette, J.J.M.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction & Objectives: Results from a Medical Ethics Committee approved, single-center, open-label, one-armed phase II clinical trial of neoadjuvant sorafenib treatment prior to radical prostatectomy (RP) are presented for the first time. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in angiogene

  5. Methotrexate treatment affects effector but not regulatory T cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulatovic-Calasan, Maja; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Scholman, Rianne C.; Verweij, Frederik; Klein, Mark; Wulffraat, Nico W.; Prakken, Berent J.; van Wijk, Femke

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The balance between Treg and effector T cells (Teff) is crucial for immune regulation in JIA. How MTX, the cornerstone treatment in JIA, influences this balance in vivo is poorly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative and qualitative effects of MTX on Treg and T

  6. Applications of text messaging, and bibliotherapy for treatment of patients affected by depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Taleban

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It seems that bibliotherapy could efficiently decrease the intensity of depressive symptoms. Nevertheless, in comparison with our booklet trial, the text messaging group achieved neither durable nor significant success; thus, bibliotherapy could be utilized as a complementary methodology aiming depression treatment.

  7. The CTRB1/2 locus affects diabetes susceptibility and treatment via the incretin pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hart, L.M.; Fritsche, A.; Nijpels, G.; van Leeuwen, N.; Donnelly, L.A.; Dekker, J.M.; Alssema, M.; Fadista, J.; Carlotti, F.; Gjesing, A.P.; Palmer, C.N.; van Haeften, T.W.; Herzberg-Schafer, S.A.; Simonis-Bik, A.M.; Houwing-Duistermaat, J.J.; Helmer, Q.; Deelen, J.; Guigas, B.; Hansen, T.; Machicao, F.; Willemsen, G.; Heine, R.J.; Kramer, M.H.; Holst, J.J.; de Koning, E.J.; Haring, H.U.; Pedersen, O.; Groop, L.; de Geus, E.J.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Eekhoff, E.M.; Pearson, E.R.; Diamant, M.

    2013-01-01

    The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) promotes glucose homeostasis and enhances beta-cell function. GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which inhibit the physiological inactivation of endogenous GLP-1, are used for the treatment of type 2

  8. Ruby laser for treatment of tattoos: technical considerations affecting clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Robert E.

    1990-06-01

    Recent clinical research on the use of ruby lasers for the treatment of tattoos and FIlk approval of a commercial system have renewed interest in this device. In this paper the principles of Q-switched ruby laser operation are reviewed, and potential sources of error in the estimation of delivered fluence are discussed.

  9. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  10. Breaking the DNA damage response to improve cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Hylke W.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Vries, de Elisabeth G. E.; van Vugt, Marcel A. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, cervical cancer affects similar to 500,000 women worldwide, and similar to 275,000 patients die of this disease. The addition of platin-based chemotherapy to primary radiotherapy has increased 5-year survival of advanced-stage cervical cancer patients, which is, however, still only 66%.

  11. Treatment with eldecalcitol positively affects mineralization, microdamage, and collagen crosslinks in primate bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsuru; Grynpas, Marc D; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Amizuka, Norio; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Kida, Yoshikuni; Marumo, Keishi; Saito, Hitoshi

