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Sample records for affect production reproductive

  1. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was

  2. The affective (re)production of refugee representations through educational policies and practices: Reconceptualising the role of emotion for peace education in a divided country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-08-01

    Drawing into a discussion of the politicisation of emotion, this paper develops a framework to analyse some of the processes and strategies by which educational policies and pedagogical practices "emotionalise" the representation of refugees in conflict-ridden societies such as Cyprus and explores the implications for peace education. In particular, this paper aims to refine our understanding of how emotions affect the ways in which educational policies and practices reproduce self-other dichotomies through certain representations of the refugee experience. It is argued that these dichotomies are relevant to the emotional reactions against peace education initiatives. Second, this paper examines alternative possibilities of promoting peaceful coexistence, while taking into consideration the affective (re)production of refugee representations yet without undermining the refugee experience. Better understanding of how emotion is involved will help educational policymakers and teachers in divided societies to take into account the hitherto poorly developed aspects of the ways in which emotions, the refugee experience and peace education are inextricably intertwined.

  3. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  4. Productive or re-productive learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    group of 4 professionals reflects on how h/she experienced empathy was enacted from his/her position in the play. The participants appear to be challenged by their interdisciplinary and personal differences and we explore how they negotiate different knowledge and power relations in their talk about...... experience that the role play is a productive learning method which has potential to transform normative conceptions of “how one should act” into situated and concrete interactions and thereby illuminate differences in and also tolerance for the way in which empathy is understood and enacted – i.......e. differences such as level of education, gender, ethnic background and knowledge. However, after analyses of the data we wonder if the learning was more re-productive than productive. Our analysis shows how the majority voice, represented by Danish female participants, with its cultural preferences and...

  5. Productive or re-productive learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle

    .e. differences such as level of education, gender, ethnic background and knowledge. However, after analyses of the data we wonder if the learning was more re-productive than productive. Our analysis shows how the majority voice, represented by Danish female participants, with its cultural preferences and...... prejudices become visible and affirmed – at the expense of the minority voice, represented by the only male with a different ethnical background. In conclusion this finding raises an important pedagogical question about the way in which facilitators can facilitate participatory methods such as role play in...... group of 4 professionals reflects on how h/she experienced empathy was enacted from his/her position in the play. The participants appear to be challenged by their interdisciplinary and personal differences and we explore how they negotiate different knowledge and power relations in their talk about...

  6. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi;

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...

  7. Environmental color affects Nile tilapia reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental color on the reproductive behavior of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Two environmental colors were tested by covering the aquarium (60 x 60 x 40 cm with white (12 groups or blue (13 groups cellophane and observing reproductive behavior in groups of 2 males (10.27 ± 0.45 cm and 3 females (10.78 ± 0.45 cm each. After assignment to the respective environmental color (similar luminosity = 100 to 120 Lux, the animals were observed until reproduction (identified by eggs in the female's mouth or up to 10 days after the first nest building. Photoperiod was from 6:00 h to 18:00 h every day. Food was offered in excess once a day and water quality was similar among aquaria. Daily observations were made at 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 and 17:00 h regarding: a latency to the first nest, b number of nests, c gravel weight removed (the male excavates the nest in the bottom of the aquarium, d nest area, and e mouthbrooding incubation (indication of reproduction. The proportion of reproducing fish was significantly higher (6 of 13 in the group exposed to the blue color compared the group exposed to the white color (1 of 12; Goodman's test of proportions. Moreover, males under blue light removed significantly larger masses of gravel (blue = 310.70 ± 343.50 g > white = 130.38 ± 102.70 g; P = 0.01 and constructed wider nests (blue = 207.93 ± 207.80 cm² > white = 97.68 ± 70.64 cm²; P = 0.03 than the control (white. The other parameters did not differ significantly between light conditions. We concluded that reproduction in the presence of blue light was more frequent and intense than in the presence of white light.

  8. Pesticide soil contamination mainly affects earthworm male reproductive parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EduardoBustos-Obregon; RogerIzigaGoicochea

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To explore the effect of exposure to commercial Parathion(Pc)on the reproductive parameters(sperm and cocoon production and genotoxicity on male germ cells),the survival,the body weight and the gross anatomical changes in Eisenia foetida.Methods:Three doses of Pc(1478,739and 444mg/kg of soil)and three thme intervals of exposure(5,15and30days)were used.Results:Alltreated amimals were affected.An acute genotoxic effect,revealed by DNAfragmentation(comet assay),was seen by 5days,Alterations in reproductive parameters were conspicuous in regard to the number of sperm,cocoons and worms born,and the histological observation of the gonads and seminal receptacles.In addition,the body weight and survival rate were decreased,Neuromuscular function was also affected.Conclusion:Earthworms are suitable bioindicators of chemical contamination of the soil,their advantage being their easy and economical handling.

  9. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yagound

    Full Text Available Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps, the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation

  10. Reproductive toxicology of disinfection by-products.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M. K.; Zenick, H; George, E L

    1986-01-01

    The chronic exposure of large segments of the population to disinfected drinking water has necessitated an evaluation of the health effects of the by-products of the chlorination process. This paper reviews the available information concerning the reproductive consequences associated with exposure to disinfection by-products. Four groups of compounds are discussed: the trihalomethanes, in particular chloroform; the chlorinated phenols; chlorinated humic substances; and the haloacetonitriles. ...

  11. Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

  12. Emotional mechanisms of social (re)production

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International audience Since the 1960s various currents within social theory have been undermining the functionalist and structuralist conceptions of the human agent as a passive automaton moved by obscure forces. While the emerging picture emphasizes the part played by cognition, implicit skill, and explicit knowledge, much less attention has been paid to the role of emotions in the active production and reproduction of the social world. The specialized sub-field known as the sociology of...

  13. Depressing Antidepressant: Fluoxetine Affects Serotonin Neurons Causing Adverse Reproductive Responses in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Bruno; Rivetti, Claudia; Kress, Timm; Barata, Carlos; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-06-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants. As endocrine disruptive contaminants in the environment, SSRIs affect reproduction in aquatic organisms. In the water flea Daphnia magna, SSRIs increase offspring production in a food ration-dependent manner. At limiting food conditions, females exposed to SSRIs produce more but smaller offspring, which is a maladaptive life-history strategy. We asked whether increased serotonin levels in newly identified serotonin-neurons in the Daphnia brain mediate these effects. We provide strong evidence that exogenous SSRI fluoxetine selectively increases serotonin-immunoreactivity in identified brain neurons under limiting food conditions thereby leading to maladaptive offspring production. Fluoxetine increases serotonin-immunoreactivity at low food conditions to similar maximal levels as observed under high food conditions and concomitantly enhances offspring production. Sublethal amounts of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine known to specifically ablate serotonin-neurons markedly decrease serotonin-immunoreactivity and offspring production, strongly supporting the effect to be serotonin-specific by reversing the reproductive phenotype attained under fluoxetine. Thus, SSRIs impair serotonin-regulation of reproductive investment in a planktonic key organism causing inappropriately increased reproduction with potentially severe ecological impact. PMID:27128505

  14. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting territorial and reproductive behaviour of dragonflies (Odonata)

    OpenAIRE

    KYBICOVÁ, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Habitat selection, territorial behaviour and reproductive behaviour of dragonflies (Odonata) are discussed and biotic and abiotic factors affecting their territorial and reproductive behaviour are reviewed. The most important biotic factors are predation risk affecting larval survival and the presence of aquatic vegetation, which provides spatial structure. The review is complemented by a field study of territorial and reproductive behavior of dragonflies at an experimental site, at which the...

