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Sample records for affect serum cholesterol

  1. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Myung

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation.

  2. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Myung; Shin Hea; Lee Kyung; Kim Mi; Baek Eun; Jang Seok; Lee Do; Kim Jin; Lee Kang; Ha Nam

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to ...

  3. High intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, affects serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol in healthy, normal-weight adults: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ingrid V; Helland, Anita; Bratlie, Marianne; Brokstad, Karl A; Rosenlund, Grethe; Sveier, Harald; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether high intake of lean or fatty fish (cod and farmed salmon, respectively) by healthy, normal-weight adults would affect risk factors of type 2 diabetes and CVD when compared with lean meat (chicken). More knowledge is needed concerning the potential health effects of high fish intake (>300 g/week) in normal-weight adults. In this randomised clinical trial, thirty-eight young, healthy, normal-weight participants consumed 750 g/week of lean or fatty fish or lean meat (as control) for 4 weeks at dinner according to provided recipes to ensure similar ways of preparations and choices of side dishes between the groups. Energy and macronutrient intakes at baseline and end point were similar in all groups, and there were no changes in energy and macronutrient intakes within any of the groups during the course of the study. High intake of fatty fish, but not lean fish, significantly reduced TAG and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations in fasting serum when compared with lean meat intake. When compared with lean fish intake, fatty fish intake increased serum HDL-cholesterol. No differences were observed between lean fish, fatty fish and lean meat groups regarding fasting and postprandial glucose regulation. These findings suggest that high intake of fatty fish, but not of lean fish, could beneficially affect serum concentrations of TAG and HDL-cholesterol, which are CVD risk factors, in healthy, normal-weight adults, when compared with high intake of lean meat.

  4. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, M. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Wald, N J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. DESIGN--Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration....

  5. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition. The conventional blood detection technology has weakness such as complex operation, long detecting period, and bad visibility. In order to develop a new detection method that can checkout hypercholesterolemia conveniently, spectroscopy of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum is obtained by the multifunctional grating spectrograph. The experiment results indicate that, under the excitation of light-emitting diode (LED) with the wavelength at 407 nm, the serum from normal human and the hypercholesterolemia serum emit different fluorescence spectra. The former can emit one fluorescence region with the peak locating at 516 nm while the latter can emit two more regions with peaks locating at 560 nm and 588 nm. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of serum is non-linear increasing with the concentration of cholesterol increases when the concentration of cholesterol is lower than 13.8 mmol/L, and then, with the concentration of cholesterol increase, the fluorescence intensity decreases. However, the fluorescence intensity is still much higher than that of serum from normal human. Conclusions can be educed from the experiments: the intensity and the shape of fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different of those of normal serum, from which the cholesterol abnormal in blood can be judged. The consequences in this paper may offer an experimental reference for the diagnosis of the hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Porcine artery elastin preparation reduces serum cholesterol level in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Liyanage, Ruvini; Nakamura, Yumi; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; Jayawardana, Barana Chaminda; HAN, Kyu-Ho; Tomoko, Okada; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; FUKUSHIMA, Michihiro; 福島, 道広; 島田, 謙一郎; 関川, 三男; 韓, 圭鎬

    2009-01-01

    The effect of porcine artery elastin on serum cholesterol level was investigated in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Rats were fed for 4 weeks, with a diet (ED) containing 15% casein and 5% of porcine artery elastin in comparison with a diet (CD) containing 20% casein. The total serum and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations were lower (P

  7. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Beynen; Katan, M B; Gent, van, H.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and bile acids minus cholesterol intake. In addition, we determined serum concentrations of lanosterol, a precursor of cholesterol and a possible indicator of cholesterol biosynthetic activity. The stud...

  8. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: Any correlation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji A Oluwole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study assessed whether low maternal serum cholesterol during early pregnancy is associated with preterm delivery. Patients and Methods: It was a prospective observational cohort study involving pregnant women at gestational age of 14-20 weeks over a period of 12 months. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analysed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP method. Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024. Conclusion: Low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia is associated with preterm delivery. Optimal maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit, therefore pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet.

  9. Alterations of serum cholesterol and serum lipoprotein in breast cancer of women

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Kiran; Bagga, Hardeep K.

    2005-01-01

    Fasting blood sample of 50 normal subjects (control) and 100 patients of breast cancer were investigated for serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein cholesterol:low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol:high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio during breast cancer of women. Five cancer stages, types, age groups, parity and menopausal status were undertaken...

  10. Serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Vader, H.L.; Pop, V.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the relation between total serum cholesterol decline and depression in the postpartum period in a prospective study of 266 Dutch women, who were followed until 34 weeks after delivery. The decline in serum cholesterol between week 32 of pregnancy and week 10 postpartum was similar for wo

  11. Low serum cholesterol, serotonin metabolism, and violent death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA high serum cholesterol level is a well documented risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Consequently, a low serum cholesterol has in general been viewed as beneficial. However, since the early 70s, results from several cohort studies and randomized trials have suggest

  12. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  13. Diet serum cholesterol and coronary diseases

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    Narindar Nath

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available The probable sequence of events leading to atherosclerotic disease of the coronary artery and heart attack are briefly described. Blood cholesterol as a casual agent in atherosclerosis and how blood cholesterol can be modified are discussed. The effects of various dietary components particularly quality and quantity of fat and protein on the blood cholesterol concentration are discussed and it is emphasized that more work needs to be done to ascertain the role of individual components of the diet and their relative importance in atherogenesis.

  14. Apoprotein E genotype and the response of serum cholesterol to dietary fat, cholesterol and cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on r

  15. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: any correlation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji A. Oluwole

    2014-04-01

    Results: The study showed an incidence of 5.0% for preterm delivery in the low risk study patients. Preterm birth was 4.83-times more common with low total maternal cholesterol than with midrange total cholesterol (11.8% versus 2.2%, P = 0.024. Conclusions: We can infer from the study that the low maternal serum cholesterol (hypocholesterolaemia is associated with preterm delivery. We can therefore recommend on this basis that the concept of an optimal range for maternal serum cholesterol during pregnancy may have merit and pregnant women should be encouraged to follow a healthy, balanced diet and ensure regular antenatal visit to their healthcare provider. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 442-446

  16. Cholesterol in serum lipoprotein fractions after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.; Krauhs, Jane M.; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are reported from blood-lipid measurements obtained from 125 Space Shuttle crew members before and after space flight. The data are presented in tables and discussed in detail. The main differences noted between preflight and postflight values are a 12.8-percent decrease in high-density lipoproteins on postflight day 1 and significant decreases in total cholesterol and both high- and low-density lipoproteins later in the 23-day postflight period.

  17. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis. PMID:22181072

  18. The effect of hyperthyroidism on serum cholesterol in Sudanese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done, essentially to assess the effect of hyperthyroidism on lipid metabolism, respectively on total cholesterol in Sudanese females. Samples were collected from the referred patients to RIA lab in Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC). Ninety eight subjects were selected as study group. 48 hyperthyroid females age range (18-60) years in addition 50 euthyroid specimens were collected from females (of the same ages range) and used as control. Thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3), the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum total cholestrol were measured for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS computer program to compare the mean of cholesterol levels the control with the study group. The result showed that the significantly (P < 0.01). High levels of thyroid hormones in patients were accompanied by significantly (P< 0.01) decreased cholesterol levels. When this finding was compared in the control group serum total cholesterol levels kept the normal rang with the normal thyroid function.(Author)

  19. Combined dietary and exercise intervention for control of serum cholesterol in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, C. M.; Chan, W. T.; Sample, C. J.; Levine, M. S.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate a potential combined dietary and exercise intervention affect on cardiovascular risk reduction of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Headquarters employees. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, longitudinal, clinical-chart review study (1987 to 1996) of an identified intervention group and a reference (not a control) group. SETTING: The study group worked in an office environment and participated in the annual medical examinations. SUBJECTS: An intervention group of 858 people with initially elevated serum cholesterol, and a reference group of 963 people randomly sampled from 10% of the study group. MEASURES: Serum cholesterol data were obtained for both groups, respectively, from pre- and postintervention and annual examinations. The reference group was adjusted by statistical exclusion of potential intervention participants. Regression equations (cholesterol vs. study years) for the unadjusted/adjusted reference groups were tested for statistical significance. INTERVENTION: An 8-week individualized, combined dietary and exercise program was instituted with annual follow-ups and was repeated where warranted. RESULTS: Only the unadjusted (but not the adjusted) reference group with initial mean total serum cholesterol levels above 200 mg/dL shows a significant 9-year decline trend and significant beta coefficient tests. An intervention effect is suggested. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol rose slightly in the intervention group but was maintained in the reference group. CONCLUSION: With potential design limitations, the NASA intervention program focusing on a high risk group may be associated to some degree, if not fully, with an overall cardiovascular risk profile improvement.

  20. Serum albumin acts as a shuttle to enhance cholesterol efflux from cells[S

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Phillips, Michael C.; Kellner-Weibel, Ginny; Rothblat, George H.

    2013-01-01

    An important mechanism contributing to cell cholesterol efflux is aqueous transfer in which cholesterol diffuses from cells into the aqueous phase and becomes incorporated into an acceptor particle. Some compounds can enhance diffusion by acting as shuttles transferring cholesterol to cholesterol acceptors, which act as cholesterol sinks. We have examined whether particles in serum can enhance cholesterol efflux by acting as shuttles. This task was accomplished by incubating radiolabeled J774...

  1. The Effect of Biliary Sphincterotomy on Serum Cholesterol Levels in Postcholecystectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M Alazmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholesterol, in the form of bile salts, is reabsorbed from the small intestine via the enterohepatic circulation. Biliary sphincterotomy increases the delivery of bile to the terminal ileum. If the absorptive capacity is exceeded, cholesterol excretion may increase, resulting in a decrease in serum cholesterol levels and improvement in serum lipid profiles.

  2. Influence of infant and juvenile diets on serum cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein concentrations in juvenile baboons (Papio sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; McMahan, C A; Kelley, J L; Farley, C M; McGill, H C

    1982-11-01

    The long-term effects of infant diet (breast milk or formula containing 2, 30, or 60 mg/dl cholesterol) and subsequent dietary cholesterol (1 mg/kcal) and fat (saturated or unsaturated) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations were estimated using 82 juvenile baboons 4-6 years of age. A significant interaction of infant diet (breast vs formula) with type of fat (saturated vs unsaturated) at 4-6 years of age was observed on HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations. That is, animals breast-fed as infants had higher HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations when fed unsaturated fat from weaning to 4-6 years of age than those fed saturated fat (77 vs 68 mg/dl). In contrast, animals fed formulas in infancy followed by a diet containing unsaturated fat had lower HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations at 4-6 years of age than did those fed saturated fat (67 vs 78 mg/dl). However, breast feeding or feeding formulas containing various levels of cholesterol for 3 months during infancy did not result in statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations. Dietary cholesterol after infancy significantly increased serum total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol, apoA-I and apoB concentrations. All of these response variables also were higher in animals fed saturated fat compared to those fed unsaturated fat on the same level of cholesterol. At 4-6 years of age, regardless of diet, females had significantly higher serum VLDL + LDL cholesterol (57 vs 43 mg/dl) and apoB concentrations (39 vs 30 mg/dl) than did males.

  3. Phytosterol ester constituents affect micellar cholesterol solubility in model bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Hang, Jiliang; Dussault, Patrick H; Carr, Timothy P

    2010-09-01

    Plant sterols and stanols (phytosterols) and their esters are nutraceuticals that lower LDL cholesterol, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. We hypothesized that intact esters and simulated hydrolysis products of esters (phytosterols and fatty acids in equal ratios) would differentially affect the solubility of cholesterol in model bile mixed micelles in vitro. Sodium salts of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were sonicated with phosphatidylcholine and either sterol esters or combinations of sterols and fatty acids to determine the amount of cholesterol solubilized into micelles. Intact sterol esters did not solubilize into micelles, nor did they alter cholesterol solubility. However, free sterols and fatty acids altered cholesterol solubility independently (no interaction effect). Equal contents of cholesterol and either campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, or stigmastanol (sitostanol) decreased cholesterol solubility in micelles by approximately 50% compared to no phytosterol present, with stigmasterol performing slightly better than sitosterol. Phytosterols competed with cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating a 1:1 M substitution of phytosterol for cholesterol in micelle preparations. Unsaturated fatty acids increased the micelle solubility of sterols as compared with saturated or no fatty acids. No differences were detected in the size of the model micelles. Together, these data indicate that stigmasterol combined with saturated fatty acids may be more effective at lowering cholesterol micelle solubility in vivo.

  4. Influence of dietary boron supplementation on some serum metabolites and egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, M; Uyanik, F

    2007-03-01

    The influence of dietary boron (B) supplementation on some serum parameters and egg-yolk cholesterol was studied in laying hens. A total of 224 eighteen-week-old hens of the Hyline Brown 98 strain were assigned to 7 groups with 4 replicates of 8 hens each after 10 days of adaptation, and they were fed commercial diets supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg (diet) B (H3BO3) for 8 weeks. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity, albumin, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels were decreased with all B levels. Except in the group receiving 5 mg/kg B supplementation, decreases were found in serum triglycerides in all groups. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was decreased in the groups receiving 100 mg/kg or higher levels of B. All levels of B supplementation increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity at weeks 21 and 22, while 10 mg/kg or higher levels of B increased serum globulin, urea and egg-yolk cholesterol levels. The results demonstrate that B supplementation at levels exceeding 5 mg/kg affects serum biochemical parameters and increases egg-yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

  5. Effects of different fibre sources and fat addition on cholesterol and cholesterol-related lipids in blood serum, bile and body tissues of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, M; Hanneken, H; Wittmann, M; Gerdemann, M M; Machmuller, A

    2002-04-01

    Knowledge is limited on the efficacy of hindgut-fermentable dietary fibre to reduce blood, bile and body tissue cholesterol levels. In three experiments with growing pigs the effects of different kinds and levels of bacterially fermentable fibre (BFS) on cholesterol metabolism were examined. Various diets calculated to have similar contents of metabolizable energy were supplied for complete fattening periods. In the first experiment, a stepwise increase from 12 to 20% BFS was performed by supplementing diets with fermentable fibre from sugar beet pulp (modelling hemicelluloses and pectin). Beet pulp, rye bran (modelling cellulose) and citrus pulp (pectin) were offered either independently or in a mixture in the second experiment. These diets were opposed to rations characterized in carbohydrate type by starch either mostly non-resistant (cassava) or partly resistant (maize) to small intestinal digestion. The third experiment was planned to explore the interactions of BFS from citrus pulp with fat either through additional coconut oil/palm kernel oil blend or full-fat soybeans. In all experiments the increase of the BFS content was associated with a constant (cellulose) or decreasing (hemicelluloses, pectin) dietary proportion of non-digestible fibre. In experiment 1 an inverse dose-response relationship between BFS content and cholesterol in blood serum and adipose tissue as well as bile acid concentration in bile was noted while muscle cholesterol did not respond. In experiment 2 the ingredients characterized by cellulose and hemicelluloses/pectin reduced cholesterol-related traits relative to the low-BFS-high-starch controls whereas, except in adipose tissue cholesterol content, the pectinous ingredient had the opposite effect. However, the changes in serum cholesterol mainly affected HDL and not LDL cholesterol. Adipose tissue cholesterol also was slightly lower with partly resistant starch compared to non-resistant starch in the diet. Experiment 3 showed that

  6. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Hosseini; Shervin Taslimi; Mahmoud Yousefifard; Fereshteh Asgari; Koorosh Etemad; Hamid Heidarian Miri; Ali Rafei; Jalil Koohpayehzadeh; Iman Navid; Mohammad Mehdi Gouya

    2013-01-01

    Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC) levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population. Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25–64 years from third national survey on no...

  7. A paradoxical severe decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol after treatment with a fibrate

    OpenAIRE

    Crook, M; Lynas, J; Wray, R

    2000-01-01

    There have been a handful of reports in the literature of a paradoxical decrease in serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in patients on fibrate drugs. The reason for this decline in cardioprotective HDL-cholesterol is not known and may have potential deleterious effects on the patient. This report describes a decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol in a patient on both simvastatin and bezafibrate. This patient also developed abnormal renal function, probably interstitial nephritis. In a...

  8. Effect of serum, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein on the functionality and structure of lung surfactant films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahak, Prasant; Nag, Kaushik; Hillier, Ashley; Devraj, Ravi; Thompson, David W; Manna, Kausik; Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Panda, Amiya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipid and protein, responsible for alveolar stability, becomes dysfunctional due to alteration of its structure and function by leaked serum materials in disease. Serum proteins, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were studied with bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) using Langmuir films, and bilayer dispersions using Raman spectroscopy. While small amount of cholesterol (10 wt%) and LDL did not significantly affect the adsorption and surface tension lowering properties of BLES. However serum lipids, whole serum as well as higher amounts of cholesterol, and LDL dramatically altered the surface properties of BLES films, as well as gel-fluid structures formed in such films observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Raman-spectroscopic studies revealed that serum proteins, LDL and excess cholesterol had fluidizing effects on BLES bilayers dispersion, monitored from the changes in hydrocarbon vibrational modes during gel-fluid thermal phase transitions. This study clearly suggests that patho-physiological amounts of serum lipids (and not proteins) significantly alter the molecular arrangement of surfactant in films and bilayers, and can be used to model lung disease. PMID:25409691

  9. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  10. [Serum phospholipids and processes of cholesterol esterification in the European North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, E R; Bichkaeva, F A; Tkachev, A V

    2002-01-01

    Lipid profile was studied in blood serum of 146 European northerns (trans-polar Nenets Autonomous district and Archangelsk). Monolayer chromatography was used to determine sphingomyelin (SP), phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lisophosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphatides and phosphatide acides. The northerns were found to have very low concentrations of blood PC. At the same time, the NAD population have a little higher SP which may play an adaptive role in terms of the cell membrane function. The transpolar natives appear to possess an adaptive mechanism of increasing total cholesterol and reducing cholesterol of high-density lipoproteins, and activation of cholesterol esterification resulting in decrease in the free cholesterol fraction in serum.

  11. Apoprotein E phenotype determines serum cholesterol in infants during both high-cholesterol breast feeding and low-cholesterol formula feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, M J; Salmenperä, L; Siimes, M A; Perheentupa, J; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    1997-04-01

    Our objective was to establish the role of the apoprotein (apo) E phenotype in determining serum cholesterol levels in infants fed exclusively on high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk and in those fed a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat formula. The total and lipoprotein cholesterol, apoB, and triglyceride concentrations in serum were quantified and related to the apoE phenotype in 151 infants at birth and at 2, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Forty-four had the E3/4 or 4/4 phenotype (E4 group), 94 had the E3/3 phenotype (E3 group), and 13 had the E2/3 or 2/4 phenotype (E2 group). In cord blood, cholesterol concentrations tended to be higher in the E4 than in the E2 group. With exclusive breast-feeding, the concentrations rose significantly faster and higher in the E4 group than in the E3 group or, especially, the E2 group. The values (mmol/L, mean +/- SEM) were 1.6 +/- 0.15, 1.5 +/- 0.05, 1.4 +/- 0.1 (P = n.s.) at birth; 4.2 +/- 0.1, 3.8 +/- 0.08, 3.4 +/- 0.2 (P HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol concentrations did not depend on the apoE phenotype. Among infants fed high-fat, high-cholesterol human milk, the total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations and the LDL apoB concentration of those with the apoE phenotype 4/4 or 3/4 rose faster and to higher levels than in other infants. Among formula-fed infants, receiving a low-cholesterol, high-unsaturated fat diet, the differences between the apoE groups were smaller.

  12. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  13. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, fecal steroid excretion and serum lanosterol in subjects with high or low response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.; Gent, van C.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether hypo- and hyper-responders to dietary cholesterol differ with regard to the flexibility of endogenous cholesterol synthesis after changes in cholesterol intake. Whole-body cholesterol synthesis was measured as faecal excretion of neutral steroids and b

  14. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol : a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Nunez, Begona; Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; De Graaf, Deti J.; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol rati

  15. Plasma-Serum Cholesterol Differences in Children and Use of Measurements from Different Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentzen, N.E.; Wijga, A.H.; Rossem, van L.; Jongste, de J.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Smit, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to assess absolute plasma-serum differences and differences in ranking of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and TC/HDLC ratio in children. Methods: We analysed data of 412 children participating in a Dutch birth cohort. TC, HDLC, and TC/HDLC ra

  16. Differences between men and women in the response of serum cholesterol to dietary changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Hypercholesterolaemia is initially treated by diet. However, most studies of diet and cholesterol response have been carried out in men, and it is not known whether women react to diet to the same extent as men do. We therefore studied sex differences in the response of serum cholesterol

  17. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  18. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  19. Preterm delivery and low maternal serum cholesterol level: any correlation?

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwole, Ayodeji A.; Maymunah A. Adegbesan-Omilabu; Kehinde S. Okunade

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major challenge in perinatal health care with prematurity accounting for 40-60% of all perinatal deaths in Nigeria. The physiologic hypercholesterolaemia of later pregnancy suggests an adaptive function for pregnancy maintenance or fetal growth. Decreased levels of maternal total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been reported in association with preterm delivery. Methods: This was a prospective observational cohort study designed to a...

  20. Serum albumin acts as a shuttle to enhance cholesterol efflux from cells[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Phillips, Michael C.; Kellner-Weibel, Ginny; Rothblat, George H.

    2013-01-01

    An important mechanism contributing to cell cholesterol efflux is aqueous transfer in which cholesterol diffuses from cells into the aqueous phase and becomes incorporated into an acceptor particle. Some compounds can enhance diffusion by acting as shuttles transferring cholesterol to cholesterol acceptors, which act as cholesterol sinks. We have examined whether particles in serum can enhance cholesterol efflux by acting as shuttles. This task was accomplished by incubating radiolabeled J774 cells with increasing concentrations of lipoprotein-depleted sera (LPDS) or components present in serum as shuttles and a constant amount of LDL, small unilamellar vesicles, or red blood cells (RBC) as sinks. Synergistic efflux was measured as the difference in fractional efflux in excess of that predicted by the addition of the individual efflux values of sink and shuttle alone. Synergistic efflux was obtained when LPDS was incubated with cells and LDL. When different components of LPDS were used as shuttles, albumin produced synergistic efflux, while apoA-I did not. A synergistic effect was also obtained when RBC was used as the sink and albumin as shuttle. The previously observed negative association of albumin with coronary artery disease might be linked to reduced cholesterol shuttling that would occur when serum albumin levels are low. PMID:23288948

  1. Soy milk powder supplemented with phytosterol esters reduced serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia independently of lipoprotein E genotype: a random clinical placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Ran; Ji, Ya-Cheng; Hao, Jia-Yin; Ma, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xu-Dong; Xiao, Rong; Yu, Huan-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Mild to moderate hyperlipidemic patients (n = 170) were recruited from different communities and treated with placebo soy milk powder or 3.4 g PS esters-enriched soy milk powder (2.0 g/d free PS in 30 g soy milk powder). The fasting serum lipid profiles at the baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention were measured. The ApoE genotype was also determined. After 3 months of PS intervention, the serum lipid profile was not changed significantly in either group. The serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 9.3%, 11.4%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the PS group at the end of the intervention (6 months) compared with the control group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not affected significantly. In the PS group, both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers had a similar response to PS consumption. These findings suggested that PS-fortified soy milk powder was effective in lowering the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers. PMID:27440543

  2. Comparative Study of Tomato and Tomato Paste Supplementation on the Level of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels in Rats Fed With High Cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Khayat Nouri, Mir Hadi; Namvaran Abbas Abad, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Increased blood cholesterol affects general health and increases mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Poor nutrition increases LDL cholesterol and decreases LDL receptor activities in the liver. Scientists have shown that consumption of antioxidants can reduce hypercholesterolemia and proved benefits of fruit and vegetables. Tomato reduces oxidative stress by increasing serum total antioxidant level. Ob...

  3. Boiled coffee does not increase serum cholesterol in gerbils and hamsters.

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P. L.; Katan, M B; A. C. Beynen

    1992-01-01

    In contrast to drip filter coffee, boiled coffee increases the serum cholesterol level in man. To identify the substance(s) responsible for this effect, it is necessary to find an animal model sensitive to boiled coffee. In this study, three groups of 20 male gerbils and three groups of six male hamsters were fed a control diet or a control diet supplemented with either freeze-dried boiled coffee or freeze-dried filtered coffee. At the end of the 5-week feeding period serum cholesterol levels...

  4. Decreased serum cholesterol level after snake bite (Vipera palaestinae) as a marker of severity of envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, E; Chovers, M; Almog, S; Pri-Chen, S; Rotenberg, M; Tirosh, M; Ezra, D; Halkin, H

    1993-06-01

    In 44 patients bitten by snakes (Vipera palaestinae), admission serum cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with severity of envenomation (mean +/- SD, 175 +/- 49, 137 +/- 36, and 96 +/- 40 mg/dl, respectively, in cases with mild, moderate, and severe clinical manifestations [p serum albumin were not significant. These findings were supported by experimental results in rabbits, in which low, medium, and high doses of purified V. palaestinae venom (all in the non-lethal range), led to dose-dependent decreases in serum cholesterol, at 180 minutes, of 9.5% +/- 8.9%, 18.6% +/- 10.1%, and 32.7% +/- 11.8%, respectively (p serum cholesterol level is only partially explained by transcapillary lipoprotein leakage and probably indicates changes in lipoprotein transport and metabolism caused by the phospholipase A2 component of V. palaestinae venom. Admission total serum cholesterol level may serve as an indicator of severity of envenomation in patients bitten by snakes of the Vipera genus before full development of the clinical syndrome. PMID:8505588

  5. IMPACTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVER IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Pandey et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the impacts of high dietary fat on serum Total cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in rats. Rats are fed on diets containing cholesterol; they develop fatty livers which are characterized by the presence in the liver of excessive amounts of cholesteryl esters, and glyceride. Increasement of glyceride content depend on a number of factors, such as the dietary contents of choline, While the nature of the "cholesterol" fatty liver and the effects on its composition of a number of dietary and other factors. In the present paper, we investigated the quantitative changes which occur in the "cholesterol" fatty liver, as a result of variations in the fat content of the diet, with particular reference to the deposition of cholesterol and of glyceride on diets of constant cholesterol content. Investigation was conducted on 90 day old Wister rats. It was observed that the serum TC values in rats of groups B and C were higher than control group. Furthermore, the serum TC and TG value was higher in rats of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of rats of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. The results suggested that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of rats not only resulted in increase in serum TC and TG but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in vital organ liver.

  6. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepúlveda-Varas

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum

  7. Clinically used selective estrogen receptor modulators affect different steps of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, María E; Escolà-Gil, Joan C; Pastor, Oscar; Dávalos, Alberto; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Lasunción, Miguel A; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Gómez-Coronado, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are widely prescribed drugs that alter cellular and whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. Here we evaluate the effect of SERMs on the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (M-RCT) pathway, which is mediated by HDL. Treatment of human and mouse macrophages with tamoxifen, raloxifene or toremifene induced the accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles of acetyl-LDL-derived free cholesterol. The SERMs impaired cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL, and lowered ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. These effects were not altered by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 nor were they reproduced by 17β-estradiol. The treatment of mice with tamoxifen or raloxifene accelerated HDL-cholesteryl ester catabolism, thereby reducing HDL-cholesterol concentrations in serum. When [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded macrophages were injected into mice intraperitoneally, tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, decreased the [(3)H]cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. Both SERMs downregulated liver ABCG5 and ABCG8 protein expression, but tamoxifen reduced the capacity of HDL and plasma to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux to a greater extent than raloxifene. We conclude that SERMs interfere with intracellular cholesterol trafficking and efflux from macrophages. Tamoxifen, but not raloxifene, impair M-RCT in vivo. This effect is primarily attributable to the tamoxifen-mediated reduction of the capacity of HDL to promote cholesterol mobilization from macrophages. PMID:27601313

  8. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P catabolism of phospholipids and cholesterol is decreased during hibernation in black bears, leading to their increased levels in the hibernating state as compared with the active state. In summary, our results indicate that serum cholesterol and phospholipid fractions (except PE) are increased during hibernation in bears. It is proposed that the increase of these lipids may be due to the altered metabolism of lipoproteins that are responsible for the clearance of the lipids. ?? 2002 E??ditions scientifiques et me??dicales Elsevier SAS and Socie??te?? franc??aise de biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  9. Lipoprotein composition and serum cholesterol ester fatty acids in nonwesternized Melanesians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, S; Nilsson-Ehle, P; Vessby, B

    1996-02-01

    In this study, the relationships between dietary fat [as measured by serum cholesterol ester fatty acids (CE-FA)], age, smoking, body mass index, and serum lipids were analyzed in 151 subsistence horticulturalists, aged 20-86 yr, from Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea. Their diet consists of tubers, fruit, coconut, fish, and vegetables with a negligible influence of western food and alcohol. Total fat intake is low [21% of energy (en%)], while saturated fat intake from coconuts is high (17 en%, mainly lauric and myristic acid). In multivariate analysis, 11-43% of the variation of the serum lipoprotein composition was explained by CE-FA, age, and smoking habits. The proportion of CE20:5n-3 explained much of the variation of triglycerides (TG, negative relation) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, positive) in both sexes and serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1, positive) in the males. CE16:0 was positively related to TG and negatively related to HDL-C and ApoA1 in both sexes, and in males it related negatively to total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In males, negative relationships were present between CE18:2n-6 and TC and between CE14:0 and serum lipoprotein(a). Smoking was independently associated with lower ApoA1 in both sexes and with lower HDL-C and higher TG, TC, LDL-C, and apolipoprotein B in males. In conclusion, marine n-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid showed the same potentially beneficial relationships with lipoproteins and apolipoproteins as in western populations. The relations of palmitic acid to serum lipids may be explained in terms of endogenous fat synthesis at a low-fat intake, rather than reflecting its relative intake.

  10. Cholesterol and Copper Affect Learning and Memory in the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease including beta amyloid accumulation and learning and memory changes. Although we have shown that feeding 2% cholesterol and adding copper to the drinking water can retard learning, other studies have shown that feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition and feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explore the development of this model, the issues surrounding the role of copper, and the particular contributions of the late D. Larry Sparks.

  11. Fluorescent assay of total serum cholesterol, with use of gas-liquid chromatography to study saponification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, E J; Seltzer, E J; Carter, P L; Howlett, D R; Stuart, J D

    1977-11-01

    We describe a fluorescent determination of total cholesterol in serum for which the accuracy and precision are comparable to that for the method of Abell-Kendall, a method of generally accepted accuracy. By the use of quality reagents and the rigorous exclusion of water, the strong fluorophor that develops on reacting concentrated sulfuric acid with cholesterol can be used to quantitatively determine the total cholesterol in serum. We used gas-liquid chromatography to monitor the extent of saponification of the cholesterol esters, because we found them to have fluorescent efficiencies that differed from that of free cholesterol. Sodium methoxide in methanol/methylene chloride (1/3 by vol) was shown by gas-liquid chromatography to very effectively saponify the cholesterol esters in serum.

  12. EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY LIVER SYNDROME IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

  13. Comparison of the effects of feeding Indian fish liver oils supplemented with or without cholesterol and bile salts on certain enzymes in liver, heart and serum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanksale K

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymes viz. glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, cholesterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13, aspartate amino transferase (EC 2.6.1.1 and alanine amino transferase (2.6.1.2 are intimately related to lipid metabolism. Hence their activities are bound to be affected by the type of dietary fat and substances like bile salts and cholesterol which also influence the lipid metabolism. This relationship between dietary lipid constituent and enzymes was studied in albino rats maintained on diets containing three Indian Shark Liver Oils viz. Waghbeer, Khada mushi and Pisori supple-mented with or without cholesterol and bile salts, Enzyme activities were studied in liver, heart and serum. It was noted that higher unsaturation of dietary fat increased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase enzyme while activities of transaminases and chole-sterol esterase were lowered. Addition of cholesterol and bile salts to these diets decreased the activity of glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase and hydrolytic activity of cholesterol esterase. There was increase in the activities of transaminases and esterifying activity of choles-terol esterase due to supplementation with cholesterol and bile salts.

  14. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  15. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver. PMID:25393932

  16. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT4), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT4 levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  17. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  18. Concord grape juice attenuates platelet aggregation, serum cholesterol and development of atheroma in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Warner, Thomas F; Krueger, Christian G; Reed, Jess D; Folts, John D

    2007-01-01

    Intake of Concord grape juice (CGJ), rich in polyphenolics, inhibits platelet aggregation (PA), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), in normocholesterolemic animals and humans. It is unclear whether CGJ can attenuate hypercholesterolemia-enhanced PA. The effects of daily CGJ consumption on hypercholesterolemia-enhanced PA and the development of atherosclerosis were investigated. Two groups of rabbits (Control and Treated; n=10 each) were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 48 days. Treated group then received supplemental CGJ (225mL/day) while Control group received supplemental iso-caloric sugar water for 48 days. Collagen-, collagen+epinephrine- and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced whole blood PA responses were measured on Days 0, 48 and 96; total serum cholesterol and blood pressure were also measured. The development of aortic atheroma was quantified at the end. Both groups showed significant increases in PA and serum cholesterol at Day 48. However, at Day 96, Treated group showed significantly lower PA and development of atheroma (30.7+/-3.9% lower (pCGJ attenuates hypercholesterolemia-enhanced PA, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol and development of atheroma in rabbits. PMID:16780846

  19. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat on the performance, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Senthilkumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A biological trial was conducted for a period of seven weeks to study the effect of graded levels of tallow (saturated and sunflower oil (un saturated or combination of both on the production performance, carcass characteristics, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers. Materials and Methods: The experimental feeds were prepared by the addition of tallow (2% and 4% and sunflower oil (2% and 4% either alone or in combination of both (SF oil 1% + tallow 1% and SF oil 2% + tallow 2%. Results: Neither the fat source (sunflower oil or tallow nor their combinations had influenced the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, livability and carcass characteristics in broilers. However, at 49 days of age, broilers fed with tallow alone had higher (P<0.01 abdominal fat than the rest of the treatment groups. When compared to control and tallow alone fed groups, the broilers fed with sunflower oil alone and mixture of sunflower oil and tallow had significantly (P<0.01 lower total serum and meat cholesterol level. Conclusion: The data suggest that the abdominal fat yield, serum and meat total cholesterol level of commercial broilers are inversely proportional to the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 159-162

  20. Fractionation of human serum lipoproteins and simultaneous enzymatic determination of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Rashid Nazir [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kok, Wim Th., E-mail: W.Th.Kok@uva.nl [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoenmakers, Peter J. [Polymer-Analysis Group, van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018WV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-11-03

    A method based on Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) was developed to separate different types of lipoproteins from human serum. The emphasis in the method optimization was on the possibilities to characterize the largest lipoprotein fractions (LDL and VLDL), which is usually not possible with the size-exclusion chromatography methods applied in routine analysis. Different channel geometries and flow programs were tested and compared. The use of a short fractionation channel was shown to give less sample dilution at the same fractionation power compared to a conventional, long channel. Different size selectivities were obtained with an exponential decay and a linear cross flow program. The ratio of the UV absorption signal to the light scattering signal was used to validate the relation between retention time and size of the fractionated particles. An experimental setup was developed for the simultaneous determination of the cholesterol and triglycerides distribution over the lipoprotein fractions, based on enzymatic reactions followed by UV detection at 500 nm. Coiled and knitted PTFE tubing reactors were compared. An improved peak sharpness and sensitivity were observed with the knitted tubing reactor. After optimization of the experimental conditions a satisfactory linearity and precision (2-3% rsd for cholesterol and 5-6% rsd for triglycerides) were obtained. Finally, serum samples, a pooled sample from healthy volunteers and samples of sepsis patients, were analyzed with the method developed. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol and triglyceride distributions could be correlated with the clinical background of the samples.

  1. Association of dietary fiber intake with serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Urban Asian-Indian adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is little data correlating dietary fibre (DF intake and cardiovascular risk in Asian Indians with diabetes. Aim: To assess the DF intake and its association with lipid profile (total serum cholesterol and low density lipoprotein [LDL] - cholesterol levels in urban Asian Indians with diabetes. Subjects and Methods: Dietary assessment using validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted in 1191 free-living adults with known diabetes in the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study. Subjects taking medication for dyslipidemia, and those with cardiovascular disease and implausible energy intake (n = 262 were excluded, leaving 929 participants. Anthropometric and relevant biochemical parameters were measured using standardized techniques. Results: Diabetic individuals who consumed DF median intake of DF group. The risk of hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR] =1.38 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.85], P = 0.04, and high LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.43 [95% CI: 1.06-1.94], P = 0.02 was higher among those whose DF intake was less than the median. Serum triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with DF intake. The main sources of DF were vegetables and legumes. Conclusion: In urban Asian Indians with diabetes, lower DF intake is positively related to total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

  2. Enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum or plasma by amperometric measurement of rate of oxygen depletion following saponification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Christian, G D

    1977-01-17

    A method for serum or plasma cholesterol assay involving amperometric measurement of the rate of oxygen depletion in the cholesterol oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of cholesterol is described. The hydrolysis of the serum cholesterol esters is accomplished by saponification of 50 mul of sample with 0.2 ml of ethanolic KOH (1.0 mol/1) containing 0.5% Triton X-100 for 5 min at 75 degrees C. The rate of oxygen consumption in a 25-mul aliquot of this is measured with a Clark electrode in a Beckman Glucose Analyzer and the assay takes about one minute after incubation; results are read digitally on the instrument. The analyzer cell contains 1 ml of 1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, with 100 mg sodium cholate/100 ml and 0.1-0.2 U cholesterol oxidase.

  3. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

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    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population.Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25-64 years from third national survey on non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD in 2007 were used to construct cholesterol nomograms. We proposed cutoff values for borderline and high TC levels based on rounded 75th and 90th percentiles in three age groups (25-34, 35-44 and 45-64 respectively.Results: Average yearly increase of TC for males up to the age of 45 and females up to 64 were 1.15 and 1.03 mg/dl, respectively. TC levels were higher in females. In males, cutoff values for "borderline and high" TC levels were 195 and 220 mg/dl in 25-34, 210 and 240 mg/d in 35-44 and 215 and 245 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals. In women, these values were 200 and 225 mg/dl in 25-34,215 and 240 mg/dl in 35-44 and 235 and 265 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals respectively.Conclusion: Since TC levels are different in two sexes and change with age, we proposed different cutoffs for sex and age group. We think these cutoffs could be used in national public health planning.

  4. Beneficial effect of low dose Amlodipine vs Nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet.

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    Bavane DS, Rajesh CS, Gurudatta Moharir, Bharatha Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of low dose amlodipine v/s nifedipine on serum cholesterol profile of rabbits receiving standard diet. Methods: Fourty Newzealand rabbits were selected for the study. Their cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning of the study. Rabbits were grouped into 4 groups receiving standard diet (control group, standard diet + vehicle propylene glycol, standard diet + nifedipine dissolved in propylene glycol and standard diet + amlodipine dissolved in propylene glycol. Along with standard diet they were treated with respective drugs for ten weeks. At the end of ten weeks serum cholesterol profile was estimated. Results: The cholesterol profile was estimated at the beginning and at the end of ten weeks. Total cholesterol in the amlodipine group decreased from 97±4.06 mg/dl to 90±4.2 mg/dl and HDL-Cholesterol increased from 32.01±4.40 mg/dl to 37±4.60 mg/dl after 10 week treatment but these changes were not significant. LDL cholesterol decreased significantly in rabbits with low dose of amlodipine from 55.42±3.32 mg/dl to 32.40±3.22 mg/dl and. In the nifedipine group there was a slight increase in total cholesterol from 102.49±5.16 mg/dl to 106±5.39 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol from 34.10±2.80 to 35.16±2.82 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol also increased from 56.20±2.20 mg/dl to 59.00±2.20 mg/dl after 10 week treatment. Conclusion: The study shows amlodipine produces favorable alterations in serum cholesterol profile

  5. Gene transfection in high serum levels: case studies with new cholesterol based cationic gemini lipids.

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    Santosh K Misra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2On- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD. We studied the lipid/DNA complex (lipoplex formation and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes using ethidium bromide. These gemini lipids in presence of a helper lipid, 1, 2-dioleoyl phophatidyl ethanol amine (DOPE showed significant enhancements in the gene transfection compared to several commercially available transfection agents. Cholesterol based gemini having -CH2-CH2-OH groups at the head and one oxyethylene spacer was found to be the most effective lipid, which showed transfection activity even in presence of high serum levels (50% greater than Effectene, one of the potent commercially available transfecting agents. Most of these geminis protected plasmid DNA remarkably against DNase I in serum, although the degree of stability was found to vary with their structural features. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: -OH groups present on the cationic headgroups in combination with oxyethylene linkers on cholesterol based geminis, gave an optimized combination of new genera of gemini lipids possessing high transfection efficiency even in presence of very high percentage of serum. This property makes them preferential transfection reagents for possible in vivo studies.

  6. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  7. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  8. Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Guohua; Li, Min; Sang, Hui; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiuhong; Yao, Shutong; Yu, Yang; Zong, Chuanlong; Xue, Yazhuo; Qin, Shucun

    2013-01-01

    We have found that hydrogen (dihydrogen; H2) has beneficial lipid-lowering effects in high-fat diet-fed Syrian golden hamsters. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of H2-rich water (0.9–1.0 l/day) on the content, composition, and biological activities of serum lipoproteins on 20 patients with potential metabolic syndrome. Serum analysis showed that consumption of H2-rich water for 10 weeks resulted in decreased serum total-cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) l...