    2015-04-01

    Eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, increases lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), suppresses bone turnover markers, and reduces fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. We have previously reported that treatment with ELD for 6 months improved the mechanical properties of the lumbar spine in ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys. ELD treatment increased lumbar BMD, suppressed bone turnover markers, and reduced histomorphometric parameters of both bone formation and resorption in vertebral trabecular bone. In this study, we elucidated the effects of ELD on bone quality (namely, mineralization, microarchitecture, microdamage, and bone collagen crosslinks) in OVX cynomolgus monkeys in comparison with OVX-vehicle control monkeys. Density fractionation of bone powder prepared from lumbar vertebrae revealed that ELD treatment shifted the distribution profile of bone mineralization to a higher density, and backscattered electron microscopic imaging showed improved trabecular bone connectivity in the ELD-treated groups. Higher doses of ELD more significantly reduced the amount of microdamage compared to OVX-vehicle controls. The fractionated bone powder samples were divided according to their density, and analyzed for collagen crosslinks. Enzymatic crosslinks were higher in both the high-density (≥2.0 mg/mL) and low-density (mineralization, but prevented non-enzymatic reaction of collagen crosslinks and accumulation of bone microdamage. Bone anti-resorptive agents such as bisphosphonates slow down bone remodeling so that bone mineralization, bone microdamage, and non-enzymatic collagen crosslinks all increase. Bone anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone decrease bone mineralization and bone microdamage by stimulating bone remodeling. ELD did not fit into either category. Histological analysis indicated that the ELD treatment strongly suppressed bone resorption by reducing the number of

  12. GADL1 variant and medication adherence in predicting response to lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar I disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jung-Chen; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders. Aims To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder. Method Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n=215). Results GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence. Conclusions GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27703793

  13. Selected factors affecting adherence in the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Polańska B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Beata Jankowska-Polańska,1 Anna Chudiak,1 Izabella Uchmanowicz,1 Krzysztof Dudek,2 Grzegorz Mazur3 1Department of Clinical Nursing, Wroclaw Medical University, 2Department of Logistics and Transport Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology, 3Department and Clinic of Internal and Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Low adherence to hypertension (HT management is one of the major contributors to poor blood pressure (BP control. Approximately 40%–60% of patients with HT do not follow the prescribed treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between selected variables and adherence to hypotensive pharmacological treatment. Besides socioclinical variables, the study focused on the role of illness acceptance.Participants and methods: The study included 602 patients with HT. Adherence and acceptance of illness were assessed using the following validated instruments: the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS.Results: The high-adherence group comprised a significantly higher percentage of patients with high illness acceptance scale scores than that of patients with low-to-moderate scores (42.4 vs 31.8%; P=0.008<0.01. The odds ratio (OR showed that high adherence to pharmacological treatment was >1.5 times as likely to occur in the high acceptance group as in the low-to-moderate acceptance group (OR =1.58, 95% CI 1.14–2.19. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed statistically significant correlations between adherence and sex (men ρ=–0.101; P=0.012, age >45–66 years (ρ=0.098; P=0.015, higher education level (ρ=0.132; P=0.001, grade ESC of HT (ρ=–0.037; P=0.057, receiving one-tablet polytherapy (ρ=0.131; P=0.015, and illness acceptance (ρ=0.090; P=0.024.Conclusion: Acceptance of illness is correlated with adherence to pharmacological treatment, and consideration should

  14. Coupling and elastic loading affect the active response by the inner ear hair cell bundles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Elliott Strimbu

    Full Text Available Active hair bundle motility has been proposed to underlie the amplification mechanism in the auditory endorgans of non-mammals and in the vestibular systems of all vertebrates, and to constitute a crucial component of cochlear amplification in mammals. We used semi-intact in vitro preparations of the bullfrog sacculus to study the effects of elastic mechanical loading on both natively coupled and freely oscillating hair bundles. For the latter, we attached glass fibers of different stiffness to the stereocilia and observed the induced changes in the spontaneous bundle movement. When driven with sinusoidal deflections, hair bundles displayed phase-locked response indicative of an Arnold Tongue, with the frequency selectivity highest at low amplitudes and decreasing under stronger stimulation. A striking broadening of the mode-locked response was seen with increasing stiffness of the load, until approximate impedance matching, where the phase-locked response remained flat over the physiological range of frequencies. When the otolithic membrane was left intact atop the preparation, the natural loading of the bundles likewise decreased their frequency selectivity with respect to that observed in freely oscillating bundles. To probe for signatures of the active process under natural loading and coupling conditions, we applied transient mechanical stimuli to the otolithic membrane. Following the pulses, the underlying bundles displayed active movement in the opposite direction, analogous to the twitches observed in individual cells. Tracking features in the otolithic membrane indicated that it moved in phase with the bundles. Hence, synchronous active motility evoked in the system of coupled hair bundles by external input is sufficient to displace large overlying structures.