  15. Social Context and Reproductive Potential Affect Worker Reproductive Decisions in a Eusocial Insect

    OpenAIRE

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be in...

  16. Higher Education and Class: Production or Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with questions relating to the role of education and especially Higher Education in the reproduction of class division in society. Social classes and how they are formed and reproduced has always been one of the greatest challenges for Marxism and social theory in general. The questions regarding the role of education, and…

  17. Control and manipulation of factors affecting small ruminant reproductive performance in tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In tropical areas, reproductive efficiency in small ruminants is affected by various factors, including season, rainfall, male effect, nutritional state or corporal condition (CC) and physiological factors such as post-partum interval, milk production, lactational stages and suckling. Animals with good CC show early puberty, shorter anoestrous periods and better response to male effect and synchronized treatment than animals with low CC; reproductive efficiency is increased by 33% in sheep with CC over 2 (on a scale of 0 to 5) and lambing is 20% lower in the dry than in the rainy season. These data suggest that seasonal sexual inhibition is not too deep in a tropical environment. The response to male effect is good in the different seasons but in animals with low CC this effect is not enough to compensate for the negative influence of undernutrition. Hormonal treatments are effective if animals have adequate CC but the cost is too high. In animals with low CC these treatments must be combined with nutritional flushing. Male introduction at the beginning or 48 h before the end of treatment improves efficiency. Oestrus-ovulation dissociation is observed in tropical sheep after hormonal synchronization and male introduction (9.3%); this is higher in animals with low CC (11.9 vs. 6.8%). Embryo mortality in synchronized goats was affected by nutritional state, being twice as frequent in goats with low CC (26.3 vs. 11.5%). In tropical conditions, appropriate use of male effect and CC can improve reproductive performance by strategic programming of breeding and parturition during the season with better conditions and pasture availability. (author). 35 refs, 8 tabs

  18. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  19. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  20. The effect of reproduction traits on milk production

    OpenAIRE

    Ryba, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate indicators of reproduction and milk production in ZD Podchlumí Dobrá Voda u Hořic and determine the relationships between these two utility properties. Indicators of milk production and reproduction were observed in 2009-2012. The results were further compared with the population of the Czech Fleckvieh cattle individual years. The comparison shows year improvement in most of the monitored parameters ZD Podchlumí Dobrá Voda during the reporting period. The...

  1. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  2. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  3. How female education affects reproductive behavior in urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A; Mason, K O

    1993-01-01

    Although Pakistan remains in a pretransitional stage (contraceptive prevalence of only 11.9% among married women in 1992), urban women with post-primary levels of education are spearheading the gradual move toward fertility transition. Data collected in the city of Karachi in 1987 were used to determine whether the inverse association between fertility and female education is attributable to child supply variables, demand factors, or fertility regulation costs. Karachi, with its high concentration of women with secondary educations employed in professional occupations, has a contraceptive prevalence rate of 31%. Among women married for less than 20 years, a 10-year increment in education predicts that a woman will average two-fifths of a child less than other women in the previous 5 years. Regression analysis identified 4 significant intervening variables in the education-fertility relationship: marriage duration, net family income, formal sector employment, and age at first marriage. Education appears to affect fertility because it promotes a later age at marriage and thus reduces life-time exposure to the risk of childbearing, induces women to marry men with higher incomes (a phenomenon that either reduces the cost of fertility regulation or the demand for children), leads women to become employed in the formal sector (leading to a reduction in the demand for children), and has other unspecified effects on women's values or opportunities that are captured by their birth cohort. When these intervening variables are held constant, women's attitude toward family planning loses its impact on fertility, as do women's domestic autonomy and their expectations of self-support in old age. These findings lend support to increased investments in female education in urban Pakistan as a means of limiting the childbearing of married women. Although it is not clear if investment in female education would have the same effect in rural Pakistan, such action is important from a

  4. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    Research on employee turnover suggests that turnover results in negative organization-level outcomes. This paper provides a firm-level analysis of the impact of the in- and outflows of human resources on productivity and how the presence of organizational slack resources moderates the effects of...... employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantial negative effect on total productivity but that the firm’s size, its capital intensity, and its age...... moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee...

  5. How Employee Turnover Affects Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Bo

    employee turnover. Drawing on a unique longitudinal dataset of 2,926 Danish manufacturing firms that combine individual-level data with firm-level data, the paper shows that job turnover has a substantial negative effect on total productivity but that the firm’s size, its capital intensity, and its age...... moderate this effect so that the negative consequences of employee turnover are less severe for larger, older and capital intensive firms. These moderating variables indicate the presence of slack resources in the firm, and thus that the accumulation of slack reduces the efficiency losses from employee...

  6. Effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six experiments were carried out to study the effect of strategic supplementation during the critical period of the dry season on milk production and reproductive performance in two locations (Tucupido and Tucacas) in Venezuela. Fish meal as a source of undergrade protein was used in two experiments without significant biological responses on production or reproductive performance. However, in two other experiments using either fish meal or cotton-seed meal, higher milk production and improved reproductive performance were found in supplemented animals that had higher body condition at calving (e.g. 15.3 vs 13.3 kg milk/cow/day and 136 vs 200 days interval from calving to conception for cotton-seed supplemented cows with ≥ 2.5 body condition -Nird and non-supplemented cows with <2.5 body condition, P <0.05). In another experiment, cows were supplemented with multinutrient blocks (Urea-molasses blocks - UMB) in the pre-partum period and with undergrade protein during the post-partum period. There was an interaction between pre-partum supplementation and body condition. Cows with Nird <2.5 at calving and consuming UMB had an inferior reproductive response compared to those without blocks (days to resumption to ovarian cyclicity 90.2 vs 62.8, days open 140.4 vs 98.2, pregnancy rate at 200 days post-partum 60 vs 80, respectively, P<0.05). In the last experiment, lipid supplementation and calf rearing systems (restricted suckling and artificial rearing) were compared. Lipid supplementation did not affect production or reproductive performance whereas cows with restricted suckling had longer calving-conception intervals than cows without suckling (117.0 vs 93.0 days, P<0.05). (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Differences in productive robustness in rabbits selected for reproductive longevity or litter size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilgaard, R; Baselga, M; Blas, E;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a line selected for reproductive longevity (LP) to confront productive challenges compared to a line selected during 31 generations for litter size at weaning (V). A total of 133 reproductive rabbit does were used (72 and 61 from LP and V lines.......05). These results show that the rabbit line selected for reproductive longevity is more robust with respect to coping with productive challenges, than a line selected for reproductive intensity....