  9. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  10. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  11. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantanee Kriengsinyos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s aim was to test the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol- (LDL-c- lowering efficacy of biscuits containing 2 g of plant stanols, which corresponded to 3.4 g of plant stanol esters. The biscuit is a new food format that can be consumed as a snack. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design study, 119 mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomized to plant stanol or control groups. Subjects were comparable in age, gender, lipid profiles, and body mass index. They consumed a control biscuit once a day for a two-week period, followed by a four-week intervention period that either had a plant stanol ester biscuit or a control. During the habitual diet, one biscuit per day was consumed at any time that subjects wished. Serum lipid profiles were measured at the first day of run-in, at baseline, and at the study’s end. Compared to the control, the total cholesterol (TC, LDL-c, and the LDL-to-high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL ratio had serum reductions of 4.9%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, respectively, and were observed after 4 weeks of biscuit consumption with added plant stanols (P < 0.05. A significantly higher reduction in LDL-c (8.9% and LDL/HDL ratio (11.4% was measured in those taking a plant stanol biscuit with a meal compared to those who consumed a plant stanol biscuit without other food. In conclusion, incorporating plant stanols into a biscuit is an attractive, convenient, and acceptable way to modestly lower elevated cholesterol concentrations. For optimal efficacy, biscuits should be consumed with a meal as part of a healthy diet.

  12. The effect of semipurified diets containing either casein or soybean protein on the concentration of serum cholesterol and the lipoprotein composition in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effect of dietary casein and soybean protein on the concentration of serum cholesterol and the lipoprotein composition in rabbits. Special attention has been paid to the time course of the changes produced by the protein in the diet.After a short introduction, a review of the studies on the effect of dietary protein on serum cholesterol is presented. From these studies, it was concluded that the effect of dietary protein on the concentration of serum cholesterol is ...

  13. Rice Protein Extracted by Different Methods Affects Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats Due to Its Lower Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate whether the digestibility is responsible for the hypocholesterolemic action of rice protein, the effects of rice proteins extracted by alkali (RP-A and α-amylase (RP-E on cholesterol metabolism were investigated in 7-week-old male Wistar rats fed cholesterol-free diets for 3 weeks. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility was significantly reduced by RP-A and RP-E as compared to casein (CAS. The digestibility was lower in RP-E than that of RP-A. Compared with CAS, the significant cholesterol-lowering effects were observed in rats fed by RP-A and RP-E. Fecal excretion of bile acids was significantly stimulated by RP-E, but not by RP-A. The apparent cholesterol absorption was more effectively inhibited by RP-E than RP-A because more fecal neutral sterols were excreted in rats fed RP-E. There was a significant correlation between protein digestibility and cholesterol absorption (r = 0.8662, P < 0.01, resulting in a significant correlation between protein digestibility and plasma cholesterol level (r = 0.7357, P < 0.01 in this study. The present study demonstrates that the digestibility of rice protein affected by extraction method plays a major role in the modulation of cholesterol metabolism. Results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action induced by rice protein with lower digestibility primarily contribute to the inhibition of cholesterol absorption.

  14. Exposure to polymers reverses inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by serum, meconium, or cholesterol in the captive bubble surfactometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rodríguez, Elena; Ospina, Olga Lucía; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H William; Pérez-Gil, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in the lungs is associated with respiratory pathologies such as acute respiratory distress syndrome or meconium aspiration syndrome. Serum, cholesterol, and meconium have been described as inhibitory agents of surfactant's interfacial activity once these substances appear in alveolar spaces during lung injury and inflammation. The deleterious action of these agents has been only partly evaluated under physiologically relevant conditions. We have optimized a protocol to assess surfactant inhibition by serum, cholesterol, or meconium in the captive bubble surfactometer. Specific measures of surface activity before and after native surfactant was exposed to inhibitors included i), film formation, ii), readsorption of material from surface-associated reservoirs, and iii), interfacial film dynamics during compression-expansion cycling. Results show that serum creates a steric barrier that impedes surfactant reaching the interface. A mechanical perturbation of this barrier allows native surfactant to compete efficiently with serum to form a highly surface-active film. Exposure of native surfactant to cholesterol or meconium, on the other hand, modifies the compressibility of surfactant films though optimal compressibility properties recover on repetitive compression-expansion cycling. Addition of polymers like dextran or hyaluronic acid to surfactant fully reverses inhibition by serum. These polymers also prevent surfactant inhibition by cholesterol or meconium, suggesting that the protective action of polymers goes beyond the mere enhancement of interfacial adsorption as described by depletion force theories. PMID:23062337

  15. Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression

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    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

  16. Association of high and low density serum cholesterol, cognitive performance and emotional well-being in menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Károssy, Katalin

    2007-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance and changes in metabolism are characteristics of aging. The increased level of LDL in serum is associated with a higher risk to atherosclerosis that causes minor and major decline in cognitive functioning. On the other hand, HDL levels are associated with better preserved cognitive functioning in older age. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), LDL, and HDL, as well as perceptual-motor, verbal...

  17. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W. [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, 4089 KLSIC, MS 1018, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: fjgonz@helix.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  18. Adaptation of Cholesterol Requiring NS0 Cells to Serum Free Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Muneer Raja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Colorectal cancer is the third most common form of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The answers to such life threatening diseases and cancers are monoclonal antibodies (MAb's which are widely used as therapeutic agents. World demand for currently approved MAb's is on the order of a few kilograms per year. However, new therapeutic MAb's are under development and require doses of several hundred milligrams to a gram over the course of therapy. Very often to cater for the special requirements for the growth of mammalian cells, serum is added to the cell culture medium. However, removal of serum from the cell culture medium is often carried out, especially if the end product is to be used for human consumption, in order to eliminate various disadvantages such as high physiological variability, high batch to batch variability, risk of contamination and high cost, and challenges posed in the downstream processing of the product. In this paper, the adaptation of cholesterol requiring NS0 cells to commercially available serum free media is presented. ABSTRAK: Kanser kolorektum merupakan kanser ketiga paling umum dan kini berada di tempat kedua penyebab kematian berkaitan kanser di negara Barat. Jawapan kepada penyakit yang mengancam nyawa dan penyakit kanser adalah antibodi monoklon (monoclonal antibodies ((MAb's yang digunakan sebagai agen terapeutik. Permintaan dunia terhadap MAb's yang diluluskan adalah dalam bilangan beberapa kilogram setahun. Namun, terapeutik MAb's yang baru adalah di bawah penyelidikan dan memerlukan beberapa ratus dos milligram hingga satu gram dalam satu peringkat terapi. Sering kali untuk memenuhi permintaan terhadap tumbesaran sel mamalia, serum dicampurkan dengan sel kultur perantara. Walaupun begitu, pemindahan serum dari sel kultur perantara sering dilakukan, terutamanya jika produk akhir digunakan untuk kegunaan manusia; untuk

  19. Cholesterol derived cationic lipids as potential non-viral gene delivery vectors and their serum compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jia; Huan, Meng-Lei; Wan, Ning; Hou, Yi-Lin; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jia, Yi-Yang; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2016-05-15

    Cholesterol derivatives M1-M6 as synthetic cationic lipids were designed and the biological evaluation of the cationic liposomes based on them as non-viral gene delivery vectors were described. Plasmid pEGFP-N1, used as model gene, was transferred into 293T cells by cationic liposomes formed with M1-M6 and transfection efficiency and GFP expression were tested. Cationic liposomes prepared with cationic lipids M1-M6 exhibited good transfection activity, and the transfection activity was parallel (M2 and M4) or superior (M1 and M6) to that of DC-Chol derived from the same backbone. Among them, the transfection efficiency of cationic lipid M6 was parallel to that of the commercially available Lipofectamine2000. The optimal formulation of M1 and M6 were found to be at a mol ratio of 1:0.5 for cationic lipid/DOPE, and at a N/P charge mol ratio of 3:1 for liposome/DNA. Under optimized conditions, the efficiency of M1 and M6 is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes DC-Chol and Lipofectamine2000, even in the presence of serum. The results indicated that M1 and M6 exhibited low cytotoxicity, good serum compatibility and efficient transfection performance, having the potential of being excellent non-viral vectors for gene delivery. PMID:27072908

  20. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio da Silva Morrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n=8 and one OVX group (n=11 were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil, and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n=8/group. OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause.

  1. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause.

  2. The Impairment of Macrophage-to-Feces Reverse Cholesterol Transport during Inflammation Does Not Depend on Serum Amyloid A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. de Beer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that inflammation impairs reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. We investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA contributes to this impairment using an established macrophage-to-feces RCT model. Wild-type (WT mice and mice deficient in SAA1.1 and SAA2.1 (SAAKO were injected intraperitoneally with 3H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages 4 hr after administration of LPS or buffered saline. 3H-cholesterol in plasma 4 hr after macrophage injection was significantly reduced in both WT and SAAKO mice injected with LPS, but this was not associated with a reduced capacity of serum from LPS-injected mice to promote macrophage cholesterol efflux in vitro. Hepatic accumulation of 3H-cholesterol was unaltered in either WT or SAAKO mice by LPS treatment. Radioactivity present in bile and feces of LPS-injected WT mice 24 hr after macrophage injection was reduced by 36%   (P<0.05 and 80%   (P<0.001, respectively. In contrast, in SAAKO mice, LPS did not significantly reduce macrophage-derived 3H-cholesterol in bile, and fecal excretion was reduced by only 45%   (P<0.05. Injection of cholesterol-loaded allogeneic J774 cells, but not syngeneic bone-marrow-derived macrophages, transiently induced SAA in C57BL/6 mice. Our study confirms reports that acute inflammation impairs steps in the RCT pathway and establishes that SAA plays only a minor role in this impairment.

  3. Influence of contraceptive pill and menstrual cycle on serum lipids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Demacker, P N; Schade, R W; Stalenhoef, A F; Stuyt, P M; Van 't Laar, A

    1982-01-01

    The fluctuations of serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations within one cycle were studied both in women using and not using oral contraceptives. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly from 1.47 mmol/l (57 mg/100 ml) to 1.30 mmol/l (50 mg/100 ml) during one contraceptive cycle in eight women and rose again to the initial value during the pill-free days. The mean concentration of total cholesterol also fell significantly as a result of the decrease of high-density lipop...

  4. Concentrated oat β-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulcher R Gary

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat β-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Methods Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP. To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the β-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Results Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03. Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Conclusion Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other

  5. Serum Cholesterol Levels in College Students: Opportunities for Education and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, Phillip B.; Snow, Teresa K.; Beavers, Bill D.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed lipid profiles in 1,088 college students at a university where lipid profiles were available to students in selected health/wellness courses. Mean total cholesterol levels were similar for men and women, but men had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than women. About 11…

  6. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol

  7. Joint analyses model for total cholesterol and triglyceride in human serum with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lijun; Lyu, Ning; Chen, Jiemei; Pan, Tao; Yu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The development of a small, dedicated near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer has promising potential applications, such as for joint analyses of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in human serum for preventing and treating hyperlipidemia of a large population. The appropriate wavelength selection is a key technology for developing such a spectrometer. For this reason, a novel wavelength selection method, named the equidistant combination partial least squares (EC-PLS), was applied to the wavelength selection for the NIR analyses of TC and TG in human serum. A rigorous process based on the various divisions of calibration and prediction sets was performed to achieve modeling optimization with stability. By applying EC-PLS, a model set was developed, which consists of various models that were equivalent to the optimal model. The joint analyses model of the two indicators was further selected with only 50 wavelengths. The random validation samples excluded from the modeling process were used to validate the selected model. The root-mean-square errors, correlation coefficients and ratio of performance to deviation for the prediction were 0.197 mmol L- 1, 0.985 and 5.6 for TC, and 0.101 mmol L- 1, 0.992 and 8.0 for TG, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for hyperlipidemia were 96.2% and 98.0%. These findings indicate high prediction accuracy and low model complexity. The proposed wavelength selection provided valuable references for the designing of a small, dedicated spectrometer for hyperlipidemia. The methodological framework and optimization algorithm are universal, such that they can be applied to other fields.

  8. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  9. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzadfar, Farshad; Finucane, Mariel M; Danaei, Goodarz;

    2011-01-01

    Data for trends in serum cholesterol are needed to understand the effects of its dietary, lifestyle, and pharmacological determinants; set intervention priorities; and evaluate national programmes. Previous analyses of trends in serum cholesterol were limited to a few countries, with no consisten...... and comparable global analysis. We estimated worldwide trends in population mean serum total cholesterol....

  10. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  11. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  12. Reduction of cholesterol and markers of oxidation in serum of hypercholestrolemic patients treated with lycosome formulation of simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M. Petyaev

    2016-02-01

    Results: Both formulations of Simvastatin, but not lycopene, caused a reduction in serum total cholesterol and LDL at the intermediate (end of 2nd week and final (end of 4th week points of interventional period. Notably, reduction of total cholesterol and LDL in the 4th week of the trial was more profound in patients treated with Lyco-Simvastatin versus unmodified Simvastatin (P<0.05. Patients treated with Lyco-Simvastatin showed a reduction in serum Apo B level, which was not observed in other groups. Lycopene treatment caused a modest but statistically significant decrease in serum triglyceride. However, the triglyceride-lowering effect of Simvastatin was more profound in the case of Lyco-Simvastatin treatment. Lycopene as well as unmodified Simvastatin gave a marginal reduction of Inflammatory Oxidative Damage. Remarkably, the combined formulation of Simvastatin and lycopene gave a significant reduction in the values for oxidative damage (reduction of median by 112.5 and micro;M, P<0.05. Similar synergistic effect was observed when levels of oxidized LDL were analyzed. Conclusions: Lycosome-formulated microencapsulated Simvastatin has a better cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant capacity presumably due to enhanced bioavailability of the drug and synergism with lycopene. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 349-355

  13. Fasting serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients intended to be treated for dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovefa D Kolovou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genovefa D Kolovou1, Katherine Anagnostopoulou1, Nektarios D Pilatis1, Klelia D Salpea1, Ioannis S Hoursalas1, Ilias Petropoulos1, Helen I Bilianou2, Dennis V Cokkinos11Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece; 2Cardiology Department, Tzanio State Hospital, Piraeus, GreeceObjective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of serum triglycerides (TG on other plasma lipids in patients to be treated for dyslipidemia.Methodology: Lipid profiles of a cohort of 801 patients (487 males and 314 females aged 57 ± 9 years (mean ± SD were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to their plasma lipid levels. They were divided into various groups on the basis of serum TG (≥ 150 or < 150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (≥ 40 or < 40 mg/dL.Results: Patients with TG ≥ 150 mg/dL had a higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C levels compared with those with TG < 150 mg/dL, (p < 0.001. Patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dL had a lower serum total cholesterol and higher TG compared with those with HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively. In all patients as well as in the subgroups, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C was found (r = –0.377, p < 0.001.Conclusions: Although, the metabolic pathway for TG and HDL-C is closely linked, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C levels seems to exist in the entire sampled population. This correlation also appears to persist in fasting patients with low levels of TG.Keywords: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dyslipidemia

  14. Influence of human diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, and soy protein concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in humans, rabbits and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Raaij, van, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that feeding animals such as rabbits with semipurified diets containing animal proteins, as for example casein, results in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, diets containing vegetable proteins such as soybean protein maintain low levels of serum cholesterol. Little is known about the effects of the type of protein in the diet in humans.This thesis deals with the effects of casein and soy protein on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins, as observed in ...

  15. Effect of yogurt and bifidus yogurt fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey and lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beena, A; Prasad, V

    1997-08-01

    The possible hypocholesterolaemic properties of milk and fermented milk products have been investigated in groups of albino rats given a basal diet, basal diet plus cholesterol, and basal diet plus cholesterol together with whole milk or standard or bifidus yogurt. The yogurts were fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey or lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey. After 30 d, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured in serum. Whole milk and ordinary yogurt had no hypocholesterolaemic effect, but standard yogurt containing lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey and all bifidus yogurts lowered serum cholesterol. In general, yogurts changed HDL-cholesterol little, but tended to raise triacylglycerols. There was marked lowering of LDL-cholesterol in rats given either type of yogurt fortified with whey proteins. This study has demonstrated in a rat model that bifidus yogurts and yogurts fortified with whey proteins can reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, and suggests that if they have the same effect in human subjects they have potential value in cholesterol-lowering diets.

  16. Serum total cholesterol level and some cancer mortality:A 7 years follow-up study in 698796 people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-feng; WU Duo-wen; Jong Ku Park; Sang Baek Koh; Chun Bae Kim; Sei Jin Chan

    2003-01-01

    目的为研究血清总胆固醇与全癌、胃癌、肝癌以及肺癌死亡的关系,评价血清总胆固醇含量作为这几种癌的预报指标的价值.方法研究人群是韩国医疗保险公司的投保人,且年龄在40岁及40岁以上,共有698,796人.1992年至1993年首先对每一个观察对象进行身体健康检查并调查他们的生活习惯以及疾病既往史.随访开始于1994年1月1日结束于2000年12月31日.本研究的主要数据来自健康检查记录以及保险公司的死亡补贴记录.结果随访期内有11754人死于癌症,其中2631人死于胃癌,2456人死于肝癌,2129人死于肺癌.血清总胆固醇水平与全癌、肝癌的死亡呈明显的负相关关系并且有统计学意义.血清胆固醇升高,全癌和肝癌的死亡率降低,不论男性还是女性均是同样的结果.排除随访期前3年的死亡人数后,得到的仍然是这个结果.胆固醇与胃癌之间呈现弱的负相关关系.胆固醇与肺癌间无统计学联系.结论胆固醇与全癌以及肝癌之间有负的相关关系,血清胆固醇含量过低预示死于全癌和肝癌的危险升高.%Objective: To analyze the relationship of serum total cholesterol and mortality from overall cancer,stomach cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer, and evaluate an importance of serum cholesterol concentrations as predictor of the several cancers in both men and women. Methods: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) aged 40 and older who had taken the health examination and completed the questionnairenquiring of health habits and past medical history in 1992 or 1993. Numbers of cohort member were 698,796, and they were followed from 1 Jan, 1994 until 31 Dec, 2000. The primary source of the data used in this study were the death benefit record and health examination file of KMIC. Results: There were 11754 deaths from cancer and among them 2631 were stomach cancer, 2456 were liver cancer, 2129

  17. 我国成年居民膳食胆固醇摄入量与血清总胆固醇水平关系的研究%Study on the relationships between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol among Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏畅; 贾小芳; 王志宏; 王惠君; 张兵

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationships between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol among Chinese adults.Methods Data used in the present study was from the China Health and Nutrition Study (CHNS).Chinese adults,18 to 65 year olds who participated in the 2009 CHNS with complete individual information were included in the study.Correlation of dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol among different sex groups was described to explore the effect of dietary cholesterol intake on the level of serum cholesterol as well as to examine the effect of higher intake of dietary cholesterol related to hypercholesterolemia.Results Results from the correlation analysis indicated that dietary cholesterol appeared a highly positive correlation (P<0.05) with serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Data from the multiple regression analysis showed that dietary cholesterol intake was an important factor that affecting the serum TC (P<0.05) in both males and females but LDL-C was only in females (P=0.01).After adjusting for potential confounders,the high intake of dietary cholesterol (≥300 mg/d) had higher risks for developing hypercholesterolemia in both males and females (OR=1.2 1,95% CI:1.03-1.42,P=0.019;OR=1.18,95%CI:1.00-1.40,P=0.044),respectively.Conclusion Dietary cholesterol intake seemed to correlate with the serum cholesterol level,and hypercholesterolemia should be prevented through reducing the dietary cholesterol among Chinese adults.%目的 了解我国成年居民膳食胆固醇摄入量与血清总胆固醇(TC)水平的关系.方法 资料来源于2009年第八轮“中国健康与营养调查”.将参加2009年中国健康与营养调查并有完整个人信息的18~65岁成年居民作为调查对象.分析调查对象膳食胆固醇摄入量与TC水平的相关关系,探讨膳食胆固醇摄入对TC水平的影响及膳食胆固醇摄入过量人群高胆固醇血症的患病风险.结果 我国成年居民膳

  18. Higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with low serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.A. Steegmans; A.W. Hoes (Arno); A.A.A. Bak (Annette); E. van der Does (Emiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Investigators from several studies have reported a positive relationship between low cholesterol levels and death due to violent causes (eg, suicide and accidents), possibly mediated by depressive symptoms, aggression or hostility, or impulsivity.

  19. Total serum cholesterol levels and suicide attempts in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Plana, Teresa; Gracia, R.; Méndez, I.; Pintor, L.; Lazaro, L; Castro-Fornieles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Associations between cholesterol and suicidal behavior in adolescent patients have not been explored in depth. In this study, 66 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit following attempted suicide were compared with a control group of 54 patients with no history of suicide attempts. The age range of the sample was from 8 to 18 years old. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in attempted suicide patients than in controls (p < 0.02), supporting...

  20. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  1. Treatment of young rats with cholestyramine or a hypercholesterolemic diet does not influence the response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Bruijne, J.J. de; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Groups of 10 female Wistar rats (aged 4 weeks) were fed for 29 days either a low-cholesterol commercial diet, a commercial diet containing 2% (w/w) cholesterol, 0.5% cholate and 5% olive oil or a diet containing 2% cholestyramine. The rats were then fed the low-cholesterol commercial diet for the ne

  2. Influence of High Cholesterol Diet on Total Cholesterol in Serum of Mice%高胆固醇饮食对昆明小鼠血清总胆固醇的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2011-01-01

    It Objective: test influence of high cholesterol diet on total cholesterol in serum of mice.Methods: feed KM mice using high cholesterol diet for 3 months, take caudal vein blood sample at 0, 1st, 2nd, 3rd month; the levels of serum total cholesterol will be detected.Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia model was successfully established in mouse.In the condition of high-cholesterol diet, total cholesterol levels of KM mice significantly increased (p < 0.05), and positively correlated with time.%目的检测高胆固醇饮食对小鼠血脂水平的影响.方法采用高胆固醇饲料饲养KM小鼠3个月,第0、1、2、3月尾静脉取血,常规检测血清总胆固醇水平变化.结论:成功建立高胆固醇小鼠模型,在高胆固醇饮食条件下,KM小鼠总胆固醇水平升高(p<0.05),并与时间呈正相关.

  3. Gene Transfection in High Serum Levels: Case Studies with New Cholesterol Based Cationic Gemini Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Santosh K; Biswas, Joydeep; Kondaiah, Paturu; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Six new cationic gemini lipids based on cholesterol possessing different positional combinations of hydroxyethyl (-CH2CH2OH) and oligo-oxyethylene -(CH2CH2O)(n)- moieties were synthesized. For comparison the corresponding monomeric lipid was also prepared. Each new cationic lipid was found to form stable, clear suspensions in aqueous media. Methodology/Principal Findings: To understand the nature of the individual lipid aggregates, we have studied the aggregation properties using ...

  4. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; XU, XIAOPING; Chen, Minli

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Methods Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6–7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male ...

  5. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  6. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: ► A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. ► The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. ► We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. ► The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. ► It provided useful experimental evidences for diabetes-accelerate atherosclerosis. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for

  7. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: Evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qilin; An Yarui; Tang Linlin; Jiang Xiaoli; Chen Hua; Bi Wenji [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wang Zhongchuan [Department of Anorectal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Wen, E-mail: wzhang@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we reported a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk. The biosensor was firstly modified with a poly-thionine (PTH) film as electron transfer mediator (ETM), then the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH to act as tiny conduction centers for facilitating the electron transfer between enzymes and electrode. The schematic of the dual biosensor is shown in figure. The developed dual biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibited a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 {mu}M, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 {mu}M. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level was not changed obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was enhanced together with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. These findings indicated the possibility that high glucose induced by diabetes might increase the macrophage cholesterol level to further accelerate atherosclerosis development. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel biosensor was developed to determine glucose and cholesterol simultaneously. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual enzymatic-biosensor has good selectivity and high sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined glucose and cholesterol in the real samples of diabetic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results showed that high glucose might increase the macrophage cholesterol level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provided useful experimental

  8. Lathosterol to cholesterol ratio in serum predicts cholesterol lowering response to plant sterol consumption in a dual center, randomized, single-blind placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of plant sterols (PS) for cholesterol lowering are compromised by large variability in efficacy across individuals. High fractional cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation has been associated with non-response to PS consumption; however, prospective studies showing this as...

  9. Effects of physical examination and diet consultation on serum cholesterol and health-behavior in the Korean pilots employed in commercial airline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Ki Youn

    2013-01-01

    An objective of this study is to search how physical examination and diet consultation can influence those risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The subjects were 326 pilots of the "B" airline company in Korea whose total cholesterol values were over 220 mg/dl on their regular physical examinations from April 2006 to December 2008. They were divided into two groups, one who had diet consultation (an intervention group) and a control group. The physical examination components used to each group were body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). The behavioral, anthropometric and biomedical measurements were collected at each visit. This study compares and investigates the changes of serum cholesterol and also the health-behavior at each physical examination. Within the intervention group significant improvements were observed for total cholesterol, BMI (body mass index) and HDL (high density lipoprotein). The normalizing rates for cholesterol level to decrease down to lower than 200 mg/dl were 17.7% in intervention group and 8.7% in control group, which is statistically significantly higher among the intervention group. The odds ratio of diet consultation was 2.80 (95% CI=1.35-5.79), which indicates that it is a significantly contributing factor to normalize the serum cholesterol value down to lower than 200 mg/dl. Based on result, it is recommended to have regular physical examination and intensive management with diet and exercise consultation.

  10. High serum coenzyme Q10, positively correlated with age, selenium and cholesterol in Inuit of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Mortensen, S.A.; Rhode, M.;

    1999-01-01

    impact. From a health survey we chose the subpopulation from the most remote area, where the traditional Greenlandic diet with high intake of sea mammals and fish predominates. The mean (SD) of S-CoQ10 in males was 1.495 (0.529) nmol/ml and 1.421 (0.629) nmol/ml in females, significantly higher (p ....001) compared to a Danish population. In a linear multiple regression model the S-CoQ10 level is significantly positively associated with age and S-selenium in males, and S-total cholesterol in females. The high level of CoQ10 in Greenlanders probably reflects diet, since no bioaccumulation takes place...

  11. The effect of semipurified diets containing either casein or soybean protein on the concentration of serum cholesterol and the lipoprotein composition in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effect of dietary casein and soybean protein on the concentration of serum cholesterol and the lipoprotein composition in rabbits. Special attention has been paid to the time course of the changes produced by the protein in the diet.After a short introduction, a review of

  12. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali; Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of South...

  13. The serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is influenced more favorably by exchanging saturated with unsaturated fat than by reducing saturated fat in the diet of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hanne; Lindman, Anja S; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Pedersen, Jan I

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of a high fat diet [38.4% of energy (E%) from fat; HSAFA diet, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio = 0.14], a low fat diet (19.7 E% from fat; LSAFA diet, P/S = 0.17), both based on coconut oil, and a diet with a high content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; 38.2 E% from fat; HUFA diet, P/S = 1.9) on serum lipoproteins. The 25 women studied consumed each diet for 3-wk periods in a crossover design. The two high fat diets were identical except for the quality of the test fat. The LSAFA diet was identical to the HSAFA diet except that half the fat was replaced by carbohydrates. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB concentrations did not differ between the HSAFA and the LSAFA diet periods. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and apoB were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the other two diets. HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were 15 and 11%, respectively, higher when women consumed the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the LSAFA diet; HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were lower when women consumed the HUFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet, but not the LSAFA diet. The LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and apoB/apoA-I ratios were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HSAFA diet. The LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was higher when women consumed either the LSAFA or the HSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet, whereas apoB/apoA-I was higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed the HUFA diet. Triacylglycerol and VLDL cholesterol were higher when women consumed the LSAFA diet than when they consumed either the HSAFA or the HUFA diet. We conclude that, to influence the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio, changing the proportions of dietary fatty acids may be more important than restricting the percentage of total or saturated fat energy, at least when derived mainly from lauric and myristic acids, both of which increase HDL cholesterol.

  14. A dual enzymatic-biosensor for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages of diabetic mice: evaluation of the diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qilin; An, Yarui; Tang, Linlin; Jiang, Xiaoli; Chen, Hua; Bi, Wenji; Wang, Zhongchuan; Zhang, Wen

    2011-11-30

    In this paper, a novel dual enzymatic-biosensor is described for simultaneous determination of glucose and cholesterol in serum and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) of diabetic mice to evaluate the risk of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. The biosensor was constructed by a three-step method. First, a poly-thionine (PTH) film was assembled on the surface of glassy carbon electrode by cyclic voltammetric electropolymerization of thionine, which serves as an electron transfer mediator (ETM). Second, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were covered on the surface of PTH facilitating the electron transfer between glucose oxidase (GOx), cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and electrode. Finally, the enzymes, GOx, cholesterol esterase (ChE), and ChOx, were covalently attached to the PTH layer through a chitosan (CH) linker. The PTH coupled with GNPs provides good selectivity, high sensitivity and little crosstalk for the dual enzymatic-biosensor. The developed biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidations of glucose and cholesterol, exhibiting a linear range from 0.008 mM to 6.0 mM for glucose with a detection limit of 2.0 μM, and a linear range from 0.002 mM to 1.0 mM for cholesterol with a detection limit of 0.6 μM. The results of the diabetic mice demonstrated that the cholesterol level did not change obviously with the increase of glucose level in serum, while the cholesterol level was induced with the increase of the glucose level in PMs. Previous studies have shown that the large accumulation of cholesterol in macrophage could lead to macrophage foam cell formation, which is the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. This study provides useful further evidences for the development of diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. PMID:22027130

  15. The photo biological effect of low level laser therapy on serum level of leptin, cholesterol and triglycerides in overweight and obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of low level laser for body contouring and weight reduction depends on the photochemical non thermal effect of laser light on the adipose tissue. LLLT was reported to liquefy or release stored fat in adipocytes by the opening of specialized yet not identified cell membrane-associated pores after a brief treatment The concentration of leptin in adipose tissue and serum closely parallel the mass of adipose tissue and adipocyte size and triglycerides content. Thus, leptin increases in obesity and falls with weight loss. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the low level laser therapy (LLLT) on leptin hormone, Cholesterol and triglyceride in both overweight and obese females. Twenty women were included in this study. Their ages ranged from 30-40 years. They were divided into two equal groups. Group A (Overweight group): included 10 females with BMI between 25 and 29.9 Kg/m2 -Group B (Obese group): included 10 females with BMI . 30. Both groups received LLL to the abdomen using laser scanner for uniform distribution of the beam above and below the umbilicus. Duration of treatment was 30 minutes, 2 times per week for 8 weeks as a total period of treatment. Serum level of leptin was estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA). As regards serum cholesterol and triglyceride they were determined by enzymatic colorimetric test. Biochemical assessments were done before and after treatment. Results of the present study showed that in the overweight group laser treatment resulted in highly significant reduction in leptin serum level accompanied by highly significant increase in serum triglycerides level. Meanwhile, the increase in cholesterol level was insignificant. As regards the obese group, alteration in serum leptin level caused by laser treatment was not significant. In this group the increase in triglycerides and cholesterol serum levels after treatment were highly significant

  16. Predicting survival of endoscopic gastrostomy candidates using the underlying disease, serum cholesterol, albumin and transferrin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the gold standard for long-term enteral feeding. An adequate PEG candidate must have life expectancy longer than a few weeks. Patients surviving less than three weeks should have a nasogastric tube, and gastrostomy should be avoid. There are few studies looking to prognostic factors and fewer attempts of creating a predictor model for PEG patient's survival. Aim: The aim of this study was creating a predictive survival model for PEG candidates, using underlying disease, cholesterol, albumin and transferrin. Methods: Data was obtained from records of adult patients that underwent PEG between 1999 and 2011. Patients surviving 3 weeks were considered adequate survivors. A full logistic regression model was used to classify future cases into one of the two groups of survival. Results: An equation for the probability of future cases was generated, in order to obtain a P value. In the future, patients with a P > 0,88 will have a 64,7% probability of adequate surviving; patients with a P < 0,88 will have a 70.3% probability of short surviving. Conclusions: When clinical evaluation alone does not display a clear prognosis, this equation should be included in the evaluation of gastrostomy candidates, avoiding useless gastrostomy.

  17. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.;

    2006-01-01

    Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed...

  18. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker RA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by plasma lipid concentrations and measures of ex vivo antioxidants. Methods Ten healthy men and women consumed a low lycopene diet with no added lycopene (control treatment or supplemented with watermelon or tomato juice each containing 20 mg lycopene. Subjects consumed each treatment for three weeks in a crossover design. Plasma, collected weekly was analyzed for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations and for the antioxidant biomarkers of malondialdehyde formation products (MDA, plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed Procedure and associations between antioxidant and lipid measures were identified by Pearson's product moment correlation analysis. Results Compared to the control diet, the lycopene-containing foods did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant biomarkers. Women had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations than did the men. Total cholesterol was positively correlated to MDA and FRAP while HDL-C was positively correlated to MDA and GPX. GPX was negatively correlated to triglyceride concentration. Conclusions The inclusion of watermelon or tomato juice containing 20 mg lycopene did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant status of healthy subjects. However, plasma cholesterol levels impacted the results of MDA and FRAP antioxidant tests.

  19. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  20. Vitamin C may have similar beneficial effects to Gemfibrozil on serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-T2) is commonly associated with increased triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Fibrates like gemfibrozil are frequently used in diabetic patients to decrease TG and increase HDL-C levels. We compared the efficacy of Vitamin C, an antioxidant vitamin, with gemfibrozil on serum HDL-C in diabetic patients. Methods: Type 2 diabetic patients, referred to our out-patient c...

  1. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trendLDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  2. Dietary Cholesterol Affects Plasma Lipid Levels, the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Reverse Cholesterol Transport without Increasing the Risk for Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Barona; Maria Luz Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    The associations between dietary cholesterol and heart disease are highly controversial. While epidemiological studies and clinical interventions have shown the lack of correlation between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, there is still concern among health practitioners and the general population regarding dietary cholesterol. In this review, several clinical studies utilizing cholesterol challenges are analyzed in terms of changes that occur in lipoprotein metabolis...

  3. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao QQ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Qing-Qing Tao,1,* Yan Chen,2,3,* Zhi-Jun Liu,1 Yi-Min Sun,1 Ping Yang,1 Shen-Ji Lu,1 Miao Xu,1 Qin-Yun Dong,1 Jia-Jun Yang,2 Zhi-Ying Wu11Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Department of Neurology, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Medicine, Shanghai Fengxian District Central Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.Methods: There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1 E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2; (2 E3/3 (APOE E3; and (3 E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4. Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed.Results: E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05. A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223–2.334, P<0.01. However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720–1.336, P=0.903 or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759–1.429, P=0.800.Conclusion: A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides

  4. Modeling of environmental effects in genome-wide association studies identifies SLC2A2 and HP as novel loci influencing serum cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Igl (Wilmar); A. Johansson (Åsa); J.F. Wilson (James); S.H. Wild (Sarah); O. Polasek (Ozren); C. Hayward (Caroline); V. Vitart (Veronique); N. Hastie (Nick); P. Rudan (Pavao); C. Gnewuch (Carsten); G. Schmitz (Gerd); T. Meitinger (Thomas); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); I. Rudan (Igor); A.F. Wright (Alan); H. Campbell (Harry); U. Gyllensten (Ulf)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 larger genetic regions affecting classical blood lipid levels without adjusting for important environmental influences. We modeled diet and physical activity in a GWAS in order to identify novel loci affecting total cholesterol, L

  5. A longitudinal cross-over study of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in rabbits fed on semipurified diets containing either casein or soybean protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, A.H.M.; Woodward, C.J.H.; West, C.E.; Boven, van H.G.

    1982-01-01

    1. Two groups, each of six rabbits, were fed on semi-purified diets containing either 400 g casein or 400 g soya-bean protein/kg for 20 d and then the diets of the two groups were crossed-over. 2. Just before the cross-over, the serum cholesterol concentration (mean ± SE) was 3068 ± 592 and 800 ± 14

  6. A genome-wide association study of monozygotic twin-pairs suggests a locus related to variability of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surakka, Ida; Whitfield, John B; Perola, Markus;

    2012-01-01

    in serum lipid and apolipoprotein levels. We report data for 1,720 monozygotic female twin-pairs from GenomEUtwin project with 2.5 million SNPs, imputed or genotyped, and measured serum lipid fractions for both twins. We found one locus associated with intra-pair differences in high-density lipoprotein...... cholesterol, rs2483058 in an intron of SRGAP2, where twins carrying the C allele are more sensitive to environmental factors(P=3.98 x 10-8). We followed up the association in further genotyped monozygotic twins (N= 1,261),which showed a moderate association for the variant (P= 0.200, same direction...

  7. High-dose atorvastatin causes a rapid sustained increase in human serum PCSK9 and disrupts its correlation with LDL cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Welder, Greg; Zineh, Issam; Pacanowski, Michael A.; Troutt, Jason S; Cao, Guoqing; Konrad, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the plasma and binds the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR), causing its subsequent degradation. We first demonstrated that a moderate dose of atorvastatin (40 mg) increases PCSK9 serum levels, suggesting why increasing statin doses may have diminished efficacy with regard to further LDL-C lowering. Since that initial observation, at least two other gr...

  8. HAEMATOLOGICAL VALUES AND PLASMA CHOLESTEROL AS AFFECTED BY MOULTING IN NICK CHICK LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti and Tanzeela Talat

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine effect of moulting on haematological values and plasma cholesterol levels of 86 weeks old Nick Chick laying hens. Washington and California moulting methods were used. Young laying hens, 40 weeks old served as control group. There were 408 hens in each group. There was no significant (P

  9. Extracted oat and barley β-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Poulsen, Malene Wibe;

    2013-01-01

    β-Glucans are known to exhibit hypocholesterolemic effects. Increased intestinal viscosity is thought to be crucial for cholesterol lowering. It is suggested that concentration, molecular mass, and structure, including the ratio of (1→3) to (1→4) glucan bonds in the molecule, are of importance fo...

  10. A lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism interacts with consumption of alcohol and unsaturated fat to modulate serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Inkyung; Lee, Seungku; Kim, Seong Hwan; Shin, Chol

    2013-10-01

    There are limited data from prospective studies regarding interactions between lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) and lifestyle factors in association with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, a biomarker of coronary heart disease risk. Our prospective cohort study investigated the interactive effects of a common LPL polymorphism and lifestyle factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and dietary intake, on follow-up measurements of HDL-C and triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A total of 5314 Korean men and women aged 40-69 y participated in the study. Serum HDL-C and TG concentrations were measured in all participants at baseline and 6-y follow-up examinations. On the basis of genome-wide association data for HDL-C and TG concentrations, we selected the most significant polymorphism (rs10503669), which was in high linkage disequilibrium with the serine 447 stop (S447×) mutation (D' = 0.99) of LPL. We found that carrying the T allele reflecting the LPL ×447 allele was positively associated with follow-up measurement of HDL-C concentrations (P HDL-C concentration and potential risk factors, we observed interactive effects of the polymorphism and consumption of alcohol (P-interaction unsaturated fat (P-interaction HDL-C concentrations. We also observed interactive effects of the polymorphism and body mass index (P-interaction unsaturated fat to minimize reduction of blood HDL-C concentrations and that obese persons who do not carry the LPL ×447 allele need to control body weight to prevent hypertriglyceridemia.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in vascular injury independent of serum cholesterol and blood pressure lowering effects in mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小东; 李震; 李建文

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the anti-inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in a mouse model of vascular injury and its cholesterol-lowering effect. Methods: We developed a mouse model of vascular remodeling induced by polyethylene cuff placement and determined the anti-inflammatory effects of cerivastatin in wild mice. Cerivastatin was given by Alzet micro-osmotic minipumps implanted intraperitoneally at the same time as cuff placement at doses of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg per day, respectively for 2 weeks after cuff placement. The insufficient doses of Cerivastatin to lower serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure through the neointimal formation and BrdU index were investigated in mouse femoral injury artery induced by cuff-placement. Results: There was a little change in serum cholesterol by the treatment with cerivastatin, the cross-sectional area of intima of injured femoral artery was significantly increased, the neointima formation was significantly increased by the cuff-induced vascular injury at day 14. The neointimal formation and BrdU index were inhibited in the 1 mg/kg cerivastatin, but not in the 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg cerivastatin. Furthermore, 1 mg/kg of cerivastatin significantly inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) without lowering serum cholesterol.Conclusions: These results suggest that cerivastatin can inhibit vascular inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through its lipid-lowering independent action. Such effects of cerivastatin may be an important mechanism, by which it prevents the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  12. Analysis of human serum from women affected by cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Lugo-Melchor, Ofelia Y; Briones-Cerecero, Erika P; Chagolla-López, Alicia; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Santos, Leticia; Vázquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the first causes of death in Mexican women population. The plasma proteome has a wide dynamic range concentrations of different protein and their alterations reflect the physiological state of the individual's health. The aim of this study was to characterize the 2D-PAGE serum patterns from healthy women and with different levels of cervical lesions. Changes in haptoglobin, apolipoproteins, and transthyretin, when comparing the serum from healthy women and serum from patients with different levels of cervical lesion were found. The Western blot analysis showed increasing concentrations of metalloproteinases (MMP's), proteins with important biological roles in tumor development and metastasis. Protein profiles in conjunction with MS, bioinformatics, and Western blot analysis, allow us to compile information for the acquisition of results to proposed candidates biomarkers of cervical cancer among Mexican women population.