  15. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample.

  16. Factors affecting pain relief in response to physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, M D; Sundstrup, E; Brandt, M; Andersen, L L

    2016-12-28

    The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with musculo-skeletal pain reduction during workplace-based or home-based physical exercise interventions among healthcare workers. Two hundred female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0-10) from three hospitals participated. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level (18 departments) to 10 weeks of (i) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5 × 10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (ii) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed alone during leisure-time for 5 × 10 minutes per week. Linear mixed models accounting for cluster identified factors affecting pain reduction. On average 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. The multi-adjusted analysis showed a significant effect on pain reduction of both training adherence (P=.04) and intervention group (P=.04) with participants in WORK experiencing greater reductions compared with HOME. Obesity at baseline was associated with better outcome. Leisure-time exercise, daily patient transfer, age, and chronic pain did not affect the changes in pain. In conclusion, even when adjusted for training adherence, performing physical exercise at the workplace is more effective than home-based exercise in reducing musculo-skeletal pain in healthcare workers. Noteworthy, obese individuals may especially benefit from physical exercise interventions targeting musculo-skeletal pain.

  17. An Integrated Model to Explain How Corporate Social Responsibility Affects Corporate Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Shien Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR on financial performance has important implications for enterprises, communities, and countries, and the significance of this issue cannot be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated model to explain the influence of CSR on financial performance with intellectual capital as a mediator and industry type as a moderator. Empirical results indicate that intellectual capital mediates the relationship between CSR and financial performance, and industry type moderates the direct influence of CSR on financial performance. Such results have critical implications for both academia and practice.

  18. Factors affecting T cell responses induced by fully synthetic glyco-gold-nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarini, Silvia; Paoletti, Tiziana; Battaglini, Carolina Orsi; Ronchi, Paolo; Lay, Luigi; Bonomi, Renato; Jha, Satadru; Mancin, Fabrizio; Scrimin, Paolo; Lombardi, Grazia

    2012-12-01

    We have synthesized and characterized nearly monodisperse and highly pure gold nanoparticles (2 and 5 nm) coated with non-immunoactive mono- and disaccharides, modelled after the capsular polysaccharide of serogroup A of the Neisseria meningitidis bacterium. We have used them to test their ability to induce immune cell responses as a consequence of their multivalency. The results indicate that they are indeed immunoactive and that immunoactivity is strongly dependent on size, and larger, 5 nm nanoparticles perform far better than smaller, 2 nm ones. Immune response (activation of macrophages) initiates with the whole nanoparticle recognition by the surface of antigen-presenting cells, independent of the saccharide oligomerization (or charge) on the nanoparticle surface. The induction of T cell proliferation and the increase of IL-2 levels, a consequence of the expression of MHC II involved in antigen presentation, require the presence of a disaccharide on the nanoparticle, not just a monosaccharide. A possible explanation is that, at this stage, the saccharides are detached from the gold surface. These results may provide leads for designing new saccharide-based, nanoparticle-conjugate vaccines.We have synthesized and characterized nearly monodisperse and highly pure gold nanoparticles (2 and 5 nm) coated with non-immunoactive mono- and disaccharides, modelled after the capsular polysaccharide of serogroup A of the Neisseria meningitidis bacterium. We have used them to test their ability to induce immune cell responses as a consequence of their multivalency. The results indicate that they are indeed immunoactive and that immunoactivity is strongly dependent on size, and larger, 5 nm nanoparticles perform far better than smaller, 2 nm ones. Immune response (activation of macrophages) initiates with the whole nanoparticle recognition by the surface of antigen-presenting cells, independent of the saccharide oligomerization (or charge) on the nanoparticle surface. The