  8. Prepubertal tamoxifen treatment affects development of heifer reproductive tissues and related signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Naib, A; Tucker, H L M; Xie, G; Keisler, D H; Bartol, F F; Rhoads, R P; Akers, R M; Rhoads, M L

    2016-07-01

    Prepubertal exposure of the developing ovaries and reproductive tract (RT) to estrogen or xenoestrogens can have acute and long-term consequences that compromise the reproductive performance of cattle. This research examined effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen (TAM) on gene and protein abundance in prepubertal ovaries and RT, with a particular focus on signaling pathways that affect morphology. Tamoxifen was administered to Holstein heifer calves (n=8) daily (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously) from 28 to 120 d of age, when tissues were collected. Control calves (n=7) received an equal volume of excipient. Weight, gross measurements, and samples of reproductive tissues were collected, and protein and mRNA were extracted from snap-frozen samples of vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, and liver. Neither estradiol nor insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) concentrations in the serum were affected by TAM treatment. Tamoxifen treatment reduced ovarian weight independently from effects on antral follicle populations, as there was no difference in visible antral follicle numbers on the day of collection. Estrogen receptor α (ESR1) and β (ESR2) mRNA, ESR1 protein, IGFI, progesterone receptor, total growth hormone receptor, WNT4, WNT5A, and WNT7A mRNA, in addition to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK proteins were affected differently depending on the tissue examined. However, neither IGFI receptor mRNA nor protein abundance were affected by TAM treatment. Results indicate that reproductive development in prepubertal Holstein heifer calves is TAM-sensitive, and that bovine RT and ovarian development are supported, in part, by estrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms during the period studied here. Potential long-term consequences of such developmental disruption remain to be defined. PMID:27085397

  9. Inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cruz Reis Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d, fat (fat 305-d, protein (protein 305-d, lactose (lactose 305-d, and total solids (TS 305-d yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM, age at first calving (AFC and calving intervals (CI. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.

  10. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  11. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Alexandre L., E-mail: aljordao@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA), Macapa, AP (Brazil); Nakano, Octavio, E-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Janeiro, Vanderly, E-mail: vjaneiro@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  12. Does Labour Diversity affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    that labor diversity in education significantly enhances a firm's value added. Conversely, diversity in ethnicity and demographics induces negative effects on firm productivity. Hence, the negative effects, coming from communication and integration costs connected to a more culturally and demographically......Using a matched employer-employee dataset, we analyze how workforce diversity in cultural background, education and demographic characteristics affects productivity of firms in Denmark. Implementing a structural estimation of the firms' production function (Ackerberg et al., 2006) we find...

  13. Caterpillar biomass depends on temperature and precipitation, but does not affect bird reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll, Eva Maria; Ohm, Judith; Hoffmann, Konstantin Frank; Hille, Sabine Marlene

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes in phenological events appear as temperatures are increasing: In deciduous forests bud burst, hatching of herbivorous caterpillars, egg laying and nestling time of birds when feeding chicks on caterpillars, may differentially shift into early season and alter synchronization. If timing of bird reproduction has to match with short periods of food availability, phenological mismatch could negatively affect reproductive success. Using a unique empirical approach along an altitudinal temperature gradient, we firstly asked whether besides temperature, also precipitation and leaf phenology interplay and affect caterpillar biomass, since impacts of rainfall on caterpillars have been largely neglected so far. Secondly, we asked whether abundance of caterpillars and thereby body mass of great tit nestlings, which are mainly fed with caterpillars, vary along the altitudinal temperature gradient. We demonstrated that next to temperature also precipitation and leaf phenology affected caterpillar biomass. In our beech forest, even along altitudes, caterpillars were available throughout the great tit breeding season but in highly variable amounts. Our findings revealed that although timing of leaf phenology and great tit breeding season were delayed with decreasing temperature, caterpillars occurred synchronously and were not delayed according to altitude. However, altitude negatively affected caterpillar biomass, but body mass of fledglings at high altitude sites was not affected by lower amounts of caterpillar biomass. This might be partially outweighed by larger territory sizes in great tits.

  14. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, V. I.; Sokur, T. N.; Volobuev, A. I.; Tzibulskaya, I. S.; Malisheva, V. A.; Zikin, B. I.; Ezova, L. C.; Belyaeva, L. A.; Bonartzev, P. D.; Speranskaya, N. V.; Tchesnokova, J. M.; Matveeva, N. K.; Kaliznuk, E. S.; Miturova, L. B.; Orlova, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. ...

  15. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  16. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L;

    2010-01-01

    not significantly affected, but yolk-sac oedema tended to increase in frequency in exposed groups with time. Our results show that dietary exposure to TBP, at concentrations found in marine organisms that are part of the natural diet of wild fish, can interfere with reproduction in zebrafish. We also......The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health...... after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels...

  17. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  18. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2010-01-01

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics affects total factor productivity (TFP) of firms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of firms’ production function, we find evidence that labor diversity in skills/education significantly enhances firm performance as measured by firm TFP. Conversely, diversity in demographics and ethnicity brings mixed results – both dimensions of workforce diversity have eith...

  19. Genotypic variation in host response to infection affects parasite reproductive rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavalire, Hannah F; Blouin, Michael S; Steinauer, Michelle L

    2016-02-01

    Parasite fitness is largely influenced by a variation in host response due to the host's genetic background. Here we investigated the impact of host genotype on pathogen success in the snail vector of its castrating parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. We infected five inbred lines of Biomphalaria glabrata with two infection doses and followed their growth, reproductive output and parasite production throughout the course of infection. There was no difference in resistance to infection among inbred lines, but lines varied in their responses to infection and the numbers of parasites produced. Snails did not compensate for castration by increasing their fecundity during the early phase of infection (fecundity compensation). However, some lines were able to delay parasite shedding for up to 30 weeks, thus prolonging reproduction before the onset of castration. Here we propose this strategy as a novel defense against castrating pathogens in snails. Gigantism, a predicted outcome of castration due to energy reallocation, occurred early in infection (cercariae within a single 2h shedding period, resulting in a total production of 6981-29,509 cercariae over the lifetime of a single snail. Regardless of genetic background, snail size was a strong predictor of parasite reproduction: each millimetre increase in snail size at the time of the first shed resulted in up to 3500 more cercariae over the lifetime of the snail. The results of this study provide a detailed picture of variation in hosts' responses to infection and the resulting impacts on parasite fitness, further defining the intricacies of snail-schistosome compatibility. PMID:26552016