  13. Spectroscopy Analysis of Total Cholesterol in Human Serum%人血清中总胆固醇的光谱学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰秀风; 刘莹; 朱拓; 骆晓森; 倪晓武

    2008-01-01

    采用光谱学方法对总胆固醇含量不同的高胆固醇血症血清进行了研究.获得了正常人血清和高胆固醇血症血清的吸收光谱和荧光光谱(λex=407 nm), 并讨论了二者的谱线特征与差异.实验结果表明,高胆固醇血症血清的吸收光谱和荧光光谱不同于正常人血清的吸收光谱和荧光光谱,高胆固醇血症血清不仅是吸收率和荧光强度高于正常人血清的相应值,而且还有新的吸收峰和荧光峰出现.由此可见,通过比较待测血清的吸收光谱和荧光光谱可以初步判定血清中胆固醇的含量是否异常.这为血清中总胆固醇含量的检测提供了光谱学的实验数据.%The total cholesterol with difference concentration in hypercholesterolemia serum is studied by the method of spectroscopy technology. The absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra (λex=407 nm) of normal human serum and hypercholesterolemia serum are obtained respectively. The spectra characteristic of each sample and the difference between two kinds samples are discussed. The results indicate that both absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra of hypercholesterolemia serum are different to those of normal human serum. The absorptivity and the fluorescence intensity from hypercholesterolemia serum are higher than those from normal human serum. There are new absorptive peaks and new fluorescence peaks in the spectrogram of hypercholesterolemia serum.The abnormal of cholesterol in serum can be judged by comparing the absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra from the serum to those from normal human serum.

  14. Modeling of environmental effects in genome-wide association studies identifies SLC2A2 and HP as novel loci influencing serum cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Igl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 38 larger genetic regions affecting classical blood lipid levels without adjusting for important environmental influences. We modeled diet and physical activity in a GWAS in order to identify novel loci affecting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. The Swedish (SE EUROSPAN cohort (N(SE = 656 was screened for candidate genes and the non-Swedish (NS EUROSPAN cohorts (N(NS = 3,282 were used for replication. In total, 3 SNPs were associated in the Swedish sample and were replicated in the non-Swedish cohorts. While SNP rs1532624 was a replication of the previously published association between CETP and HDL cholesterol, the other two were novel findings. For the latter SNPs, the p-value for association was substantially improved by inclusion of environmental covariates: SNP rs5400 (p(SE,unadjusted = 3.6 x 10(-5, p(SE,adjusted = 2.2 x 10(-6, p(NS,unadjusted = 0.047 in the SLC2A2 (Glucose transporter type 2 and rs2000999 (p(SE,unadjusted = 1.1 x 10(-3, p(SE,adjusted = 3.8 x 10(-4, p(NS,unadjusted = 0.035 in the HP gene (Haptoglobin-related protein precursor. Both showed evidence of association with total cholesterol. These results demonstrate that inclusion of important environmental factors in the analysis model can reveal new genetic susceptibility loci.

  15. Anti—inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in vascular injury independent of serum cholesterol and blood pressure lowering effects in mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小东; 李震; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To observe the anti-inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in a mouse model of vascular injury and its cholesterol-lowering effect.Methods:We developed a mouse model of vascular remodeling induced by polyethylene cuff placement and determined the anti-inflannatory effects of cerivastatin in wild mice.Cerivastatin was given by Alzet micro-osmotic minipumps implanted intraperitoneally at the same time as cuff placement at doses of 0.1mg/kg,0.5mg/kgand1mg/kgper day,respectively for 2weeks after cuff placement.The insufficient doses of Cerivastatin to lower serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressue through the neointimal formation and BrdUindex were investigated in mouse formation and BrdUindex were investigated in the 1mg/kg cerivastatin,but not in the 0.1mg/kgand0.5mg/kg cerivastatin,Furthermore,1mg/kg of cerivastatin significantly inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-1β(IL-1β)without lowering serum cholesterol.Conclusions:These results suggest that cerivastatin can inhitit vascular inflammation and ahe proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs)through its lipid-lowering independent action.Such effects of cerivastatin may be an important mechanism,by which it prevents the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  16. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  17. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  18. Nutrients and Cholesterol of Eggs Affected by Dried Tomato Meal in Laying Hens Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jein R. Leke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred MB 402 laying hens (36 weeks of age were used for the study. The birds were divided into five experimental diets and each was divided into four replicate groups of five birds per replicate. The control diet (based diet was formulated to contain 51% corn, 14% rice bran, 7% fish meal, 6% CaCO3, and 22% commercial diet. Tomato meal was included in four experimental diets at levels of 2, 4, 6, 8% to substitute based diet. The treatments were: R0 = 100% based diet (BD + 0% tomato meal (TM; R1 = 98% BD + 2% TM; R2 = 96% BD + 4% TM; R3 = 94% BD + 6% TM; and R4 = 92% BD + 8% TM. Chemical composition of tomato meal were: 16.73% crude protein, 1.53% fat, 30.94% crude fiber, 0.98% Ca, 1.20% P, and 2416 Kcal/kg ME. Feed and water were provided for ad libitum. The study was conducted over a period of 8 weeks, and data were collected on nutrients of eggs: crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, and cholesterol of eggs. Proximate analysis eggs was determined by the methods of AOAC (1990, and cholesterol was determined by Libermann and Burchad method. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The treatment means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showedthat no differences in hen egg nutrients and cholesterol between treatments R1, R2, R3, and R4 compared to treatment R0 (control. It can be concluded that tomato meal can be used as an alternative feedstuff in laying hen diets to substitute based diet, at inclusion levels up to 8% without negative effects on egg quality.

  19. Papain-hydrolyzed pork meat reduces serum cholesterol level and premature atherosclerosis in dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, S; Ito, M; Waseda, Y; Morimatsu, F; Taguichi, Y; Hasegawa, M; Takaichi, S; Yamada, R; Furukawa, Y; Shimizu, T

    2000-08-01

    The effects of the low-molecular-weight fraction of papain-hydrolyzed pork meat (LMF) on the plasma cholesterol level and the generation of atherosclerosis were studied in rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. In LMF-fed rabbits, the plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were both significantly lower (pmeat (PM). Similarly, the cholesterol concentrations of the chylomicron and VLDL fractions were significantly lower in LMF-fed rabbits than in rabbits fed PM. Deposition of lipid in transverse sections of the aortic arch was significantly less in rabbits fed LMF than in those fed PM. Electron microscopic studies revealed preventive effects against premature atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of rabbits fed LME These results indicate that LMF has a hypocholesterolemic action and preventive effects against premature atherosclerosis. PMID:11185655

  20. Do bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection affect serum cytokine level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Serbia is the country with extremely low birth rate and a relatively high percentage of preterm deliveries (8%. With this in mind, discovering new diagnostic methods that could be used for the prediction of preterm delivery is of great importance. In this study we tried to determine whether bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection could provoke preterm delivery by activation of systemic cytokine network. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α in pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery and to make correlation between these parameters and the presence of bacterial vaginosis or chlamydial infection. Method. In the serum of 35 pregnant women, which were divided in groups according to the presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection, commercial ELISA tests for proinflammatory cytokines were performed. Results. The serum level of IFN-γ was significantly increased in pregnant women having chlamydial infection, as well as the level of IL-1β in women with bacterial vaginosis. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were not significantly different between the investigated groups. Conclusion. The preliminary results obtained in this research point out the possibility that not only intrauterine or systemic infections, but also bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection can cause a partial activation of systemic cytokine network and contribute to the occurrence of preterm delivery.

  1. Inhibition of protein kinase C affects on mode of synaptic vesicle exocytosis due to cholesterol depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Alexey M., E-mail: fysio@rambler.ru; Zakyrjanova, Guzalija F., E-mail: guzik121192@mail.ru; Yakovleva, Anastasia A., E-mail: nastya1234qwer@mail.ru; Zefirov, Andrei L., E-mail: zefiroval@rambler.ru

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We examine the involvement of PKC in MCD induced synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • PKC inhibitor does not decrease the effect MCD on MEPP frequency. • PKC inhibitor prevents MCD induced FM1-43 unloading. • PKC activation may switch MCD induced exocytosis from kiss-and-run to a full mode. • Inhibition of phospholipase C does not lead to similar change in exocytosis. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrated that depletion of membrane cholesterol by 10 mM methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD) results in increased spontaneous exocytosis at both peripheral and central synapses. Here, we investigated the role of protein kinase C in the enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis at frog motor nerve terminals after cholesterol depletion using electrophysiological and optical methods. Inhibition of the protein kinase C by myristoylated peptide and chelerythrine chloride prevented MCD-induced increases in FM1-43 unloading, whereas the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic events remained enhanced. The increase in FM1-43 unloading still could be observed if sulforhodamine 101 (the water soluble FM1-43 quencher that can pass through the fusion pore) was added to the extracellular solution. This suggests a possibility that exocytosis of synaptic vesicles under these conditions could occur through the kiss-and-run mechanism with the formation of a transient fusion pore. Inhibition of phospholipase C did not lead to similar change in MCD-induced exocytosis.

  2. 化疗对乳腺癌患者血清总胆固醇及甘油三酯水平的影响%Inlfuence of Chemotherapy on The Level of Total Serum Cholesterol and Triglycerides of Breast Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董苑梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study and investigate the influence of chemotherapy on the level of total serum cholesterol and triglycerides of breast cancer patients and its clinical significance. Methods:The changes of total serum cholesterol and triglycerides of 128 breast cancer patients before and after chemotherapy and its related factors were analyzed, and at the same time collected 100 cases of healthy physical examination as control group. Results: Compared with control group, the total serum cholesterol was lower, and triglycerides were no obvious different. With the chemotherapy time increased, the total serum cholesterol in patients rose obviously, there is significant difference with that before treatment;And there were no significant difference of triglycerides level before and after chemotherapy. Various chemotherapy regimens didn’t affect the level of total serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion:The level of total serum cholesterol and triglycerides of breast cancer patients are low relatively, as chemotherapy time goes on, the total serum cholesterol in patients rise gradually, and there are no obvious changes of triglycerides.%目的:研究探讨化疗对乳腺癌患者血清总胆固醇及甘油三酯水平的影响及临床意义。方法:对我院128例乳腺癌患者化疗前后的血清总胆固醇及甘油三酯变化和相关因素进行分析,同时收集100例健康体检者作为对照组分析。结果:血清总胆固醇检测量与对照组相比偏低,甘油三脂无明显差异。随着化疗时间的增加,患者的血清总胆固醇升高较为明显,与化疗前相比有明显差异;甘油三脂水平化疗前后无明显差异,不具有统计学意义。另外各种化疗方案对血清总胆固醇和甘油三脂的影响无差异。结论:乳腺癌患者血清总胆固醇相对较低,随着化疗时间增长患者的血清总胆固醇也逐步升高,而对患者的甘油三脂水平影响不明显。

  3. High-dose atorvastatin causes a rapid sustained increase in human serum PCSK9 and disrupts its correlation with LDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, Greg; Zineh, Issam; Pacanowski, Michael A; Troutt, Jason S; Cao, Guoqing; Konrad, Robert J

    2010-09-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the plasma and binds the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR), causing its subsequent degradation. We first demonstrated that a moderate dose of atorvastatin (40 mg) increases PCSK9 serum levels, suggesting why increasing statin doses may have diminished efficacy with regard to further LDL-C lowering. Since that initial observation, at least two other groups have reported statin-induced PCSK9 increases. To date, no analysis of the effect of high-dose atorvastatin (80 mg) on PCSK9 over time has been conducted. Therefore, we studied the time course of atorvastatin (80 mg) in human subjects. We measured PCSK9 and lipid levels during a 2-week lead-in baseline period and every 4 weeks thereafter for 16 weeks. We observed that atorvastatin (80 mg) caused a rapid 47% increase in serum PCSK9 at 4 weeks that was sustained throughout 16 weeks of dosing. Importantly, while PCSK9 levels were highly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG) levels at baseline, atorvastatin (80 mg) completely abolished all of these correlations. Together, these results further suggest an explanation for why increasing doses of statins fail to achieve proportional LDL-C lowering. PMID:20525997

  4. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  5. Review of health functional foods for serum cholesterol-regulating%调节血清胆固醇的保健功能食品研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春平; 杨琛琛

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the analysis of the current Chinese dietary transition problem and the relationship with high incidence of the diseasecardiovascular disease,the main factors causing increase in serum choles-terol levels and the cholesterol -regulating nutraceuticals and functional foods was reviewed.The diet characteristics resulted in the increase of serum cholesterol were high-fat,high-calorie,low-carbohydrate and low fiber compounds.The natural compounds for serum cholesterol regulation were HMG-CoA reduc-tase inhibitors,LDL receptor activators,NPC1 L1 competitors,intestinal ACAT inhibitors,bile acid re-ab-sorption inhibitor/bile acid binding resin and CETP inhibitors.The cholesterol-regulating functional foods included dietary fibers,hawthorn flavonoids,apple polyphenols,buck wheat,etc.%从分析我国近年膳食转型与心血管疾病高发的关联入手,综述了造成血清胆固醇升高的主要因素,以及调节血清胆固醇的天然活性成分及保健功能食品:造成血清胆固醇升高的主要膳食特征为高脂、高热量、低纤维、低碳水化合物;调节血清胆固醇的天然活性成分有HMG-CoA 还原酶抑制剂、LDL 受体激活剂、NPC1 L1抑制剂、Intestinal ACAT抑制剂、胆汁酸再吸收抑制剂、CETP 抑制剂;能够调节血清胆固醇含量的保健功能食品有膳食纤维、山楂黄酮、苹果多酚以及荞麦面粉等。

  6. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P hens.

  7. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paalanen Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672, and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437, were used. The analyses included two phases. 1 To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2 Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007, whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28 adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15 and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15 had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically

  8. The Effects of Eight-Week Treatment with High Dose Vitamin E on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Level of Patients with Schizophrenia on Olanzapine: A Placebo Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raisi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Objective: To study the effects of a high dose alpha-tocopherol on serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and the high density lipoprotein (HDL levels of patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine. "nMethod: Thirty six adults diagnosed with schizophrenia based on DSM-IV who were taking olanzapine for a minimum of thirty days entered this eight-week, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive alpha-tocopherol 400IU or placebo capsules twice a day for 2 weeks, then three times a day for 6 more weeks. Fasting total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride(TG,and HDL levels were measured at the baseline and weeks 4 and 8. "nResults: "nTC, TG and HDL levels did not change significantly during this study. There were no significant differences in TC, TG and HDL levels between the two groups at the baseline and weeks 4 and 8. "nConclusion: High-dose vitamin may not improve triglyceride and cholesterol levels in patients who are already on olanzapine. Further studies with greater number of patients and for a longer duration are needed.

  9. Cheddar cheese ripening affects plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum insulin concentrations in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate...... a 21-d butter-rich run-in diet (143 g of butter/kg diet), followed by a 14-d intervention with 1 of 3 isocaloric diets: 4-mo ripened cheddar (4-MRC) diet, 14-mo ripened cheddar (14-MRC) diet, or 24-mo ripened cheddar (24-MRC) diet (350 g of cheese/kg diet). Serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL...... cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, insulin, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose, fecal-fat excretion, and body weight were measured. RESULTS: Plasma NEFA was lower in the 24-MRC (201 ± 26 μEq/L) and in the 14-MRC (171 ± 19 μEq/L) diet groups than in the 4-MRC diet group (260 ± 27 μEq/L; P = 0.044 and P...

  10. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  11. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  12. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  13. Znf202 affects high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and promotes hepatosteatosis in hyperlipidemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L J Vrins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zinc finger protein Znf202 is a transcriptional suppressor of lipid related genes and has been linked to hypoalphalipoproteinemia. A functional role of Znf202 in lipid metabolism in vivo still remains to be established. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated mouse Znf202 expression vectors, the functionality of which was established in several in vitro systems. Next, effects of adenoviral znf202 overexpression in vivo were determined in normo- as well as hyperlipidemic mouse models. Znf202 overexpression in mouse hepatoma cells mhAT3F2 resulted in downregulation of members of the Apoe/c1/c2 and Apoa1/c3/a4 gene cluster. The repressive activity of Znf202 was firmly confirmed in an apoE reporter assay and Znf202 responsive elements within the ApoE promoter were identified. Adenoviral Znf202 transfer to Ldlr-/- mice resulted in downregulation of apoe, apoc1, apoa1, and apoc3 within 24 h after gene transfer. Interestingly, key genes in bile flux (abcg5/8 and bsep and in bile acid synthesis (cyp7a1 were also downregulated. At 5 days post-infection, the expression of the aforementioned genes was normalized, but mice had developed severe hepatosteatosis accompanied by hypercholesterolemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. A much milder phenotype was observed in wildtype mice after 5 days of hepatic Znf202 overexpression. Interestingly and similar to Ldl-/- mice, HDL-cholesterol levels in wildtype mice were lowered after hepatic Znf202 overexpression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Znf202 overexpression in vivo reveals an important role of this transcriptional regulator in liver lipid homeostasis, while firmly establishing the proposed key role in the control of HDL levels.

  14. N- and O-methylation of sphingomyelin markedly affects its membrane properties and interactions with cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorkbom, A.; Rog, T.; Kankaanpaa, P.;

    2011-01-01

    via the amide nitrogen, whereas 2-NH methylation did not similarly affect hydrogen bonding via the 3-OH. The interactions of sterols with the methylated SM analogs were markedly affected. 3-OH methylation almost completely eliminated the capacity of the SM analog to form sterol-enriched ordered...... domains, whereas the 2-NH methylated SM analog formed sterol-enriched domains but these were less thermostable (and thus less ordered) than the domains formed by PSM. Cholestatrienol affinity to bilayers containing methylated SM analogs was also markedly reduced as compared to its affinity for bilayers...

  15. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X

    2010-12-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  16. Relationship between expression of CD40-CD40 ligand system and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严金川; 吴宗贵; 李莉; 仲人前; 孔宪涛

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Enhanced levels of thrombin, fibrinogen and factor Ⅶc directly correlate with cholesterol levels.1 Activated platelets adhere to the intact endothelium and induce inflammatory responses in the endothelium, which substantially contribute to the early phase of atherosclerosis. Emerging lines of evidence support the role of CD40-CD40L interactions in atherosclerosis, thrombosis and inflammation.2 In atherosclerosis, inhibition of the CD40-CD40L interaction in LDL receptors or ApoE-deficient mice prevents the initiation of atherosclerosis and the evolvement of established atherosclerotic lesions to more advanced lesions.

  17. 血清总胆固醇与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇比值作为冠心病危险标志的意义%Significance of serum total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a risk marker for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐; 纪玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析冠心病(CHD)患者的血脂水平,探讨血清总胆固醇(TC)与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL‐C)比值作为CHD危险标志的临床意义。方法测定295例CHD患者的血清 TC、三酰甘油(TG)、HDL‐C及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL‐C)水平,并计算TC/HDL‐C比值。结果依据《中国成人血脂异常防治指南》颁布的血脂水平合适范围,CHD患者血清 TC、TG及LDL‐C高于合适范围百分率分别为32.20%、34.24%及37.63%,血清 HDL‐C低于合适范围百分率为39.32%。血清TC/HDL‐C比值高于合适范围百分率为57.29%。血清TC/HDL‐C比值异常率显著高于血清TC、TG、HDL‐C及LDL‐C(χ2=37.540、31.576、19.066、22.866,P<0.01)。结论与任一单项血脂检测相比,血清 TC/HDL‐C比值作为CHD危险标志可能更有临床意义,临床血脂检测报告单应增加TC/HDL‐C比值。%Objective To analyze blood lipid levels in patients with coronary heart disease ,and to explore clinical significance of serum total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a risk marker for coronary heart disease .Methods Serum lev‐els of total cholesterol ,triglycerides ,high density lipoprotein cholesterol ,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured for 295 patients with coronary heart disease .Ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated based on the lipid tests .Results The percentages of abnormal total cholesterol ,triglycerides ,high density lipoprotein cholesterol ,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were 32 .20% 、34 .24% ,39 .32% ,and 37 .63% ,respectively ,for patients with coronary heart disease according to normal ranges issued by Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults in Chinese Population .The abnormal percentage of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was 57 .29% .The

  18. Serum apolipoprotein(a) levels and its effect on the measured values of low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Serum low density lipoprotein cholesterl (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)]levels were analyzed in 1032 sequential cases on routine physical check up, with special attention to the effect of Lp(a) on the LDL-C values. Since the determination of LDL-C by various

  19. High serum coenzyme Q10, positively correlated with age, selenium and cholesterol, in Inuit of Greenland. A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H S; Mortensen, S A; Rohde, M;

    1999-01-01

    impact. From a health survey we chose the subpopulation from the most remote area, where the traditional Greenlandic diet with high intake of sea mammals and fish predominates. The mean (SD) of S-CoQ10 in males was 1.495 (0.529) nmol/ml and 1.421 (0.629) nmol/ml in females, significantly higher (p ....001) compared to a Danish population. In a linear multiple regression model the S-CoQ10 level is significantly positively associated with age and S-selenium in males, and S-total cholesterol in females. The high level of CoQ10 in Greenlanders probably reflects diet, since no bioaccumulation takes place...

  20. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More About Cholesterol Updated:Aug 10,2016 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  1. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  2. Lupin protein positively affects plasma LDL cholesterol and LDL:HDL cholesterol ratio in hypercholesterolemic adults after four weeks of supplementation: a randomized, controlled crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Krämer, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background A couple of studies indicate a favorable impact of lupin protein on cardiovascular risk factors in humans. These studies, however, used relatively high doses of > 33 g/d, which can hardly be consumed under physiological conditions. Therefore, we investigated the effect of 25 g/d lupin protein isolate (LPI) on selected cardiovascular markers and on serum amino acids. Methods A total of 33 hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover ...

  3. Replacing coconut santan with palm oil santan: impact on dietary C12-16 saturated fatty acids, serum total cholesterol and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T; Tee, E S

    1998-12-01

    The theoretical impact of the use of coconut cream (santan) powder and palm oil santan powder on the dietary levels of C12-16 saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and linoleic acid (18:2), and on serum total cholesterol (TC), was evaluated holding non-santan dietary variables constant. The prediction was based on a 2,300-kcal hypothetical diet, containing one santan-based dish or snack in each of the 5 daily meals with fat contributing 30% of total calories, while the santan contributed a total of 14% kcal (36g). Replacing coconut santan with palm oil santan reduced the overall dietary C12-16 SFAs from 10.8% kcal to 4.8% kcal (i.e. 6.0% kcal) and the virtual removal of lauric (12:0) + myristic (14:0) acids, while palmitic acid (16:0) rose by 3.3% kcal, and the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2) increased by 1.13% kcal. Applying the Hegsted equation to these dietary fatty acid (FA) changes, predicted a serum TC reduction of 24 -31 mg/dL (0.62- 0.80 mM/L), with the hypocholesterolemic effect being influenced by the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) set-point of the individual(s) concerned. Thus, the prediction indicated that replacing coconut santan with palm oil santan in santan-based Malaysian dishes or snacks would have a significant beneficial impact on serum TC and hence, cardiovascular risk. PMID:22692342

  4. In vivo exposure of young adult male rats to methoxychlor reduces serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation and cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murono, Eisuke P; Derk, Raymond C; Akgul, Yucel

    2006-02-01

    Methoxychlor (MC) was developed as a replacement for the banned pesticide DDT. After in vivo administration, it is metabolized in the liver to 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), which is proposed to be the active agent. Both MC and HPTE have been shown to exhibit weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, and they are thought to exert their effects through estrogen and androgen receptors, respectively. Although in vitro studies using cultured rat Leydig cells have reported that HPTE inhibits both basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone formation, the response of circulating testosterone levels to in vivo MC has been more variable. Therefore, the current studies evaluated whether the daily in vivo administration of MC (0, 5, 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a short duration (days 54-60 of age) by gavage altered serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation in young adult male rats. These results demonstrate that both fluid-retained and fluid-expressed seminal vesicle weights declined to 44 and 60% of control, respectively, in the 200 mg/kg MC-exposed animals. Similarly, serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone levels declined to 41 and 45% of control, respectively, in the 200 mg/kg MC-exposed animals; however, serum LH and FSH levels were unaffected. Ex vivo Leydig cell basal testosterone formation over 4h declined to 49% of control in animals exposed to 200 mg/kg MC, and ex vivo Leydig cell P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity declined to 79 and 50% of control in animals exposed to 40 and 200 mg/kg of MC, respectively, supporting previous in vitro studies which demonstrated the sensitivity of this step to MC.

  5. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation. PMID:27282931

  6. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Rujoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  7. Vitamin D supplementation does not affect serum lipids and lipoproteins in Pakistani immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Brot, Christine; Mejborn, Heddie;

    2009-01-01

    -controlled intervention study with two doses of vitamin D3 (10 and 20 g/day) was carried out among 89 women (18–53 years of age) and 84 men (18–64 years of age) of Pakistani origin living in Denmark with low vitamin D status. This study did not find changes in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol...

  8. Dietary Cholesterol Concentration and Duration Degrade Long-Term Memory of Classical Conditioning of the Rabbit’s Nictitating Membrane Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard G. Schreurs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rabbit model of Alzheimer’s disease based on feeding a cholesterol diet for eight weeks shows sixteen hallmarks of the disease, including learning and memory changes. Although we have shown 2% cholesterol and copper in water can retard learning, other studies show feeding dietary cholesterol before learning can improve acquisition whereas feeding cholesterol after learning can degrade long-term memory. We explored this issue by manipulating cholesterol concentration and duration following classical trace conditioning of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response and assessed conditioned responding after eight weeks on cholesterol. First, rabbits given trace classical conditioning followed by 0.5%, 1%, or 2% cholesterol for eight weeks showed body weight and serum cholesterol levels that were a function of dietary cholesterol. Although all concentrations of cholesterol showed some sign of retarding long-term memory, the level of memory retardation was correlated with serum cholesterol levels. Second, rabbits given trace conditioning followed by different durations of a 2% cholesterol diet combined with different durations of a 0% control diet for 8 weeks showed duration and timing of a 2% cholesterol diet were important in affecting recall. The data support the idea that dietary cholesterol may retard long-term memory.

  9. 决明子降低血清胆固醇机制的探讨%Investigation of mechanism of cassia obtusifolia reaucmg serum cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何菊英; 刘松青; 陈泽莲; 唐敏

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate mechanism of cassia obtusifolia reducing terol.METHODS: Liver cell of the rats were cultured in vitro.14C-cholesterol synthesized in liver cells wers measured with Lowry methodand scintillation counting apparatus.RESULTS:Extract of cassia obtusifoliacaninhibit synthesis of 14C-cholesterol but Cassiaside B didn't affectcholesterol syntbesis.CONCLUSION: One of the mechanism of cassia ob-tusifolia reducing blood cholesterol is nihibiting synthesis of cholesterol tosome extent,while casiaside B reducing is not by inhibiting synthesis of cholesterol.

  10. Effect of cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor on some biochemical parameters in normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous cholesterol acts as a precursor of testosterone and other steroids hormones, this study was conducted to evaluate if there is a counterproductive effect associated with inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway specially in high doses and the degree of these effects in normal male rats. Forty eight adult Wistar rats divided into four groups, the first is control while the remaining three groups were treated with simvastatin (cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 respectively. Serum samples were observed at the baseline then every fifteen days while tissue samples were observed at day 30 and 60. Results of statistic refered to a significant decrease (p≤ 0.05 in serum total cholesterol and triglycerides (by 24 and 49% ± 3 respectively, also serum testosterone was significantly decreased (by 71% ± 2 in all groups compared to control after thirty and sixty days. The activity of alanine aminotransferase was increased (57% ± 3 versus to aspartate aminotransferase. Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased (by 72% ± 2 while testicular cholesterol was decreased except the group of 100 mg.kg-1 which in turns to elevate (61% ± 4, in addition also there was a decrease in body weight gain percentage neither the weights of liver nor testis was affected. In conclusion, the inhibition of denovo pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis negatively affects testosterone level in addition to cholesterol concentration in the tissues, body weight gain and alanine aminotransferase with no successful compensatory mechanism as related with testosterone level.

  11. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.

  12. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  13. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Comai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan (Trp is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 µg/ml, mean ± S.E. than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 µg/ml groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients.

  14. Incubation of MDCO-216 (ApoA-IMilano/POPC) with Human Serum Potentiates ABCA1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, Generates New Prebeta-1 HDL, and Causes an Increase in HDL Size

    OpenAIRE

    Herman J. Kempen; Schranz, Dorota B.; Asztalos, Bela F.; James Otvos; Elias Jeyarajah; Denise Drazul-Schrader; Collins, Heidi L.; Adelman, Steven J.; Wijngaard, Peter L. J.

    2014-01-01

    MDCO-216 is a complex of dimeric ApoA-IMilano and palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), previously shown to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Here we studied the effect of incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 on cholesterol efflux capacity from J774 cells, on prebeta-1 high density lipoprotein (prebeta-1 HDL) and on HDL size assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). MDCO-216 incubated in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin stimulated both ABCA1-media...

  15. Extracranial sources of S100B do not affect serum levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Pham

    Full Text Available S100B, established as prevalent protein of the central nervous system, is a peripheral biomarker for blood-brain barrier disruption and often also a marker of brain injury. However, reports of extracranial sources of S100B, especially from adipose tissue, may confound its interpretation in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to characterize the tissue specificity of S100B and assess how extracranial sources of S100B affect serum levels. The extracranial sources of S100B were determined by analyzing nine different types of human tissues by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, brain and adipose tissue were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. A study of 200 subjects was undertaken to determine the relationship between body mass index (BMI and S100B serum levels. We also measured the levels of S100B homo- and heterodimers in serum quantitatively after blood-brain barrier disruption. Analysis of human tissues by ELISA and Western blot revealed variable levels of S100B expression. By ELISA, brain tissue expressed the highest S100B levels. Similarly, Western blot measurements revealed that brain tissue expressed high levels of S100B but comparable levels were found in skeletal muscle. Mass spectrometry of brain and adipose tissue confirmed the presence of S100B but also revealed the presence of S100A1. The analysis of 200 subjects revealed no statistically significant relationship between BMI and S100B levels. The main species of S100B released from the brain was the B-B homodimer. Our results show that extracranial sources of S100B do not affect serum levels. Thus, the diagnostic value of S100B and its negative predictive value in neurological diseases in intact subjects (without traumatic brain or bodily injury from accident or surgery are not compromised in the clinical setting.

  16. Longevity-associated NADH Dehydrogenase Subunit-2 237 Leu/Met Polymorphism Modulates the Effects of Daily Alcohol Drinking on Yearly Changes in Serum Total and LDL Cholesterol in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashima,Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 237 leucine/methionine (ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism, is reportedly associated with longevity in the Japanese population. The ND2-237Met genotype may exert resistance to atherogenic diseases, such as myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular disorders. To investigate whether ND2-237 Leu/Met polymorphism is associated with yearly changes in serum lipid levels, we conducted a longitudinal study of 107 healthy Japanese male subjects. Analysis of covariance revealed that the interaction between the ND2-237 Leu/Met genotypes and habitual drinking was significantly associated with yearly changes in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC levels (p0.036 and p0.006, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, daily drinking was significantly and positively associated with yearly changes in serum LDLC levels in men with ND2-237Met (p0.026. After adjusting for covariates, yearly changes in serum LDLC levels were significantly lower in non-daily drinkers with ND2-237Met than in those with ND2-237Leu (p0.047. These results suggest that ND2-237Met has a beneficial impact on yearly changes in serum LDLC in non-daily drinkers but not in daily drinkers.

  17. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    RA, Baker; Perkins-Veazie P; Claypool PL; Arjmandi BH; Collins JK; Clevidence BA

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by pl...

  18. Cholesterol metabolism in cholestatic liver disease and liver transplantation: From molecular mechanisms to clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Katriina; Åberg, Fredrik; Gylling, Helena; Isoniemi, Helena

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review is to enlighten the critical roles that the liver plays in cholesterol metabolism. Liver transplantation can serve as gene therapy or a source of gene transmission in certain conditions that affect cholesterol metabolism, such as low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene mutations that are associated with familial hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, cholestatic liver disease often alters cholesterol metabolism. Cholestasis can lead to formation of lipoprotein X (Lp-X), which is frequently mistaken for LDL on routine clinical tests. In contrast to LDL, Lp-X is non-atherogenic, and failure to differentiate between the two can interfere with cardiovascular risk assessment, potentially leading to prescription of futile lipid-lowering therapy. Statins do not effectively lower Lp-X levels, and cholestasis may lead to accumulation of toxic levels of statins. Moreover, severe cholestasis results in poor micellar formation, which reduces cholesterol absorption, potentially impairing the cholesterol-lowering effect of ezetimibe. Apolipoprotein B-100 measurement can help distinguish between atherogenic and non-atherogenic hypercholesterolemia. Furthermore, routine serum cholesterol measurements alone cannot reflect cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Measurements of serum non-cholesterol sterol biomarkers - such as cholesterol precursor sterols, plant sterols, and cholestanol - may help with the comprehensive assessment of cholesterol metabolism. An adequate cholesterol supply is essential for liver-regenerative capacity. Low preoperative and perioperative serum cholesterol levels seem to predict mortality in liver cirrhosis and after liver transplantation. Thus, accurate lipid profile evaluation is highly important in liver disease and after liver transplantation. PMID:27574546

  19. First trimester maternal serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 in normal pregnancies and those affected by trisomy 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, KM; Van Lith, JMM; Silman, R; Mantingh, A; Grudzinskas, JG

    1998-01-01

    Serum concentrations of fetal antigen 2 (FA-2), the amino-propeptide of the al chain of collagen type I, were measured in peripheral blood from women with normal (n = 234) and trisomy 21 affected (n = 14) pregnancies between 9 and 11 weeks gestation. Serum FA-2 concentrations were seen to be stable

  20. Effects of Kefir on Serum Cholesterol Level in Mice%开菲尔对小鼠血清胆固醇水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立东; 刘倩; 刘爱芳; 刘晓艳; 于纯淼

    2014-01-01

    开菲尔是一种饮用历史悠久的功能性发酵乳制品,为探讨开菲尔对小鼠血清胆固醇水平的影响,将小鼠随机分成3组:对照组、高脂模型组和开菲尔组。对照组饲喂基础饲料,高脂模型组和开菲尔组饲喂高脂饲料,开菲尔组每日灌胃开菲尔发酵乳,对照组和高脂模型组给予无菌蒸馏水,连续灌胃28 d。结果表明,开菲尔组与高脂模型组相比,小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)含量明显降低(P0.05),动脉粥样硬化指数(AI)极显著降低(P0.05) differences.After kefir administration,the atherosclerotic index(AI) significantly(P<0.01)decreased,and antiatherosclerotic index(AAI)significantly(P<0.01)increased.These results suggested that kefir may be effectively in reducing serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia mice.

  1. The Association between Serum LDL Cholesterol and Genetic Variation in Chromosomal Locus 1p13.3 among Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M. Rizk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several polymorphisms of a locus on chromosome 1p13.3 have a significant effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, atherosclerosis, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods. We aimed to investigate the association between rs599839, rs646776, and rs4970834 of locus 1p13.3 and serum LDL-C and severity of coronary artery stenosis in ACS patients. Genotyping of the rs599839, rs646776, and rs4970834 polymorphisms was performed on Arab patients undergoing coronary angiography for ACS. Patients were divided into group A (ACS with insignificant stenosis (<50% and group B (with significant stenosis (≥50%. Results. Patients carrying the minor G allele in rs599839 had significantly lower mean of LDL-C (2.58 versus 3.44 mM, P=0.026 than homozygous A allele carriers (GG versus AA. Carriers of minor C allele in rs64776 had significantly higher mean of HDL-C (2.16 versus 1.36 mM, P=0.004 than carriers of the T alleles (AA versus GG. The odd ratio and 95% confidence interval for dominant model for G allele carriers of rs599839 were 0.51 (0.30–0.92, P=0.038, among patients with significant stenosis. Conclusions. Polymorphisms rs646776 and rs599839 of locus 1p13.3 were significantly associated with LDL-C and other lipid parameters. In addition, the G-allele carriers of variant rs599839 had a significant protective effect against the atherosclerosis.

  2. Myeloperoxidase and serum amyloid A contribute to impaired in vivo reverse cholesterol transport during the acute phase response but not group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Nijstad, Niels; Toelle, Markus; de Boer, Jan Freark; Buijs, Ruben V. C.; Heeringa, Peter; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is linked to inflammation. HDL protects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, mainly by mediating cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The present study aimed to test the impact of acute inflammation as well as selected acute phase proteins on RCT wit

  3. Cholesterol induces fetal rat enterocyte death in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzola J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on fetal rat enterocytes and IEC-6 cells (line originated from normal rat small intestine was examined. Both cells were cultured in the presence of 20 to 80 µM cholesterol for up to 72 h. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma was measured by RT-PCR. The addition of 20 µM cholesterol reduced enterocyte proliferation as early as 6 h of culture. Reduction of enterocyte proliferation by 28 and 41% was observed after 24 h of culture in the presence and absence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. Treatment of IEC-6 cells with cholesterol for 24 h raised the proportion of cells with fragmented DNA by 9.7% at 40 µM and by 20.8% at 80 µM. When the culture period was extended to 48 h, the effect of cholesterol was still more pronounced, with the percent of cells with fragmented DNA reaching 53.5% for 40 µM and 84.3% for 80 µM. Chromatin condensation of IEC-6 cells was observed after treatment with cholesterol even at 20 µM. Cholesterol did not affect HMG-CoA reductase expression. A dose-dependent increase in PPARgamma expression in fetal rat enterocytes was observed. The expression of PPAR-gamma was raised by 7- and 40-fold, in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum, respectively, with cholesterol at 80 mM. The apoptotic effect of cholesterol on enterocytes was possibly due to an increase in PPARgamma expression.

  4. Pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to gallium in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Gallium is an iron mimetic which has recently been repurposed as an antibacterial agent due to its capability to disrupt bacterial iron metabolism. In this study, the antibacterial activity of gallium nitrate [Ga(NO3)3] was investigated in complement-free human serum (HS) on 55 Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS was dependent on the bacterial ability to acquire iron from serum binding proteins (i.e., transferrin). The extent of serum protein degradation correlated well with P. aeruginosa growth in HS, while pyoverdine production did not. However, pyoverdine-deficient P. aeruginosa strains were unable to grow in HS and overcome iron restriction, albeit capable of releasing proteases. Predigestion of HS with proteinase K promoted the growth of all strains, irrespective of their ability to produce proteases and/or pyoverdine. The MICs of Ga(NO3)3 were higher in HS than in an iron-poor Casamino Acids medium, where proteolysis does not affect iron availability. Coherently, strains displaying high proteolytic activity were less susceptible to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. Our data support a model in which both pyoverdine and proteases affect the response of P. aeruginosa to Ga(NO3)3 in HS. The relatively high Ga(NO3)3 concentration required to inhibit the growth of highly proteolytic P. aeruginosa isolates in HS poses a limitation to the potential of Ga(NO3)3 in the treatment of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections. PMID:26149986

  5. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  6. Effect of repeated apoA-IMilano/POPC infusion on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and serum cholesterol efflux capacity in cynomolgus monkeys[S

    OpenAIRE

    Herman J. Kempen; Gomaraschi, Monica; Bellibas, S. Eralp; Plassmann, Stephanie; Zerler, Brad; Collins, Heidi L.; Adelman, Steven J.; Calabresi, Laura; Wijngaard, Peter L. J.

    2013-01-01

    MDCO-216, a complex of dimeric recombinant apoA-IMilano (apoA-IM) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), was administered to cynomolgus monkeys at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg every other day for a total of 21 infusions, and effects on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and ex-vivo cholesterol efflux capacity were monitored. After 7 or 20 infusions, free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) were strongly increased, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and apoA-II were strongly decreased. We th...

  7. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Mar 23,2016 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  8. Effects of consumption of probiotics and prebiotics on serum lipid levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dora I A; Gibson, Glenn R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review existing studies concerning the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on serum cholesterol concentrations, with particular attention on the possible mechanisms of their action. Although not without exception, results from animal and human studies suggest a moderate cholesterol-lowering action of dairy products fermented with appropriate strain(s) of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Mechanistically, probiotic bacteria ferment food-derived indigestible carbohydrates to produce short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which can then cause a decrease in the systemic levels of blood lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol synthesis and/or redistributing cholesterol from plasma to the liver. Furthermore, some bacteria may interfere with cholesterol absorption from the gut by deconjugating bile salts and therefore affecting the metabolism of cholesterol, or by directly assimilating cholesterol. For prebiotic substances, the majority of studies have been done with the fructooligosaccharides inulin and oligofructose, and although convincing lipid-lowering effects have been observed in animals, high dose levels had to be used. Reports in humans are few in number. In studies conducted in normal-lipidemic subjects, two reported no effect of inulin or oligofructose on serum lipids, whereas two others reported a significant reduction in serum triglycerides (19 and 27%, respectively) with more modest changes in serum total and LDL cholesterol. At present, data suggest that in hyperlipidemic subjects, any effects that do occur result primarily in reductions in cholesterol, whereas in normal lipidemic subjects, effects on serum triglycerides are the dominant feature.