  19. FDG-PET/CT response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthijs; H; van; Gool; Tjeerd; S; Aukema; Koen; J; Hartemink; Renato; A; Valdés; Olmos; Houke; M; Klomp; Harm; van; Tinteren

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years,[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography acquired together with low dose computed tomography(FDG-PET/CT)has proven its role as a staging modality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).The purpose of this review was to present the evidence to use FDG-PET/CT for response evaluation in patients with NSCLC,treated with epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors(TKI).All published articles from 1November 2003 to 1 November 2013 reporting on 18FFDG-PET response evaluation during EGFR-TKI treatment in patients with NSCLC were collected.In total 7studies,including data of 210 patients were eligible for analyses.Our report shows that FDG-PET/CT responseduring EGFR-TKI therapy has potential in targeted treatment for NSCLC.FDG-PET/CT response is associated with clinical and radiologic response and with survival.Furthermore FDG-PET/CT response monitoring can be performed as early as 1-2 wk after initiation of EGFR-TKI treatment.Patients with substantial decrease of metabolic activity during EGFR-TKI treatment will probably benefit from continued treatment.If metabolic response does not occur within the first weeks of EGFR-TKI treatment,patients may be spared(further)unnecessary toxicity of ineffective treatment.Refining FDG-PET response criteria may help the clinician to decide on continuation or discontinuation of targeted treatment.

  20. Prognosis in autism: do specialist treatments affect long-term outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlin, P

    1997-06-01

    Many different treatments have been claimed to have a dramatic impact on children with autism. This paper reviews what is known about the outcome in adult life and examines the limitations and advantages of a variety of intervention approaches. It concludes that there is little evidence of any "cure" for autism, but appropriately structured programmes for education and management in the early years can play a significant role in enhancing functioning in later life.

  1. Biofilm layers affect the treatment outcomes of NaF and Nano-hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; He, L B; Exterkate, R A M; Cheng, L; Li, J Y; Ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W; Deng, D M

    2015-04-01

    During caries formation, dental biofilms function not only as acid producers but also as reservoirs and diffusion barriers for active caries-preventive components. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of biofilms as a stagnant layer on the efficacy of NaF and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans C180-2 were formed on the surfaces of artificially demineralized enamel in an active attachment biofilm model. After 2 days of biofilm formation, the model was subjected to a pH-cycling schedule, together with a control group without biofilms. Specimens were treated for 5 min twice daily with water, a 10% nHA slurry, or 18.4 mM NaF. At the end of the pH-cycling period, the biofilms were removed for the determination of the viable counts, the lactic acid production, and the calcium content. The mineral changes in the demineralized enamel blocks were analyzed by transversal microradiography. No differences in the biofilm viable counts and lactic acid production were found in the different treatment groups. The mean calcium content of the biofilms in the nHA group was 60.7 ± 15.3 mmol/g wet weight, which was approximately 8-fold higher than in the other 2 groups. The application of NaF resulted in net remineralization, but in the presence of a biofilm, net demineralization was observed. In contrast, nHA treatment reduced further demineralization compared with the water treatment, but the presence of a biofilm enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms clearly influenced the treatment outcomes of anticaries products. Biofilms could either enhance or impede their efficacy. This result implies that biofilms should be included in the in vitro tests for the preclinical screening of caries-protective agents.

  2. An analysis of vascular surgery in elderly patients to determine whether age affects treatment strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of arterial disease increases with age. Increasing life expectancy in the western world will intensify demands on vascular surgeons with regard to increasing caseload, expanding patient selection criteria, and more complex and minimally-invasive treatment options. We analysed our arterial cases over the past 31 years (n = 6,144) and compared our methods of intervention and complication rates in the elderly population (>75) with the younger cohort, in order to determine whether age should influence our management strategies.