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  1. TRIENNIAL REPRODUCTION SYMPOSIUM: Beef heifer development and lifetime productivity in rangeland-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A J; Funston, R N; Grings, E E; Petersen, M K

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional and environmental factors have been shown to cause epigenetic changes that influence characteristics of the offspring throughout life. In livestock, small differences in nutrition during gestation may alter lifetime production efficiency of offspring. Therefore, the potential for fetal programing should be considered when determining supplemental feeding strategies during gestation. For example, female offspring born to cows grazing dormant winter pasture supplemented with 1.1 kg/d of alfalfa hay during the last third of gestation were 10 kg heavier and had greater BCS at 5 yr of age than those from dams supplemented with 1.8 kg/d of alfalfa hay. These differences were beneficial for maintaining reproductive performance in offspring managed with fewer harvested feed inputs. Evaluation of female offspring from cows wintered on either low-quality or high-quality pasture for 30 to 45 d during the fifth to sixth month of gestation indicated a trend for longer duration of productivity in daughters from cows wintered on improved pasture. In recent studies comparing offspring from cows with or without protein supplementation while grazing dormant winter range during late gestation, heifers from protein-supplemented dams had greater BW at weaning. This BW increase persisted throughout pregnancy and to subsequent calving, and pregnancy rates were greater in heifers from protein-supplemented dams. Heifers from protein-supplemented dams had lower G:F compared with heifers from unsupplemented dams. Therefore, in utero exposure to nutritionally limited environments (nonsupplemented dams) may promote greater feed efficiency in the heifer offspring later in life. Nutrition during postweaning development may also affect lifetime productivity. Heifers developed on low-quality native range with RUP supplementation had greater retention beyond 3 yr of age than cohorts developed in a feedlot with higher quality feed and greater ADG. Collectively, these examples show

  2. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  3. Empirical Study on Factors Affecting Biogas Production

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Ravita D.

    2012-01-01

    In Fiji, biogas has a huge potential to be one of the energy providers for cooking in rural areas but currently its use is very minimal. Main component of biogas is methane which releases energy when combusted. This paper mainly presents the factors that affect biogas production using experimental study. The first section presents an overview on what is biogas, types of biogas digesters present, and some background on the current use of biogas in Fiji. The second section of the paper describe...

  4. Food availability affects Osmia pumila (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) foraging, reproduction, and brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Karen

    2003-03-01

    Food limitation can reduce reproductive success directly, as well as indirectly, if foraging imposes a risk of predation or parasitism. The solitary bee Osmia pumila suffers brood parasitism by the cleptoparasitic wasp Sapyga centrata, which enters the host nest to oviposit while the female bee is away. I studied foraging and reproduction of O. pumila nesting within cages stocked with rich or sparse floral resources, and the presence or absence of S. centrata to test (1) the response of nesting female O. pumila to food shortages, (2) the response of nesting female O. pumila to the presence of parasites, and (3) whether brood produced under scarce resources are more likely to be parasitized by S. centrata. The rate of brood cell production was significantly lower in cages with sparse floral resources, although females in sparse cages did not produce significantly fewer brood cells overall. Sapyga centrata did not influence the rate of brood cell production, but females exposed to the cleptoparasites had marginally significantly lower reproductive output. Nests in parasite cages had significantly fewer brood cells than those in parasite free cages. The mean duration of foraging bouts made by female O. pumila in sparse cages was not significantly longer than that in rich cages. O. pumila spent less time in the nest between pollen and nectar foraging bouts in sparse cages with S. centrata than those in other cages suggesting that these individuals made more frequent food foraging trips. Despite the weak effects of parasites and bloom density on foraging behavior, O. pumila brood cells experienced a 5-fold higher probability of parasitism by S. centrata in cages with sparse bloom than in those with rich bloom [corrected]. These results support the hypothesis that indirect effects of food scarcity increase O. pumila susceptibility to brood parasitism, although the exact mechanism is not entirely clear yet. PMID:12647124

  5. Incorporation of genetic technologies associated with applied reproductive technologies to enhance world food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science. Artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. Multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MO...

  6. Disruption of amylase genes by RNA interference affects reproduction in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvet, Arnaud; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Cavaleiro, Nathalia Pereira; Thomas, Yoann; Quillien, Virgile; Boudry, Pierre; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Fabioux, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Feeding strategies and digestive capacities can have important implications for variation in energetic pathways associated with ecological and economically important traits, such as growth or reproduction in bivalve species. Here, we investigated the role of amylase in the digestive processes of Crassostrea gigas, using in vivo RNA interference. This approach also allowed us to investigate the relationship between energy intake by feeding and gametogenesis in oysters. Double-stranded (ds)RNA designed to target the two α-amylase genes A and B was injected in vivo into the visceral mass of oysters at two doses. These treatments caused significant reductions in mean mRNA levels of the amylase genes: -50.7% and -59% mRNA A, and -71.9% and -70.6% mRNA B in 15 and 75 µg dsRNA-injected oysters, respectively, relative to controls. Interestingly, reproductive knock-down phenotypes were observed for both sexes at 48 days post-injection, with a significant reduction of the gonad area (-22.5% relative to controls) and germ cell under-proliferation revealed by histology. In response to the higher dose of dsRNA, we also observed reductions in amylase activity (-53%) and absorption efficiency (-5%). Based on these data, dynamic energy budget modeling showed that the limitation of energy intake by feeding that was induced by injection of amylase dsRNA was insufficient to affect gonadic development at the level observed in the present study. This finding suggests that other driving mechanisms, such as endogenous hormonal modulation, might significantly change energy allocation to reproduction, and increase the maintenance rate in oysters in response to dsRNA injection. PMID:25883379

  7. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  8. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates. PMID:24666596

  9. Using bioinformatics and reproduction indicators for understanding the relationships that environmental influence cows' milk production

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru T. Bogdan Cristinel Sonea, Costel Ilie Culai Dascalu; CHELMU, Sorin Sergiu; Stefan Nastasie Dan Tapus , Mihaela Rusu Simona Stan Ion Constantinescu

    2011-01-01

    Livestock production (milk, meat) depends heavily on reproductive activity, leading to scientific research and practice to find ways to optimize growth and livestock operation in order to achieve maximum economic efficiency. Research work in cattle reproduction, especially in family farms, are particularly important because understanding leads to increase capacity while the number of existing animals, meat and milk production, combating infertility, increased birth rates, increasing revenue a...

  10. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patel; Bayard Roberts; Samantha Guy; Louise Lee-Jones; Lesong Conteh

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Reproductive health concerns the bodily functions and systems that are involved in conceiving and bearing offspring. A reproductively healthy person is able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and to reproduce if and when they chose to do so. More specifically, to ensure their reproductive health, both men and women need access to safe and effective birth control methods, they need to know how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AI...