  9. The Predictive Role of Serum Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio According to Renal Function in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong Shin; Lee, Tae Won; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Kim, Yang Gyoon; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective A high serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been reported as an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. However, the prognostic value of this ratio in patients with renal dysfunction is unclear. We examined the association of the TG/HDL-C ratio with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) according to renal function in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method This study was based on the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry database. Of 13,897 patients who were diagnosed with AMI, the study population included the 7,016 patients with available TG/HDL-C ratio data. Patients were stratified into three groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and the TG/HDL-C ratio was categorized into tertiles. We investigated 12-month MACEs, which included cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and repeated percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Results During the 12-month follow up period, 593 patients experienced MACEs. There was a significant association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and MACEs (p<0.001) in the entire study cohort. Having a TG/HDL-C ratio value in the highest tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent factor associated with increased risk of MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–1.93; p<0.001). Then we performed subgroup analyses according to renal function. In patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2) and mild renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥ 60 to < 90ml/min/1.73m2), a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with increased risk of MACEs (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.04–2.60; p = 0.035; and HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14–2.12; p = 0.005, respectively). However, in patients with moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2), TG/HDL-C ratio lost its predictive value on the risk of MACEs (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.82–1.83; p = 0.317). Conclusions In

  10. A quinazoline-based HDAC inhibitor affects gene expression pathways involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and mevalonate in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Bishop, K S; Sutherland, H; Marlow, G; Murray, P; Denny, W A; Ferguson, L R

    2016-03-01

    Chronic inflammation can lead to the development of cancers and resolution of inflammation is an ongoing challenge. Inflammation can result from dysregulation of the epigenome and a number of compounds that modify the epigenome are in clinical use. In this study the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of a quinazoline epigenetic-modulator compound were determined in prostate cancer cell lines using a non-hypothesis driven transcriptomics strategy utilising the Affymetrix PrimeView® Human Gene Expression microarray. GATHER and IPA software were used to analyse the data and to provide information on significantly modified biological processes, pathways and networks. A number of genes were differentially expressed in both PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. The top canonical pathways that frequently arose across both cell lines at a number of time points included cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism, and the mevalonate pathway. Targeting of sterol and mevalonate pathways may be a powerful anticancer approach. PMID:26759180

  11. Serum IgE reactivity profiling in an asthma affected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Dottorini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that atopic asthma correlates with high serum IgE levels though the contribution of allergen specific IgE to the pathogenesis and the severity of the disease is still unclear. METHODS: We developed a microarray immunoassay containing 103 allergens to study the IgE reactivity profiles of 485 asthmatic and 342 non-asthmatic individuals belonging to families whose members have a documented history of asthma and atopy. We employed k-means clustering, to investigate whether a particular IgE reactivity profile correlated with asthma and other atopic conditions such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis and eczema. RESULTS: Both case-control and parent-to-siblings analyses demonstrated that while the presence of specific IgE against individual allergens correlated poorly with pathological conditions, particular reactivity profiles were significantly associated with asthma (p<10E-09. An artificial neural network (ANN-based algorithm, calibrated with the profile reactivity data, correctly classified as asthmatic or non-asthmatic 78% of the individual examined. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the familiar relationships of the study population did not affect the observed correlations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that asthma is a higher-order phenomenon related to patterns of IgE reactivity rather than to single antibody reactions. This notion sheds new light on the pathogenesis of the disease and can be readily employed to distinguish asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals on the basis of their serum reactivity profile.

  12. A low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet decreases plasma CETP activity and pre beta-HDL formation but does not affect cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Beusekamp, BJ; Kerstens, MN; Groen, AK; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet on plasma lipopoproteins, pre beta-high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP)

  13. The progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J; Dangarembizi, R; Mtetwa, B; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks, 36 Guinea fowl and 36 Muscovy ducks were divided into two groups, for each species, and fed either a standard (STD = commercial poultry feed) or high-fat diet (HFD = commercial poultry feed with 20% palm oil and 2% lard) for up to 12 weeks. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets, six birds from each group were euthanized and blood samples collected. Osmotic fragility was assessed by measuring the haemoglobin released by erythrocytes placed in serially diluted solutions of phosphate-buffered saline, spectrophotometrically. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. Fragiligrams from erythrocytes from both species of birds on the HFD were not different to those on the STD. However, Muscovy duck erythrocytes were more resistant to haemolysis compared with Guinea fowl erythrocytes. Final body mass and serum triglyceride levels were not significantly different (p > 0.05, anova) between the birds in the HFD and STD groups, for both species of birds. In contrast, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in birds on the HFD compared with those on the STD, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of feeding, for both species of birds. Feeding Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks a high-fat diet for up to 12 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolaemia but had no effect on final body mass, erythrocyte osmotic fragility or serum triglyceride concentrations in either bird species.

  14. Assessment of confounding factors affecting the tumor markers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 in serum

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gilbert Weber; Georg Johnen; Dirk Taeger; Anne Weber; Isabelle Mercedes Gross; Beate Pesch; Thomas Kraus; Thomas Brüning; Monika Gube

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate if serum levels of potential tumor markers for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are affected by confounding factors in a surveillance cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 concentrations were determined in about 1,700 serum samples from 627 workers formerly exposed to asbestos. The impact of factors that could modify the concentrations of the tumor markers was examined with linear mixed mo...

  15. Sex-Specific Associations Between Thyrotropin and Serum Lipid Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisinger, Christa; Ittermann, Till; Tiller, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based studies investigating the sex-specific association between thyrotropin (TSH) levels and serum lipid concentrations are scarce. We examined the association between TSH and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL...... with triglyceride values in men and with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride values in women. In the pooled male population, low serum TSH levels (... triglyceride values. In the pooled female population, low serum TSH levels were significantly associated with lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. High TSH levels were associated with higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the pooled female population. In both sexes, serum...

  16. Positive reinforcement training affects hematologic and serum chemistry values in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, Susan P; Hau, Jann; Perlman, Jaine E; Martino, Michele; Schapiro, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques have received considerable attention for their stress reduction potential in the behavioral management of captive nonhuman primates. However, few published empirical studies have provided physiological data to support this position. To address this issue, PRT techniques were used to train chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to voluntarily present a leg for an intramuscular (IM) injection of anesthetic. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were collected from healthy chimpanzees (n=128) of both sexes and various ages during their routine annual physical examinations over a 7-year period. Specific variables potentially indicative of acute stress (i.e., total white blood cell (WBC) counts, absolute segmented neutrophils (SEG), glucose (GLU) levels, and hematocrit (HCT) levels) were analyzed to determine whether the method used to administer the anesthetic (voluntary present for injection vs. involuntary injection) affected the physiological parameters. Subjects that voluntarily presented for an anesthetic injection had significantly lower mean total WBC counts, SEG, and GLU levels than subjects that were involuntarily anesthetized by more traditional means. Within-subjects analyses revealed the same pattern of results. This is one of the first data sets to objectively demonstrate that PRT for voluntary presentation of IM injections of anesthetic can significantly affect some of the physiological measures correlated with stress responses to chemical restraint in captive chimpanzees.

  17. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans.

    OpenAIRE

    Urgert, R.; Katan, M B

    1996-01-01

    Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew - not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules - contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased ri...

  18. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:10347696

  19. The effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-629C -> A promoter polymorphism on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is dependent on serum triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, SE; Hillege, HL; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; de Jong, PE; Bakker, SJL; van der Steege, G; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    Context: The -629C -> A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promoter polymorphism is a determinant of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). The effect of the closely linked CETP TaqIB polymorphism on HDL-C has been suggested to be modified by obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Objective: Because the CETP-mediat

  20. Effect of repeated apoA-IMilano/POPC infusion on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and serum cholesterol efflux capacity in cynomolgus monkeys[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Herman J.; Gomaraschi, Monica; Bellibas, S. Eralp; Plassmann, Stephanie; Zerler, Brad; Collins, Heidi L.; Adelman, Steven J.; Calabresi, Laura; Wijngaard, Peter L. J.

    2013-01-01

    MDCO-216, a complex of dimeric recombinant apoA-IMilano (apoA-IM) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), was administered to cynomolgus monkeys at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg every other day for a total of 21 infusions, and effects on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and ex-vivo cholesterol efflux capacity were monitored. After 7 or 20 infusions, free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) were strongly increased, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and apoA-II were strongly decreased. We then measured short-term effects on apoA-IM, lipids, and (apo)lipoproteins after the first or the last infusion. After the first infusion, PL and FC went up in the HDL region and also in the LDL and VLDL regions. ApoE shifted from HDL to LDL and VLDL regions, while ApoA-IM remained located in the HDL region. On day 41, ApoE levels were 8-fold higher than on day 1, and FC, PL, and apoE resided mostly in LDL and VLDL regions. Drug infusion quickly decreased the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate. ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux on day 41 was markedly increased, whereas scavenger receptor type B1 (SRB1) and ABCG1-mediated effluxes were only weakly increased. Strong increase of FC is due to sustained stimulation of ABCA1-mediated efflux, and drop in HDL and formation of large apoE-rich particles are due to lack of LCAT activation. PMID:23828780

  1. Effect of repeated apoA-IMilano/POPC infusion on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and serum cholesterol efflux capacity in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Herman J; Gomaraschi, Monica; Bellibas, S Eralp; Plassmann, Stephanie; Zerler, Brad; Collins, Heidi L; Adelman, Steven J; Calabresi, Laura; Wijngaard, Peter L J

    2013-09-01

    MDCO-216, a complex of dimeric recombinant apoA-IMilano (apoA-IM) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), was administered to cynomolgus monkeys at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg every other day for a total of 21 infusions, and effects on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and ex-vivo cholesterol efflux capacity were monitored. After 7 or 20 infusions, free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) were strongly increased, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and apoA-II were strongly decreased. We then measured short-term effects on apoA-IM, lipids, and (apo)lipoproteins after the first or the last infusion. After the first infusion, PL and FC went up in the HDL region and also in the LDL and VLDL regions. ApoE shifted from HDL to LDL and VLDL regions, while ApoA-IM remained located in the HDL region. On day 41, ApoE levels were 8-fold higher than on day 1, and FC, PL, and apoE resided mostly in LDL and VLDL regions. Drug infusion quickly decreased the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate. ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux on day 41 was markedly increased, whereas scavenger receptor type B1 (SRB1) and ABCG1-mediated effluxes were only weakly increased. Strong increase of FC is due to sustained stimulation of ABCA1-mediated efflux, and drop in HDL and formation of large apoE-rich particles are due to lack of LCAT activation. PMID:23828780

  2. The association of n-3 fatty acids with serum High Density Cholesterol (HDL) is modulated by sex but not by Inuit ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity.......To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity....

  3. A comparison of various cholesterol lowering diets in young healthy volunteers; effects on serum lipoproteins and on other risk indicators for card. diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effect of type and amount of dietary fat on the concentration and composition of serum lipoproteins, colonic function, plasma glucose and serum insulin levels and blood pressure in healthy human volunteers.Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment with 60 v

  4. Incubation of MDCO-216 (ApoA-IMilano/POPC) with Human Serum Potentiates ABCA1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, Generates New Prebeta-1 HDL, and Causes an Increase in HDL Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Herman J; Schranz, Dorota B; Asztalos, Bela F; Otvos, James; Jeyarajah, Elias; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Collins, Heidi L; Adelman, Steven J; Wijngaard, Peter L J

    2014-01-01

    MDCO-216 is a complex of dimeric ApoA-IMilano and palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), previously shown to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Here we studied the effect of incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 on cholesterol efflux capacity from J774 cells, on prebeta-1 high density lipoprotein (prebeta-1 HDL) and on HDL size assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). MDCO-216 incubated in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin stimulated both ABCA1-mediated efflux and ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages. When incubated with human serum a dose- and time-dependent synergistic increase of the ABCA1-mediated efflux capacity were observed. Using a commercially available ELISA for prebeta-1 HDL, MDCO-216 as such was poorly detected (12-15% of nominal amount of protein). Prebeta-1 HDL was rapidly lost when human plasma alone is incubated at 37°C. In contrast, incubation of human plasma with MDCO-216 at 37°C produced a large amount of new prebeta-1 HDL. Native 2D electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with an apoA-I antibody, which also detects ApoA-I Milano, confirmed the increase in prebeta-1 HDL upon incubation at 37°C. With the increase of prebeta-1 HDL, the concomitant disappearance of the small alpha-3 and alpha-4 HDL and MDCO-216 and an increase in the large alpha-1 and alpha-2 HDL were observed. Immunoblotting with Mab 17F3 specific for ApoA-I Milano showed the appearance of ApoA-I Milano in alpha-1 and alpha-2, but not in prebeta-1 HDL. (1)H-NMR analysis of plasma incubated with MDCO-216 confirmed rapid disappearance of small-sized HDL particles and increase of medium- and large-sized HDL particles accompanied with a decrease in total HDL particle number. In conclusion, incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 strongly enhanced ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, caused a strong increase of prebeta-1 HDL, and drastically changed the distribution of HDL subpopulations. Overall, the

  5. Incubation of MDCO-216 (ApoA-IMilano/POPC with Human Serum Potentiates ABCA1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, Generates New Prebeta-1 HDL, and Causes an Increase in HDL Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman J. Kempen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MDCO-216 is a complex of dimeric ApoA-IMilano and palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC, previously shown to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Here we studied the effect of incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 on cholesterol efflux capacity from J774 cells, on prebeta-1 high density lipoprotein (prebeta-1 HDL and on HDL size assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR. MDCO-216 incubated in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin stimulated both ABCA1-mediated efflux and ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages. When incubated with human serum a dose- and time-dependent synergistic increase of the ABCA1-mediated efflux capacity were observed. Using a commercially available ELISA for prebeta-1 HDL, MDCO-216 as such was poorly detected (12–15% of nominal amount of protein. Prebeta-1 HDL was rapidly lost when human plasma alone is incubated at 37°C. In contrast, incubation of human plasma with MDCO-216 at 37°C produced a large amount of new prebeta-1 HDL. Native 2D electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with an apoA-I antibody, which also detects ApoA-I Milano, confirmed the increase in prebeta-1 HDL upon incubation at 37°C. With the increase of prebeta-1 HDL, the concomitant disappearance of the small alpha-3 and alpha-4 HDL and MDCO-216 and an increase in the large alpha-1 and alpha-2 HDL were observed. Immunoblotting with Mab 17F3 specific for ApoA-I Milano showed the appearance of ApoA-I Milano in alpha-1 and alpha-2, but not in prebeta-1 HDL. 1H-NMR analysis of plasma incubated with MDCO-216 confirmed rapid disappearance of small-sized HDL particles and increase of medium- and large-sized HDL particles accompanied with a decrease in total HDL particle number. In conclusion, incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 strongly enhanced ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, caused a strong increase of prebeta-1 HDL, and drastically changed the distribution of HDL subpopulations

  6. Effect of dietary vegetable (water convolvulus) on cholesterol metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats were fed diets containing 0.5% cholesterol with or without vegetable (water convolvulus) or neutral detergent fiber supplementation. After 2 weeks, rats were given [4-14C]cholesterol i.p. Feces were collected for 1 week. Three hours prior to necropsy, [3H]acetate was administered i.p. Samples of serum, liver, adipose tissue, muscle and brain were obtained for analysis. Concentrations of total lipids and cholesterol and synthesis and recovery of labeled steroids are reported. Results showed that the growth of animals and food utilization were not significantly affected by different dietary treatments. The notable effect of vegetable was that the elevated liver and serum cholesterol levels due to increased intake can be nearly offset by increasing the fecal excretion. The high rate of excretion of 14C-labeled steroids shown in vegetable-fed rats indicated that both decreased absorption and increased endogenous excretion occurred in these animals. The synthesis of total lipids as demonstrated by [3H]acetate incorporation was not affected appreciably by diet. In liver, however, cholesterol synthesis appeared to be lower in rats receiving cholesterol-supplemented diet, but higher in rats fed vegetable diets. The ratio of 3H:14C of liver cholesterol was significantly higher in rats fed the vegetable diet. In brain cholesterol we also found consistently high 3H:14C ratios, which were not affected by dietary intake. It appears that brain cholesterol level is maintained mainly by synthesis in situ and not by uptake from dietary or other sources

  7. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  8. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seen when there is an existing problem like malnutrition , liver disease , or cancer . However there is no ... cholesterol levels include anabolic steroids, beta blockers , epinephrine, oral contraceptives, and vitamin D. ^ Back to top ... Health Professionals Get the Mobile App iTunes | Android | Kindle ...

  9. Serum From Advanced Heart Failure Patients Promotes Angiogenic Sprouting and Affects the Notch Pathway in Human Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannella, Micaela; Caliceti, Cristiana; Fortini, Francesca; Aquila, Giorgio; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Pannuti, Antonio; Fortini, Cinzia; Morelli, Marco Bruno; Fucili, Alessandro; Francolini, Gloria; Voltan, Rebecca; Secchiero, Paola; Dinelli, Giovanni; Leoncini, Emanuela; Ferracin, Manuela; Hrelia, Silvana; Miele, Lucio; Rizzo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    It is unknown whether components present in heart failure (HF) patients' serum provide an angiogenic stimulus. We sought to determine whether serum from HF patients affects angiogenesis and its major modulator, the Notch pathway, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In cells treated with serum from healthy subjects or from patients at different HF stage we determined: (1) Sprouting angiogenesis, by measuring cells network (closed tubes) in collagen gel. (2) Protein levels of Notch receptors 1, 2, 4, and ligands Jagged1, Delta-like4. We found a higher number of closed tubes in HUVECs treated with advanced HF patients serum in comparison with cells treated with serum from mild HF patients or controls. Furthermore, as indicated by the reduction of the active form of Notch4 (N4IC) and of Jagged1, advanced HF patients serum inhibited Notch signalling in HUVECs in comparison with mild HF patients' serum and controls. The circulating levels of NT-proBNP (N-terminal of the pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide), a marker for the detection and evalutation of HF, were positively correlated with the number of closed tubes (r = 0.485) and negatively with Notch4IC and Jagged1 levels in sera-treated cells (r = -0.526 and r = -0.604, respectively). In conclusion, we found that sera from advanced HF patients promote sprouting angiogenesis and dysregulate Notch signaling in HUVECs. Our study provides in vitro evidence of an angiogenic stimulus arising during HF progression and suggests a role for the Notch pathway in it. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2700-2710, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26987674

  10. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus: modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; L. Zwang; M.V. Huisman; J.D. Banga; W.J. Sluiter; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2 di

  11. Atorvastatin affects low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol relations with apolipoprotein B in type 2 diabetes mellitus : modification by triglycerides and cholesteryl ester transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Zwang, Louwerens; Huisman, Menno V.; Banga, Jan Dirk; Sluiter, Wim. J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B are proposed as treatment targets. The extent to which statin therapy affects relationships of LDL-C and non-HDL-C with apoB was examined in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in 217 hypertriglyceridaemic type 2 di

  12. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  13. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... Glossary Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  14. HDL Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  15. LDL Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? LDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... LDL; LDL-C Formal name: Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  16. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  17. Genotype-based changes in serum uric acid affect blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Afshin; Brown, Eric; Weir, Matthew R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; McArdle, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of uric acid consistently correlate with hypertension, but the directionality of the association remains debated. To help define this relationship, we used a controlled setting within a homogeneous Amish community and the Mendelian randomization of a nonsynonymous coding single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs16890979 (Val253Ile), in the SLC2A9 gene. This gene expresses the GLUT9 transporter that also transports uric acid and is associated with lower serum uric acid levels. We studied the unconfounded association between genotype and blood pressure in 516 Amish adults, each placed for 6 days on standardized diets, first with high sodium, followed by low sodium, with an intervening washout period. Blood pressure, measured using 24-h ambulatory monitoring, during both diet periods was used as the primary outcome. All participants were free of diuretic or other antihypertensive medications and the relationships between GLUT9 genotype and both serum uric acid and blood pressure were assessed. Each copy of the GLUT9 minor Ile allele was found to confer a significant 0.44 mg/dl reduction in serum uric acid and was associated with a significant mean decrease in the systolic blood pressure of 2.2 and 1.5 mm Hg on the high- and low-sodium diet, respectively. Thus, a Mendelian randomization analysis using variants in the GLUT9 gene indicates that a decrease in serum uric acid has a causal effect of lowering blood pressure. PMID:22189840

  18. Serum IGF-1 affects skeletal acquisition in a temporal and compartment-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden-William Courtland

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 plays a critical role in the development of the growing skeleton by establishing both longitudinal and transverse bone accrual. IGF-1 has also been implicated in the maintenance of bone mass during late adulthood and aging, as decreases in serum IGF-1 levels appear to correlate with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD. Although informative, mouse models to date have been unable to separate the temporal effects of IGF-1 depletion on skeletal development. To address this problem, we performed a skeletal characterization of the inducible LID mouse (iLID, in which serum IGF-1 levels are depleted at selected ages. We found that depletion of serum IGF-1 in male iLID mice prior to adulthood (4 weeks decreased trabecular bone architecture and significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 16 weeks (adulthood. Likewise, depletion of serum IGF-1 in iLID males at 8 weeks of age, resulted in significantly reduced transverse cortical bone properties (Ct.Ar, Ct.Th by 32 weeks (late adulthood, but had no effect on trabecular bone architecture. In contrast, depletion of serum IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (at 16 weeks resulted in enhancement of trabecular bone architecture, but no significant changes in cortical bone properties by 32 weeks as compared to controls. These results indicate that while serum IGF-1 is essential for bone accrual during the postnatal growth phase, depletion of IGF-1 after peak bone acquisition (16 weeks is compartment-specific and does not have a detrimental effect on cortical bone mass in the older adult mouse.

  19. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  20. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  1. Influence of human diets containing casein, soy protein isolate, and soy protein concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in humans, rabbits and rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that feeding animals such as rabbits with semipurified diets containing animal proteins, as for example casein, results in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. On the other hand, diets containing vegetable proteins such as soybean protein maintain low levels of serum cholestero

  2. Association studies of several cholesterol-related genes (ABCA1, CETP and LIPC with serum lipids and risk of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Accumulating evidence suggested that dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis might be a major etiologic factor in initiating and promoting neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, hepatic lipase (HL, coding genes named LIPC and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP are important components of high-density lipoprotein (HDL metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT implicated in atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we will investigate the possible association of several common polymorphisms (ABCA1R219K, CETPTaqIB and LIPC-250 G/A with susceptibility to AD and plasma lipid levels. Methods Case–control study of 208 Han Chinese (104 AD patients and 104 non-demented controls from Changsha area in Hunan Province was performed using the PCR-RFLP analysis. Cognitive decline was assessed using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE as a standardized method. Additionally, fasting lipid profile and the cognitive testing scores including Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST were recorded. Results and conclusions We found significant differences among the genotype distributions of these three genes in AD patients when compared with controls. But after adjusting other factors, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed only ABCA1R219K (B = −0.903, P = 0.005, OR = 0.405, 95%CI:0.217-0.758 and LIPC-250 G/A variants(B = −0.905, P = 0.018, OR = 0.405, 95%CI:0.191-0.858 were associated with decreased AD risk. There were significantly higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoproteinA-I in the carriers of KK genotype and K allele (P F = 5.598, P = 0.004, while -250 G/A polymorphisms had no significant effect on HDL-C. In total population, subjects carrying ABCA1219K allele or LIPC-250A allele obtained higher MMSE or WMS scores than non-carriers, however

  3. Carbon Inverse Opal Rods for Nonenzymatic Cholesterol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qifeng; Xie, Zhuoying; Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Yang, Zixue; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-11-18

    Carbon inverse opal rods made from silica photonic crystal rods are used for nonenzymatic cholesterol sensing. The characteristic reflection peak originating from the physical periodic structure works as sensing signals for quantitatively estimating cholesterol concentrations. Carbon inverse opal rods work both in cholesterol standard solutions and human serum. They are suitable for practical use in clinical diagnose.

  4. Cholesterol-lowering effect of rice bran protein containing bile acid-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jilite; Shimada, Masaya; Kato, Yukina; Kusada, Mio; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Dietary plant protein is well known to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Rice bran is a by-product of rice milling and is a good source of protein. The present study examined whether feeding rats a high-cholesterol diet containing 10% rice bran protein (RBP) for 10 d affected cholesterol metabolism. Rats fed dietary RBP had lower serum total cholesterol levels and increased excretion of fecal steroids, such as cholesterol and bile acids, than those fed dietary casein. In vitro assays showed that RBP strongly bound to taurocholate, and inhibited the micellar solubility of cholesterol, compared with casein. Moreover, the bile acid-binding proteins of the RBP were eluted by a chromatographic column conjugated with cholic acid, and one of them was identified as hypothetical protein OsJ_13801 (NCBI accession No. EAZ29742) using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. These results suggest that the hypocholesterolemic action of the RBP may be caused by the bile acid-binding proteins. PMID:25374002

  5. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds.

  6. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  7. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan;

    2015-01-01

    is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were...... - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds....

  8. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  9. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  10. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary intervention, i.e. 16 weeks of age

  11. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the

  12. Effect of Consumption of Tribulus Terrestris on Serum Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Roghani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of Tribulus terrestris (TT on serum glucose and lipid levels was investigated in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus in rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into control, TT-treated control, diabetic, glibenclamide-treated, and TT-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was administered (60 mg/Kg. Meanwhile, TT-treated groups received TT mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 6.25% for 6 weeks. Serum glucose and lipid levels were determined before the study and at the 3rd and 4th week after the study. Results: Serum glucose was significantly lower in TT-treated diabetic rats at 3rd and 6th weeks as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.01 and p<0.005, respectively. In addition, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol showed a significant reduction in TT-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetics (p<0.05. On the other hand, HDL-cholesterol level did not change significantly in TT-treated diabetic group as compared to untreated diabetic group. Conclusions: Oral administration of TT has a significant hypoglycemic effect and in long term leads to appropriate changes in serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, but does not affect HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats.

  13. The Role of Cholesterol in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Omer F; Noory, Mohammad A; Robertson, Gavin P

    2016-04-15

    The roles played by cholesterol in cancer development and the potential of therapeutically targeting cholesterol homeostasis is a controversial area in the cancer community. Several epidemiologic studies report an association between cancer and serum cholesterol levels or statin use, while others suggest that there is not one. Furthermore, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project using next-generation sequencing has profiled the mutational status and expression levels of all the genes in diverse cancers, including those involved in cholesterol metabolism, providing correlative support for a role of the cholesterol pathway in cancer development. Finally, preclinical studies tend to more consistently support the role of cholesterol in cancer, with several demonstrating that cholesterol homeostasis genes can modulate development. Because of space limitations, this review provides selected examples of the epidemiologic, TCGA, and preclinical data, focusing on alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and its consequent effect on patient survival. In melanoma, this focused analysis demonstrated that enhanced expression of cholesterol synthesis genes was associated with decreased patient survival. Collectively, the studies in melanoma and other cancer types suggested a potential role of disrupted cholesterol homeostasis in cancer development but additional studies are needed to link population-based epidemiological data, the TCGA database results, and preclinical mechanistic evidence to concretely resolve this controversy. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2063-70. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197250

  14. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000099.htm Cholesterol and lifestyle To use the sharing features on ... Stroke Serious heart or blood vessel disease Your Cholesterol Numbers All men should have their blood cholesterol ...

  15. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000386.htm Cholesterol testing and results To use the sharing features ... can tell you what your goal should be. Cholesterol Tests Some cholesterol is considered good and some ...

  16. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  17. The origin of cholesterol in chyle demonstrated by nuclear indicator methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain information about the mechanism of the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, rats having a lymphatic abdominal fistula are used. The animals receive either 4-14C- cholesterol subcutaneously or orally, or the 1-14C acetate. The study of the specific radio-activities of the cholesterol in chyle, in serum, in the lining, and in the intestinal contents makes it possible to define the roles played by the transfer cholesterol from the serum, by the cholesterol synthesised intestinally, and by the absorption cholesterol, in the formations of the lymph and of the chylomicrons. A new theory is proposed for the mechanism of cholesterol absorption. (author)

  18. Interaction between dietary lipids and gut microbiota regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caesar, Robert; Nygren, Heli; Orešič, Matej;

    2016-01-01

    esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota......The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene...... of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl...

  19. Pharmacogenetic interaction between dexamethasone and Cd36-deficient segment of spontaneously hypertensive rat chromosome 4 affects triacylglycerol and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupková, Michaela; Sedová, Lucie; Liska, Frantisek; Krenová, Drahomíra; Kren, Vladimír; Seda, Ondrej

    2010-04-16

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is known to induce diabetes and dyslipidemia. We have compared fasting triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations across 20 lipoprotein fractions and glucose tolerance in control (standard diet) and DEX-treated 7-month-old males of two rat strains, Brown Norway (BN) and congenic BN.SHR-(Il6-Cd36)/Cub (BN.SHR4). These two inbred strains differ in a defined segment of chromosome 4, originally transferred from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) including the mutant Cd36 gene, a known target of DEX. Compared to BN, the standard-diet-fed BN.SHR4 showed higher cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations across many lipoprotein fractions, particularly in small VLDL and LDL particles. Total cholesterol was decreased by DEX by more than 21% in BN.SHR4 contrasting with the tendency to increase in BN (strain*DEX interaction p = 0.0017). Similar pattern was observed for triacylglycerol concentrations in LDL. The LDL particle size was significantly reduced by DEX in both strains. Also, while control BN and BN.SHR4 displayed comparable glycaemic profiles during oral glucose tolerance test, we observed a markedly blunted DEX induction of glucose intolerance in BN.SHR4 compared to BN. In summary, we report a pharmacogenetic interaction between limited genomic segment with mutated Cd36 gene and dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and triacylglycerol and cholesterol redistribution into lipoprotein fractions.

  20. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  1. Chronic exposure to sublethal hexavalent chromium affects organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile of a teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Ashish K. [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India); Mohanty, Banalata, E-mail: drbana_mohanty@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002 (India)

    2009-09-01

    Effects of chronic exposures (one and two months) to sublethal doses of hexavalent chromium (2 and 4 mg/L potassium dichromate) on organ histopathology and serum cortisol profile were investigated and their overall impact on growth and behavior of a teleost fish, Channa punctatus was elucidated. Histopathological lesions were distinct in the vital organs gill, kidney and liver. The gill lamellae became lifted, fused, and showed oedema. Hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lamellar epithelial cells were distinct with desquamation. Hypertrophy of epithelial cells of renal tubules and reduction in tubular lumens were observed in the trunk kidney. The atrophy of the head kidney interrenal cells and decreased serum cortisol level indicated exhaustion of interrenal activity. Hepatocyte vacuolization and shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and increase of sinusoidal spaces were observed in the liver. Abnormal behavioral patterns and reduced growth rate were also noticed in the exposed fish. The chronic hexavalent chromium exposure thus by affecting histopathology of gill, kidney (including interrenal tissue) and liver could impair the vital functions of respiration, excretion, metabolic regulation and maintenance of stress homeostasis which in the long-run may pose serious threat to fish health and affect their population.

  2. 大米蛋白调控胆固醇代谢的研究进展%Research progress in rice protein affect cholesterol metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾慧; 杨林

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism disorders became the first threat to human health.Cholesterol was related to many diseases,such as coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis.The development of a cholesterol-lowing food became a hot research worldwide.Rice protein was a high-quality plant protein with high nutritional value.The nutritional value,composition,home and abroad lower cholesterol concentration and metabolism of rice protein were described.Studies showed that rice protein could reduce cholesterol levels in blood and liver,increase fecal and sterol excretion and reduce LDL levels.%由于胆固醇代谢紊乱已成为威胁人类健康的第一杀手,胆固醇与许多疾病如冠心病及动脉粥样硬化等疾病密切相关,所以开发一种降低胆固醇的保健食品已经成为世界范围研究的热点。大米蛋白具有高营养价值,是一种优质的植物蛋白。介绍了大米蛋白的营养价值和大米蛋白的结构组成,并对国内外大米蛋白的降低胆固醇水平及调控胆固醇代谢机制进行了综述。研究表明,大米蛋白能够降低血液和肝脏的胆固醇水平,促进粪便和类固醇的排泄,降低LDL的水平。

  3. 油脂来源及使用量对小鼠生长、健康、血脂和肝脏胆固醇代谢指标的影响%Effect of Dietary Fat Sources and Dosages on Growth, Health, Serum Lipid and Liver Cholesterol Metabolism of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄阳; 李平华; 贺丽春; 汪涵; 牛清; 石磊; 周波; 黄瑞华

    2015-01-01

    no significant effects on blood distribution and health index (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, TC and HDL-C levels in the serum significantly decreased in 4% bean oil group (P0.05). Supplementation of 8% emulsified coconut powder significantly decreased serum TC levels (P0.05). Supplementation of 8% emulsified coconut powder significantly increased the expression of mRNA ofCYP7A1 of mice compared with the control group (P0.05). There were no significant differences in the expression of mRNA ofHMGCR andLDLR among four groups (P>0.05).[Conclusion] Supplementation of bean oil increased the growth performance on ADFI and body weight of mice, decreased serum total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Supplementation of high doses emulsified coconut powder improved ADFI and decreased serum total cholesterol, and increasedCYP7A1 mRNA expression in liver of mice. Compared to the high dosage of emulsified coconut powder, low dosage had no significant effects on improving lipid metabolism of mice. Fat in the diet probably affected liver cholesterol metabolism by regulating the gene expression levels of cholesterol metabolism-related enzymes in the liver to maintain cholesterol metabolism homeostasis in mice.%【目的】观察饲料中添加不同种类和不同剂量的油脂对小鼠生长性能、健康状态、血脂指标和肝脏胆固醇代谢关键基因相对表达量的影响,探讨日粮中不同油脂来源及使用量对肝脏胆固醇代谢的作用机制,为哺乳动物筛选较为适宜的油脂类型及其添加量提供理论参考。【方法】试验选取3周龄体重16—19 g的健康昆明种小鼠48只,随机分为4组,每组4个重复,每个重复3只。4组分别饲喂正常小鼠饲料(对照组)和添加4%豆油(B组)、4%乳化椰子粉(L组)以及8%乳化椰子粉(H组)的饲料14 d。试验期间,记录每天的饲喂次数、每次饲喂量、饲料剩余量,所有试验动物均自由采

  4. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  5. Reproductive effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in immature male rats and its relation to cholesterol, testosterone, and thyroxin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Giuliana G K; Golin, Munisa; Bufalo, Aedra C; Morais, Rosana N; Dalsenter, Paulo R; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J

    2009-11-01

    Phthalates are chemicals employed in several industrial products and there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that they induce numerous adverse effects on the reproductive system. This study was carried out to assess possible alterations induced by the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) on cholesterol, testosterone, and thyroxine (total T4) levels, as well as to discuss the significance of these data in global changes observed in the reproductive tract of pubertal animals. Wistar rats aged 21 days received DEHP orally at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and were examined for different reproductive endpoints. At the end of the treatment, significant decreases in relative weight of testosterone-dependent organs, delayed preputial separation, and low serum testosterone were observed at the highest DEHP dose. The plot of the relationship between DEHP dose and serum cholesterol revealed a biphasic effect. The concentration of cholesterol in serum was significantly reduced at 250 mg/kg/day DEHP but returned to control values at 750 mg/kg/day. Cholesterol levels measured in testicular tissue increased with DEHP treatment. Serum T4 levels were not affected by DEHP at any dose, indicating the absence of a link between total thyroxin concentration and phthalate effects on cholesterol levels. Taken together these results indicate that effects observed in serum and testicular cholesterol levels may reflect distinct effects of DEHP on cholesterol synthesis and usage. These results confirm and extend previously reported findings showing that alterations in cholesterol balance may play a role in the suppression of steroidogenesis induced by DEHP in rats. PMID:19330368

  6. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  7. Rapamycin selectively alters serum chemistry in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Tabatabai-Mir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to explore the effect of rapamycin, an anti-inflammatory agent, on the metabolic profile of type 2 diabetic mice. Seven-month-old diabetic db/db mice and their lean littermate non-diabetic controls (db/m were randomized to receive control chow or chow mixed with rapamycin (2.24 mg/kg/day (each group n =20, males and females for 4 months and sacrificed. Serum samples were analyzed for the measurement of glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and total protein, using the automated dry chemistry analysis. Rapamycin elevated serum glucose in female diabetic mice. Serum creatinine tended to be higher in diabetic mice but was not affected by rapamycin; there was no difference in BUN levels among the groups. Serum ALP was elevated in diabetic mice and rapamycin lowered it only in female diabetic mice; serum ALT levels were increased in female diabetic mice, unaffected by rapamycin. Serum total protein was elevated in diabetic mice of both genders but was not affected by rapamycin. Diabetic mice from both genders had elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides; rapamycin did not affect serum cholesterol but decreased serum total triglycerides in male diabetic mice. We conclude that rapamycin elicits complex metabolic responses in aging diabetic mice, worsening hyperglycemia in females but improving ALP in female diabetic and total triglycerides in male diabetic mice, respectively. The metabolic effects of rapamycin should be considered while performing studies with rapamycin in mice.

  8. Immunofluorescence in multiple tissues utilizing serum from a patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Brzezinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lupus erythematosus is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs. Lupus can affect many parts of the body, especially in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; affected tissues may include the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Case report: A 46-year-old female presented with pruritus, photosensitivity and edema of the cheeks of about 2 years duration, and was evaluated by a dermatologist. On examination, multiple telangiectasias were present on the cheeks, with erythema, edema and a malar rash observed. A review of systems documented breathing difficulty and pleuitic pain, joint pain and joint edema, photosensitivity, cardiac dysrhythmia, and periodic pain in the back close to the kidneys. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin testing, as well for direct and indirect immunofluorescence were performed, in addition to multiple diagnostic blood tests, chest radiography and directed immunologic testing. Results: The blood testing showed elevated C-reactive protein. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence testing utilizing monkey esophagus, mouse and pig heart and kidney, normal human eyelid skin and veal brain demonstrated strong reactivity to several components of smooth muscle, nerves, blood vessels, skin basement membrane zone and sweat gland ducts and skin meibomian glands. Anti-endomysium antibodies were detected as well as others, especially using FITC conjugated Complement/C1q, FITC conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin IgG and FITC conjugated anti-human fibrinogen. Conclusions: We conclude that both direct and indirect immunofluorescence using several substrates can unveil previously undocumented autoantibodies in multiple organs in lupus erythematosus, and that these findings could be utilized to complement existing diagnostic testing for this disorder.

  9. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires Asociación entre hábitos nutricionales, educación, triglicéridos séricos y colesterol total en mujeres de Cabildo, Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl J. Schneider; Noel Barengo; Irja Haapala; Marcelo Tavella

    2006-01-01

    A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. To...

  10. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  11. 阿尔茨海默病血清胆固醇、叶酸、维生素B12变化的临床研究%A clinical study of Alzheimer's disease in serum cholesterol, vitamin B12 and folic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玉; 楮文政; 徐浩文

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of serum cholesterol, lipid, vitamin B12 and folic acid in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods To measure serum concentrations of cholesterol,lipid,vitamin Bn and folio acid in 35 patients with AD and 16 normal controls respectivdy,and results were compared between each two groups by using student test. Results The levels of se-rum cholesterol and triglyceride in AD group was higher than normal control group, and there was significantly difference (P <0.05). The levels of serum vitamin Bn and folic acid in AD had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion The levels of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid in AD had no significantly change. The high levels of serum cholesterol and triglyeeride may be associated with AD. These results suggest that decreased cholesterol and triglyceride may provide potiential benefits of preventing and treatmenting AD patients.%目的 探讨阿尔茨海默病(AD)与血清胆固醇、血脂、维生素B12叶酸的关系.方法 对35例AD和16例健康对照组血清胆固醇、血脂、维生素B12叶酸进行测定,并进行组间对比研究.结果 AD组血清胆固醇、甘油三酯明显高于对照组(P<0.05);AD组和正常对照组的血清维生素B12和叶酸水平相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 血清总胆固醇和甘油三酯增高与AD有明显的关系,AD组血清叶酸及维生素B12无明显变化,提示降低胆固醇及血脂可能会对AD预防和治疗有益.

  12. Relation of cholesterol metabolism to pediatric gallstone disease: a retrospective controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Koivusalo, Antti; Pakarinen, Mikko; Gylling, Helena; Nissinen, Markku J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholesterol metabolism may be involved in pediatric gallstone disease. We aimed to reveal cholesterol metabolites and phytosterols and their relation to stone composition of sterols in children having black pigment and cholesterol stones. Methods We performed retrospective controlled clinical study, in which we examined parameters of cholesterol metabolism and liver function values in serum (n = 28) and gallstones (n = 46) of consecutively cholecystectomized children. Serum values ...

  13. Detection of Serum Cholesterol Ester Fatty Acids in the Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%老年2型糖尿病患者血清胆固醇酯脂肪酸检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹松林; 陈文祥; 董军; 周伟燕; 杨睿悦; 李红霞; 张顺利; 张天娇; 赵海建; 张传宝; 王抒

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the alteration of cholesterol ester fatty acids and related serum biochemical parameters in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM).Methods Totally 73 T2DM patients (T2DM group) and 72 healthy subjects (control group) (aged ≥60 years) who received health check-ups in Beijing Hospital from August to December in 2012 were recruited and blood samples were collected .Eleven main cholesterol ester fatty acids in serum were determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry , and endogenous conversions by desaturases and elongases were estimated from product -to-precursor ratios .Fasting plas-ma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) AI (ApoAI), ApoB, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were analyzed with an automatic biochemistry analyzer and the results were statisti -cally analyzed .Results CE14∶0, CE16∶1 and CE22∶6 in T2DM group were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P <0.05 ) , while no significant difference existed between other fatty acid compositions .Δ9-desaturase activity was lower in T2DM group compared with that in control group (P=0.001).After adjus-ting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), TC, TG, and FPG, Logistic analysis showed the quartiles of CE22∶6 andΔ9-desaturase activity were associated with risk of type 2 DM, and the odds ratios were 0.27 (95%CI:0.08-0.86, Wald:4.93, P<0.05) and 0.06 (95%CI:0.01-0.22, Wald: 17.39, P<0.01), respec-tively, for comparison of the top to bottom quartile .Both CE14∶0 and CE20∶3 negatively correlated with FPG (r=-0.18, -0.17, P<0.05);CE18∶0 positively correlated with BMI and TG (r=0.25, 0.24, P<0.01) and negatively correlated with HDL-C and ApoAI (r=-0.39, -0.35, P<0.01);CE20∶3 positively correlated with BMI, with a correlation coefficient of 0.42 (P<0.01).Conclusions Several cholesterol

  14. Influences of a-tocopherol on cholesterol metabolism and fatty streak development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed an atherogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluzio M.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of oxidized lipoproteins is well known in atherogenesis, the role of vitamin E supplementation is still controversial. There is also little information about cholesterol metabolism (hepatic concentration and fecal excretion in the new models of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of moderate vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E (apo E-deficient mice. Apo E-deficient mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 40 or 400 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 6 weeks. Total cholesterol in serum and liver and 3-OH-alpha-sterols in feces, and fecal excretion of bile acids were determined and histological analyses of aortic lesion were performed. A vitamin E-rich diet did not affect body weight, food intake or serum cholesterol. Serum and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol as well as sterol concentration in feces were similar in both groups. However, when compared to controls, the alpha-tocopherol-treated mice showed a reduction of about 60% in the atherosclerotic lesions when both the sum of lesion areas and the average of the largest lesion area were considered. These results demonstrate that supplementation of moderate doses of alpha-tocopherol was able to slow atherogenesis in apo E-deficient mice and to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins without modifying the hepatic pool or fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids.