  3. Selected factors affecting adherence in the pharmacological treatment of arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Chudiak, Anna; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Dudek, Krzysztof; Mazur, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Background Low adherence to hypertension (HT) management is one of the major contributors to poor blood pressure (BP) control. Approximately 40%–60% of patients with HT do not follow the prescribed treatment. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between selected variables and adherence to hypotensive pharmacological treatment. Besides socioclinical variables, the study focused on the role of illness acceptance. Participants and methods The study included 602 patients with HT. Adherence and acceptance of illness were assessed using the following validated instruments: the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS) and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Results The high-adherence group comprised a significantly higher percentage of patients with high illness acceptance scale scores than that of patients with low-to-moderate scores (42.4 vs 31.8%; P=0.0081.5 times as likely to occur in the high acceptance group as in the low-to-moderate acceptance group (OR =1.58, 95% CI 1.14–2.19). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients showed statistically significant correlations between adherence and sex (men ρ=−0.101; P=0.012), age >45–66 years (ρ=0.098; P=0.015), higher education level (ρ=0.132; P=0.001), grade ESC of HT (ρ=−0.037; P=0.057), receiving one-tablet polytherapy (ρ=0.131; P=0.015), and illness acceptance (ρ=0.090; P=0.024). Conclusion Acceptance of illness is correlated with adherence to pharmacological treatment, and consideration should be given to more widespread assessment of illness acceptance in daily practice. Male sex, age >45–66 years, duration of illness grade ESC of HT, and receiving one-tablet polytherapy are significant determinants of adherence to pharmacological treatment in HT. PMID:28280309

  4. Functional properties of whey proteins affected by heat treatment and hydrodynamic high-pressure shearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, M; Vasiljevic, T

    2009-04-01

    Two batches of native whey proteins (WP) were subjected to microfluidization or heat denaturation accompanied by microfluidization, followed by spray drying. Powders were assessed for their solubility, heat stability, coagulation time, and emulsifying and foaming properties. Effects of denaturation and shearing were examined by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, reducing and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC. Heat treatment significantly decreased solubility, whereas the number of microfluidization passes markedly improved solubility. The combined effect of heat and pressure significantly increased heat coagulation time. Emulsifying activity index substantially increased upon heat denaturation and was further enhanced by microfluidization. Emulsion stability appeared unaffected by the combined treatment, but the concentration of adsorbed protein on fat droplets was significantly increased. Foaming properties were diminished by heating. Particle size distribution patterns, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC revealed disappearance of major WP and creation of relatively higher, as well as smaller, molecular weight aggregates as a result of the 2 treatments. The use of heat and microfluidization in combination could be used to stabilize WP against heat by producing microparticulated species that have different surface and colloidal properties compared with native WP. These results have implications for the use of WP as an additive in heat-processed foods.

  5. The Factors Affecting Success of Pneumatic Retinopexy in Treatment of Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yüksel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the factors that influence the suc­cess rate of pneumatic retinopexy on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treatment. Methods: Ninety eyes of 29 female and 61 male patient were included to the study. The patient’s age, sex, du­ration of symptoms, the best corrected visual acuities (BCVA on the time of application, lens status, preopera­tive retinal tear number and location, retinal detachment size, macular involvement, tamponade type, coexisting complications, and anatomic success rates were record­ed at preoperative, postoperative 3rd months and final examination. Results: Only one treatment session success number was 55 over 90 (61.1% patients. Median preoperative, postoperative 3rd month and final examination Log­MAR BCVA values were 1.3, 0.5 and 0.5 respectively.(p=0.0001 Preoperative and postoperative other param­eters was not revealed significant differences with one treatment session. However there was a significant posi­tive correlation between the detachment size and ana­tomical success. (p=0.03, r=0.324 Conclusion: Pneumatic retinopexy is an alternative treat­ment option for the anatomical and functional success in retinal detachment at suitable patients. In our study the success rate was higher in patients with less than 3 clock dial retinal detachment patients.

  6. Consequence on Treatment of TB Patients Affected by HIV/AIDS A Conceptual Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarder N. Uddin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text