  11. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  12. Effect of climatic variables on production and reproduction traits of colored broiler breeder poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nayak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the important climatic variables affecting production and reproduction in a broiler breeder flock. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 1 year on colored synthetic female line male and female poultry birds. 630 female progeny and 194 male progenies from 69 sires and 552 dams produced in four consecutive hatches at an interval of 10 days were used for the present study. Each of the seven, body weight and reproduction traits were regressed with nine environmental variables. Initially, the data were subjected to hatch effect and sire effect corrections through best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE method and, then, multiple linear regressions of environmental variables on each trait were applied. Result: The overall regression was significant (p<0.01 in all traits except 20 week age body weight of females. The R2 value ranged from 0.12 to 0.90 for the traits. Regression coefficient values (b values for maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on 5th week age body weight of males. Similarly, evaporation and morning relative humidity (RH was significant (p<0.05 for 5th week age body weight of females. Almost all b values were significant (p<0.05 for egg production up to 40 week age. The b values representing rainfall, morning RH, afternoon RH, sunshine hours, and rainy days were significant (p<0.05 on bodyweight at 20 week age. All environmental variables except maximum temperature and minimum temperature were significant (p<0.05 on body weight of females at 20 weeks of age. Age at sexual maturity was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with evaporation, afternoon RH whereas, egg shape index was regressed significantly (p<0.05 with a maximum temperature, evaporation and afternoon RH. Conclusion: The result indicated that various environmental variables play a significant role in production and reproduction of breeder broiler poultry. Controlling

  13. Effect of puerperal metritis on reproductive and productive performance in dairy cows in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, M; Romero, G; Veneranda, G; Castello, E; Romero, D; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A

    2016-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows with and without puerperal metritis and to evaluate the effectiveness of using a long-acting ceftiofur preparation. Dairy cows in one dairy farm, calving from July 2009 to January 2010, were examined between 3 and 14 days postpartum and classified on the basis of vaginal discharge into three groups: cows with normal discharge (control; C); cows with a bloody mucus purulent or pathologic nonfetid discharge (PnFD), and cows with bloody mucopurulent or purulent fetid discharge (PFD). Cows in C and PnFD groups were not treated, whereas those in the PFD group were randomly allocated to receive 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur subcutaneously behind the ear (PFD-T) or remain untreated (PFD-No T). From the 640 cows examined, 58.2% formed the C group, 13.4% formed the PnFD group, and 28.4% formed the PFD group. Survival curves differed between cows in the C group and PFD-No T group (P = 0.0013) and between PFD-No T versus PFD-T group (P = 0.0006). Survival curves of PnFD were intermediate and did not differ from those in the C group (P = 0.2) and PFD-T group (P = 0.1) but tended to be different from the PFD-No T group (P = 0.056). The postpartum interval to achieve a 25% pregnancy rate was 72 days for cows in the C group, 73 days for the PFD-T group, 83 days for PnFD group, and 95 days for the PFD-No T group. The chance of pregnancy in a cow in the C group was 1.98 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.08) and in cows in the PFD-T group was 2.16 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.37, 3.50) than that in the PFD-No T group. Finally, the chance of pregnancy in cows in the PnFD group tended to be higher (P = 0.08) than that in the PFD-No T group but did not differ from the other two groups. Cumulative 305-day milk production was higher (P metritis affects the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows and the treatment with ceftiofur was effective in

  14. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E., Jr.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  15. The binary mixtures of megestrol acetate and 17α-ethynylestradiol adversely affect zebrafish reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jianghuan; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic progesterones and estrogens are broadly used bioactive pharmaceutical agents and have been detected in aquatic environments. In the present study, we investigated the combined reproductive effects of megestrol acetate (MTA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to MTA (33, 100 or 333 ng/L), EE2 (10 ng/L) or a mixture of both (MTA + EE2: 33 + 10, 100 + 10 or 333 + 10 ng/L) for 21 days. Results demonstrated that egg production was significantly reduced by exposure to 10 ng/L EE2, but not MTA. However, a combined exposure to MTA and EE2 caused further reduction of fish fecundity compared to EE2 exposure alone, suggesting an additive effect on egg production when EE2 is supplemented with MTA. Plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone in the females and 11-ketotestosterone in the males were significantly decreased in the groups exposed to EE2 or MTA alone compared with the solvent control, and the plasma concentrations of the three hormones were further reduced in the co-exposure groups relative to the MTA exposure group, but not the EE2 exposure group. These data indicate that the inhibitory effects on plasma concentrations in the co-exposures were predominantly caused by EE2. Furthermore, exposure to MTA and EE2 (alone or in combination) led to histological alterations in the ovaries (decreased vitellogenic/mature oocytes), but not in the testes. This study has important implications for environmental risk assessment of synthetic hormones that are concurrently present in aquatic systems. PMID:27038209

  16. Anemonefish depletion reduces survival, growth, reproduction and fishery productivity of mutualistic anemone-anemonefish colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Ashley J.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Munkres, Katherine P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Intimate knowledge of both partners in a mutualism is necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of each partner, and to manage human impacts that asymmetrically affect one of the partners. Although anemonefishes and their host anemones are iconic mutualists and widely sought by ornamental fisheries, the degree to which anemones depend on anemonefishes, and thus the colony-level effects of collecting anemonefishes, is not well understood. We tracked the size and abundance of anemone Entacmaea quadricolor and anemonefish Amphiprion melanopus colonies for 3 yr after none, some, or all of the resident anemonefish were experimentally removed. Total and partial removal of anemonefish had rapid and sustained negative effects on growth, reproduction and survival of anemones, as well as cascading effects on recruitment and productivity of anemonefish in the remaining colony. As predicted, total removal of anemonefish caused acute declines in size and abundance of anemones, although most anemone colonies (76 %) slowly resumed growth and reproduction after the arrival of anemonefish recruits, which subsequently grew and defended the hosts. Partial removal of anemonefish had similar but typically less severe effects on anemones. Remarkably, the colony-level effects on anemones and anemonefish were proportional to the size and number of anemonefish that were experimentally removed. In particular, anemone survival and anemonefish productivity were highest when one or more adult anemonefish remained in the colony, suggesting that adult fish not only enhanced the protection of anemones, but also increased the recruitment and/or survival of conspecifics. We conclude that the relationship between E. quadricolor and A. melanopus is not only obligate, but also demographically rigid and easily perturbed by anemonefish fisheries. Clearly, these two species must be managed together as a unit and with utmost precaution. To this end, we propose several tangible management actions