  15. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad;

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period....... A total of 164 subjects with ≥2 MetS risk factors were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 intervention groups: regular-fat cheese (REG), reduced-fat cheese (RED), or a no-cheese, carbohydrate control (CHO) group. Subjects in the REG and RED groups replaced part of their daily habitual diet with 80 g cheese/10...... MJ, whereas subjects in the CHO group did the same with bread and jam corresponding to 90 g and 25 g/10 MJ, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 139 subjects completed the intervention. The primary outcome, LDL cholesterol, was not significantly different between the REG and RED diets or between the REG...

  16. Relationship between serum cholesterol and low dense lipoprotein receptor activity of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia%急性髓性白血病患者血清胆固醇水平变化 与低密度脂蛋白受体活性的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚; 彭军; 张茂宏; 徐松德

    2001-01-01

    测定了52例初发未治急性髓性白血病(AML)患者血清胆固醇浓度及其外周血白血病细胞对125I-低密度脂蛋白(125I-LDL)的降解率,结果显示两者呈负相关,白细胞数及125I-LDL降解率较高者血清胆固醇浓度较低,化疗后,随着外周血白血病细胞消失,血清胆固醇及LDL胆固醇水平升高。据此推测AML患者的低胆固醇血症可能归因于白血病细胞的LDL受体活性增高,白血病细胞对LDL的高摄取及降解为利用LDL作为化疗药物的载体靶向治疗白血病提供了新思路。%The serum cholesterol concentration and the rates of degradationof 125 I-low density lipoprotein(125I-LDL)by isolated leukemic cells of 52 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia at diagnosis were assayed.The results showed that the lowest serum cholesterol concentrations were found in the patients with very high rates of cellular degradation of 125 I-LDL.After chemotherapy,both LDL cholesterol and total serum cholesterol levels rosed concomitantly with the fall in white blood cell counts.This suggests that a high receptor-mediated uptake and degradation of LDL by the leukemic cells may be the cause of hypocholesterolaemia in acute myeloblastic leukemia.LDL-receptor activity in leukemic cells may provide a basis for therapeutic approaches.

  17. Cholesterol metabolism and esterases in four strains of rats with differential cholesterolemic responses to a high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Lemmens, A.G.; Katan, M.B.; Bruijne, de J.J.; Zutphen, van L.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    1. 1. The increase in serum cholesterol after feeding a diet containing 2% (w/w) of cholesterol and 0.5% of cholate for 13 days was 200 and 800% in two hypo- and two hyper-responsive inbred strains of rats, respectively. 2. 2. While remaining on the high-cholesterol, high-cholate diet for longer per

  18. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You also get cholesterol by eating foods like egg yolks, fatty meats, and regular cheese. If you have too much cholesterol in your body, it can build up inside your blood vessels and make it hard for blood to ...

  19. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  1. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  2. Effects of lovastatin and dietary cholesterol on sterol homeostasis in healthy human subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Duane, W C

    1993-01-01

    We measured biliary and fecal sterol outputs in 12 human subjects on a metabolic ward in four randomly allocated, 6-7 wk periods: (a) lovastatin (40 mg b.i.d.) + low cholesterol diet (mean 246 mg/d), (b) lovastatin + high cholesterol diet (mean 1,071 mg/d), (c) low cholesterol diet alone, (d) high cholesterol diet alone. In addition to lowering serum LDL cholesterol, lovastatin significantly lowered biliary secretion of cholesterol, fecal output of endogenous neutral sterols, cholesterol bala...

  3. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor recommends. Learn more about eating a healthy diet. Thin people don't have to worry about high cholesterol. A person with any body type can have high cholesterol. Overweight people are more likely to have ... heart-healthy. Have your cholesterol checked regularly regardless of your ...

  4. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  5. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  6. Clinical significance of serum cholesterol levels in multiple myeloma%多发性骨髓瘤患者血清胆固醇水平的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺白; 曹祥山; 顾伟英; 谢晓宝; 吴炜; 钱新瑜; 华晓莹; 严峰; 李海乾

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨多发性骨髓瘤(MM)患者血清胆固醇水平变化及其与分型、分期的关系.方法 回顾分析65例MM患者诊断时血脂水平,包括总胆固醇(TC)、三酰什油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、载脂蛋白A1(Apo-A1)和载脂蛋白B(Apo-B),探讨血脂参数与MM患者免疫球蛋白类型和临床分期关系.以健康体检者30例作为对照组.结果 65例MM患者中IgG型35例(53.85%),Ⅲ期41例(63.1%),MM患者血清TC、HDL-C、LDL-C、Apo-A1和Apo-B明显低于对照组(P0.05);除1例IgD型外,其余64例患者中,IsG和IgA型患者血清TC、HDL-C、LDL-C、Apo-Al和Apo-B均显著低于轻链型(P0.05). Except one case of IgD type, the levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, apo Al and apo B in Ig G and Ig A types of patients were significantly lower than that in the light chain type among other 64 cases (P <0.05), and TG levels in different immunoglobulin types was found no statistical differences. The levels of TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and apo A1 in the patients with stage Ⅲ were lower than that of stage I and controls (P <0.05), furthermore, the level of LDL in stage Ⅱwas lower than that in stage Ⅰ. Conclusion Hypocholesterolemia are seen in the patients with MM and serum cholesterol levels are related to MM staging.

  7. Potassium-doped carbon nanotubes toward the direct electrochemistry of cholesterol oxidase and its application in highly sensitive cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Jingjuan, E-mail: xujj@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Hongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-10-30

    We demonstrate herein a newly developed serum total cholesterol biosensor by using the direct electron transfer of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), which is based on the immobilization of cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) on potassium-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (KMWNTs) modified electrodes. The KMWNTs accelerate the electron transfer from electrode surface to the immobilized ChOx, achieving the direct electrochemistry of ChOx and maintaining its bioactivity. As a new platform in cholesterol analysis, the resulting electrode (ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) exhibits a sensitive response to free cholesterol, with a linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and a detection limit of 5.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3). Coimmobilization of ChEt and ChOx (ChEt/ChOx/KMWNTs/GCE) allows the determination of both free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol. The resulting biosensor shows the same linear range of 0.050-16.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1} for free cholesterol and cholesteryl oleate, with the detection limit of 10.0 and 12.0 nmol L{sup -1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The concentrations of total (free and esterified) cholesterol in human serum samples, determined by using the techniques developed in the present study, are in good agreement with those determined by the well-established techniques using the spectrophotometry.

  8. Polymorphism in SFTPD gene affects assembly and constitutional serum levels of surfactant protein D in a Lebanese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakih, Dalia; Chamat, Soulaima; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna;

    2014-01-01

    the distribution profile of serum constitutional SP-D in the Lebanese population and to investigate the genetic influence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs721917 within SP-D gene (SFTPD) on its multimerization and its serum basal level. The C/T alleles at this SNP level lead respectively either...... to a threonine or methionine at position 11 of the SP-D protein. SP-D was measured by ELISA in serum taken from 97 healthy subjects. The p.Met11Thr SNP was genotyped. Different forms of SP-D were separated by gel filtration chromatography. Basal serum SP-D levels varied extensively, over a range of 108.3 ng...

  9. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  10. Perturbed cholesterol homeostasis in aging spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Gemma M; Dayas, Christopher V; Smith, Doug W

    2016-09-01

    The spinal cord is vital for the processing of sensorimotor information and for its propagation to and from both the brain and the periphery. Spinal cord function is affected by aging, however, the mechanisms involved are not well-understood. To characterize molecular mechanisms of spinal cord aging, microarray analyses of gene expression were performed on cervical spinal cords of aging rats. Of the metabolic and signaling pathways affected, cholesterol-associated pathways were the most comprehensively altered, including significant downregulation of cholesterol synthesis-related genes and upregulation of cholesterol transport and metabolism genes. Paradoxically, a significant increase in total cholesterol content was observed-likely associated with cholesterol ester accumulation. To investigate potential mechanisms for the perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, we quantified the expression of myelin and neuroinflammation-associated genes and proteins. Although there was minimal change in myelin-related expression, there was an increase in phagocytic microglial and astrogliosis markers, particularly in the white matter. Together, these results suggest that perturbed cholesterol homeostasis, possibly as a result of increased inflammatory activation in spinal cord white matter, may contribute to impaired spinal cord function with aging. PMID:27459933

  11. Hematology and serum chemistry of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A

    1991-10-01

    In 1983 and 1984 blood was collected from 79 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to an outdoor enclosure in southern Illinois to establish reference values for hematology and serum chemistry. Packed cell volume, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, calcium, carbon dioxide, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio, and osmolality were measured. Sex and age (adult versus juvenile) of rabbit as well as season (June to September versus October to May) and method of capture (trap versus shot) variously affected most hematology and serum chemistry variables. PMID:1758030

  12. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in adult patients affected by atopic dermatitis and its relation to age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of CD30 and the soluble circulating fragment of CD30 (sCD30 for atopic dermatitis (AD remains unclear. In particular, little is known about the effects of age, duration of disease and Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index (SCORAD on the levels of serum sCD30 in patients affected by AD. In the present study, we have analysed serum sCD30 levels of adult patients affected by AD. The study's population includes 18 non-smoking outpatients, with a diagnosis of AD. As a control group we studied 18 non-atopic subjects from laboratory staff, matched for sex and age. These subjects had no history of AD, urticaria or seasonal or perennial rhinitis or asthma, and had negative skin prick test to a panel of allergens.

  13. Animal model of high cholesterol atherosclerotic erectile dysfunction and mechanism of atherosclerotic erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-ShengYang; Zhao-DianChen; Hong-JuWang

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To establish the animal model of atherosclerotic erectile dysfunction (ED) induced by high cholesterol diet and explore the mechanism of atherosclerotic ED. Methods: Thirty male rabbits were divided at random into two groups: the normal diet (ND)group (n=10) and the high cholesterol (HCH) group fed with 1.5% cholesterol diet (n=20). Serum total cholesterol, plaque areas of the ascending aorta,

  14. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide modification, Lewis antigen expression, and gastric colonization are cholesterol-dependent

    OpenAIRE

    McGee David J; Hildebrandt Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori specifically takes up cholesterol and incorporates it into the bacterial membrane, yet little is currently known about cholesterol's physiological roles. We compared phenotypes and in vivo colonization ability of H. pylori grown in a defined, serum-free growth medium, F12 with 1 mg/ml albumin containing 0 to 50 μg/ml cholesterol. Results While doubling times were largely unaffected by cholesterol, other overt phenotypic changes were observed. H. pylori ...

  15. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Tandy; Chung, Rosanna W. S.; Elaine Wat; Alvin Kamili; Cohn, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the abili...

  16. Effect of Fruit Juice on Cholesterol and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Kai; Xing, Anhui; Chen, Ka; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Shihui; Xu, Hongxia; Mi, Mantian

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure in humans has generated inconsistent results. We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the effect of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure in adults. Methods We performed a strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to October, 2012) for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on serum cholesterol and blood pressure. Study quality was asses...

  17. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  18. Association of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol with Renal Function in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects in a Bangladeshi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoma Hayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are associated with renal diseases. Association of serum lipid parameters with renal function is less studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To assess the correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with glomerular filtration rate (GFR in type 2 diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty confirmed diabetic subjects advised for HbA1c, serum creatinine, serum total cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were included in the study. Serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, serum creatinine, HbA1c were measured by standard methods and serum LDL cholesterol was calculated by Friedewald’s formula. GFR was calculated by MDRD4 variables prediction equation. Total subjects were grouped according to sex; both males and females were subdivided into three subgroups depending on GFR values. Results of lipid parameters were compared by one-way ANOVA among different groups and correlation of lipid parameters with GFR were expressed by Pearson r. Results: HDL cholesterol was significantly different among different GFR groups (p0.05 in males. Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and LDLC/HDL-C were significantly different among three different GFR groups (p<0.01 and only HDL cholesterol and LDL-C/HDL-C showed weak correlation with GFR (r = 0.0770, p<0.05 for HDL cholesterol and r = -0.0803, p<0.05 for LDL-C/HDL-C in females. Conclusion: The study revealed that HDL cholesterol was significantly and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate in both male and female diabetic subjects and assessment of lipid parameters might be a helpful tool to prevent or delay the progression of renal insufficiency.

  19. Evaluation of serum lipoprotein (a in young patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Pragjibhai Kamariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Indians are prone as a community to coronary artery disease (CAD at a much younger age. CAD is affecting Indians 5-10 years earlier than other communities. Lipoprotein (a (Lp (a is now recognized as an independent risk factor for CAD. It is a genetic risk factor. Aim: We evaluate the Lp (a in young patients with myocardial infarction (MI. Settings and design: Study population consisted of 50 patients having MI and 50 control groups. Subjects and Methods: Fasting samples were collected from patients and were analyzed for Lp (a, lipid profile, and blood sugar on fully automated analyzer. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analysis is carried out by using Student's t-test. Results: The difference in total cholesterol (P = 0.8192, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C (P = 0.11, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C (P = 0.8143, triglyceride (P = 0.1177 levels, and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (P = 0.2129 were observed between the case and control groups in this study was not statistically significant. The difference in the Lp (a levels between the case and control groups was highly significant (P-value = 0.0001. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that in young patients with MI there was a male predominance. Lp (a level is an important and independent risk factor for CAD. Serum Lp (a level is not dependent on serum total cholesterol level.

  20. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  1. The mechanism of dietary cholesterol effects on lipids metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol administration has been reported to influence hepatic lipid metabolism in rats. In the present study, the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatic activity and mRNA expression of the enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Fourteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed 1% cholesterol or cholesterol free AIN76 diets for 4 weeks. Results The serum triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased but the total cholesterol and non high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly increased in the cholesterol-fed rats compared with the control rats. And the concentrations of the hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride increased about 4-fold and 20-fold separately by dietary cholesterol. The activities of hepatic malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, phosphatidate phophatase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase were depressed by the cholesterol feeding (40%, 70%, 50%, 15% and 25% respectively. The results of mRNA expression showed that fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2, and HMG-CoA reductase were down-regulated (35%, 30%, 50% and 25% respectively and acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase were up regulated (1.6 and 6.5 folds in liver by the cholesterol administration. Conclusions The dietary cholesterol increased the triglyceride accumulation in liver, but did not stimulate the activity and the gene expression of hepatic enzymes related to triglyceride and fatty acid biosynthesis.

  2. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2016-09-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have a substantial effect on membrane properties. In this spirit, this review describes the biological importance and the roles of oxysterols in the human body. We focus primarily on the effect of oxysterols on lipid membranes, but we also consider other issues such as enzymatic and nonenzymatic synthesis processes of oxysterols as well as pathological conditions induced by oxysterols. PMID:26956952

  3. Association between dietary habits, education, serum triglycerides and blood cholesterol among women of Cabildo, Buenos Aires Asociación entre hábitos nutricionales, educación, triglicéridos séricos y colesterol total en mujeres de Cabildo, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Schneider

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study of 107 women between 20 and 69 years old, living in the town of Cabildo, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which describes food intake and analyses its relation to their education, blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels. A food frequency questionnaire including questions regarding meal patterns and food use were completed by the participants. Questions regarding educational status were included. A nutritional risk score was created from nine food groups. Total blood cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels were determined. Average total blood cholesterol levels of the women who participated in the present study were higher (209 mg/dl than those recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program, while triglyceride values remained within the normal range (124 mg/dl. Total blood cholesterol levels increased with age. Bread, biscuits and cakes were consumed on a daily basis by 98% of the participants and dairy products by 92%, these being mainly full-fat. Meat and fast food intake were very high (96% and 100% respectively. Vegetable and fish intakes were higher among the more educated women. Mayonnaise (58% and butter (43% are popular as food dressings and bread spreads respectively, and sunflower oil was the most commonly used for cooking by 94% of the participants. Women with low educational levels (less than 7 years had higher nutritional risk scores, and thus unhealthier dietary habits than those with more years of formal education. No statistically significant association was found between food groups and cholesterol or triglyceride levels.Se realizó un estudio transversal en 107 mujeres, habitantes del pueblo de Cabildo, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, sobre el consumo de alimentos entre mujeres de 20 a 69 años de edad, analizando su relación con la educación, colesterol total y niveles de triglicéridos. Se encuestó a las participantes sobre el tipo y frecuencia de consumo alimentario y

  4. Chromatographic separation of cholesterol in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, M

    1992-10-30

    mass spectrometry has been widely accepted as a reliable analytical method for highly accurate determination of cholesterol in serum and several definitive methods have been reported. The combination of capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has become an excellent approach for the determination of cholesterol in complex mixtures of sterols and tocopherols, providing high resolution with positive identification. When used to determine cholesterol in multi-component foods, spectrophotometric methods have been documented to overestimate significantly the amount of cholesterol owing to the presence of other interfering substances. A re-evaluation of food products should be undertaken using the more specific chromatographic methods to accumulate data that will more accurately reflect the true cholesterol content. PMID:1494014

  5. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Oct 26,2015 As ... disease and stroke, your doctor may suggest some lifestyle changes. Regardless of whether your plan includes drug ...

  6. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail: John.Katsaras@nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Norbert.Kucerka@nrc.gc.ca

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  7. Emerging Roles for Cholesterol and Lipoproteins in Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gowdy, Kymberly M; Fessler, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, the condition of elevated serum triglycerides, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and/or low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, is a public health problem of growing concern. Dyslipidemia clusters with other disorders of the metabolic syndrome that together influence, and may derive from, chronic inflammation. While best recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, lipid dysregulation has recently been shown to influence a variety of dise...

  8. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  9. Polymorphic variant at the IL2 region is associated with type 1 diabetes and may affect serum levels of interleukin-2

    OpenAIRE

    Fichna, Marta; Żurawek, Magdalena; Fichna, Piotr; Ziółkowska-Suchanek, Iwona; Januszkiewicz, Danuta; Nowak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic variants at the interleukin-2 (IL2) locus affect the risk of several autoimmune disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the association of the four IL2 polymorphisms (rs6822844, rs6534349, rs2069762 and rs3136534) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the Polish population, and to correlate them with the serum interleukin-2 levels. 543 unrelated T1D patients and 706 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The minor T allele at rs6822844 was significantly less frequent in T1D compared to contro...

  10. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    2001-01-01

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat, d

  11. Efficacy and safety of a new cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, atorvastatin, in comparison with simvastatin and pravastatin, in subjects with hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Mahla, G; Muller, D; Pentrup, A; Black, D M

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High levels of total and LDL-cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Lowering of serum cholesterol levels by pharmacologic intervention with inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, the so-called statins, reduces the incidence of cardiovascular

  12. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  13. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  14. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Igl

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. Objective . To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. Study design . We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS based on reindeer herding (TLS group with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group. The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, triglycerides (TG, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. Results . The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥240 mg/dl, as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. Conclusions . The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  15. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  16. 老年亚临床动脉粥样硬化患者血清胆固醇酯脂肪酸水平分析%Evaluation of the serum cholesterol ester fatty acid composition in the elderly with subclinical atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟燕; 禹松林; 张茜; 张传宝; 赵海建; 杨睿悦; 李红霞; 王冬环; 王抒

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate serum levels of cholesterol ester fatty acids in elderly patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (AS),in order to provide supportive laboratory data for early prevention of AS.Methods A retrospective study was undertaken on 180 elderly volunteers (age ≥ 60 years) who had received regular health checkups at Beijing Hospital in 2013,including 92 subclinical AS patients (the subclinical AS group) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) greater than 1 mm and 88 healthy subjects (the control group).Venous blood samples were taken.Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine eleven serum cholesterol ester fatty acids,and enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases were estimated from product-to-precursor ratios.Serum total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI),ApoB,high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and other biochemical indicators were analyzed with automatic biochemistry analyzers and the results were analyzed with independent sample t-test,nonparametric test and logistic regression.Results Compared with the control group,age,TC,LDL-C,ApoB,serum CE16∶1 and △9-desaturase were higher,and serum CE22∶6 was lower in the subclinical AS group (P<0.05).After adjustment for confounding factors such as age,gender,body mass index,TC,TG,HDL-C,and LDL-C,the odds ratio of serum CE22∶6 was 0.29 (95%CI:0.11-0.78,Wald x2:6.009,P < 0.05),compared with the highest quartile and the lowest quartile.However,no significant difference was found in serum CE16∶1 and △9-desaturase.Spearman partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between CE22∶6 and the cardiovascular disease risk index and revealed that CE22∶6 was negatively correlated with Apo A,TC and HDL-C (r=-0.166,-0.149 and-0.194,respectively,each P<0.05),while no significant correlation with other indicators was

  17. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  18. EFFECT OF ACUTE LAMINITIS ON HEMOGRAM AND SERUM BIOCHEMISTRY IN MULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hussain, A. Yousaf and M. Athar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was executed to compare the haemogram and serum biochemistry in healthy males and these affected with acute laminitis. A total of 20 mules of either sex and at 19-24 months of age were divided in two equal groups I and II. The group I comprised of healthy mules, while group II comprised of mules affected with acute laminitis. The parameters compared were haematological parameters (RBC count, TLC, haemoglobin and PCV and serum biochemical parameters (biilirubin total, direct and indirect, ALP and ALT, serum creatinine, and serum cholesterol. The results showed a non-significant difference in values of TLC and PCV between groups I and II, while the values of RBC were significantly lower and haemoglobin were higher (P<0.05 in group I as compared to those of group II. The values of bilirubin (total, direct and indirect in group II were significantly higher (P<0.05 as compared to group I. The values of ALP, ALT, serum creatinine and serum cholesterol of diseased mules were significantly higher when compared with those of healthy mules.

  19. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  20. The Effects of Olive and Pumpkin Seed Oil on Serum Lipid Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Landeka, Irena; Đikić, Domagoj; Radišić, Iva; Teparić, Renata; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Rogić, Dunja

    2011-01-01

    Low-fat diets increase serum triacilglycerol and decrease HDL-cholesterol concentrations, thereby potentially adversely affecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The present study compared the CVD risk profi le of a high-MUFA diets (olive oil) and high-PUFA diets (pumpkin seed oil). The most signifi cant difference between the two groups was that the atherogenic index in groups given olive oil was significantly lower (for approximately 60 %) than atherogenic index recorded in control group...

  1. Pulmonary surfactant proteins and polymer combinations reduce surfactant inhibition by serum

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Karen W.; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Echaide, Mercedes; Taeusch, H. William

    2011-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition that can be associated with capillary leak of serum into alveoli causing inactivation of surfactant. Resistance to inactivation is affected by types and concentrations of surfactant proteins, lipids, and polymers. Our aim was to investigate the effects of different combinations of these three components. A simple lipid mixture (DPPC/POPG) or a more complex lipid mixture (DPPC/POPC/POPG/cholesterol) was used. Native surfac...

  2. Cholesterol metabolism changes under long-term dietary restrictions while the cholesterol homeostasis remains unaffected in the cortex and hippocampus of aging rats

    OpenAIRE

    Smiljanic, Kosara; Vanmierlo, Tim; Djordjevic, Aleksandra Mladenovic; Perovic, Milka; Ivkovic, Sanja; Luetjohann, Dieter; Kanazir, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the brain is vital for its proper functioning. While it is well documented that dietary restriction modulates the metabolism of cholesterol peripherally, little is known as to how it can affect cholesterol metabolism in the brain. The present study was designed to elucidate the impact of long-term dietary restriction on brain cholesterol metabolism. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were exposed to long-term dietary restriction until 12 and 24 months of a...

  3. Preparation of cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles and their application in amperometric determination of cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Sheetal; Rawal, Rachna; Sonia; Ramrati; Pundir, C. S., E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [M. D. University, Department of Biochemistry (India)

    2013-09-15

    The nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of commercial cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were prepared by desolvation method. The formation and characterization of ChOxNP aggregates were studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. NP aggregates were more stable, active and had a higher shelf life than that of free enzyme. An amperometric cholesterol biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ChOxNPs onto Au electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 8 s at pH 6.0 and 35 Degree-Sign C, when polarized at +0.27 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor possesses high sensitivity and measures cholesterol concentrations as low as 1.56 mg/dl. The working linear range was 12.5-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for measurement of total cholesterol in human serum. The enzyme electrode lost 50 % of its initial activity during its regular use for 180 times over a period of 90 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 at 4 Degree-Sign C.

  4. CHOLESTEROL AND CHOLESTEROL ESTER CONTENT OF BOVINE COLOSTRUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Richard E.; Gowen, John W.

    1928-01-01

    The total amount of cholesterol found in colostrum and milk is comparatively low. The amount of cholesterol found in colostrum declines at an ever decreasing rate as milk secretion develops until at 48 hours the cholesterol is nearly the same as that found in milk 3 months or 7 months after parturition. The morning milk differs from the evening milk in that the cholesterol bound as ester is greater in amount. PMID:19869468

  5. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is a complex interplay of a multitude of metabolic pathways situated in different organs. The liver plays a central role and has received most attention of the research community. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the understanding

  6. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  7. Cholesterol efflux capacity: An introduction for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasius, Malcolm; Kockx, Maaike; Jessup, Wendy; Sullivan, David; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and cardiovascular disease outcomes. However, the hypothesis of a causal relationship between HDL-C and cardiovascular disease has been challenged by genetic and clinical studies. Serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is an important measure of HDL function in humans. Recent large clinical studies have shown a correlation between in vitro CEC and cardiovascular disease prevalence and incidence, which appears to be independent of HDL-C concentration. The present review summarizes recent large clinical studies and introduces important methodological considerations. Further studies are required to standardize and establish the reproducibility of this measure of HDL function and clarify whether modulating CEC will emerge as a useful therapeutic target. PMID:27659883

  8. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Myat Khine K; Khan Mohamed A; Ritchie Shawn A; Jayasinghe Dushmanthi; Ma Hong; Ahiahonu Pearson WK; Mankidy Rishikesh; Wood Paul L; Goodenowe Dayan B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies ...

  9. Cholesterol transport in model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.

  10. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Aug 9,2016 How’s your ... the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Interactive Cholesterol Guide Find videos, trackers and more with our ...

  11. Effect of stress on serum cholestrol levels in nurses and housewives of Hyderabad - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort type study was designed to evaluate environmental, psychological and physiological stresses in nurses and housewives and to correlate with their serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Total 160 females from middle socioeconomic groups (nurses, n=80 and housewives, n=80) aged between 25-45 years participated in this study and subjects were selected from Hyderabad and its adjoining areas. Environmental, psychological and physiological stress levels were measured with likert scale. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were measured by CHOD-PAP method and triglyceride levels were measured by GPO method. Housewives were found to have high levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The HDL cholesterol were lower. Environmental, psychological and physiological stresses were significantly higher in housewives as compared to the nurses. Highest level of environmental stress was observed in nonworking group i.e. housewives. A significant relation between serum cholesterol levels and three types of stresses was observed. (author)

  12. Cholesterol Metabolism and Weight Reduction in Subjects with Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Randomised, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate whether parameters of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA associate with cholesterol metabolism before and after weight reduction, 42 middle-aged overweight subjects with mild OSA were randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (N=23 or to control group (N=18 with routine lifestyle counselling only. Cholesterol metabolism was evaluated with serum noncholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols and synthesis (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol at baseline and after 1-year intervention. At baseline, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 was associated with serum campesterol (P<0.05 and inversely with desmosterol ratios (P<0.001 independently of gender, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI was not associated with cholesterol metabolism. Weight reduction significantly increased SaO2and serum cholestanol and decreased AHI and serum cholestenol ratios. In the groups combined, the changes in AHI were inversely associated with changes of cholestanol and positively with cholestenol ratios independent of gender and the changes of BMI and HOMA-IR (P<0.05. In conclusion, mild OSA seemed to be associated with cholesterol metabolism independent of BMI and HOMA-IR. Weight reduction increased the markers of cholesterol absorption and decreased those of cholesterol synthesis in the overweight subjects with mild OSA.

  13. New horizons for cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregory G

    2012-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels bear an inverse relationship to cardiovascular risk. To date, however, no intervention specifically targeting HDL has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular risk. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates transfer of cholesterol ester from HDL to apolipoprotein B-containing particles. Most, but not all observational cohort studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms of CETP associated with reduced activity and higher HDL cholesterol levels are also associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Some, but not all studies indicate that CETP inhibition in rabbits retards atherosclerosis, whereas transgenic CETP expression in mice promotes atherosclerosis. Torcetrapib, the first CETP inhibitor to reach phase III clinical development, was abandoned due to excess mortality associated with increases in aldosterone and blood pressure. Two other CETP inhibitors have entered phase III clinical development. Anacetrapib is a potent inhibitor of CETP that produces very large increases in HDL cholesterol and large reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, beyond those achieved with statins. Dalcetrapib is a less potent CETP inhibitor that produces smaller increases in HDL cholesterol with minimal effect on LDL cholesterol. Both agents appear to allow efflux of cholesterol from macrophages to HDL in vitro, and neither agent affects blood pressure or aldosterone in vivo. Two large cardiovascular outcomes trials, one with anacetrapib and one with dalcetrapib, should provide a conclusive test of the hypothesis that inhibition of CETP decreases cardiovascular risk. PMID:22083134

  14. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2016-01-01

    The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence oflipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim ofthese experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet inducedhyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= 5) each: group 1 = normal control,group 2 = cholesterol diet/high fat diet group only (HFD), group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = HFD + R200 and group 6 = HFD + R400. The normal group was fed with standard animalfeeds only; while the HFD groups were fed with standard animal feeds + cholesterol diet (10% Groundnut oil, 20%Groundnut mill and 2% cholesterol). Resveratrol-treated rabbits received resveratrol suspended in 10 g/Lcarboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the control group received the vehicle only, CMC. The preparations were administeredfor 8 weeks of experimental protocol. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed. Blood and plasma sampleswere collected. Serum evaluation of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (Tg), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDP-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were also assessed. The results obtained showsignificant (P resveratrol treated groups compared to HFD group only.In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrationsand might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:27574767

  15. Serum osteoprotegerin (OPG in children with primary nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel cytokine system secreted by osteoblast, osteoprotegerin (OPG and its ligand (OPGL regulates osteoclastogenesis. To determine the relation of the serum OPG levels in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS to the renal disease, we studied 30 patients with NS in comparison with 30 healthy children serving as controls. The study patients were divided into three equal groups: group 1 included newly diagnosed patients who were studied before and after a short course (one month of steroid therapy for the first time, group 2 included frequent relapsers (FR, and group 3 included infrequent relapsers (IFR. In addition to serum OPG (ELISA, osteocalcin (OC, parathormone (PTH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and 24- hour urinary Ca and proteins were measured. The NS patients revealed a significantly lower serum OPG and parameters of bone formation (ALP and OC and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca than controls. A short course of glucocorticoids therapy for one month resulted in a significant decrease of serum OPG, ALP and OC levels and a significant increase of 24- hour urinary Ca, while serum PTH levels were not significantly affected by this the- rapy; the FR revealed a significantly lower serum level and a significantly higher 24- hour urinary Ca and serum PTH than the IFR. OPG had significant negative correlations with markers of disease activity and severity (ESR, serum cholesterol, 24- hour urinary protein and cumulative steroid dose, PTH and 24- hour urinary Ca. On the other hand, OPG had significant positive correlations with ALP, OC, and serum albumin. Low serum OPG, which is attributed to the renal disease and/or steroid therapy, may be an important factor contributing to bone resorption in NS. Studies of the protective effect of OPG administration against bone loss in NS are warranted.

  16. Effects of dietary cholesterol on cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis in patients with cholesterol gallstones.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, F

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism produced by dietary cholesterol in gallstone subjects and matched controls. Healthy women were recruited and, after confirming the presence or absence of radiolucent gallstones, they were studied on regular diets and again on the same diet supplemented with five eggs daily for 15-18 d. Studies included plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, dietary records, cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis, plasma clearance of ...

  17. An enzyme thermistor-based assay for total and free cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V; Ramanathan, K; Sundaram, P V; Danielsson, B

    1999-11-01

    A method to evaluate the free (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in human serum, bile and gallstone extract using an enzyme thermistor (ET)-based flow injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The cholesterol in high-density (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) have also been evaluated. A heparin functionalized Sepharose column was employed for the isolation of HDL and LDL fractions from serum. The estimation of cholesterol and its esters was based on their reaction with cholesterol oxidase (CO), cholesterol esterase (CE) and catalase (CAT). Three different enzyme columns, i.e. co-immobilized CO/CAT (column A), only CE (column B) and co-immobilized CO/CE/CAT (column C) were prepared by cross-linking the enzymes on glass beads using glutaraldehyde. Column A was used for estimating FC and column C was used for estimating total cholesterol (cholesterol plus esterified cholesterol). Column B was used as a pre-column which could be switched 'in' or 'out' in conjunction with column A for the estimation of TC or FC, respectively. A calibration between 1.0 and 8.0 mmol/l for FC and 0. 25 and 4.0 mmol/l for TC was obtained. For more than 2000 assays with the ET device a C.V. of less than 4% was obtained. The assay time was approximately 4 min per assay. The cholesterol estimations on the ET correlated well with similar estimations using a commercially available cholesterol diagnostic kit.

  18. Apolipoprotein M promotes mobilization of cellular cholesterol in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Sara; Christoffersen, Christina; Luchoomun, Jayraz;

    2013-01-01

    The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice.......The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice....

  19. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Squeo, Valentina; Sangineto, Moris; Graziano, Giusi; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03). None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  20. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Quaranta

    Full Text Available Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03. None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  1. Australian consumers' willingness to pay and willingness to purchase a hypothetical lower cholesterol pork product

    OpenAIRE

    Bellhouse, Amy; Malcolm, Bill; Griffith, Garry R.; Dunshea, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether there would be an increase in consumer willingness to pay and purchase if reduced cholesterol pork was introduced to the Australian market. A stated choice analysis was used, with the following questions addressed. How are current purchases of fresh pork affected by concerns about cholesterol content? What financial premium, if any, would consumers place on reduced cholesterol pork? Would consumers buy more pork if a low cholesterol option were available? Is th...

  2. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  3. Transfer of cholesterol from macrophages to lymphocytes in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bittencourt Júnior, P I; Curi, R

    1998-02-01

    A major feature of macrophage metabolism is its capacity to produce and export cholesterol. Several reports have shown that the manipulation of lymphocyte cholesterol content elicits important changes in lymphocyte proliferation. These findings lead to an inquiry as to whether macrophage-derived cholesterol released into the lymphocyte surroundings may be transferred to the latter thus affecting lymphocyte function. In this study, cholesterol transfer from macrophages to lymphocytes was examined in vitro using rat cells in culture. The findings indicate that there may be a significant transfer of cholesterol from [4-14C]cholesterol labeled resident peritoneal macrophages to mesenteric lymph node resting lymphocytes (up to 173.9 +/- 2.7 pmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages when co-cultivated for 48 h), in a lipoprotein-dependent manner. This represents the mass transfer of ca. 17 nmoles of cholesterol molecules per 10(7) lymphocytes from 10(7) macrophages (calculated on the basis of specific radioactivity incorporated into macrophages after the pre-labelling period), which suggests that macrophages are capable of replacing the whole lymphocyte cholesterol pool every 21 h. Moreover, an 111%-increase in the total cholesterol content of lymphocytes was found after co-cultivation with macrophages for 48 h. When compared to peritoneal cells, monocytes/macrophages obtained from circulating blood leukocytes presented a much higher cholesterol transfer capacity to lymphocytes (3.06 +/- 0.10 nmol/10(7) lymphocytes/10(7) macrophages co-cultivated for 24 h). Interestingly, inflammatory macrophages dramatically reduced their cholesterol transfer ability (by up to 91%, as compared to resident macrophages). Cholesterol transfer may involve a humoral influence, since it is not only observed when cells are co-cultivated in a single-well chamber system (cells in direct contact), but also in a two-compartment system (where cells can communicate but not by direct contact). Co

  4. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface

  5. Influence of psyllium preparations on plasma and liver lipids of cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, D; Tepper, S A; Klurfeld, D M

    1995-01-01

    Rats were fed a semi purified diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 10% fiber (cellulose, pectin, psyllium seed and defatted psyllium husk). One additional group of rats was fed cholesterol (0.5%) as part of a fiber-free diet and another was fed the fiber free diet without cholesterol. Cellulose had virtually no effect on serum or liver lipids. Pectin had a lipid lowering effect. Psyllium seed exerted an effect on total serum cholesterol equal to that of pectin but gave higher levels of HDL-cholesterol. The effects of psyllium seed on liver lipids were more pronounced than those of pectin. Defatted psyllium husk feeding virtually normalized liver size and serum triglyceride levels and produced lower serum total cholesterol levels and higher HDL-cholesterol than observed in normal controls. Defatted psyllium husk feeding also yielded liver lipid values which were in the normal range. Fecal wet and dry weights were significantly higher in rats fed either psyllium preparation. PMID:8833230

  6. The -250G>A promoter variant in hepatic lipase associates with elevated fasting serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol modulated by interaction with physical activity in a study of 16,156 Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andreasen, Camilla H; Andersen, Mette K;

    2008-01-01

    of variants in LIPC on metabolic traits and type 2 diabetes in a large sample of Danes. Because behavioral factors influence hepatic lipase activity, we furthermore examined possible gene-environment interactions in the population-based Inter99 study. DESIGN: The LIPC -250G>A (rs2070895) variant was genotyped...... Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care study [0.038 mmol/liter per allele (95% CI 0.024-0.053); P = 2 x 10(-7)). The allelic effect on HDL-c was modulated by interaction with self-reported physical activity (P(interaction) = 0.002) because vigorous physically active homozygous A......-allele carriers had a 0.30 mmol/liter (95% CI 0.22-0.37) increase in HDL-c compared with homozygous G-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate the association of LIPC promoter variation with fasting serum HDL-c and present data supporting an interaction with physical activity implying an increased effect on HDL...

  7. The effects of coffee consumption on serum lipids and lipoprotein in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuegbu, A J; Agbedana, E O

    2001-01-01

    The changes in total serum cholestrol, serum triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after twenty eight (28) days of consumption of moderate quantity of a commercial coffee preparation (NESCAFE brand) were studied in 30 human subjects consisting of 20 male and 10 female healthy adults. Significant increases in the mean total serum cholesterol concentration (110.8-126.5 mg/100 mls) and LDL- cholesterol concentration (78.4-94.5 mg/100 ml) were observed in the subjects. No significant differences were obtained in the mean HDL cholesterol concentration and in the mean serum triglyceride levels. The differences observed in the mean total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL- cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the individual male and female groups studied were not statistically significant. The results from this study suggest that short-term consumption of coffee may increase the total serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. It is therefore possible that long-term consumption of coffee may lead to clinically significant alterations in serum lipid profile and could be important in the aetiology of atherosclerotic vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease. PMID:14510149

  8. Female offspring of rat dams fed low boron diets during pregnancy and lactation exhibit signs of the metabolic syndrome during early adulthood: increased body weight, and serum triglycerides and total cholesterol concentratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    To expand on reports from this laboratory that low dietary boron may affect energy substrate utilization, we determined whether low dietary boron during early development promotes manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley dams were fed either a boron-low (BL;~0.1 mg ...

  9. Importance of macrophage cholesterol content on the flux of cholesterol mass

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Drazul-Schrader, Denise; Asztalos, Bela F.; Weibel, Ginny L.; Rothblat, George H.

    2010-01-01

    Net flux of cholesterol represents the difference between efflux and influx and can result in net cell-cholesterol accumulation, net cell-cholesterol depletion, or no change in cellular cholesterol content. We measured radiolabeled cell-cholesterol efflux and cell-cholesterol mass using cholesterol-normal and -enriched J774 and elicited mouse peritoneal macrophage cells. Net cell-cholesterol effluxes were observed when cholesterol-enriched J774 cells were incubated with 3.5% apolipoprotein (a...

  10. Influence of cholesterol and ceramide VI on the structure of multilamellar lipid membranes at water exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural changes in the multilamellar lipid membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol and DPPC/ceramide VI binary systems during hydration and dehydration have been studied by neutron diffraction. The effect of cholesterol and ceramide on the kinetics of water exchange in DPPC membranes is characterized. Compared to pure DPPC, membranes of binary systems swell faster during hydration (with a characteristic time of ∼30 min). Both compounds, ceramide VI and cholesterol, similarly affect the hydration of DPPC membranes, increasing the repeat distance due to the bilayer growth. However, in contrast to cholesterol, ceramide significantly reduces the thickness of the membrane water layer. The introduction of cholesterol into a DPPC membrane slows down the change in the parameters of the bilayer internal structure during dehydration. In the DPPC/ceramide VI/cholesterol ternary system (with a molar cholesterol concentration of 40%), cholesterol is partially released from the lamellar membrane structure into the crystalline phase.

  11. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Patients with Severe Hepatitis%血清总胆固醇水平对重型肝炎诊断及预后判断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任星峰; 赵甫涛; 葛娅; 杨群; 胡泰洪

    2004-01-01

    探讨血清总胆固醇(serum total cholesterol简称sTC)水平对重型病毒性肝炎(重肝)的临床诊断及预后判断价值.方法:对经临床和病理双重确诊的234例慢性乙型病毒性肝炎(慢乙肝)及54例乙型重型肝炎患者sTC进行定量观察,并与肝组织病变程度进行对照分析.结果:sTC水平与慢性乙肝及重型肝炎患者肝组织病变程度Ishak计分呈明显负相关(P<0.01,r=-0.56).sTC水平均值<2.07mmol/L者重型肝炎组为77.8%(42/54),重度慢性乙肝组为12.5%(6/48),两组差异有显著性意义(x2=43.46,P<0.01).重型肝炎组存活率与sTC水平呈明显正相关r=0.65,P<0.01),经治疗1周,存活组sTC水平稳步回升,死亡组持续下降.结论:sTC水平变化反映了肝脏的合成功能,与肝组织的病理损害程度密切相关.

  12. Clinical Study of Serum Bilirubin in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level%冠心病患者血清胆红素和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖秀梅

    2013-01-01

    Objectives 35-55 year-old middle-aged men with coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and male healthy subjects, serum bilirubin (BIL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were retrospectively analyzed to explore the middle-aged menserum BIL and LDL-C levels and CHD. Methods Fuxin Second Hospital in January 2012 to November 2012 and confirmed 72 cases of CHD 35-55 year-old middle-aged male patients as the experimental group, 72 cases of the same age male healthy subjects served as controls group. Using automatic biochemical analyzer to detect various groups of subjects serum BIL and LDL-C level, were statistically analyzed. Results CHD patients serum TBIL and, DBIL IBIL concentration were lower than the control group, LDL-C concentration higher than that in the control group, a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). Serum TBIL, the DBIL and, IBIL level of LDL-C concentration were negatively correlated (-1serum BIL may be middle-aged men suffering from CHD risk factors, serum BIL level of LDL-C concentration was significantly negatively related to LDL-C and BIL level of detection of CHD aided diagnosis of certain clinical significance.%  目的通过对35~55岁中年男性冠心病(CHD)患者与男性健康体检者血清胆红素(BIL)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平进行回顾性分析,探讨中年男性血清BIL和LDL-C水平与CHD发生的关系及血清BIL和LDL-C水平的相关性,为临床CHD的预防和治疗提供理论基础和实验依据。方法选择2012年1月至2012年11月到阜新市第二医院就诊并确诊为CHD的72例35-55岁中年男性患者作为实验组,72例相同年龄段的男性健康体检者作为对照组。采用全自动生化仪检测各组研究对象血清BIL和LDL-C

  13. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  14. Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of ovariectomized mice without affecting the serum estrogen concentration or uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ling Wang,1,2,* Xue-Min Qiu,1,2,* Yu-Yan Gui,1,2 Ying-Ping Xu,1,2 Hans-Jürgen Gober,3 Da-Jin Li1 1Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, Hospital and Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, IBS, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmacy, Wagner Jauregg Hospital and Children’s Hospital, Linz, Austria *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin Decoction (BSNXD, a traditional Chinese medicinal composition, has been used as a remedy for postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its effects on bone metabolism and the uterus have not been reported.Purpose: We aimed to determine the respective effects of BSNXD on the bones and the uterus of ovariectomized (OVX mice to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula.Materials and methods: Postmenopausal osteoporosis animal models that were generated by ovariectomy were treated with BSNXD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to analyze the bone mineral density, and histomorphometric analysis was performed to measure the parameters related to bone metabolism. Calcein labeling was performed to detect bone formation. The uteruses from the mice were weighed, and the histomorphometry was analyzed. Drug-derived serum was prepared to assess the 17-β-estradiol concentration via enzyme immunoassay.Results: BSNXD administration ameliorated the osteoporotic phenotype of OVX mice, as evidenced by an increase in the bone mineral density and bone volume; these effects could not be abolished by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Moreover, BSNXD had no effect on the serum estrogen concentration or uterus.Conclusion: These results suggest that BSNXD has ameliorating effects on bone loss due to estrogen deprivation without affecting the peripheral blood estrogen concentration or the uterus in OVX mice. Keywords

  15. 脑血流低灌注老龄大鼠中脑皮质血流的改变与血清总胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白的动态变化%Dynamic changes of cortical blood flow and serum total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein in brains of aging rat during cerebral hypoperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林辉; 田茗源; 滕志朋; 王晨; 李昱

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过建立脑血流低灌注模型,观察老龄大鼠脑血流的变化以及在脑血流低灌注下血清中总胆固醇(Total cholesterol,TC)和高密度脂蛋白(High density lipoprotein,HDL)的动态变化.方法:采用持久性双侧颈总动脉结扎法(2Vo)致老龄大鼠脑血流灌注不足,测定术后7、14、21、28d大鼠脑皮质血流;检测、比较术后不同时间段大鼠血清中TC和HDL浓度差异.结果:术后第14天大鼠脑颞区血流出现明显减少;术后21、28d大鼠脑局部皮质血管有再生侧支形成,大鼠脑颞区血流仍未恢复;术后第14天血清中HDL、TC含量明显高于假手术组(P<0.05),随着缺血时间延长,又逐渐降低.结论:血清TC和HDL浓度在脑缺血灌注不足的不同时间段经历了先增强后减弱的动态变化,提示脑血流低灌注老龄大鼠因大脑血流灌注不足可出现体内胆固醇代谢失衡并出现应激调节现象.%Objective: To investigate the change of cortical blood flow and the dynamic changes of serum total cholesterol(TC ) and high density lipoprotein(HDL) in brains of aging rat during cerebral ischemic injury. Methods:The model of aging rats with cerebral hy-poperfusion was successfully constructed by persistent bilateral common carotid artery ligation(2V0). The cortical blood flow and the concentration of serum TC and HDL at different time points were determined and compared. Results: Compared with the sham-operated group,the temporal blood flow was significantly decreased in 14 d group. But the collateral vessels were gradually regenerated and formed in local brain,while the temporal blood flow was restored in 21 d and 28 d group. The concentration of HDL and TC was significantly higher in 14 d group than in the sham-operated group (P<0.05), and both of them were decreased with the extention of ischemia time. Conclusions:The serum TC and HDL concentration undergo dynamic changes-increasing first and then decreasing during the process

  16. Food combinations for cholesterol lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Janice I

    2012-12-01

    Reducing elevated LDL-cholesterol is a key public health challenge. There is substantial evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) that a number of foods and food components can significantly reduce LDL-cholesterol. Data from RCT have been reviewed to determine whether effects are additive when two or more of these components are consumed together. Typically components, such as plant stanols and sterols, soya protein, β-glucans and tree nuts, when consumed individually at their target rate, reduce LDL-cholesterol by 3-9 %. Improved dietary fat quality, achieved by replacing SFA with unsaturated fat, reduces LDL-cholesterol and can increase HDL-cholesterol, further improving blood lipid profile. It appears that the effect of combining these interventions is largely additive; however, compliance with multiple changes may reduce over time. Food combinations used in ten 'portfolio diet' studies have been reviewed. In clinical efficacy studies of about 1 month where all foods were provided, LDL-cholesterol is reduced by 22-30 %, whereas in community-based studies of >6 months' duration, where dietary advice is the basis of the intervention, reduction in LDL-cholesterol is about 15 %. Inclusion of MUFA into 'portfolio diets' increases HDL-cholesterol, in addition to LDL-cholesterol effects. Compliance with some of these dietary changes can be achieved more easily compared with others. By careful food component selection, appropriate to the individual, the effect of including only two components in the diet with good compliance could be a sustainable 10 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol; this is sufficient to make a substantial impact on cholesterol management and reduce the need for pharmaceutical intervention.

  17. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes : a post hoc analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Y.; Dobre, D.; Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; Brenner, B. M.; Cooper, M. E.; Parving, H-H.; Shahinfar, S.; Grobbee, D.; de Zeeuw, D.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. We performed a post hoc analysis in patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Reduction of Endpoint

  18. Comparison of biosensors based on entrapment of cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase in electropolymerized films of polypyrrole and diaminonaphthalene derivatives for amperometric determination of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, J C; Garcia-Ruiz, E; Espuelas, J; Aramendia, T; Castillo, J R

    2003-09-01

    Cholesterol amperometric biosensors constructed with enzymes entrapped in electropolymerized layers of polypyrrole and poly-naphthalene derivative polymers are compared. The biosensors are based on entrapment of cholesterol oxidase and/or cholesterol esterase in monolayer or multilayer films electrochemically synthesised from pyrrole, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene (1,8-DAN), and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN) monomers. Seven configurations were assayed and compared, and different analytical properties were obtained depending on the kind of polymer and the arrangement of the layers. The selectivity properties were evaluated for the different monolayer and bilayer configurations proposed as a function of the film permeation factor. All the steps involved in the preparation of the biosensors and determination of cholesterol were carried out in a flow system. Sensitivity and selectivity depend greatly on hydrophobicity, permeability, compactness, thickness, and the kind of the polymer used. In some cases a protective outer layer of non-conducting poly( o-phenylenediamine) polymer improves the analytical characteristics of the biosensor. A comparative study was made of the analytical performance of each of the configurations developed. The biosensors were also applied to the flow-injection determination of cholesterol in a synthetic serum. PMID:12923606

  19. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies. PMID:24447914

  20. Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ting WANG; Jia LI; Li LIU; Nan HU; Shi JIN; Can LIU; Dan MEI; Xiao-dong LIU

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Diabetes is associated with elevated serum total cholesterol level and disrupted lipoprotein subfractions.The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the tissue cholesterol contents closely related to diabetic complications.Methods:Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin was used to induce type 1 diabetes in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.On d 35 after the injection,liver,heart,intestine,kidney,pancreas,cerebral cortex and hippocampus were isolated from the rats.The content of total and free cholesterol in the tissues was determined using HPLC.The ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) protein and ApoE mRNA were measured using Western blot and QT-PCR analyses,respectively.Results:In diabetic rats,the level of free cholesterol was significantly decreased in the peripheral tissues,but significantly elevated in hippocampus,as compared with those in the control rats.Diabetic rats showed a trend of decreasing the total cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues,but significant change was only found in kidney and liver.In diabetic rats,the level of the ABCA1 protein was significantly increased in the peripheral tissues and cerebral cortex; the expression of ApoE mRNA was slightly decreased in hippocampus and cerebral cortex,but the change had no statistical significance.Conclusion:Type 1 diabetes decreases the free cholesterol content in the peripheral tissues and increases the free cholesterol content in hippocampus.The decreased free cholesterol level in the peripheral tissues may be partly due to the increased expression of the ABCA1 protein.

  1. Comparison of serum creatine kinase estimation with short tandem repeats based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive lethal, genetic disorder characterised by progressive weakness of skeletal muscles which is untreatable and transmitted to males by carrier females. Advances in laboratory techniques now focus direct mutational analysis as the most reliable and indirect analysis based on Short Tandem Repeats (STR) based linkage analysis as feasible, inexpensive, and efficient method for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic efficiency of Serum Creatine Kinase (SCK) with Short Tandem Repeats (STR based linkage analysis in carriers and affected children of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Methods: The study was carried out from Dec 2006 to Dec 2007 in families having index clinical cases of DMD who were referred from different hospitals for evaluation/workup of DMD. SCK was done as a preliminary investigation in all index cases. The PCR assay with STR based linkage analysis with Intron 44, 45, 49 and 50 of DMD gene were performed in all families. Six families were informative with Intron 44 of DMD gene and one family was non-informative with all four intronic markers of DMD. SCK analyses were done in all the family members and compared with PCR analysis in informative families. SCK was not performed on Chorionic villous sample (CVS) done for prenatal diagnosis of DMD, and CVS and non-informative family members were excluded from the study. Results: In carriers of DMD, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 33.3%, and specificity and positive predictive were 100% with diagnostic efficiency of 50%. In affected cases of DMD the sensitivity and negative predictive value of SCK were 100%, and specificity and positive predictive were 91% and 88.8% respectively and diagnostic efficiency of 94.1%. Conclusion: The SCK is an excellent screening test for

  2. Reducing Cholesterol Intake: Are the recommendations valid?

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Joanna K.; McDonald, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors question dietary recommendations for the general public calling for reduced cholesterol intake. Metabolic studies have shown that dietary cholesterol normally induces only small increases in blood cholesterol level. There is evidence that only a portion of the population responds to a change in cholesterol intake; hence lowering dietary cholesterol will be effective for only some.

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMeaney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g. the Hedgehog system. A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more ‘traditional’ regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review.

  4. MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND SERUM LIPIDS IN PAT IENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Latha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress were evaluated in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Total antioxidant capacity were measured in serum of PCOS subjects and age matche d controls. RESULTS: Study group comprised of 31 women with PCOS and control group wit h 31 healthy volunteers. Mean serum levels of MDA, Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL c holesterol were significantly increased and TAC and HDL cholesterol were significantly decrease d in PCOS subjects compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that PCOS is associated with d yslipidemia and altered oxidative status.

  5. Inhibition of pancreatic cholesterol esterase reduces cholesterol absorption in the hamster

    OpenAIRE

    Heidrich, John E.; Contos, Linda M; Hunsaker, Lucy A; Deck, Lorraine M.; Vander Jagt, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cholesterol esterase has three proposed functions in the intestine: 1) to control the bioavailability of cholesterol from dietary cholesterol esters; 2) to contribute to incorporation of cholesterol into mixed micelles; and 3) to aid in transport of free cholesterol to the enterocyte. Inhibitors of cholesterol esterase are anticipated to limit the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Results The selective and potent cholesterol esterase inhibitor 6-chloro-3-(1-ethyl-2-cycl...

  6. Trans Fatty Acid Derived Phospholipids Show Increased Membrane Cholesterol and Reduced Receptor Activation as Compared to Their Cis Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Shui-Lin; Mitchell, Drake C.; Litman, Burton J.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of trans fatty acid (TFA) is linked to the elevation of LDL cholesterol and is considered to be a major health risk factor for coronary heart disease. Despite several decades of extensive research on this subject, the underlying mechanism of how TFA modulates serum cholesterol levels remains elusive. In this study, we examined the molecular interaction of TFA-derived phospholipid with cholesterol and the membrane receptor rhodopsin in model membranes. Rhodopsin is a prototypic...

  7. Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Stroke More Understand Your Risk for High Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 LDL (bad) cholesterol is ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol Guidelines: Putting the pieces together Myth vs. Truth – ...

  8. Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Dictionary Additional Content Medical News Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders By Anne Carol Goldberg, MD ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Cholesterol Disorders Overview of Cholesterol and Lipid Disorders Dyslipidemia ...

  9. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000211.htm Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor To use the ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your body needs cholesterol to work properly. When you have extra cholesterol ...

  10. A Decreased Responsiveness of Platelet to Nitric Oxide in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNJing; ZHANGAi-xia; LUOChun-xia; WANGWei; SUNYong-jun; ZHUDong-ya

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether endothelial dysfunction leads to an abnormal responsiveness of platelet to nitric oxide(NO)during the development of atherosclerosis. Methods:Rabbits were fed a 1% cholesterol chow for 12 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. Sermn NOx levels and the responsiveness of platelet to NO donor SNP were determined every 4 weeks during maintaining on a chow containing 1% cholesterol. The measurement of serum lipids and the examination of morphological feature and endothelial-dependent relaxation of aorta were performed after 12 weeks of cholesterol diet. Resu/ts.Cholesterol diet significantly increased sermn levels of cholesterol and LDL, caused a remarkable platelet hyperaggregability, and produced an evident endothelial dysfunction as indicated by the diminished vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and endothelial cell lesion as exhibited by scanning electron microscope examination. The percentage of inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by NO donor SNIP was significantly smaller in cholesterol chow group than that in normal chow group although no significant difference in serum NOx levels between normal and cholesterol chow group was observed throughout the development of atherosclexosis. :The present study suggests that the endothelial dysfunction caused by enhanced sermn cholesterol and LDL levels induces a decreased responsiveness of platelet to NO.

  11. The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Nilo B; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2002-06-01

    Dietary therapy is the cornerstone of lipid management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key strategies are the reduction of intake of saturated fat, trans unsaturated fat and cholesterol, and the reduction of energy intake to promote weight loss. This approach will produce significant improvements in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. According to both the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), the primary target of therapy is the serum LDL cholesterol level, with the secondary targets being non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. The recently updated guidelines of the NCEP place new emphasis on increasing soluble fiber intake to 10 to 25 g/d and adding foods fortified with plant stanols/sterols (2 g/d) as options to enhance the LDL cholesterol-lowering effect of diet.

  12. Within-person variation in serum lipids: implications for clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, M.A.; Weggemans, R.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Hannan, P.J.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about the degree to which behavioural, biological, and genetic traits contribute to within-person variation in serum cholesterol. Materials and Methods The authors studied within-person variation in serum total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 458 particip

  13. In vitro determination of the solubility limit of cholesterol in phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epand, Richard M; Bach, Diana; Wachtel, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol has limited solubility in phospholipid bilayers. The solubility limit is strongly dependent on the nature of the lipid with which the cholesterol is mixed while properties of the crystals formed can be modified by phospholipid-cholesterol interactions. In this review we summarize the various methods that have been developed to prepare hydrated mixtures of cholesterol and phospholipid. We point out some of the factors that determine the form adopted when cholesterol crystallizes in such mixtures, i.e. two- or three-dimensional, monohydrate or anhydrous. These differences can greatly affect the ability to experimentally detect the presence of these crystals in a membrane. Several methods for detecting cholesterol crystals are discussed and compared including DSC, X-ray and GIXRD diffraction methods, NMR and EPR spectroscopy. The importance of the history of the sample in determining the amount and nature of the cholesterol crystals formed is emphasized. PMID:27370110

  14. Interaction between cholesterol and chitosan in Langmuir monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe J. Pavinatto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan incorporated in the aqueous subphase is found to affect the Langmuir monolayers of cholesterol, causing the surface pressure and the surface potential isotherms to become more expanded. The mean molecular area per cholesterol molecule in the condensed monolayer increases from 53 Ų in the absence of chitosan to 61 Ų for a concentration of 0.100 mg/mL of chitosan in the subphase. If additional chitosan is incorporated in the subphase, no change is noted, which points to saturation in the effects from chitosan. The interaction between chitosan and cholesterol probably occurs via hydrogen bonding. The monolayer expansion is also manifested in the monolayer morphology, as indicated by Brewster angle microscopy measurements, where larger cholesterol domains are visualized when chitosan is present in the subphase.

  15. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris;

    2008-01-01

    circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  16. Association between chronic periodontitis and serum lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejčić Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Periodontitis is a local inflammatory process mediating destruction of periodontal tissues triggered by bacterial insult. However, this disease is also characterized by systemic inflammatory host responses that may contrbute, in part, to the recently reported increased risk for systemic diseases, including an altered lipid metabolism. On the other hand, many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk faktor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Methods. A total of 50 patients with periodontitis included in this study had no documented history of recent acute coronary events. The healthy, non-periodontal subjects (comparison group comprised 25 subjects. All the patients were periodontology examined and completed a medical history. Dental plaque index, probing depth, gingival index bleeding on probing and clinical attechment levels were recorded. Blood samples were taken on admission for measurements of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, hight density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Results. The obtained results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (6.09 ± 1.61 mmol/L, triglycerdes (2.19+1.67mmol/l and LDL cholesterol (4.09 ± 1.40 mmol/L in individuals with periodontitis were higer, and levels od HDL (1.43 ± 0.51 mmol/L was lower than those of individuals without periodontitis (4.86 ± 1.37; 1.14 ± 0.71; 3.18 ± 0.64; 1.53 ± 0.32 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. This study confirms a significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. The results imply that periodontitis may be a risk factor and may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, future prospective randomized studies have to determine whether

  17. The effects of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic diets containing Bacillus coagulans and inulin on serum lipid profile in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans, and inulin, either separately or in combination, on lipid profile using a rat model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8 and fed as follows: standard diet (control, standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin (prebiotic, standard diet with 109 spores/day spores of B. coagulans by orogastric gavage (probiotic, and standard diet with 5% w/w long chain inulin and 109 spores/day of B. coagulans (synbiotic. Rats were fed for 30 days. Serum samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 days following onset of treatment. Total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were analyzed. Results of this study showed that inulin potentially affected the lipid profile. An obvious decrease in serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol of rats fed with inulin in symbiotic and prebiotic groups was seen in all sampling days. Inulin fed rats also demonstrated higher levels of HDL-cholesterol concentration; however this value in probiotic and control fed rats remains without significant change. According to the results of this study, B. coagulans did not contribute to any lipid profile changes after 30 days. Thus, further in vitro investigations on the characteristic of these bacteria could be useful to gain insights into understanding the treatment of probiotics in order to achieve the maximum beneficial effect.

  18. Membrane plasmalogen composition and cellular cholesterol regulation: a structure activity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Myat Khine K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra- and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol. Furthermore, depleted brain plasmalogens have been implicated in AD and serum plasmalogen deficiencies have been linked to AD, CVD, and cancer. Results Using plasmalogen deficient (NRel-4 and plasmalogen sufficient (HEK293 cells we investigated the effect of species-dependent plasmalogen restoration/augmentation on membrane cholesterol processing. The results of these studies indicate that the esterification of cholesterol is dependent upon the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-containing ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn present in the membrane. We further elucidate that the concentration-dependent increase in esterified cholesterol observed with PUFA-PlsEtn was due to a concentration-dependent increase in sterol-O-acyltransferase-1 (SOAT1 levels, an observation not reproduced by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. Conclusion The present study describes a novel mechanism of cholesterol regulation that is consistent with clinical and epidemiological studies of cholesterol, aging and disease. Specifically, the present study describes how selective membrane PUFA-PlsEtn enhancement can be achieved using 1-alkyl-2-PUFA glycerols and through this action reduce levels of total and free cholesterol in cells.

  19. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  20. Cholesterol testing on a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Mancuso, Matthew; Erickson, David

    2014-02-21

    Home self-diagnostic tools for blood cholesterol monitoring have been around for over a decade but their widespread adoption has been limited by the relatively high cost of acquiring a quantitative test-strip reader, complicated procedure for operating the device, and inability to easily store and process results. To address this we have developed a smartphone accessory and software application that allows for the quantification of cholesterol levels in blood. Through a series of human trials we demonstrate that the system can accurately quantify total cholesterol levels in blood within 60 s by imaging standard test strips. In addition, we demonstrate how our accessory is optimized to improve measurement sensitivity and reproducibility across different individual smartphones. With the widespread adoption of smartphones and increasingly sophisticated image processing technology, accessories such as the one presented here will allow cholesterol monitoring to become more accurate and widespread, greatly improving preventive care for cardiovascular disease.

  1. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface. In this article we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27056099

  2. Formation of cholesterol bilayer domains precedes formation of cholesterol crystals in cholesterol/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes: EPR and DSC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K

    2013-08-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol %. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogues, it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol % cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol % cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that the formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol % is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol % cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals.

  3. Cholesterol Worships a New Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ira G. Schulman

    2009-01-01

    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  4. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K. W.; Macfarlane, D G

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  5. High-density lipoproteincholesterol, reverse cholesterol transport, and cardiovascular risk: a tale of genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cimmino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol deposition plays a central role in atherogenesis. The accumulation of lipid material is the result of an imbalance between the influx and efflux of cholesterol within the arterial wall. High levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol are considered the major mechanism responsible for the influx and accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial wall, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL- cholesterol seems responsible for its efflux. The mechanism by which cholesterol is removed from extra-hepatic organs and delivered to the liver for its catabolism and excretion is called reverse cholesterol transport (RCT. Epidemiological evidence has associated high levels of HDL-cholesterol/ApoA-I with protection against atherosclerotic disease, but the ultimate mechanism(s responsible for the beneficial effect is not well established. HDLs are synthesized by the liver and small intestine and released to the circulation as a lipid-poor HDL (nascent HDL, mostly formed by ApoA-I and phospholipids. Through their metabolic maturation, HDLs interact with the ABCA1 receptor in the macrophage surface increasing their lipid content by taking phospholipids and cholesterol from macrophages becoming mature HDL. The cholesterol of the HDLs is transported to the liver, via the scavenger receptor class B, type I, for further metabolization and excretion to the intestines in the form of bile acids and cholesterol, completing the process of RCT. It is clear that an inherited mutation or acquired abnormality in any of the key players in RCT mat affect the atherosclerotic process.

  6. Ionic channels and nerve membrane constituents. Tetrodotoxin-like interaction of saxitoxin with cholesterol monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, R; Barnola, F V

    1972-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) have the same striking property of blocking the Na(+) channels in the axolemma. Experiments with nerve plasma membrane components of the squid Dosidicus gigas have shown that TTX interacts with cholesterol monolayers. Similar experiments were carried out with STX. The effect of STX on the surface pressure-area diagrams of lipid monolayers and on the fluorescence emission spectra of sonicated nerve membranes was studied. The results indicate a TTX-like interaction of STX with cholesterol monolayers. The expansion of the monolayers caused by 10(-6)M STX was 2.2 A(2)/cholesterol molecule at 25 degrees C. From surface pressure measurements at constant cholesterol area (39 A(2)/molecule) in media with various STX concentrations, it was calculated that the STX/cholesterol surface concentration ratio is 0.54. The apparent dissociation constant of the STX-cholesterol monolayer complex is 4.0 x 10(-7)M. The STX/cholesterol ratio and the apparent dissociation constant are similar to those determined for TTX. The presence of other lipids in the monolayers affects the STX-cholesterol association. The interactions of STX and TTX with cholesterol monolayers suggest (a) that cholesterol molecules may be part of the nerve membrane Na(+) channels, or (b) that the toxin receptor at the nerve membrane shares similar chemical features with the cholesterol monolayers. PMID:5007264

  7. Reduction of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats by Guar gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: These results suggested that guar gum may be effective as hypocholesterolemic agent and may prevent hypercholesteromia in hypercholesteromic rats. The results also suggested that guar gum may be important for reducing body weight in hyperlipidemic rats.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of Treating Low HDL-Cholesterol in the Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Joel W. Hay; Kimberly L. Sterling

    2005-01-01

    Background: A low serum level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Fibrates, particularly gemfibrozil, have been shown to raise HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce the incidence of CHD. The literature on fibrate cost effectiveness is quite limited. Objective: The objective of this analysis is to determine the cost effectiveness of the fibrates gemfibrozil and fenofibrate in the primary prevention of CHD. The target populat...

  9. Effects of a Dietary Supplement with Barley Sprout Extract on Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    A Ri Byun; Hyejin Chun; Jin Lee; Sang Wha Lee; Hong Soo Lee; Kyung Won Shim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Barley sprout (Hordeum vulgare L.) contains 4.97% fat, 52.6% polysaccharide, and 34.1% protein along with a variety of vitamins, minerals, and polyphenolic compounds. Hexacosanol is one such compound from the barley leaf that might improve cholesterol metabolism by decreasing cholesterol synthesis. Method. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of barley sprout extract on serum lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers (n = 51). Subjects were randomly divided i...

  10. Hubungan Kadar Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol dengan Kejadian dan Keparahan Stroke Akut

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Azwita Effrina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : The role of serum cholesterol as the stroke etiology is still uncertain. Studies that focused on the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and acute stroke was still rare, with inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between LDL-C level and the acute stroke occurance and severity. Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional study of 51-acute stroke patients in Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan. Subjects...

  11. Validity of animal models for the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee diterpenes in human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, de, B.; Sawyer, J K; Katan, M.B.; Rudel, L L

    1999-01-01

    Cafestol and kahweol, coffee lipids present in unfiltered coffee brews, potently increase LDL-cholesterol concentration in human subjects. We searched for an animal species in which cafestol similarly increases LDL-cholesterol. Such an animal model could be used subsequently as a model to study the mechanism of action of cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol increased serum lipids in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), cebus (Cebus apella) and rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys,...

  12. Formation of Cholesterol Bilayer Domains Precedes Formation of Cholesterol Crystals in Cholesterol/Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Membranes: EPR and DSC Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol%. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogs it was shown that the...

  13. Facts about...Blood Cholesterol. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet on blood cholesterol examines the connection between cholesterol and heart disease, lists risk factors for heart disease that can and cannot be controlled, points out who can benefit from lowering blood cholesterol, distinguishes between blood and dietary cholesterol, describes low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein…

  14. 血清低密度脂蛋白与急性出血性卒中患者病情的相关性分析%Analysis of relation between serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the pathogenetic condition of pa-tients with acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬莹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL‐C)and the patho‐genetic condition of patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke. Methods The clinical data of 100 cases of patients with acute hem‐orrhagic stroke in our hospital from January 2010 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were divided into 43 cases of LDL‐C0.05).The incidence of hematoma enlargement of LDL‐C<2.49 mmol/L group was significantly increased, compared with LDL‐C≥2.49 mmol/L group, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05), and the level of LDL‐C in patients with hematoma enlargement was significantly lower than that of patients without hematoma enlargement, the difference was statistically signifi‐cant(P<0.05). Conclusion The pathogenetic condition of patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke is related with the serum LDL‐C level, patients with LDL‐C<2.49 mmol/L are prone to occur hematoma enlargement. It should pay much attention to the detection of serum LDL‐C on admission, w hich is helpful to predict the pathogenetic condition.%目的探讨血清低密度脂蛋白(LDL‐C)和急性出血性卒中患者病情的关系。方法100例急性出血性卒中患者按照入院时LDL‐C水平分成LDL‐C<2.49 mmol/L组43例与LDL‐C≥2.49 mmol/L组57例,分析急性出血性卒中患者病情程度与LDL‐C水平的相关性。结果2组患者在凝血酶原时间、收缩压、舒张压、血肿大小、纤维蛋白原、部分活化凝血酶时间、血小板数量以及血糖等生化指标水平比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);LDL‐C<2.49 mmol/L组血肿扩大发生率显著上升,与LDL‐C≥2.49 mmol/L组相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且血肿扩大患者的LDL‐C水平显著低于无血肿扩大患者,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论急性出血性卒中患者病情与血清LDL‐C水平有关,LDL‐C<2.49 mmol

  15. 低密度脂蛋白胆固醇与跟腱厚度相关性的初步临床研究%Preliminary Research for the Relationship Between Serum Levels of Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Achilles Tendon Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 王蓓; 潘丽丽; 何成毓; 万象新; 郑志昂; 黄正新; 邹朝宝; 符明昌

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between the serum levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and achilles tendon thickness (ATT). Methods: We studied 154 patients with high serum level of LDL-C (LDL-C≥3.37 mmol/L) from 2014-03 to 2015-03, the patients were at (18-75) years of age. According to《Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Blood Lipid Abnormality in Chinese Adults 2007》, the patients were divided into 2 groups:Borderline high LDL-C (3.3-4.12 mmol/L) group n=50 and High LDL-C (≥4.14 mmol/L) group, n=104;in addition, there was a Normal control group (LDL-C Results: ATT levels in High LDL-C group (9.42 ± 3.63) mm was higher than Borderline high group (8.24±1.73) mm and Normal control group (6.05±0.28)mm, all P Conclusion: Our preliminary research showed that the higher serum level of LDL-C associated with thicker ATT, they had positive correlation. This phenomenon should be further conifrmed by large sample and multi-center investigation.%目的:研究血清低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平与跟腱厚度(ATT)之间的相关性。  方法:2014-03至2015-03期间收集18~75岁、血清LDL-C水平高于正常上限(≥3.37 mmol/L)的患者154例,根据《中国成人血脂异常防治指南(2007年)》,分为LDL-C边缘升高(3.37~4.12 mmol/L)组(n=50)和LDL-C升高(≥4.14 mmol/L)组(n=104);另以血清LDL-C水平正常(<3.37 mmol/L)者作为对照组(n=51)。采用标准化的直接数字化X线摄影术测量三组受试者的ATT,进行比较,并分析血清LDL-C水平与ATT之间的相关性。  结果:LDL-C升高组的ATT平均值[(9.42±3.63)mm]高于LDL-C边缘升高组[(8.24±1.73)mm]和对照组[(6.05±0.28)mm],三组受试者ATT间的差异均具有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。线性相关分析显示,血清LDL-C水平与ATT平均值的相关系数r=0.346(P  结论:本研究小样本初步观察发现,血清LDL-C水

  16. Correlation between Serum T3 Resin Uptake and Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinarvand, GH. ( MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: T3 resin uptake test indicates the availability of thyroxin binding globulin (TBG, which is the carrier of a large amount of T3 and T4 in blood. We aimed to study the relationship between serum T3 Resin Uptake and serum lipids profile. Material and Methods: The participants aged 14.80 ± 38.29 were both males (59; 29.5% and females (141; 70.5 %. T3 Resin Uptake was measured by Immunoassay method and serum lipid profile components (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, and VLDL were measured by the kit. Results: Significant negative correlation was observed between serum T3 Resin Uptake and cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C (P≤ 0.05, but that was not the case for HDL-C and VLDL. Conclusion: Serum T3 Resin Uptake can be evaluated to assess the risk factors related to cardiovascular disorders

  17. 辣椒粉对苏禽绿壳蛋鸡产蛋性能、蛋品质、血清脂质和蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响%Effects of Paprika Powder on Laying Performance, Egg Quality, Serum Lipid Indices and Yolk Cholesterol Content of Suqin Green-Shelled Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲亮; 徐小林; 王克华; 卢建; 童海兵; 窦套存; 李尚民

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同水平辣椒粉对蛋鸡产蛋性能、蛋品质、血清脂质和蛋黄胆固醇含量的影响。试验选用28周龄体况良好、产蛋率接近的苏禽绿壳蛋鸡250只,随机分成5个组,每组5个重复,每个重复10只鸡。对照组饲粮不含辣椒粉,试验组饲粮分别含有0.10%、0.20%、0.30%和0.40%的辣椒粉,试验期42 d。结果表明:1)0.30%和0.40%辣椒粉组平均蛋重显著高于对照组(P<0.05),平均日采食量显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。2)第14天,0.20%、0.30%和0.40%辣椒粉组蛋黄颜色显著高于对照组( P<0.05);第28天,0.30%和0.40%辣椒粉组哈氏单位显著高于对照组( P<0.05),各试验组蛋黄颜色显著高于对照组( P<0.05);第42天,0.30%和0.40%辣椒粉组哈氏单位显著高于对照组( P<0.05),各试验组蛋黄颜色均显著高于对照组( P<0.05)。3)各试验组血清胆固醇和甘油三酯含量与对照组差异均不显著( P>0.05)。第14、28和42天,各试验组蛋鸡蛋黄胆固醇含量与对照组差异均不显著( P>0.05)。由此可见,饲粮辣椒粉添加水平为0.30%和0.40%时,能显著增加平均蛋重,提高鸡蛋哈氏单位和蛋黄颜色,降低平均日采食量,对血清脂质和蛋黄胆固醇含量无不良影响。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary different paprika powder levels on lay-ing performance, egg quality, serum lipid indices and yolk cholesterol content of laying hens.Two hundred and fifty 28-week-old Suqin green-shelled laying hens with a similar laying rate were assigned to 5 groups with 5 replicates in each group and 10 laying hens per replicate.The diet of control group was no paprika power, while the diets of experimental group contained 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30%and 0.40%paprika power, respective-ly.The experiment

  18. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  19. Disentangling the Association between Statins, Cholesterol, and Colorectal Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Ronac; Lewis, James D.; Scott, Frank I.; Ahmad, Tariq; Goldberg, David S.; Datta, Jashodeep; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Boursi, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Several prior studies have found an association between statin use and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that these findings may be due to systematic bias and examined the independent association of colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum cholesterol, and change in cholesterol concentration. Methods and Findings 22,163 colorectal cancer cases and 86,538 matched controls between 1995 and 2013 were identified within The Health Improvement Network (THIN) a population-representative database. Conditional logistic regression models estimated colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum total cholesterol (mmol/L), and change in total cholesterol level. We confirmed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer with statin use (long-term: odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91–0.99; short-term: OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85–0.99). However, to assess whether the observed association may result from indication bias, a subgroup analysis was conducted among patients prescribed a statin. In this subgroup (n = 5,102 cases, n = 19,032 controls), 3.1% of case subjects and 3.1% of controls discontinued therapy. The risk of colorectal cancer was not significantly different among those who continued statin therapy and those who discontinued (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79–1.22). Increased serum cholesterol was independently associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR, 0.89 per mmol/L increase; 95% CI, 0.87–0.91); the association was only present if serum cholesterol was measured near the cancer diagnosis (24 mo: OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93–1.03). Decreases in serum total cholesterol >1 mmol/L ≥1 year prior to cancer diagnosis were associated with subsequent colorectal cancer (statin users: OR, 1.25; 95 CI%, 1.03–1.53; nonusers: OR, 2.36; 95 CI%, 1.78–3.12). As an observational study, limitations included incomplete data and residual confounding. Conclusions Although the risk of colorectal cancer was lower in statin users versus

  20. Effect of periodontal treatment on serum C-reactive protein level in obese and normal-weight women affected with chronic periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Zahrani, M.S.; Alghamdi, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of conventional periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and periodontal status in obese and normal-weight chronic periodontitis patients. METHODS: This is a controlled clinical trial conducted at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentis

  1. Serum Haemolytic Complement Levels in German Dahlem Red Chickens Are Affected by Three Major Genes (Naked, Neck, Dwarf, Frizzled) of Tropical Interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorny, P.; Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

    2005-01-01

    German Dahlem Red chickens with three different major genes of tropical interest: Nana ¿ (naked neck), Ff ¿ (frizzled) and dw ¿ (dwarf), respectively, were tested for serum haemolytic complement, which is essential in innate host defence against infectious agents. Eight different combinations of gen

  2. Patterns of serum PCDD/Fs affected by vegetarian regime, consumption of locally produced food, and resident places of residents living near incinerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hsiu-Ling; Lee Chang-Ching; Su Hue-Jen; Liao Pao-Chi [Inst. of Basic Medical Science, Medical Coll., National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Previous reports have been estimated that more than 90% of serum PCDD/Fs can be accounted for by the consumption of various food groups. Nouwen et al. suggested residents living near incinerators with the elevated dioxin exposure while they ate locally produced food compared to the general population from other areas. PCDD/Fs usually abound in fatty meats and marine foods, and consumption of which is the major pathway of human expose to PCDD/Fs. However, no distinct association was shown between vegetarian regime of human and their corresponding serum PCDD/Fs concentration. In addition, the resident region is associated to their corresponding dietary consumption and ambient exposure of PCDD/Fs, especially for subjects consumed the local foods with special dioxin-like contamination. The current study, therefore, was set to examine how dietary habits, including vegetarian regime and consumption of local food original for residents living near the incinerators are associated to serum PCDD/F concentrations. In addition, the further aim is to assess the influence on the serum PCDD/Fs levels resulting from subjects living in the alternative resident regions, even all of them exposed to PCDD/Fs emission from incinerators.

  3. Correlation of serum lithium levels and thyroid function tests in subjects of bipolar affective disorder: a prospective hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Manjuprasad

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: As already known, Lithium is a drug of narrow therapeutic index and females are more prone for thyroid function abnormalities. Appropriate monitoring of serum lithium levels will aid in necessary dose adjustment and ensure proper utilization of drug. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 51-54

  4. An enzyme thermistor-based assay for total and free cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V; Ramanathan, K; Sundaram, P V; Danielsson, B

    1999-11-01

    A method to evaluate the free (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in human serum, bile and gallstone extract using an enzyme thermistor (ET)-based flow injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The cholesterol in high-density (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) have also been evaluated. A heparin functionalized Sepharose column was employed for the isolation of HDL and LDL fractions from serum. The estimation of cholesterol and its esters was based on their reaction with cholesterol oxidase (CO), cholesterol esterase (CE) and catalase (CAT). Three different enzyme columns, i.e. co-immobilized CO/CAT (column A), only CE (column B) and co-immobilized CO/CE/CAT (column C) were prepared by cross-linking the enzymes on glass beads using glutaraldehyde. Column A was used for estimating FC and column C was used for estimating total cholesterol (cholesterol plus esterified cholesterol). Column B was used as a pre-column which could be switched 'in' or 'out' in conjunction with column A for the estimation of TC or FC, respectively. A calibration between 1.0 and 8.0 mmol/l for FC and 0. 25 and 4.0 mmol/l for TC was obtained. For more than 2000 assays with the ET device a C.V. of less than 4% was obtained. The assay time was approximately 4 min per assay. The cholesterol estimations on the ET correlated well with similar estimations using a commercially available cholesterol diagnostic kit. PMID:10556661

  5. Phosphatidylcholine: Greasing the Cholesterol Transport Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Negative feedback regulation of cholesterol metabolism in mammalian cells ensures a proper balance of cholesterol with other membrane lipids, principal among these being the major phospholipid phosphatidylcholine (PC). Processes such as cholesterol biosynthesis and efflux, cholesteryl ester storage in lipid droplets, and uptake of plasma lipoproteins are tuned to the cholesterol/PC ratio. Cholesterol-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions display increased PC biosynthesis that buffers against elevated cholesterol levels and may also facilitate cholesterol trafficking to enhance cholesterol sensing and efflux. These same mechanisms could play a generic role in homeostatic responses to acute changes in membrane free cholesterol levels. Here, I discuss the established and emerging roles of PC metabolism in promoting intracellular cholesterol trafficking and membrane lipid homeostasis. PMID:27081313

  6. Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarghandian Saeed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an environmental toxic metal implicated in lipid abnormalities. The present study was designed to elucidate the possible association between chronic exposure to Cd concentration and alterations in plasma lipid, lipoprotein, and oxidative stress indices in rats. Sixteen male rats were assigned to 2 groups of 8 rats each (test and control. The Cd-exposed group obtained drinking water containing cadmium chloride (CdCl2 in the concentration of 2.0 mg Cd/L in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were obtained to determine the changes of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, reduced glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA and also serum Cd contents. The results of the present study indicated that Cd administration significantly increased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MDA and Cd with reduction in the HDL-C and GSH levels. In conclusion, evidence is presented that chronic exposure to low Cd concentration can adversely affect the lipid and lipoprotein profile via lipid peroxidation.