  17. Gluconeogenic supplements do not affect production, reproductive traits and blood metabolite of holstein cows during the transition period Produtos gliconeogênicos não afetam respostas produtivas, reprodutivas e sangüínea de vacas holandesas em transição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Garcez de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gluconeogenic supplements for dairy cows during the transition period has produced contradictory responses in the literature, making it difficult to recommend them. The objective of this trial was to evaluate supplementation with propylene glycol (PG, calcium propionate (CP, and "Dairy Power Drench®" (DR on the transitional period of Holstein cows. Parameters studied were variation of body condition score (BCS, body weight (BW, milk production (MP, reproductive efficiency and nonesterified fatty acid concentration (NEFA. One hundred and sixty five animals from two commercial herds were used. Treatments consisted of: C- Control; DR- administration of "Dairy Power Drench®" (3 applications during postpartum; CP- daily administration of calcium propionate (500 g; PG- daily administration of propylene glycol (500 mL. Variation sources studied were the effect of treatments and blocks as function of farm and parity. No interaction between time (weeks and treatments, or treatment effects, were found for BCS. However, there was a quadratic effect of time. Body weight and its variation were not affected by treatment nor by the time × treatment interaction. However, a quadratic effect of time was observed. An interaction time × treatment was observed on MP, but possible differences within each week were not detected. Treatments also did not affect reproductive efficiency parameters. On average, the number of days to first detected postpartum estrus was 69.5, with 2.23 services per conception and 172.6 days open. The mean concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was 376.6 mmol L-1 and no effect of the interaction time × treatment, or of treatment, was observed. However, a linear effect was observed with time, with a decrease of 48.2 mmol L-1 per week.O uso de produtos gliconeogênicos para vacas leiteiras no período de transição tem gerado respostas contraditórias na literatura, dificultando a sua recomendação. O objetivo deste

  18. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  19. How does childhood socioeconomic hardship affect reproductive strategy? Pathways of development.

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, P; Pearce, MS; Sear, R.

    2015-01-01

    In high-income populations, evidence suggests that socioeconomic disadvantage early in life is correlated with reproductive strategy. Children growing up in unfavorable rearing environments tend to experience earlier sexual maturity and first births. Earlier first births may be associated with higher fertility, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and larger family size have rarely been tested. The pathways through which early disadvantage influences reproduction are unknown. We test ...

  20. Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua reproductive success, determined using experimental spawning groups and genetic paternity assignment of offspring, showed that within-group variance in male size correlated positively with the degree of male mating skew, predicting a decrease in male...... reproductive skew with decreasing size variation among males under natural conditions. (c) 2006 The Author Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles...

  1. ‘This year I will not put her to work’: the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Storeng, KT; Akoum, MS; Murray, SF

    2012-01-01

    : Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communi...

  2. NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Superoxide Production in Plant Reproductive Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Quesada, María J.; Traverso, José Á.; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2016-01-01

    In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the male gametophyte (pollen grain) produced in the anther reaches the stigmatic surface and initiates the pollen–pistil interaction, an important step in plant reproduction, which ultimately leads to the delivery of two sperm cells to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) inside the ovule. The pollen tube undergoes a strictly apical expansion characterized by a high growth rate, whose targeting should be tightly regulated. A continuous exchange of signals therefore takes place between the haploid pollen and diploid tissue of the pistil until fertilization. In compatible interactions, theses processes result in double fertilization to form a zygote (2n) and the triploid endosperm. Among the large number of signaling mechanisms involved, the redox network appears to be particularly important. Respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) are superoxide-producing enzymes involved in a broad range of processes in plant physiology. In this study, we review the latest findings on understanding Rboh activity in sexual plant reproduction, with a particular focus on the male gametophyte from the anther development stages to the crowning point of fertilization. Rboh isoforms have been identified in both the male and female gametophyte and have proven to be tightly regulated. Their role at crucial points such as proper growth of pollen tube, self-incompatibility response and eventual fertilization is discussed. PMID:27066025

  3. Eficiência produtiva e reprodutiva em vacas leiteiras Productive and reproductive efficiency in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisa Echevarria Leite

    2001-06-01

    longer in the cows that aborted than in the ones that did not abort. The occurrence of stillbirth (P<0.01 and dystocia (P<0.05 significantly increased IEP in 82.4 days and 136.1 days, respectively. The IPPC was not affected by any of the diseases considered. Milk production was affected by dystocia (P<0.05. Cows that had dystocia produced 380.5kg less milk than normal calving cows. We concluded that preventive procedures to control herd health, criterious clinical diagnosis of post partum disorders and development of data bases with precise recordings for regular analysis of the productive and reproductive parameters may lead to a more economic dairy production.

  4. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  5. Reproduction of Heterodera zeae and Its Suppression of Corn Plant Growth as Affected by Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Sarwar; Krusberg, Lorin R.; Sardanelli, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Reproduction of the corn cyst nematode (Heterodera zeae) and its effect on growth of corn (Zea mays) was studied in plant growth chambers at 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36 C. Reproduction of H. zeae increased directly with increase in temperature from 24 to 36 C. Fifteen-cm-d pots of corn seedlings inoculated with a mixture of 5,000 eggs + J2 and maintained for 8 weeks in growth chambers contained an average of 7,042 cysts + females at 36 C, but only 350 cysts + females at 24 C. Fresh weights of plan...

  6. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The...... derived factor scoring coefficients allowed assessment of the management type of a given herd....

  7. Does Labor Diversity Affect Firm Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario; Pytlikova, Mariola

    Using an employer-employee dataset, we analyze how diversity in cultural background, skills and demographic characteristics a?ects total factor productivity (TFP) of ?rms in Denmark. Implementing structural estimation of ?rms' production function, we ?nd evidence that labor diversity in skills/education...... and integration costs connected to a more demographically and culturally diverse workforce, counteract the positive e?ects of diversity on ?rm TFP, coming from creativity and knowledge spillovers. However, we ?nd that ethnic diversity is valuable for ?rms operating in industries characterized by above...

  8. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  9. Improving the productivity of dairy cows on smallholder farms in Mauritius through studies on nutrition and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two phases made up this project. The Phase I was a survey of the reproductive performance of 150 smallholder cows in 3 different climatic areas of the country. Phase II examined an intervention strategy whereby cottonseed cake was introduced into the production system and the effect on milk production and resumption of ovarian activity were monitored. 30 cows were targeted per area. In Phase I, 62, 62 and 80% of the cows resumed ovarian activity by 90 days in the 3 areas, respectively. The overall mean interval from calving to first ovulation was 86 ± 38 days. The average conception rate was only 36% with 2.5 services per conception. The efficiency and accuracy of oestrus detection were 31 and 87%, respectively. In Phase II supplementation significantly increased milk production and was highly cost effective. However, supplementation had no significant effect on the interval from calving to first oestrus. Forty seven, 75 and 85% of the cows resumed ovarian activity by 90 days. Conception rate and late resumption of ovarian activity were clearly identified as 2 major factors affecting the long inter-calving interval. The factors affecting the reproductive performance are discussed. (author)

  10. INTENSIFICATION AND EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION AS FACTORS OF EXTENDED REPRODUCTION IN DIARY PRODUCING SUBCOMPLEX OF AIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirotkin V. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we have shown the necessity of intensification of agricultural processes in dairy producing subcomplex of Agro–Industrial Complex, based on summarized scientific researches, and the necessity to increase the economic efficiency as key factors in security of produce independence of the country. There are presented objective backgrounds of reproduction as reflection of the fact, that created goods are constantly consumed and human needs are renewed. Hence, the production should be renewed and reproduced now and again. The characteristic of production resources is given along with their share in the production process. The relation between extended reproduction and economic growth, being a criterion of economic development is shown as well. There were characterized the ways of achievement of extended reproduction, as the extensive and the intensive. At the same time, there is an accent in expediency of intensification of production based on imbedding of scientifically and technological progress. As far as the intensive way is resource saving the extensive, on contrary, is recourse expendable. Economical efficiency of this process appears in directed and systemized increase in cattle productivity, increase of production by simultaneous decrease of costs of objectified and direct labor per one unit of produced goods. The achievement of extended reproduction in dairy producing subcomplex is not achievable without reach of high level of intensification processes in production of milk. The results of the research, concerning the connection between intensification and efficiency of production, were systemized. These results show, that the increase of level of production intensification leads to the growth of cattle productivity, labor productivity, profitability, increase of production output. After the switching to intensive way of farm development, due to limited character of resources availability, the decrease of capital

  11. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cafazzo

    Full Text Available Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves.

  12. Farmer's attitudes affect piglet production parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Kauppinen, T.; Valros, A.; Vesala, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Our results show that farmers' attitudes count: treating the animals humanely, investing in a favourable environment, and having a positive attitude towards new information and scientific research is associated with an above-average productivity on piglet farms. These attitudes, when implemented and concretized in practice, also benefit the animals through a higher standard of welfare.

  13. Genetic parameters of productive and reproductive traits in Cinta Senese pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinta Senese breed, as other local breeds, suffered a bottleneck during the last century which produced a high level of inbreeding with a reduction of the productive and above all reproductive performances; average inbreeding coefficient of the piglets born in 2003 was 0.14 (Gandini and Gallo, 2004.

  14. Teachers and the Re-Production of Middle-Class Culture in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Based mainly on my own ethnographic research, which is committed to uncovering the constructed or "practiced" nature of social life, I seek to demonstrate the ways in which Australian school teachers, administrators, students and parents are engaged in a re-productive process that simultaneously reinforces and reinvents schools and schooling. Set…

  15. Factors affecting patulin production by Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, J L; Tsao, R; Zhou, T

    2002-12-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium spp. during fruit spoilage, is a major concern with regard to human health because exposure can result in severe acute and chronic toxicity, including carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of Penicillium expansum isolate, apple cultivar, storage temperature and time, and pH on the production of patulin. Patulin was analyzed by a previously developed micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis method. P. expansum isolates originating from across Ontario produced widely differing levels of patulin, ranging from 0 to >6 mg/g by dry mycelial weight. The highest patulin levels were those for isolates displaying aggressive growth (characterized by rapidly increasing acidity) accompanied by profuse mycelial development. Distinct patterns in fungal growth rates and patulin production were evident among isolates grown in McIntosh, Empire, and Mutsu ciders. Extensive fungal growth and higher patulin levels (538 to 1,822 microg/ml on day 14) in apple ciders were associated with incubation at room temperature (25 degrees C), although potentially toxic patulin levels (75 to 396 microg/ml on day 24) were also found in refrigerated ciders (4 degrees C) inoculated with P. expansum. PMID:12495013

  16. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P; Olsen, J; Håkonsen, L B; Ramlau-Hansen, C H

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol and...... free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake and...

  17. Risk factors that affect reproductive target achievement in fertile dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungier, S P M; Roche, J F; Diskin, M G; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the achievement of reproductive targets postpartum (pp) and (2) the key factors that influence pregnancy rate following first artificial insemination (AI) in dairy cows. Ninety-eight Holstein-Friesian pp cows were blood sampled from wk 1 to 4 pp for hematology and biochemistry. Reproductive tract health was assessed weekly by ultrasonography and vaginal mucus scoring. Body condition score (BCS), lameness score, and milk yield were assessed every 2 wk. Milk samples for progesterone assay were collected twice weekly and on d 4, 5, and 7 after AI. Risk factors associated with achieving reproductive targets depended on (1) increased metabolic activity of the liver (increased glutamate dehydrogenase at calving and increased γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in wk 4), (2) a competent immune system (increased neutrophils in wk 1; decreased α1-acid glycoprotein in wk 1, 2, and 3), (3) an endocrine system that was capable of responding by producing sufficient triiodothyronine in wk 2 and increased insulin-like growth factor I in wk 3 and 4, (4) a lower negative energy balance status (decreased nonesterified fatty acid concentration in wk 1; decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in wk 2; BCS loss between calving and d 28 pp factors that increased the odds of a successful first AI were previous ovulation(s) (odds ratio=3.17 per ovulation), BCS >2.5 at AI (odds ratio=3.01), and clear vaginal mucus (score=0) compared with purulent mucus (score >0) 4 d after first AI (odds ratio=2.99). In conclusion, this study identified key risk factors in the early pp period that give a higher probability of cows achieving their reproductive targets and of having a first-AI pregnancy. PMID:24679929

  18. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health ( SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people living near the border, aged 15 to 49 years. To gather information, we utilised: (i) a standardised questionnaire (n = 86; 42 men and 44 women) previously used in national household surveys conducted by t...

  19. Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Azawi; A. J. Ali; E.H. Lazim

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3%) of cases. Twenty two (5.4%) were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405) were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%), ovarobursal adhesi...

  20. Reproductive efficiency methods and their relationship with siliqua production in Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    A. Islam; Fakir, M.S.A

    2012-01-01

    Five reproductive efficiency methods (REM) were evaluated under field condition to measure yield in 12 varieties of Brassica campestris L. in 2005 and 2006 at Mymensingh (240 75′ N latitude and 900 50′ E longitude) based on flower and siliqua production and total reproductive unit (TRU- number of buds, flowers, siliqua and number of empty pedicels). Five REMs were estimated and they were REM-I [ (Mature siliqua ÷ TRU) × 100]; REM-II [(Mature siliqua ÷ Flower number) × 100]; REM-III [{(Mature ...