  7. Steroid balance and tissue cholesterol accumulation in germfree and conventional rats fed diets containing saturated and polyunsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, T F

    1974-11-01

    Steroid balance studies were conducted on 24 conventional and 12 germfree male rats, 90-120 days old, fed diets containing either 20% safflower or 20% coconut oil. Both germfree and conventional rats fed the safflower oil diets had significantly lower serum cholesterol levels and significantly higher liver cholesterol levels than did the rats fed coconut oil. No significant differences in total fecal neutral sterols, coprostanol, Delta(7)-cholestenol, or total fecal bile acid excretion were seen between dietary groups of rats of either status. There was no evidence of qualitative differences in fecal bile acid excretion as a function of diet. The increased liver cholesterol was in the ester form, with cholesteryl linoleate the largest single component. There was no significant difference in the cholesterol content of the skin, muscle, adipose tissue, or gastrointestinal tract. The significance of a large increase in liver cholesteryl ester, lowered serum cholesterol, and no change in steroid excretion is discussed.

  8. Cholesterol in the rod outer segment: A complex role in a "simple" system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Arlene; Alexander, Desiree; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    The rod outer segment (ROS) of retinal photoreceptor cells consists of disk membranes surrounded by the plasma membrane. It is a relatively uncomplicated system in which to investigate cholesterol distribution and its functional consequences in biologically relevant membranes. The light sensitive protein, rhodopsin is the major protein in both membranes, but the lipid compositions are significantly different in the disk and plasma membranes. Cholesterol is high in the ROS plasma membrane. Disk membranes are synthesized at the base of the ROS and are also high in cholesterol. However, cholesterol is rapidly depleted as the disks are apically displaced. During this apical displacement the disk phospholipid fatty acyl chains become progressively more unsaturated, which creates an environment unfavorable to cholesterol. Membrane cholesterol has functional consequences. The high cholesterol found in the plasma membrane and in newly synthesized disks inhibits the activation of rhodopsin. As disks are apically displaced and cholesterol is depleted rhodopsin becomes more responsive to light. This effect of cholesterol on rhodopsin activation has been shown in both native and reconstituted membranes. The modulation of activity can be at least partially explained by the effect of cholesterol on bulk lipid properties. Cholesterol decreases the partial free volume of the hydrocarbon region of the bilayer and thereby inhibits rhodopsin conformational changes required for activation. However, cholesterol binds to rhodopsin and may directly affect the protein also. Furthermore, cholesterol stabilizes rhodopsin to thermal denaturation. The membrane must provide an environment that allows rhodopsin conformational changes required for activation while also stabilizing the protein to thermal denaturation. Cholesterol thus plays a complex role in modulating the activity and stability of rhodopsin, which have implications for other G-protein coupled receptors. PMID:27216754

  9. 德氏乳杆菌对育肥猪生产性能、血脂指标及粪和组织中总胆固醇和总胆汁酸含量的影响%Effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on Performance, Serum Lipid Indexes, Total Cholesterol and Total Bile Acid Contents in Feces and Tissues of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 侯改凤; 刘明; 彭伟; 黄兴国

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究德氏乳杆菌对育肥猪生产性能、血脂指标及粪和组织中总胆固醇(TC)和总胆汁酸(TBA)含量的影响。试验选用健康、平均体重为(65.34±3.64) kg的杜×(长×大)育肥猪120头,随机分为2组,每组6个重复,每个重复10头(公母各占1/2)。对照组饲喂无抗基础饲粮,试验组饲喂无抗基础饲粮+0.1%德氏乳杆菌制剂。预试期7 d,试验期42 d。试验期间,依次采集育肥猪在第14、28和42天的前腔静脉血(每组公母各3头),第12~14天、第26~28天和第40~42天的新鲜粪便(每重复);试验结束后,每重复选取1头体重接近平均体重的阉公猪进行屠宰,分离肝脏、背最长肌和心脏。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,试验组平均日增重(ADG)、平均日采食量(ADFI)及料重比(F/G)无显著差异(P>0.05),而腹泻率和发病率则极显著或显著降低(P0.05),而血清TBA含量在试验第14和42天差异显著( P0.05);第40~42天,试验组粪中TBA含量较对照组显著提高(P0.05)。4)2组间肝脏、心肌和背最长肌中TC含量以及肝脏中TBA含量差异不显著( P>0.05)。结果提示:饲粮中添加0.1%德氏乳杆菌制剂具有改善育肥猪生产性能和血脂状况、促进粪胆固醇和胆汁酸排泄的功效。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on performance, ser-um lipid indexes, total cholesterol and total bile acid contents in feces and tissues of fattening pigs. A total of 120 healthy crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) fattening pigs with the average body weight of (65.34± 3.64) kg were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 replicates per group and 10 pigs per replicate ( half male and half female) . The control group was fed a basal diet without antibiotics, while the experimental group was fed the basal diet added with 0.1% Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The pre-test lasted for 7 days, and the experiment lasted for 42 days. On days 14, 28 and 42 of

  10. 德氏乳杆菌对育肥猪生产性能、血脂指标及粪和组织中总胆固醇和总胆汁酸含量的影响%Effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on Performance, Serum Lipid Indexes, Total Cholesterol and Total Bile Acid Contents in Feces and Tissues of Fattening Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞; 侯改凤; 刘明; 彭伟; 黄兴国

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii on performance, ser-um lipid indexes, total cholesterol and total bile acid contents in feces and tissues of fattening pigs. A total of 120 healthy crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) fattening pigs with the average body weight of (65.34± 3.64) kg were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 replicates per group and 10 pigs per replicate ( half male and half female) . The control group was fed a basal diet without antibiotics, while the experimental group was fed the basal diet added with 0.1% Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The pre-test lasted for 7 days, and the experiment lasted for 42 days. On days 14, 28 and 42 of experiment, one pig ( each group included 3 male and 3 female pigs) was selected from each replicate to collect anterior vena cava blood, and in the period of day 12 to day 14, day 26 to day 28 and day 40 to day 42, fresh feces of each replicate was collected. At the end of experi-ment, one pig of each replicate whose weight was closed to the average body weight was selected to slaughter for isolating liver, longissimus muscle and myocardium. The results showed as follows:1) compared with the control group, there was no significant difference in average daily gain ( ADG ) , average daily feed intake ( ADFI) and the ratio of feed to gain ( F/G) ( P>0.05) , but the diarrhea rate and morbidity were reduced ex-tremely significantly or significantly in the experimental group ( P0.05) , but the content of serum total bile acid was decreased significantly on days 14 and 42 ( P0.05); from day 40 to day 42, the fecal TBA content in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P0.05) . 4) Compared with the control group, the TC content in liver, myocardium and longissi-mus muscle and the TBA content in liver in the experimental group had no significant differences (P>0.05). In conclusion, these results indicate that diet added with 0

  11. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kusal K. Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Swastika N. Das; Amrita Das Gupta

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garl...

  12. Investigating the Effect of HBV Amplification Affected by APRIL Serum and IgD Expression on the B Cells of Liver in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bastani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Host immune responses are considered as an an important factor concerning the progression of HBV infection. B cells population following Hepatitis B infection has received scant attention. A Poroliferation-Inducing Ligand (APRIL can be introduced as a stimulator of B cell activities. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the proportion of IgD positive B lymphocytes in liver as well as to determine the level of APRIL serum in relation to the clinical findings in chronic hepatitis B patients. Methods: Fifty-seven subjects suffering from chronic hepatitis B(CHB were selected, who  attended the Hepatitis Clinic of Shariati Hospital. APRIL ELISA kit was used in order to measure the APRIL serum concentration. HBV DNA was quantified by RealArtTM HBV LC PCR. Liver biopsy sections were stained with immunohistochemistry in order to indentify IgD. Results: The mean score of liver fibrosis and inflammation was reported 4.20 according to the modified histologic activity index system. The mean score for patients with liver IgD positive B-cells was 1.9. Moreover, linear regression analysis showed that increasing the score of intrahepatic IgD positive B cells was propotionate to the increase of HBV DNA amplification, whereas it revealed a negative relationship with the APRIL serum level. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that IgD positive B-cells imply the presence of naïve B cells, more within patients who had higher level of HBV DNA. Moreover, higher score of IgD positive B cells population was negatively related with the serum level of APRIL.

  13. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  14. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  15. 低密度脂蛋白胆固醇异常在2型糖尿病家系中的家族聚集性及相关因素分析%Familial clustering and related factors of abnormal serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol in families with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍丽丽; 纪立农; 邓丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore whether serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a heritable trait in families with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( DM) and analyze its related factors. Methods Two hundred and ninety five nuclear families with two or more type 2 DM patients were used in the study. There were totally 978 family members. The probands were divided into two groups: 131 normal LDL-C probands ( < 2.6 mmol/L) and 163 high LDL-C probands( ≥2. 6 mmol/L). Serum LDL-C were compared between two groups. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the related factor. Results First-degree relatives of type 2 DM in high LDL-C group had significantly higher levels of TCHO and LDL-C, even after FPG and HbA1c adjusted. In multiple regression analysis, LDL-C of first-degree relatives of type 2 DM was associated with LDL-C of the probands, HbA1c and age. First-degree relatives of non DM in high LDL-C group had significantly higher levels of TCHO and LDL-C. In multiple regression analysis, LDL-C of first-degree relatives of non DM was associated with LDL-C of the probands, HbA1c and age. Conclusions There is a familial aggregation of abnormal LDL-C in this collection of type 2 DM families. LDL-C could be associated with HbA1c and age.%目的 探讨低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)异常在北京地区2型糖尿病(T2DM)家系一级亲属中是否存在遗传倾向以及相关因素.方法 收集北京地区具有两个或以上T2DM患者的家系295个,共978例,将每一家系中先证者按LDL-C< 2.6 mmol/L和≥2.6 mmol/L分为正常LDL-C组131例和高LDL-C组163例,比较两组患者T2DM和非T2DM一级亲属的LDL-C水平,用多因素逐步同归分析了解其相关因素.结果 高LDL-C组的T2DM一级亲属的年龄、空腹血糖(FPG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、总胆固醇(TCHO)和LDL-C高于正常LDL-C组(P<0.05).多因素逐步回归分析显示,T2DM一级亲属的LDL-C与先证者LDL-C、HbA1c及年龄独立相关.高LDL-C组的非T2DM一级亲

  16. Correlation between serum content of the main COPs (cholesterol oxidation products from autoxidation and cardiovascular risk factors Correlación entre los productos de oxidación de colesterol (COPs formados por autooxidación y factores de riesgo cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Menéndez-Carreño

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD have been proven to be associated with an increased oxidative stress. Several studies have considered cholesterol oxidation products (COPs as specific in vivo markers of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the levels of COPs derived from autoxidation processes and established cardiovascular risk factors, comparing the levels of serum COPs in subjects with or without showing values out of the reference ranges. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study in which 88 subjects were recruited and individual and total COPs from autoxidation origin was analyzed in serum by GC-MS. The simultaneous correlation of COPs with different CVD risk factors have been analyzed. Results and discussion: A great variability of total COPs concentrations were found. Subjects presented total COPs values from 0.091 to 2.052 μg/mL. Total COPs were significantly higher (p Introducción: Se ha demostrado que los factores de riesgo cardiovascular están estrechamente asociados con un elevado nivel de estrés oxidativo. Varios estudios consideran a los productos de oxidación del colesterol (COPs como marcadores específicos in vivo de estrés oxidativo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la asociación entre los niveles de COPs derivados de procesos de autooxidación de colesterol y factores de riesgo cardiovascular, comparando el contenido sérico de COPs en sujetos afectados o no por dichos factores. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal en el que se reclutaron 88 personas a las que se analizó el perfil de óxidos de colesterol en suero procedentes de autooxidación, por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas. Se valoró la correlación de los niveles de COPs con diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Resultados y discusión: Se encontró una gran variabilidad en el contenido en COPs totales, observándose valores entre 0,091 y 2,052

  17. How cholesterol interacts with proteins and lipids during its intracellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Solanko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Sterols, as cholesterol in mammalian cells and ergosterol in fungi, are indispensable molecules for proper functioning and nanoscale organization of the plasma membrane. Synthesis, uptake and efflux of cholesterol are regulated by a variety of protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions....... Similarly, membrane lipids and their physico-chemical properties directly affect cholesterol partitioning and thereby contribute to the highly heterogeneous intracellular cholesterol distribution. Movement of cholesterol in cells is mediated by vesicle trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways...... as well as by non-vesicular sterol exchange between organelles. In this article, we will review recent progress in elucidating sterol-lipid and sterol-protein interactions contributing to proper sterol transport in living cells. We outline recent biophysical models of cholesterol distribution and dynamics...

  18. Polarizable multipolar electrostatics for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Timothy L.; Popelier, Paul L. A.

    2016-08-01

    FFLUX is a novel force field under development for biomolecular modelling, and is based on topological atoms and the machine learning method kriging. Successful kriging models have been obtained for realistic electrostatics of amino acids, small peptides, and some carbohydrates but here, for the first time, we construct kriging models for a sizeable ligand of great importance, which is cholesterol. Cholesterol's mean total (internal) electrostatic energy prediction error amounts to 3.9 kJ mol-1, which pleasingly falls below the threshold of 1 kcal mol-1 often cited for accurate biomolecular modelling. We present a detailed analysis of the error distributions.

  19. [A simple test for quantitative determination of LDL-cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P; Thuilot, G

    1986-05-01

    The subject of the report is a novel precipitation test for the quantitative recording of LDL cholesterol based on the precipitation of LDL by dextran sulphate. Parallel assays of LDL cholesterol according to the new method and using quantitative lipoprotein electrophoresis as reference showed the results, in terms of the individual values and collectively, to be practically identical for a wide concentration range of various lipids and lipoproteins in the serum. The concentration ratio of the means obtained according to the two methods is 1.014 +/- 0.102 (standard deviation). The regression function displays a correlation coefficient of 0.9470. Double assays with the new technique yield a variation coefficient of 1.7 +/- 0.4%. Limitations of the method, which are insignificant for application in practice, are pointed out. The new precipitation method is simple, safe and useful for the quantitative estimation of the LDL cholesterol concentration in freshly obtained human serum. The method requires only little time and equipment.

  20. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27432092

  1. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol tra

  2. Serum lipid and antioxidant responses in hypercholesterolemic men and women receiving plant sterol esters vary by apolipoprotein E genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant sterol esters reduce serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but with striking inter-individual variability. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, serum lipid, plant sterol, fat-soluble vitamin, and carotenoid responses to plant sterols were studied according to...

  3. Effect of Daxx on cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Hui Tuo; Lei Liang; Bing-Yang Zhu; Xuan Cao; Duan-Fang Liao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Daxx on cholesterol accumulation in hepatic cells. METHODS: Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a normal or high fat diet for 6 wk, and serum lipids and Daxx expression of hepatic tissues were measured by immunoblot assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with the pEGFP-C1/Daxx or pEGFP-C1 plasmid. Cells stably transfected with Daxx were identified by RT- PCR analysis. Total cholesterol levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Activated- SREBP and caveolin-1 were assayed by western blotting. RESULTS: Hepatic Daxx protein was higher in normal rats than in high fat diet-fed rats. Noticeable negative correlations were seen between Daxx and LDL-C (7 = -7.56, P = 0.018), and between Daxx and TC (y = -9.07, P = 0.01), respectively. The total cholesterol of HepG2/GFP-Daxx cells was lower than that of control cells or HepG2/GFP cells (9.28 ± 0.19 vs 14.36 ± 4.45 or 13.94 ± 2.62, both P < 0.05). Furthermore, in HepG2/GFP cells, the expression of activated SREBP was lower than that ofcontrol cells, whereas caveolin-1 expression was higher. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Daxx in HepG2 cells decreased intracellular cholesterol accumulation, which might be associated with inhibition of SREBP activity and an increase in caveolin-1 expression.

  4. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for CVD, which is a leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The biosynthetic pathways for cholesterol metabolism are well understood; however, the regulation of circulating cholesterol by diet is still not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating cholesterol levels and molecular effects in target tissues using the hamster model. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed with chow or diets containing 36 % energy from fat with or without 1 % cholesteyramine (CA) as a modulator of circulating cholesterol levels for 35 d. It was revealed that the expression of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) instead of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression was responsive to circulating cholesterol in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets. The high-fat diet increased circulating cholesterol and down-regulated CYP51, but not HMG-CoA reductase. The CA diet decreased cholesterol and increased CYP51 expression, but HMG-CoA reductase expression was not affected. The high-fat diet and CA diet altered the expression level of cholesterol, bile acids and lipid metabolism-associated genes (LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 (ABCG5/8)) in the liver, which were significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol levels. Correlation analysis also showed that circulating cholesterol levels were regulated by LXR/retinoid X receptor and PPAR pathways in the liver. Using the hamster model, the present study provided additional molecular insights into the influence of circulating cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol metabolism pathways during hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:27110359

  5. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of protein and fat, called lipoproteins (such as LDL cholesterol). ... globulin proteins may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone ...

  6. Tenuous dose-response correlations for common disease states: case study of cholesterol and perfluorooctanoate/sulfonate (PFOA/PFOS) in the C8 Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Copeland, Teri L; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Persistent organic chemicals, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls, pose investigative challenges because they are found in virtually everyone (there is no unexposed control group). To overcome this problem, outcome data in some studies are sorted by chemical dose level and findings in low-end dose groups are compared to sequential higher dose groups. An example is the C8 Health Project that evaluated serum PFOA/PFOS (C8) and total cholesterol among 46,294 West Virginia residents who lived, worked, or went to school for at least 1 year in a C8 contaminated drinking-water district and were over age 18 in 2005-2006. The risk for high total cholesterol (>240 mg/dL) measured via odds ratios (ORs) in logistic regression models showed sequential OR increases with PFOA quartile, in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR = 1.00), that were each significantly elevated (OR = 1.21, 1.33, and 1.40, respectively), but age, sex, and body mass index were stronger correlates. Importantly, the magnitude of cholesterol increase was small (12 mg/dL from lowest to highest exposure deciles) and comparison to similar statistics for the general U.S. population showed the C8 cohort had lower rates of high cholesterol. This suggests that inadvertent selection bias may have affected the lowest exposure quartile (control group), making tenuous the dose-response relationship between PFOA/PFOS and risk of high cholesterol. This case illustrates the substantial difficulties in assigning toxicological importance to statistical comparisons for common disease states that utilize subgroups with low exposures as an effective control group. PMID:21770727

  7. HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF CURCUMIN OR CO-ENZYME Q1-0 AND THEIR MIXTURE ON OBESE RATS FED A HIGH CHOLESTEROL DIET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current study, hyperlipidemia was induced in the rats by feeding diet enriched with cholesterol for two weeks. After 2 weeks of induction of hypercholesterolemia in rats and in comparison to normal rats, the results showed that incorporation of extra cholesterol in diet led to significant increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, leptin and MDA levels. On the other hand, total serum triiodothyronine (T3), liver glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were decreased significantly in cholesterol fed rats. The concentration of TBARS in the liver was elevated.All previous parameters were corrected after the hypercholesterolemic rats were treated with curcumin or co-enzyme Q1-0 or a mixture of them dependent on the time of treatment. These findings are consistent with the concept that curcumin and co-enzyme Q10 are antioxidant agents. The underlying mechanisms of these effects were discussed

  8. Cholesterol regulatory effects and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from zebra blenny (Salaria basilisca) in cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktari, Naourez; Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Ben Hadj, Aïda; Turki, Mouna; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma; Boudaouara, Tahia; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Boualga, Ahmed; Ben Salah, Riadh; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the hypocholesterolemic effects and antioxidative activities of zebra blenny protein hydrolysates (ZBPHs) in rats fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet. The rats were fed during eight weeks a standard laboratory diet (normal rats), a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) (1%) or a HCD and orally treated with ZBPHs or undigested zebra blenny proteins (UZBPs) (400 mg per kg per day). Results showed that a hypercholesterolemic diet induced the increase of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Treatment with ZBPHs increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and decreased significantly the levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C. In addition, ZBPH treatment showed significant normalization of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels as well as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in renal and hepatic tissues. Furthermore, ZBPHs may also exert significant protective effects on liver and kidney functions, evidenced by a marked decrease in the level of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). Histological studies confirmed that ZBPHs effectively protected the livers and kidneys against hypercholesterolemia-mediated oxidative damage. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that ZBPHs can be used as novel antioxidants and hypocholesterolemic compounds against hyperlipidemia induced atherosclerosis. PMID:26065510

  9. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  10. The ABC of cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plösch, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Cholesterol fulfills an indispensable role in mammalian physiology. It is an important constituent of all cell membranes. Furthermore, it is the precursor of steroid hormones, which regulate a variety of physiological functions, and of bile salts, which are necessary for the generation of bile flow

  11. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, M Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content. PMID:27119638

  12. School meals with fish affect serum vitamin d in 8-11 year-old children - preliminary results from the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R. A.; Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.-M.;

    Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New......)D and BMC during winter months at Northern latitudes. A carry-over effect may be suspected in the March/April samplings. The OPUS study was supported by a grant from the Nordea Foundation.......Background and aims Few foods contain vitamin D and many children fail to meet recommended intakes, including Danish children. This may promote low serum concentrations, particularly as cutaneous vitamin D production is negligible during winter/spring at Northern latitudes. Aims To examine if New.......3-1.1 µg/d) was higher after intervention- than control-period. The NND effect was modified by season, i.e, in November/December and January/February NND resulted in higher 25(OH)D than the control diet, whereas in March/April NND resulted in lower (p

  13. THE EFFECT OF PANTETHINE, A PRECURSOR OF COENZYME A, ON BILE ACIDS AND LIPIDS IN RATS FED WITH A CHOLESTEROL DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiyama, Goro; Kawamoto, Toshio; Fukuhara, Choho; Horiuchi, Itaru; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Akima

    1981-01-01

    The effect of pantethine on bile acids and lipids was studied by the washout technique in Wistar female rats fed for four weeks with a 1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, either containing or not containing 1% pantethine. Pantethine caused a slight increase in the biliary cholesterol concentration with a significant decrease in the serum cholesterol, β-lipoprotein and triglyceride levels. An increase in the pool size, secretion rate and enterohepatic circulation rate ...

  14. THE EFFECT OF PANTETHINE, A PRECURSOR OF COENZYME A, ON BILE ACIDS AND LIPIDS IN RATS FED WITH A CHOLESTEROL DIET

    OpenAIRE

    Kajiyama, Goro; Kawamoto, Toshio; Fukuhara, Choho; Horiuchi, Itaru; Nakagawa, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Akima

    1981-01-01

    The effect of pantethine on bile acids and lipids was studied by the washout technique in Wistar female rats fed for four weeks with a 1% cholesterol diet supplemented with 0.5% cholic acid, either containing or not containing 1% pantethine. Pantethine caused a slight increase in the biliary cholesterol concentration with a significant decrease in the serum cholesterol, β-lipoprotein and triglyceride levels. An increase in the pool size, secretion rate and enterohepatic circulation rate of pr...

  15. The effects of apolipoprotein F deficiency on high density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Lagor

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein F (apoF is 29 kilodalton secreted sialoglycoprotein that resides on the HDL and LDL fractions of human plasma. Human ApoF is also known as Lipid Transfer Inhibitor protein (LTIP based on its ability to inhibit cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP-mediated transfer events between lipoproteins. In contrast to other apolipoproteins, ApoF is predicted to lack strong amphipathic alpha helices and its true physiological function remains unknown. We previously showed that overexpression of Apolipoprotein F in mice reduced HDL cholesterol levels by 20-25% by accelerating clearance from the circulation. In order to investigate the effect of physiological levels of ApoF expression on HDL cholesterol metabolism, we generated ApoF deficient mice. Unexpectedly, deletion of ApoF had no substantial impact on plasma lipid concentrations, HDL size, lipid or protein composition. Sex-specific differences were observed in hepatic cholesterol content as well as serum cholesterol efflux capacity. Female ApoF KO mice had increased liver cholesteryl ester content relative to wild type controls on a chow diet (KO: 3.4+/-0.9 mg/dl vs. WT: 1.2+/-0.3 mg/dl, p<0.05. No differences were observed in ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity in either sex. Interestingly, ApoB-depleted serum from male KO mice was less effective at promoting ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages relative to WT controls.

  16. Small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol distribution in people with normolipidemia and hyperlipidemia and the correlation with serum lipids%不同血脂水平人群小而密LDL胆固醇分布及其与血脂组分的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力平; 林杰; 孔维菊; 袁俊菲; 肖立

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of serum small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) levels in healthy normolipidemia and hyperlipidemia and analyze the correlation between sdLDL-C and other serum lipids.Methods Totally 1012 normolipidemic subjects (18 93 years old,503 male,509 females) were grouped according to gender and age (18 -29,30 -69 and ≥70 years old).And 433 hyperlipidemic subjects (23 -90 years) were divided into the following 3 groups based on fasting triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)levels:hypertriglyceridemia (n =165 ),high-LDL-C ( n =129) and combined hyperlipidemia ( n =139 ).The sdLDL-C and other serum lipids were measured by Olympus AU2700 automatic analyzer.Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for statistical analysis.Results The distribution of the sdLDL-C levels in normolipidemic subjects was near normal distribution.The sdLDL-C levels had differences in gender and age.In the 18 -29 and 30 -69 years old group,the mean values of sdLDL-C were significantly higher in males than in females [ (0.55 -0.21 ) mmol/L vs (0.47 ±0.22) mmol/L,t =2.212,P =0.028 and (0.66±0.28) mmol/L vs (0.62±0.25) mmol/L,t =2.121,P=0.034].In the ≥70 years old group,the difference of sdLDL-C levels in gender was not statistically significant [ male ( 0.54 ± 0.21 )mmol/L vs female (0.54 ± 0.22 ) mmol/L,t =0.022,P =0.982] ; the mean value was ( 0.54 ± 0.22 ) mmol/L The hyperlipidemic subjects had conspicuous higher levels of sdLDL-C compared with normolipidemia [ ( 1.25 ±0.44) mmol/L vs (0.60 ±0.26) mmol/L,t =29.306,P <0.001 ].Among all of groups,the combined hyperlipidemia group had the highest sdLDL-C level [ ( 1.52 ± 0.49) mmol/L,F =525.66,P <0.001 ] ; the hypertriglyceridemia group had the highest sdLDL-C/LDL -C level (0.47 ±0.12,F =287.93,P <0.001 ) and the high-LDL-C group had the highest level of non-sdLDL-C [LDL-C subtract sdLDL-C,(2.71 ± 0.52) mmol/L.F =336

  17. Reduction of serum IGF-I levels in patients affected with Monoclonal Gammopathies of undetermined significance or Multiple Myeloma. Comparison with bFGF, VEGF and K-ras gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisani Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum levels of IGF-I in patients affected with multiple myeloma (MM have been scarcely studied. The present study is aimed to explore this point comparing 55 healthy subjects, 71 monoclonal gammopaties of uncertain significance (MGUS and 77 overt MM patients. In the same subjects, basic FGF and VEGF, have been detected. All three mediators were analyzed in function of K-ras mutation and melphalan response. Concerning IGF-I, two representative monitoring examples have also been added. Methods Cytokine determinations were performed by commercially available ELISA kits, while K12-ras mutation was investigated on genomic DNA isolated from bone marrow cell specimens by RFLP-PCR assay. Results Significant reductions of IGF-I levels were observed in MGUS and MM as compared with healthy controls. In addition, MM subjects showed significantly decreased serum IGF-I levels than MGUS. Conversely, increasing levels were observed for bFGF and VEGF, molecules significantly correlated. A multivariate analysis corrected for age and gender confirmed the significant difference only for IGF-I values (P = 0.01. K12-ras mutation was significantly associated with malignancy, response to therapy and with significantly increased serum bFGF levels. Conclusion IGF-I reduction in the transition: Controls→MGUS→MM and changes observed over time suggest that IGF-I should be furtherly studied in future clinical trials as a possible monitoring marker for MM.

  18. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily. PMID:26874289

  19. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  20. 3 Benzyl-6-chloropyrone: a suicide inhibitor of cholesterol esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol, absorbed from the intestine, appears in lymph as the ester. Cholesterol esterase is essential for this process, since depletion of the enzyme blocks and repletion restores, absorption. Selective inhibitors of cholesterol esterase may thus prove useful in reducing cholesterol uptake. A series of potential suicide substrates were synthesized which, following cleavage by the enzyme, would attack the putative nucleophile in the active site. One of these, 3-benzyl-6-chloropyrone (3BCP), inhibited both synthesis and hydrolysis of 14C-cholesteryl oleate with an I50 of approximately 150 μM. The inactivation was time-dependent and characteristic of a suicide mechanism. The α pyrone structure (lactone analog) is cleaved by a serine-hydroxyl in the active site. This generates an enoyl chloride which inactivates the imidazole believed to play a part in the catalytic function of the enzyme. Inhibition by 3BCP is selective for cholesterol esterase. The activity of pancreatic lipase as not affected by concentrations up to 1 mM

  1. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...

  2. Cerebral cholesterol granuloma in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Gordon A; Johnson, Royce L.; Findlay, J. Max; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by the accumulation of excess cholesterol in tissues including the artery wall and tendons. We describe a patient with homozygous FH who presented with asymptomatic cholesterol granuloma of the brain. The patient's plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was remarkably responsive to combination hypolipidemic therapy with statin plus ezetimibe. This case illustrates another potential complication of whole-body cholesterol excess and ...

  3. The change of serum leptin and its relationship with platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib in patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dasheng; SONG Yanqiu; LI Chao; ZHANG Feng; WEI Minxin

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the change of serum leptin and its relationship with platelet membrane glycoprotein lb(GP Ib)in patients with coronary heart disease(CHD).The enrolled included 50 patients with CHD (CHD group)and 30 patients without CHD(control group)who were diagnosed by coronary angiography.The positive percentage and the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib were detected by full-blood flow cytometry.Serum leptin was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The positive percentage and the average fluorescence intensity of platetet membrane GP Ib in the CHD group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).After correcting the differences of systolic blood pressure,body mass index(BMI),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),fasting glucose,PPBS,fasting insulin and quantita tive insulin sensitive index,serum leptin level in the CHD group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).Single factor correlative analysis revealed that serum leptin in CHD patients was negatively correlated with the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib(P<0.05).Multifactorial stepwise regression analysis showed that serum leptin in CHD patients was independently negatively correlated with the average fluorescence intensity of platelet membrane GP Ib(P<0.05).Logistic analysis demonstrated that serum leptin was independently correlated with the risk of CHD(P<0.05).Hyperleptinemia was veri fied in CHD patients.The increase of serum leptin could affect blood platelet activation.Hyperleptinemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD.

  4. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and blood pressure in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol and bl

  5. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  6. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  7. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride...

  8. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of taking these medicines. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about all of the risks of taking your ... 20 should have their cholesterol checked by a doctor. Most people do not show ... Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Not all cholesterol in your blood ...

  9. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  10. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-01

    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux.

  11. Relationship between Serum Ferritin Levels and Dyslipidemia in Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Ju, Sang-Yhun; Yoon, Yeo-Joon; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Background Ferritin is associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and insulin resistance in adults. We aimed to study the association between serum ferritin levels and dyslipidemia in adolescents, because dyslipidemia is considered an important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the young. Methods We analyzed 1,879 subjects (1,026 boys and 853 girls) from the 2009–2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. Subjects were categorized into quartiles according to their lipid parameters, which were classified according to age and gender. Those in the highest quartile groups for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride concentrations were diagnosed as having dyslipidemia. Those in the lowest quartile for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values were diagnosed with abnormal levels. Results In boys, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly correlated with serum ferritin levels. In both boys and girls, serum ferritin levels were negatively associated with HDL-C values, even after adjusting for all covariates. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride concentrations in girls. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with major dyslipidemia parameters, more prominently in boys than in girls, and this association represents a cardiometabolic risk factor. PMID:27070153

  12. Association analyses of the INSIG2 polymorphism in the obesity and cholesterol levels of Korean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hyoung

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While INSIG2 has been reported to be associated with BMI in many populations, conflicting results have prevented consensus over its role. In analyses of mice and cell cultures the gene has been found to be involved in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis; however, no relationship has been found with cholesterol metabolism in human epidemiological research. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the effect of rs7566605 near INSIG2 on both obesity- and cholesterol-related traits in Koreans. Methods The rs7566605 polymorphism was genotyped with 2,364 Koreans, and associations with obesity- and cholesterol-related traits were analyzed statistically via an ANOVA or T-test. Results Replication of an association with BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat percent, and abdominal fat area failed, and the C allele of rs7566605 was not associated significantly with total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglyceride. However, it was found in a meta-analysis of a dominant model that the C allele of rs7566605 appeared to affect the level of the total cholesterol, especially in female subjects. Conclusion We failed to show associations of rs7566605 with cholesterol- and obesity-related phenotypes, although we newly suggest the possible involvement of INSIG2 with the plasma level of the total cholesterol in women.

  13. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Syrian Mesquite (Prosopis farcta) Root in High Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Miraghaee, Shahram; Babaei, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Bahrami, Mohammad Taher; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis farcta root has been proposed as an efficacious natural drug for cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. The present study evaluates the efficacy of aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta root on experimental atherosclerosis development in rabbits with high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipid parameters were significantly increased in the high cholesterol diet groups in comparison with the normal control group (P Prosopis farcta root significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein levels compared to high cholesterol diet rabbits (P < .050). This finding may reflect a reduction of chest pain or the beneficial effects of this plant root extract on cardiovascular health. The present study can serve as a basis for future investigations on the other effects of this plant on cardiovascular health.

  14. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee fi

  15. Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the control of blood cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Grundy, S.M.; Jones, P.J.H.; Law, M.R.; Miettinen, T.; Paoletti, R.

    2003-01-01

    Foods with plant stanol or sterol esters lower serum cholesterol levels. We summarize the deliberations of 32 experts on the efficacy and safety of sterols and stanols. A meta-analysis of 41 trials showed that intake of 2 g/d of stanols or sterols reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 10%; higher

  16. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  17. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  18. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S. (Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with ({sup 14}C)sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans.

  19. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol originat

  20. Niveles séricos de colesterol y su relación con cardiopatía isquémica, en pacientes con diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente Serum cholesterol levels and ischemic heart disease in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTHA RODRÍGUEZ-MORÁN

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de cardiopatía isquémica (CI y su asociación con los niveles séricos de colesterol (NSC, en pacientes con diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente (DMNID en el primer nivel de atención médica. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 411 pacientes y se determinaron indicadores sociodemográficos, NSC y glucemia. Se registró electrocardiograma de 12 derivaciones. Se consideró como CI la presencia, en dos o más derivaciones, de desnivel ST, T isquémica u ondas Q patológicas; se excluyeron los pacientes con antecedentes de CI. Resultados. Predominó el sexo femenino con una proporción de 1.5:1. Se identificó CI en 90 pacientes (22%, con predominio ligeramente mayor en el hombre (0.85:1, mujeres: hombres. En el análisis estratificado, la CI fue más prevalente cuando los NSC fueron ³ 200 mg/dl. La frecuencia de CI en pacientes con NSC de 200-239 mg/dl fue de 24.6% (oportunidad relativa [OR] 2.04; IC 95% 1.03-4.07, p= 0.04 y de 24.2% (OR 1.99; IC 95% 1.02-3.96, p= 0.04 en los pacientes con NSC de 240-300 mg/dl; cuando los NSC fueron >300 mg/dl la CI se incrementó a 38.7% (OR 3.95; IC 95% 1.52-10.30, p= 0.002. Conclusiones. En pacientes con DMNID la CI es más prevalente cuando los NSC son > o = 200 mg/dl, por lo que deberían de considerarse como de alto riesgo para la enfermedad coronaria.Objective. Determine the frequency and relationship between ischemic heart disease (IHD and serum cholesterol levels (SCL in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM of the primary medical care level. Material and methods. A total of 411 patients from the first medical care level were studied. The sociodemographic profile, SCL and glycemia were determined and conventional ECG was taken. The ST unevenness, ischemic T or pathological Q waves in two or more tappings was considered as IHD. Patients with history of IHD were not included. Results. The male: female ratio was 1.5:1. Mean SCL was 225 mg/dl (in females 240

  1. Effects of Low-Dose Pioglitazone on Serum Levels of Adiponectin, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Amyloid Beta Peptide, and Lipid Profile in Elderly Japanese People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Aoki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to see how pioglitazone at low doses could affect blood biomarkers related to atherosclerosis and aging. The effects of an add-on treatment with pioglitazone (15 mg for males and 7.5 mg for females for 6 months were assessed in 24 outpatients (12 males, 12 females with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 70 years. As doses of sulfonylurea were reduced in 10 patients, no significant differences in HbA1c and glucose levels were seen. After the treatment, serum levels of HDL cholesterol, arachidonic acid (predominant in males, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin significantly increased. The level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate significantly decreased. No significant changes were seen in those of small dense LDL cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and amyloid beta peptides 1–40 and 1–42. There was a slight but significant increase in body weight, but apparent adverse effects were not observed. In conclusion, pioglitazone at low doses increased serum adiponectin, HDL cholesterol, and arachidonic acid levels but decreased serum dehydroepiandrosterone level, not associated with glycemia, in elderly Japanese people with type 2 diabetes. An optimal dose of pioglitazone should be sought for to minimize its adverse effects and to fully exert its pleiotropic effects such as antiatherosclerotic and antiaging effects.

  2. How cholesterol homeostasis is regulated by plasma membrane cholesterol in excess of phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Yvonne; Ye, Jin; Steck, Theodore L.

    2004-01-01

    How do cells sense and control their cholesterol levels? Whereas most of the cell cholesterol is located in the plasma membrane, the effectors of its abundance are regulated by a small pool of cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The size of the ER compartment responds rapidly and dramatically to small changes in plasma membrane cholesterol around the normal level. Consequently, increasing plasma membrane cholesterol in vivo from just below to just above the basal level evoked an ac...

  3. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  4. Evaluation of plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol in inherited disorders related to cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Rizzo, Cristiano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Oxysterols are intermediates of cholesterol metabolism and are generated from cholesterol via either enzymatic or nonenzymatic pathways under oxidative stress conditions. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) have been proposed as new biomarkers for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing an alternative tool to the invasive and time-consuming method of fibroblast filipin test. To test the efficacy of plasma oxysterol determination for the diagnosis of NP-C, we systematically screened oxysterol levels in patients affected by different inherited disorders related with cholesterol metabolism, which included Niemann-Pick type B (NP-B) disease, lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), congenital familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), and sitosterolemia (SITO). As expected, NP-C patients showed significant increase of both C-triol and 7-KC. Strong increase of both oxysterols was observed in NP-B and less pronounced in LAL deficiency. In SLOS, only 7-KC was markedly increased, whereas in both FH and in SITO, oxysterol concentrations were normal. Interestingly, in NP-C alone, we observed that plasma oxysterols correlate negatively with patient's age and positively with serum total bilirubin, suggesting the potential relationship between oxysterol levels and hepatic disease status. Our results indicate that oxysterols are reliable and sensitive biomarkers of NP-C. PMID:26733147

  5. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... antiserum that caused serum sickness again in the future, your ... blood vessels Swelling of the face, arms, and legs ( angioedema )

  6. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  7. Correlation studies between serum concentrations of zinc and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Alves, Edson R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, e-mail: eralves@ipen.br, e-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br; Sumita, Nairo M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas.Central Lab. Division and Laboratories of Medical Investigation (LIM-03)], e-mail: dlc.bioquimica@hcnet.usp.br; Jaluul, Omar; Jacob-Filho, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: jaluul@uol.com.br, wiljac@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    In this study, serum zinc and lipoprotein concentrations were determined in order to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. This population consisted of elderly considered healthy and participating of a 'Successful Ageing' program of the Sao Paulo University Medical School. Fasting blood samples were collected from 87 elderly individuals (63 females and 24 males) aged 60-91 and mean age of 72 +- 7 years. Zn concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis at the IPEN/CNEN/ SP and, the lipoprotein (HDL, LDL and total cholesterol) concentrations were determined using routine analysis methods of the Central Laboratory Division, Hospital das Clinicas, FMUSP. Results obtained for Zn indicated that all the individuals presented this element within the recommended value. For total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, 96 % of elderly presented levels within the desired range but for LDL cholesterol concentrations only about 70.0 % of individuals were in the desired range. Serum concentration of Zn were positively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels (correlation coefficient r = 0.21, p < 0.06). Furthermore, the ratios of [HDL-cholesterol] / [LDL-cholesterol] were negatively correlated with Zn concentrations (r = - 0.234, p < 0.04). The positive correlation found between the serum concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol indicates the possible effect of this element in serum lipoprotein profiles. Thus ,these findings suggest that more investigations should be conducted on Zn supplementation in elderly subjects with cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  8. Trends in the Levels of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins and the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in Adults with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in the Southwest Chinese Han Population during 2003–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tian; Hewen Chen; Fang Jia; Gangyi Yang; Shengbing Li; Ke Li; Lili Zhang; Jinlin Wu; Dongfang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the trends of serum lipid levels and dyslipidemia in adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus during 2003–2012 in Southwest China. Methods. Serum lipid measurements of 994 adults were obtained from 5 independent, cross-sectional studies (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012). The main outcome measures were mean serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels; bo...

  9. Serum Lp(a)levels in patients with liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharanabasappa M; Sudhakar Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Objective:The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of liver diseases on serum Lp(a)levels and also to study the relationship between Lp(a)levels with other lipid parameters and liver function tests in 32 hyperbil-irubinemia patients with total bilirubin >3mg/dL.The results were compared with 20 healthy age matched in-dividuals.Methods:Serum obtained from venous blood sample are used for estimating total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol(VLDL-c),total protein(TP),albumin(ALB),total bilirubin,direct bilirubin,aspartate amino tranferase(AST),alanine amino transferase(ALT),alkaline phosphatase(ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT),lipoprotein (a)[Lp(a)],serum phospholipids.Results:There was significant decrease in serum Lp(a)levels in liver disease patients and the decrease was directly correlated with reduced serum albumin levels and inversely with liver function parameters.Conclusion:Thus the present study indicates hepatic synthetic damage has possible biochemical basis for the reduction of serum Lp(a)lev-els.

  10. Urotensin II promotes atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li

    Full Text Available Urotensin II (UII is a vasoactive peptide composed of 11 amino acids that has been implicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether UII affects the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. UII was infused for 16 weeks through an osmotic mini-pump into male Japanese White rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions along with cellular components, collagen fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 were examined. Moreover, vulnerability index of atherosclerotic plaques was evaluated. UII infusion significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions within the entire aorta by 21% over the control (P = 0.013. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased by 24% in the aortic arch (P = 0.005, 11% in the thoracic aorta (P = 0.054 and 18% in the abdominal aorta (P = 0.035. These increases occurred without changes in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or body weight. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly enhanced by 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold in UII group. In vitro studies demonstrated that UII up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by the UII receptor antagonist urantide. In conclusion, our results showed that UII promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  11. The correlation analysis of primary hypothyroidism and serum small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration%原发性甲状腺功能减退与血清小而密低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊菲; 林杰; 孔维菊; 肖立; 陈力平

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究不同程度原发性甲状腺功能减退患者血清小而密低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(sdLDL-C)水平的变化,探讨甲状腺功能减退时血清 sdLDL-C 水平变化的临床意义。方法选取临床性原发性甲状腺功能减退受试者60例(甲减组),亚临床性甲状腺功能减退受试者96例(亚甲减组)及甲状腺功能正常的受试者132例(正常组)。取空腹血检测 FT3、FT4、促甲状腺激素(TSH)、TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C、载脂蛋白 AⅠ(ApoAⅠ)、载脂蛋白 B(ApoB)及 sdLDL-C 水平。采用方差分析、Kruskal-Wallis H 检验及 Spearman 等级相关分析进行统计学分析。结果亚甲减组血清 sdLDL-C 水平显著高于正常组(t=5.78,P <0.01),甲减组血清 sdLDL-C 水平显著高于正常组(t=6.68,P <0.01)和亚甲减组(t =-2.88,P <0.01);组间差异有统计学意义(F =37.66,P <0.01)。相关性分析显示不同程度甲状腺功能减退患者 sdLDL-C 与经对数转换后的 TSH 浓度值(LgTSH)呈正相关(r=0.203,P =0.011),与 FT4呈负相关(r=-0.169,P =0.035)。结论 sdLDL-C 水平升高是原发性甲状腺功能减退患者血脂异常的表现之一,可能是甲状腺功能减退患者发生动脉粥样硬化的重要危险因素。%Objective To study the serum small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C)concentration in patients with clinical and sub-clinical primary hypothyroidism,and to explore the clinical significance of serum sdLDL-C determination in pa-tients with hypothyroidism.Methods 60 patients with clinical hypothyroidism(clinical hypothyroidism group),96 cases with sub-clinical hypothyroidism(sub-clinical hypothyroidism group)and 132 normal subjects (normal group)were enrolled in the study. FT3,FT4,thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),TG,TC,HDL-C,LDL-C,apolipoprotein AⅠ(ApoAⅠ),apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and sd

  12. The correlation analysis of primary hypothyroidism and serum small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration%原发性甲状腺功能减退与血清小而密低密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁俊菲; 林杰; 孔维菊; 肖立; 陈力平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the serum small dense low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C)concentration in patients with clinical and sub-clinical primary hypothyroidism,and to explore the clinical significance of serum sdLDL-C determination in pa-tients with hypothyroidism.Methods 60 patients with clinical hypothyroidism(clinical hypothyroidism group),96 cases with sub-clinical hypothyroidism(sub-clinical hypothyroidism group)and 132 normal subjects (normal group)were enrolled in the study. FT3,FT4,thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),TG,TC,HDL-C,LDL-C,apolipoprotein AⅠ(ApoAⅠ),apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and sdLDL-C concentrations were measured.Analysis of Variance,Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman rank correlation analysis were used for statistical analysis.Results The concentration of sdLDL-C in sub-clinical hypothyroidism group was significantly higher than that in normal group (t=5.78,P <0.01),the concentration of sdLDL-C in clinical hypothyroidism group was signifi-cantly higher than that in sub-clinical hypothyroidism group(t=-2.88,P <0.01)and in normal group (t=6.68,P <0.01).There was statistically significant difference among groups (F =37.66,P <0.01).Correlation analysis showed that sdLDL-C in primary hypothyroidism patients was positively correlated with LgTSH (r =0.203,P =0.011 ),and negatively correlated with FT4 (r =-0.169,P =0.035).Conclusion The high concentration of sdLDL-C is a manifestation of dyslipidemia in primary hypothyroidism patients,and an important risk factor for atherosclerosis in primary hypothyroidism patients.%目的:研究不同程度原发性甲状腺功能减退患者血清小而密低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(sdLDL-C)水平的变化,探讨甲状腺功能减退时血清 sdLDL-C 水平变化的临床意义。方法选取临床性原发性甲状腺功能减退受试者60例(甲减组),亚临床性甲状腺功能减退受试者96例(亚甲减组)及甲状腺功能正常的受试者132例(正

  13. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  14. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  15. Intentional formation of a protein corona on nanoparticles: Serum concentration affects protein corona mass, surface charge, and nanoparticle-cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Christine; Weidner, Andreas; Lühe, Moritz V D; Bergemann, Christian; Schacher, Felix H; Clement, Joachim H; Dutz, Silvio

    2016-06-01

    The protein corona, which immediately is formed after contact of nanoparticles and biological systems, plays a crucial role for the biological fate of nanoparticles. In the here presented study we describe a strategy to control the amount of corona proteins which bind on particle surface and the impact of such a protein corona on particle-cell interactions. For corona formation, polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) were incubated in a medium consisting of fetal calf serum (FCS) and cell culture medium. To modulate the amount of proteins bind to particles, the composition of the incubation medium was varied with regard to the FCS content. The protein corona mass was estimated and the size distribution of the participating proteins was determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additionally, the zeta potential of incubated particles was measured. Human blood-brain barrier-representing cell line HBMEC was used for in vitro incubation experiments. To investigate the consequences of the FCS dependent protein corona formation on the interaction of MNP and cells flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopy were used. Zeta potential as well as SDS-PAGE clearly reveal an increase in the amount of corona proteins on MNP with increasing amount of FCS in incubation medium. For MNP incubated with lower FCS concentrations especially medium-sized proteins of molecular weights between 30kDa and 100kDa could be found within the protein corona, whereas for MNP incubated within higher FCS concentrations the fraction of corona proteins of 30kDa and less increased. The presence of the protein corona reduces the interaction of PEI-coated MNP with HBMEC cells within a 30min-incubation.

  16. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  17. The effects of cholesterol concentration in lipid packing and domain registration in ternary mixture lipid multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yicong; Ghosh, Sajal; Connelly, Laura; Lal, Ratneshwar; Sinha, Sunil

    2013-03-01

    The effects of cholesterol in membrane rafts formation remain a mystery even until today. In our study of model membrane multilayer systems consisting of DPPC/DOPC/Cholesterol, we have characterized the morphology changes using AFM and optical microscopy, and the bilayer electron density profile using X-ray reflectivity, as a function of cholesterol concentration. In this presentation, we shall discuss how the cholesterol concentration affects the lipid packing within the bilayer, as well as the interlayer coupling of phase separated domains. X-ray scattering, AFM and optical microscopy which look at different length scales would constitute a complete picture. Our results may shed new light on the understanding of the role of cholesterol in raft formation in biological membranes. This work is supported by a grant from the Biomolecular Materials Program, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy under Award no. DE-FG02-04ER46173.

  18. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shasha; Bennett, Darin C.; Tun, Hein M.; Kim, Ji-Eun; Cheng, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Hongfu; Leung, Frederick C

    2015-01-01

    Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS) and –resistant (RES), have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial ...

  19. Evaluation the Effect Garlet Tablet on Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Emami

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Some investigators reported significant effect of garlic on serum cholesterol reduction. In addition, Iranian culture has specific belief on herbs and garlic in this regard. Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effect of garlet tablets on serum lipid profile.Materials & Methods: Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups for evaluation of the effect of garlic on their lipid profile. The first group was low fat regimen group and the second was garlet tablet regimen group. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in both groups. Then, after two months of these regimens administration, these items were measured again and were compared.Results: Mean age, sex and baseline initial lipid levels were similar in both groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were decreased significantly in the garlic regimen group (in spite of non significant reduction in the other group. Triglyceride and HDL levels were not changed significantly in both regimen groups. Conclusion: Garlet tablet administration has more significant reductive effect on cholestrol level than low cholesterol diet.

  20. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family of gram-positive bacterial toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuck, Alejandro P; Moe, Paul C; Johnson, Benjamin B

    2010-01-01

    The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are a family of beta-barrel pore-forming toxins secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. These toxins are produced as water-soluble monomeric proteins that after binding to the target cell oligomerize on the membrane surface forming a ring-like pre-pore complex, and finally insert a large beta-barrel into the membrane (about 250 A in diameter). Formation of such a large transmembrane structure requires multiple and coordinated conformational changes. The presence of cholesterol in the target membrane is absolutely required for pore-formation, and therefore it was long thought that cholesterol was the cellular receptor for these toxins. However, not all the CDCs require cholesterol for binding. Intermedilysin, secreted by Streptoccocus intermedius only binds to membranes containing a protein receptor, but forms pores only if the membrane contains sufficient cholesterol. In contrast, perfringolysin O, secreted by Clostridium perfringens, only binds to membranes containing substantial amounts of cholesterol. The mechanisms by which cholesterol regulates the cytolytic activity of the CDCs are not understood at the molecular level. The C-terminus of perfringolysin O is involved in cholesterol recognition, and changes in the conformation of the loops located at the distal tip of this domain affect the toxin-membrane interactions. At the same time, the distribution of cholesterol in the membrane can modulate toxin binding. Recent studies support the concept that there is a dynamic interplay between the cholesterol-binding domain of the CDCs and the excess of cholesterol molecules in the target membrane. PMID:20213558

  1. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A;

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  2. Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 isolated from Tibetan kefir grains: a potential probiotic bacterium with cholesterol-lowering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Wu, Fei; Wang, Xiaojun; Sui, Yujie; Yang, Longfei; Wang, Jinfeng

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum Lp27 was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains. The Lp27 isolate survived a 3-h incubation at pH 2.0 and grew normally in 0.3% oxgall. In addition, the Lp27 isolate exhibited an adhesion ratio of 9.5 ± 2.5% with Caco-2 cells. Antibiotic susceptibility tests indicated that the Lp27 isolate was sensitive to gentamicin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol, and was resistant to vancomycin with a minimum inhibitory value of 23µg/mL. The Lp27 isolate inhibited cholesterol absorption through downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression in Caco-2 cells. The Lp27 isolate was fed to hypercholesterolemic rats at a dose of 10(9) cfu/d for 4wk. The Lp27 feeding significantly lowered serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations, but no change was observed in the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In addition, liver total cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased in the Lp27-fed group. The expression of NPC1L1 in the duodenum and jejunum was significantly decreased following Lp27 feeding. These results indicate that Lp27 might be an effective cholesterol-lowering probiotic and a possible mechanism for the cholesterol-reducing effects of probiotics. PMID:23498003

  3. Testing of serum atherogenicity in cell cultures: questionable data published

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large series of studies was reported that culturing of smooth muscle cells with serum from atherosclerosis patients caused intracellular lipid accumulation, while serum from healthy controls had no such effect. Cultures were used for evaluation of antiatherogenic drugs. Numerous substances were reported to lower serum atherogenicity: statins, trapidil, calcium antagonists, garlic derivatives etc. On the contrary, beta-blockers, phenothiazines and oral hypoglycemics were reported to be pro-atherogenic. Known antiatherogenic agents can influence lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, intestinal absorption or endothelium-related mechanisms. All these targets are absent in cell monocultures. Inflammatory factors, addressed by some antiatherogenic drugs, are also not reproduced. In vivo, relationship between cholesterol uptake by cells and atherogenesis must be inverse rather than direct: in familial hypercholesterolemia, inefficient clearance of LDL-cholesterol by cells predisposes to atherosclerosis. Accordingly, if a pharmacological agent reduces cholesterol uptake by cells in vitro, it should be expected to elevate cholesterol in vivo. Validity of clinical recommendations, based on serum atherogenicity testing in cell monocultures, is therefore questionable. These considerations pertain also to the drugs developed on the basis of the cell culture experiments.

  4. Impact of SCP-2/SCP-x gene ablation and dietary cholesterol on hepatic lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipsic, Devon; Landrock, Danilo; Martin, Gregory G; McIntosh, Avery L; Landrock, Kerstin K; Mackie, John T; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Kier, Ann B

    2015-09-01

    While a high-cholesterol diet induces hepatic steatosis, the role of intracellular sterol carrier protein-2/sterol carrier protein-x (SCP-2/SCP-x) proteins is unknown. We hypothesized that ablating SCP-2/SCP-x [double knockout (DKO)] would impact hepatic lipids (cholesterol and cholesteryl ester), especially in high-cholesterol-fed mice. DKO did not alter food consumption, and body weight (BW) gain decreased especially in females, concomitant with hepatic steatosis in females and less so in males. DKO-induced steatosis in control-fed wild-type (WT) mice was associated with 1) loss of SCP-2; 2) upregulation of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP); 3) increased mRNA and/or protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP1 and SREBP2) as well as increased expression of target genes of cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcs1 and Hmgcr) and fatty acid synthesis (Acc1 and Fas); and 4) cholesteryl ester accumulation was also associated with increased acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT2) in males. DKO exacerbated the high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic cholesterol and glyceride accumulation, without further increasing SREBP1, SREBP2, or target genes. This exacerbation was associated both with loss of SCP-2 and concomitant downregulation of Ceh/Hsl, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), MTP, and/or L-FABP protein expression. DKO diminished the ability to secrete excess cholesterol into bile and oxidize cholesterol to bile acid for biliary excretion, especially in females. This suggested that SCP-2/SCP-x affects cholesterol transport to particular intracellular compartments, with ablation resulting in less to the endoplasmic reticulum for SREBP regulation, making more available for cholesteryl ester synthesis, for cholesteryl-ester storage in lipid droplets, and for bile salt synthesis and/or secretion. These alterations are significant findings, since they affect key processes in regulation of sterol metabolism. PMID:26113298

  5. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  6. Polymorphisms at cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, apolipoproteins B and E and low density lipoprotein receptor genes in patients with gallbladder stone disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Yan Jiang; Yu Jiang; Sheng-Dao Zhang; Tian-Quan Han; Guang-Jun Suo; Dian-Xu Feng; Sheng Chen; Xing-Xing Cai; Zhi-Hong Jiang; Jun Shang; Yi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between gallbladder stone disease (GSD) and single nucleotide polymorphisms of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A) gene promoter,apolipoprotein (4PO) B gene exon 26, 4POEgene exon 4 or microsatellite polymorphism of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene exon 18.METHODS: Genotypes of CYP7A, APOB, APOE and LDLR genes were determined in 105 patients with GSD diagnosed by B-mode ultrasonography and 274 control subjects.Serum lipids were analyzed with HITACHI 7060 automaiC biochemical analyzer.RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in patients with GSD (24.47±3.09) than in controls (23.50±2.16).Plasma total cholesterol was lower in patients with GSD (4.66±0.92 mmol/L) than in controls (4.91±0.96 mmol/L),P<0.01 after adjusted for age, sex and BMI. The significantly higher frequency of A allele of CYP7,4 gene polymorphism and X+ allele of APOBgene polymorphism was seen in GSD patients. Percentages of A allele in patients and controls were 62.86% and 54.38% (P <0.05) and those of X+ allele 8.57% and 4.01% (P<0.01). Subjects with A allele had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than subjects with CC homozygote. In a multiple variable logistic regression model, the BMI (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.05-1.22), A allele (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.09) and X+ allele (OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.14-4.59) were positively associated with GSD (P <0.05). Plasma total cholesterol (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.64-0.74) was negatively related to SSD (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: With an association analysis, it was determined that A allele of CYP74 gene and X+ allele of 4POBgene might be considered as risk genes for GSD. These alleles are related with differences of serum lipids among subjects.Multiple-variable logistic regression model analysis showed that besides BMI, GSD was affected by polygenetic factors.But the mechanism for these two alleles responsible for GSD requires further investigations.

  7. Investigating structural details of lipid-cholesterol-A β interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Durgesh; Anunciado, Divina; Heller, William; O'Neill, Hugh; Urban, Volker; Qian, Shuo

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people around the world by 2050. Amyloid beta (A β) -peptide, a peptide composed of 40- 42 amino acids that is the product of cleavage from the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is regarded to play a major role in the development of AD. In addition, accumulating evidence points to a positive association between cholesterol and AD. Here, we present results from our studies about A β-peptide and cholesterol in bilayer by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) using a combination of dimyristoyl, phosphocholine (DMPC) and partially deuterated cholesterol (cholesterol-d7) with and without A β. We compare the results using grazing incidence and transmission SANS on lipid bilayer films and unilamellar vesicles respectively. The structural details on vesicles and bilayers work in conjunction with the circular dichroism on peptide in solution and oriented circular dichroism in bilayer films. The studies confirm a positive association of A β with the membrane layers. The results from different studies will be compared and contrasted in presentation.

  8. Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sperm membrane cholesterol influences cryodamage during cryopreservation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying cholesterol levels in Tris based extenders on the freezability of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 ejaculates from two adults healthy sexually healthy Malabari bucks were utilized for the study. The collected and pooled ejaculates were divided into four groups with Group I serving as Control - I, Group II and III were treated with 1 mg and 2 mg of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, and Group IV treated with 1 mg methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD served as Control - II. Manual freezing was carried out to cryopreserve the treated and control spermatozoa. Results: Treatment of semen samples with CLC resulted in improved maintenance of sperm motility at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation without affecting hypo-osmotic swelling response. Treatment of semen with 1 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa was observed to be better than treatment with 2 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. In general, MβCD treatment was found to result in significantly lower sperm characteristics than those of Control - I and CLC treatment at pre-feeze and post-thaw stages and when incubated up to 4 h. Conclusion: Cholesterol treatment of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen was found to hold promise for improving cryopreser-vability of spermatozoa.

  9. Freshwater Clam Extract Ameliorates Triglyceride and Cholesterol Metabolism through the Expression of Genes Involved in Hepatic Lipogenesis and Cholesterol Degradation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater clam (Corbicula spp. is a popular edible bivalve and has been used as a folk remedy for liver disease in Asia. As a Chinese traditional medicine, it is said that freshwater clam ameliorates alcoholic intoxication and cholestasis. In this study, to estimate the practical benefit of freshwater clam extract (FCE, we compared the effects of FCE and soy protein isolate (SPI on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in rats. FCE and SPI lowered serum cholesterol, and FCE tended to reduce serum triglycerides. FCE enhanced fecal sterol excretion and hepatic mRNA levels of CYP7A1 and ABCG5 more substantially than SPI; however, both diets reduced hepatic cholesterol. Both of the diets similarly suppressed liver lipids improved Δ9-desaturated fatty acid profile, and FCE was associated with a reduction in FAS and SCD1 mRNA levels. Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed that inhibition of lipogenesis-related gene expression may contribute to downregulation of hepatic triglycerides by FCE. FCE would have better potential benefits for preventing metabolic disorders, through greater improvement of metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol, likely through a mechanism similar to SPI.

  10. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  11. Biliary cholesterol secretion: More than a simple ABC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arne; Dikkers; Uwe; JF; Tietge

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease. With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the f inal step for the elimination of cholesterol originating from cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells in the vessel wall in a pathway named reverse cholesterol transport. On the other hand, cholesterol hypersecretion into the bile is considered the main pathophys...

  12. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  13. Fluorescent cholesterol sensing using enzyme-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanocrystals with wurtzite structure were synthesized using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) templates. For biological applications, the capping surfactants, TOPO were replaced with mercaptoacetic acid (MAA). The carboxylic groups in MAA were activated by esterification of n-hydroxysulfo-succinimide (sulfo-NHS) catalyzed by water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC), namely through the EDC/NHS coupling reaction. MAA not only provided water solubility to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots but also acted as a linker between cholesterol oxidase (COx) and the quantum dots due to its carboxyl group. The CdSe/ZnS–COx bioconjugates showed sensitive and linear decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity with cholesterol concentration up to 9 mM. The PL intensity variation was elucidated based upon collisional quenching by hydrogen peroxide generated from the enzymatic oxidation reaction between COx and cholesterol. This collisional quenching mechanism was confirmed by monitoring the response of bovine serum albumin-modified CdSe/ZnS bioconjugates to cholesterol molecules. Furthermore, the bioconjugates showed specificity to cholesterol molecules due to selective enzymatic oxidation reaction by COx. A simple quantum dot-based optical biosensor is proposed for precision cholesterol detection.

  14. Fluorescent cholesterol sensing using enzyme-modified CdSe/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki-Eun [Korea University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun [Korea University, Department of Electronic Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yun-Mo, E-mail: ymsung@korea.ac.kr [Korea University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanocrystals with wurtzite structure were synthesized using trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) templates. For biological applications, the capping surfactants, TOPO were replaced with mercaptoacetic acid (MAA). The carboxylic groups in MAA were activated by esterification of n-hydroxysulfo-succinimide (sulfo-NHS) catalyzed by water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC), namely through the EDC/NHS coupling reaction. MAA not only provided water solubility to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots but also acted as a linker between cholesterol oxidase (COx) and the quantum dots due to its carboxyl group. The CdSe/ZnS-COx bioconjugates showed sensitive and linear decrease in the photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity with cholesterol concentration up to 9 mM. The PL intensity variation was elucidated based upon collisional quenching by hydrogen peroxide generated from the enzymatic oxidation reaction between COx and cholesterol. This collisional quenching mechanism was confirmed by monitoring the response of bovine serum albumin-modified CdSe/ZnS bioconjugates to cholesterol molecules. Furthermore, the bioconjugates showed specificity to cholesterol molecules due to selective enzymatic oxidation reaction by COx. A simple quantum dot-based optical biosensor is proposed for precision cholesterol detection.

  15. Epidemiological link between low cholesterol and suicidality: a puzzle never finished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2011-11-01

    A substantial body of evidence shows an association between an increased risk of suicide and naturally low or therapeutically lowered serum cholesterol. The nature of the association, however, remains unclear. The interrelationships of cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering medications, depressive disorders, and the risk of suicide are more likely to be multi-directional. On the one hand, low cholesterol may have direct effects on mood and suicidal behaviors. On the other hand, psychological conditions and the medications for treatment may influence eating and exercise habits, and subsequently cholesterol levels. There is also likelihood that cholesterol might be a bystander of the association between suicide and other factors. Overall, the association not only represents a public health concern, is indeed a scientific challenge. The aim of this contribution is to comprehensively update and critically review the epidemiological evidences. Efforts have been made to explain the discrepant results from previous studies. This paper is concluded with discussions of the direction and methodological challenges for future investigations. PMID:22053758

  16. Improvement of HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic subjects by feeding bread containing chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausar, S F; Morcillo, M; León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Masih, R; Vilaro Mainero, M; Amigone, J L; Rubin, G; Lescano, C; Castagna, L F; Beltramo, D M; Diaz, G; Bianco, I D

    2003-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a bread formulation containing chitosan in dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic subjects. For this purpose a total of 18 patients were allowed to incorporate to their habitual diets 120 g/day of bread containing 2% (wt/wt) chitosan (chitosan group, n= 9) or standard bread (control group, n= 9). Before the study and after 12 weeks on the modified diet, the following parameters were evaluated: body weight, plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)). Compared with the control group, the patients receiving chitosan-containing bread decreased their mean levels of LDL-cholesterol and significantly increased their mean levels of HDL-cholesterol at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the body weight, serum triglyceride, and HbA(1c). These results suggest that chitosan incorporated into bread formulations could improve the lipoprotein balance similar to typical biliary salts trappers, increasing the HDL- and lowering the LDL-cholesterol, without changing the triglyceride levels. These results warrant further studies over a longer period of time to evaluate if a persistent improvement in levels of lipoproteins can be attained with this strategy.

  17. Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppozini, Laura; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Armstrong, Clare L.; Yamani, Zahra; Kučerka, Norbert; Schmid, Friederike; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2014-11-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules, we observe raftlike structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raftlike structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  18. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  19. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Röhrl, Clemens;

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy...... is to use intrinsically fluorescent sterols, as dehydroergosterol (DHE), having minimal chemical alteration compared to cholesterol but giving low fluorescence signals in the UV region of the spectrum. Alternatively, one can use dye-tagged cholesterol analogs and in particular BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol......), whose synthesis and initial characterization was pioneered by Robert Bittman. Here, we give a general overview of the properties and applications but also limitations of BODIPY-tagged cholesterol probes for analyzing intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We describe our own experiences...

  20. STUDY OF THE CHANGES IN SERUM LIPIDS FOLLOWING MERCURY INTOXIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M TAHER

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The toxicity of mercury which is used as mercury chloride in different parts of living world has been reported in literature. In our knowledge, however, these reports are on the effects of mercury on serum blood parameters. As lipids have important role in cell metabolism, we decided to study the effects of mercury on blood parameters which are related to lipid metabolism as well as its effect on hepatocyte triglycerides. Methods. Each group of 5 rats were treated with daily IP injections of either 10 mg/kg (Body Weight for 5 and 10 days or 5 mg/kg B.W. for 30 and 60 days, before determination of serum levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions. Results. The results obtained are as follows. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg B.W of mercury for 5 and 10 days elevated serum triglycerides by (10.9, 19.3 LDLc (16.5, 22.5 VLDLc (10.9, ,19.3 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (105.1, 136.3 percent respectively. HDLc was decreased by (13.4, 17.3 percent. Daily intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weight of mercury for 30 and 60 days elevated serum triglycerides by (34.7, 47.4. LDLc (28.9, 33.3, VLDLc (34.7, 47.4 and hepatocytes containing triglycerides (177.3, 213.4 percent respectively. HDLc was lowered by (22.9, 27.7 percent. Discussion. The results showed that mercury could affect lipid metabloism in a dose and time dependent manner. This effect might be considered as a possilbe cause of hyperlipidemia in those who are intoxified with this element.

  1. Clinic application of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in predicting expansion hematoma in elderly male patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage%血清LDL-C水平对老年男性高血压性脑出血血肿扩大的预测作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红霞; 刘首峰; 李玉旺; 王欣; 徐小林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol can predict the expan⁃sion of hemorrhage growth in elderly male patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Patients (n=108) who visited our hospital with from June 2012 until May 2014 spontaneous hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage with⁃in 6 hours of onset which is confirmed by initial computed tomography (CT) were sent to repeated CT within 24 hours of on⁃set. All selected patients were divided into the LDL-C≥2.49 mmol/L group and LDL-C<2.49 mmol/L group. Clinical data of these 2 groups were compared and the relationships of hematoma growth and its risk factors were analyzed. Results Baseline blood pressure, the level of blood glucose, PT, APTT, FIB, PLT and hemorrhage volume did not differ significantly between the LDL-C≥2.49 mmol/L group and LDL-C<2.49 mmol/L group. The ratio of hemorrhage growth in LDL-C<2.49 mmol/L group was significantly higher than that in LDL-C≥2.49 mmol/L group (34.21%vs 11.43%). Multiple logistic regres⁃sion analysis showed that LDL-C<2.49 mmol/L was the only risk factor contribute to hemorrhage growth. Conclusion Pa⁃tients with LDL-C<2.49 mmol/L in acute intracerebral hemorrhage are of high risk of hemorrhage growth so early attention and appropriate procedure are needed to prevent or slow its growth.%目的:探讨血清低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平对老年男性高血压性脑出血急性期血肿扩大有无预测作用。方法收集我院2012年6月—2014年5月发病6 h以内的老年男性高血压性脑出血患者108例,按发病时LDL-C水平分为LDL-C<2.49 mmol/L组和LDL-C≥2.49 mmol/L组,对2组患者入院时的收缩压(SBP)、舒张压(DBP)、血糖水平、凝血酶原时间(PT)、部分活化凝血酶时间(APTT)、纤维蛋白原(FIB)、血小板计数、血肿体积进行对比分析,并于发病24 h复查头CT了解2组血肿扩大情况并进

  2. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2005-01-01

    a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, antioxidant enzymes, protein and lipid oxidation were not affected by any of the anthocyanin treatments. Adverse effects of purified anthocyanins were observed on plasma- and LDL-cholesterol. These effects were not observed with black currant juice, suggesting that black currants may contain components...

  3. Intracellular cholesterol-binding proteins enhance HDL-mediated cholesterol uptake in cultured primary mouse hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, Stephen M.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Huang, Huan; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Landrock, Danilo; Payne, H. Ross; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2012-01-01

    A major gap in our knowledge of rapid hepatic HDL cholesterol clearance is the role of key intracellular factors that influence this process. Although the reverse cholesterol transport pathway targets HDL to the liver for net elimination of free cholesterol from the body, molecular details governing cholesterol uptake into hepatocytes are not completely understood. Therefore, the effects of sterol carrier protein (SCP)-2 and liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), high-af...

  4. Oxidised LDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels in patients of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Joya; T K Mishra; Rao, Y. N.; Aggarwal, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method,...

  5. Mast Cells and HDL Studies on Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kareinen, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol in the arterial intima and consequently the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Formation of these plaques is initiated by the appearance of macrophage foam cell in the arterial intima. Foam cells are formed as excessive cholesterol accumulates in the cytosol of macrophages and finally the net influx exceeds the efflux of cholesterol. Excessive accumulation of chemically modified cholesterol in foam ...

  6. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR.

  7. Cytomegalovirus Restructures Lipid Rafts via a US28/CDC42-Mediated Pathway, Enhancing Cholesterol Efflux from Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Hann; Mukhamedova, Nigora; Cui, Huanhuan L; McSharry, Brian P; Avdic, Selmir; Hoang, Anh; Ditiatkovski, Michael; Liu, Yingying; Fu, Ying; Meikle, Peter J; Blomberg, Martin; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Miller, William E; Religa, Piotr; Bukrinsky, Michael; Soderberg-Naucler, Cecilia; Slobedman, Barry; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2016-06-28

    Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contains cholesterol, but how HCMV interacts with host cholesterol metabolism is unknown. We found that, in human fibroblasts, HCMV infection increased the efflux of cellular cholesterol, despite reducing the abundance of ABCA1. Mechanistically, viral protein US28 was acting through CDC42, rearranging actin microfilaments, causing association of actin with lipid rafts, and leading to a dramatic change in the abundance and/or structure of lipid rafts. These changes displaced ABCA1 from the cell surface but created new binding sites for apolipoprotein A-I, resulting in enhanced cholesterol efflux. The changes also reduced the inflammatory response in macrophages. HCMV infection modified the host lipidome profile and expression of several genes and microRNAs involved in cholesterol metabolism. In mice, murine CMV infection elevated plasma triglycerides but did not affect the level and functionality of high-density lipoprotein. Thus, HCMV, through its protein US28, reorganizes lipid rafts and disturbs cell cholesterol metabolism.

  8. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  9. From blood to gut : Direct secretion of cholesterol via transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT) is the focus of many cholesterol lowering therapies By way of this pathway, excess cholesterol is collected from peripheral tissues and delivered back to the liver and gastrointestinal tract for excretion from the body For a long time this removal via

  10. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  11. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  12. AN INTRA - ABDOMINAL FOREI GN BOCORRELATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE, SERUM CALCIUM, ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND SERUM PROTEIN WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL GRADING AND STAGING IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have a key role in the maintenance of cell integrity. Hypolipidemia is related with increased risk of cancer and mortality. Elevated calcium and alkaline phosphatase has also been seen in cancer patients having m etastasis. Alteration in serum prote ins also has been reported. Hence present study was undertaken in 100 histopathologically confirmed head and neck cancer patients, in Department of Pathology Gandhi Medical College Bhopal, after taking informed written c onsent and ethical clearance. Lipid Profile, Serum Calcium, Alkaline Phosphatase, Serum Protein with Albumin were estimated and compared with age and sex matched healthy controls. Statistical analysis was done using chi square test. Total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein - cholesterol (HDLC, low density lipoprotein - cholesterol (LDLC, Very low density lipoprotein - cholesterol (VLDLC all decreased in head & neck cancer patients. Hypercalcemia was seen in 35% of patients. Raised Alkaline phosphatase (ALP was seen in 8 % cancer patients. Serum calcium was found to be increasing with advancing stage. Further studies should be carried out in large number of patients to confirm the role of these parameters with special attention to modifiable ones and their relation with staging and grading of cancer, which can be used as prognostic markers.

  13. Mechanism of the hepatic lipase induced accumulation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic lipase can enhance the delivery of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to cells by a process which does not involve apoprotein catabolism. The incorporation of HDL-free (unesterified) cholesterol, phospholipid, and cholesteryl ester by cells has been compared to establish the mechanism of this delivery process. Human HDL was reconstituted with 3H-free cholesterol and [14C]sphingomyelin, treated with hepatic lipase in the presence of albumin to remove the products of lipolysis, reisolated, and then incubated with cultured rat hepatoma cells. Relative to control HDL, modification of HDL with hepatic lipase stimulated both the amount of HDL-free cholesterol taken up by the cell and the esterification of HDL-free cholesterol but did not affect the delivery of sphingomyelin. Experiments utilizing HDL reconstituted with 14C-free cholesterol and [3H]cholesteryl oleoyl ether suggest that hepatic lipase enhances the incorporation of HDL-esterified cholesterol. However, the amount of free cholesterol delivered as a result of treatment with hepatic lipase was 4-fold that of esterified cholesterol. On the basis of HDL composition, the cellular incorporation of free cholesterol was about 10 times that which would occur by the uptake and degradation of intact particles. The preferential incorporation of HDL-free cholesterol did not require the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine. To correlate the events observed at the cellular level with alterations in lipoprotein structure, high-resolution, proton-decoupled 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (90.55 MHz) was performed on HDL3 in which the cholesterol molecules were replaced with [4-13C]cholesterol by particle reconstitution

  14. Effects of tegaserod on bile composition and hepatic secretion in Richardson ground squirrels on an enriched cholesterol diet

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    Pfannkuche Hans-Juergen

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tegaserod is effective in treating IBS patients with constipation, and does not alter gallbladder motility in healthy individuals or in patients with IBS. However, it is not known if tegaserod affects the biliary tract in gallstone disease, so to this end the effects of tegaserod on bile composition and hepatic secretion of Richardson ground squirrels maintained on an enriched cholesterol diet were examined. Results Animals were fed either a control (0.03% or enriched (1% cholesterol diet for 28 days, and treated s.c. with tegaserod (0.1 mg/kg BID or vehicle. Bile flow, bile acid, phospholipids and cholesterol secretion were measured with standard methods. Tegaserod treatment or enriched cholesterol diet, alone or combination, did not alter body or liver weights. The enriched cholesterol diet increased cholesterol saturation index (CSI, cholesterol concentrations in gallbladder and hepatic duct bile by ~50% and decreased bile acids in gallbladder bile by 17%. Tegaserod treatment reversed these cholesterol-induced changes. None of the treatments, drug or diet, altered fasting gallbladder volume, bile flow and bile salts or phospholipid secretion in normal diet and cholesterol-fed animals. However, tegaserod treatment prevented the decreases in bile acid pool size and cycling frequency caused by the enriched cholesterol diet, consequent to re-establishing normal bile acid to concentrations in the gall bladder. Tegaserod had no effect on these parameters with normal diet animals. Conclusion Tegaserod treatment results in increased enterohepatic cycling and lowers cholesterol saturation in the bile of cholesterol-fed animals. These effects would decrease conditions favorable to cholesterol gallstone formation.

  15. Serum selenium concentration is associated with metabolic factors in the elderly: a cross-sectional study

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    Huang Hui-Ying

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selenium is an essential micronutrient known for its antioxidant function. However, the association of serum selenium with lipid profiles and fasting glucose are inconsistent in populations with average intake of selenium. Furthermore, there were few studies conducted specifically for the elderly. This study examined the relationship of serum selenium concentration with serum lipids and fasting glucose in the Taiwanese elderly population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 200 males and females aged 65-85 years (mean 71.5 ± 4.6 years from Taipei, Taiwan. Serum selenium was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The association between serum selenium and metabolic factors was examined using a multivariate linear regression analysis after controlling several confounders. Results The mean serum selenium concentration was 1.14 μmol/L, without significant difference between sexes. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol increased significantly with serum selenium concentration (P P P P Conclusions Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol, and fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with serum selenium concentration in the Taiwanese elderly. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  16. Serum concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of omentin in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of very-low-calorie diet, physical activity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, M; Dostálová, I; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinová, Z; Mráz, M; Kasalický, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated serum omentin levels and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 11 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 obese non-diabetic women (OB) and 26 healthy lean women (C) before and after various weight loss interventions: 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), 3-month regular exercise and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). At baseline, both T2DM and OB groups had decreased serum omentin concentrations compared with C group while omentin mRNA expression in SCAT did not significantly differ among the groups. Neither VLCD nor exercise significantly affected serum omentin concentrations and its mRNA expression in SCAT of OB or T2DM group. LSG significantly increased serum omentin levels in OB group. In contrast, omentin mRNA expression in SCAT was significantly reduced after LSG. Baseline fasting serum omentin levels in a combined group of the studied subjects (C, OB, T2DM) negatively correlated with BMI, CRP, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin and were positively related to HDL-cholesterol. Reduced circulating omentin levels could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. The increase in circulating omentin levels and the decrease in omentin mRNA expression in SCAT of obese women after LSG might contribute to surgery-induced metabolic improvements and sustained reduction of body weight.

  17. Oral toxic exposure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on serum biochemical changes in adult male Wistar rats

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    Dasal Vasantharaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs are widely used in commercial food additives and cosmetics worldwide. Uptake of these nanoparticulate into humans by different routes and may exhibit potential side effects, lags behind the rapid development of nanotechnology. Thus, the present study designed to evaluate the toxic effect of mixed rutile and anatase TiO2 NPs on serum biochemical changes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into the experimental and control groups (n=6, which were orally administered with 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of TiO2 NPs. Toxic effects were assessed by the changes of serum biochemical parameters such as glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine. All the serum biochemical markers were experimented in rats, after 14-days of post exposure. Results: Changes of the serum specific parameters indicated that liver and kidney were significantly affected in both experimental groups. The changes between the levels of total protein, glucose, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase indicate that TiO2 NPs induces liver damage. Significant increase in the blood urea nitrogen and uric acid indicates the renal damage in the TiO2 NPs treated rats. Conclusion: The data shows that the oral administration of TiO2 NPs (

  18. Inherited Cholesterol Disorder Significantly Boosts Heart Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves her cholesterol untreated, her risk of coronary heart disease death or nonfatal heart attack would be comparable to ... Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cholesterol Heart Diseases--Prevention ... Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ...

  19. Computational model for monitoring cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, R; Rashith Muhammad, M; Poornima Devi, G

    2014-12-01

    A non-deterministic finite automaton is designed to observe the cholesterol metabolism with the states of acceptance and rejection. The acceptance state of the automaton depicts the normal level of metabolism and production of good cholesterol as an end product. The rejection state of this machine shows the inhibition of enzymatic activity in cholesterol synthesis and removal of free fatty acids. The deficiency in human cholesterol metabolism pathway results in abnormal accumulation of cholesterol in plasma, arterial tissues leading to diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis respectively and formation of gallstones. The designed machine can be used to monitor the cholesterol metabolism at molecular level through regulation of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol for the treatment of diseases incident due to the respective metabolic disorder. In addition, an algorithm for this machine has been developed to compare the programmed string with the given string. This study demonstrates the construction of a machine that is used for the development of molecular targeted therapy for the disorders in cholesterol metabolism. PMID:26396654

  20. Cholesterol, the central lipid of mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maxfield, F. R.; van Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its importance for mammalian cell biology and human health, there are many basic aspects of cholesterol homeostasis that are not well understood. Even for the well-characterized delivery of cholesterol to cells via lipoproteins, a novel regulatory mechanism has been discovered recently, invo