  1. Productive and reproductive performance of cattle in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of management system, environment and genotype are discussed and the importance of the selection of the optimum system and the appropriate genotype for the economic and environmental climate is emphasized. Productivity is indicated as a function of yield, fertility and survival rate; realistic estimates of all three parameters must be considered when planning livestock development. Intensive, semi-intensive and extensive milk producing systems are briefly discussed in this context. It is suggested that research workers should have a firm understanding of the most valid systems in their areas so that the solution of problems limiting production can be given research priority. It is finally emphasized that the estimates of yield, fertility and survival rate are not constants and will change with increases in the knowledge of animal health, nutrition and forage plant breeding, while the most appropriate system will also change with this new knowledge and with changes in costs of production and market price. (author)

  2. Growth performance and reproductive traits at first parity of New Zealand white female rabbits as affected by heat stress and its alleviation under Egyptian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, I F; Ayyat, M S; Abd el-Monem, U M

    2001-12-01

    Exposing growing and adult New Zealand White (NZW) female rabbits to severe heat stress (temperature-humidity index = 28.9) during summer adversely affected their growth and reproductive traits. The traits that declined significantly (p fibre (CF). The traits that increased significantly (p palm oil (as a source of energy) or natural clay (as a natural enhancer to growth and milk production). Supplying the animals with cool drinking water gave the highest body weight and weight gain, conception rate, litter size and weight and digestibility coefficients for DM and CP and the lowest rectal temperature, respiration rate and pre-weaning mortality. The loss in rabbit production pertaining to heat stress estimated from the percentages of decline in conception rate x pre-weaning mortality x litter weight at weaning was 73.0%. The provision of cool water restored 11/12 of heat loss. PMID:11770200

  3. Brewer's Grain from Cameroon Brewery in Breeder Chicken Rations : Effect on Productive and Reproductive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeni, MJ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of brewer's dried grain (BDG on the productive and reproductive traits in breeder chickens, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of ISA commercial breed were subjected to dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % levels of BDG. Feed and water were provided ad libitum over the 5-months experimental period. Reproductive and productive traits such as egg production, egg weight, albumen height, shell weight, semen quantity fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were measured. Results indicated that when BDG was fed at the 30 % level in the ration, the hen-day egg production (50.6 % was significantly (P of inclusion. There was a significant (P 0.05 was noticed between treatments for ratio of shell weight to egg weight, albumen height, semen quantity and fertility. The results suggest that although the 30 % level of BDG can be tolerated, the 20 %, level of BDG inclusion is more appropriate for breeder birds.

  4. Factors Affecting Parent-Adolescent Discussion on Reproductive Health Issues in Harar, Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Open family discussion on reproductive health (RH issues often leads to increased awareness on RH matters and reduces risky behaviors among adolescents. This study was conducted to assess factors affecting parent-adolescent discussion on RH issues in Harar, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey using face to face interview supplemented with focus group discussion (FGD was conducted on 751 randomly selected parents of 10–19-year-old adolescents. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results. More than one-fourth (28.76% of parents reported discussing RH issues with their adolescents during the last six months. In the logistic regression, parents who have demonstrated good RH knowledge and positive attitude towards RH were almost six times and seventy percent (AOR 5.69, 95% CI: 3.67–8.82; AOR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68 higher in discussing RH with their adolescents than their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Parent-adolescent discussion about RH issues rarely occurs and is bounded by lack of knowledge, sociocultural norms, and parental concern that discussion would encourage premarital sex. Reproductive health programs should target on improving awareness of parents and addressing sociocultural norms surrounding reproductive health issues.

  5. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  6. Reproduction of confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on common and spelt wheat and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Almaši

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in spelt wheat production has grown in recent years but there is hardly any information on pest development on that wheat species in storehouses. The influence of common and spelt wheat and their products on the reproduction and offspring of confused flour beetles Tribolium confusum Du Val was studied under laboratory conditions (22-25 °C and 40-60% RH. The experiment was carried out in four replications with four, 10 and 20 insects over a period of six months. The reproduction of confused flour beetles significantly varied depending on the wheat species and product. The highest reproduction rate was recorded on spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.. The greatest number of offspring beetles appeared on spelt wheat flour (23469. The number of offspring beetles was higher on common (7044 than on spelt wheat kernels (5469. No offspring developed on common wheat pasta while only 4 young beetles were found on spelt wheat pasta. Offspring numbers increased with storage period up to a point but further on they depended on insect number. The number of insects increased over the first four months but decreased later on and the mortality rate was higher. Initial population density affected the offspring numbers but offspring numbers did not rise proportionally with the rising initial population density. Considering the species of wheat, higher mortality was recorded in common wheat. Regarding the type of product, the highest mortality was recorded in pasta, then in kernels and the lowest in flour. The paper shows that confused flour beetles develop extremely well on spelt wheat, even better than on common wheat which is widely grown in Serbia.

  7. Reproduction and production in a buffaloes farm of the Marche region: a ten-year study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquini, M.; B. Tommei; S. Mattii

    2010-01-01

    Water buffalo milk reproductive and productive traits are fundamental to evaluate farm efficiency and dairy economy. Due to the buffalo cows’ long life these aspects are also important to assess the improvement of genetic animal potential and to reach optimal productive performance. Currently this knowledge is critical since the Italian cattle population is decreasing whereas the national buffalo sector is expanding; this trend is partially depending on the reconversion of some dairy ca...

  8. Current progress on assisted reproduction in dogs and cats: in vitro embryo production

    OpenAIRE

    G.C. Luvoni

    2000-01-01

    International audience The objective of the development of assisted reproduction techniques in dogs and cats is their application to non-domestic canine and feline species, most of which are considered threatened or endangered. Among these techniques, an entirely in vitro system for embryo production is effectively an important tool for conservation of wildlife. In the last decade, progress has been made in embryo production in carnivores. It has been shown that canine oocytes can resume m...

  9. Craftswomen in Kerdassa, Egypt: household production and reproduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch PD; Fahmy H

    1983-01-01

    Working paper on interrelations among family and social roles, household production and fertility of rural women in Kerdassa, Egypt. Discusses living conditions, cultural factors, economic role, unpaid work, income generating activities (incl. weaving, handicrafts and subsistence farming), sexual division of labour, family planning and social status. Includes profiles of the self- employed. Stresses the need for improved educational opportunities, vocational training and health services. Bibl...

  10. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  11. Reproductive responses and productive characteristics in ewes supplemented with detoxified castor meal for a long period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with detoxified castor meal (DCM in the diet of ewes during pregnancy, partum, and post-partum on the weight development of their offspring and at slaughter. The study included 56 ewes with synchronized estrus that were naturally mated. At the beginning of pregnancy and in post-partum, hepatic and renal function-related parameters and progesterone levels were measured. At slaughter, the proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined in the loin of ewes. There was no effect of diet on reproductive response after estrus synchronization. At the beginning of pregnancy, albumin and creatinine levels were lower in the DCM group. Supplementation with DCM did not alter the weight or body condition of ewes at partum. However, at weaning, the DCM group showed a higher loin-eye area (LEA in relation to the group fed diets without detoxified castor meal (WDCM. At partum, as well as at weaning, the offspring of the ewes supplemented with DCM had a larger LEA than the WDCM group. In post-partum, levels of glucose, urea, protein, and cholesterol were lower in the DCM group. The return to cyclicity was similar in both groups, with an average of 47 days after partum. At slaughter, neither anatomical and carcass components nor the results of the proximate analysis were affected by the type of diet, except for an increase in heptadecanoic acid in the DCM group. Supplementation with detoxified castor meal in the diet of ewes does not affect lambing, pregnancy, prolificacy, return to cyclicity, milk production, blood biochemical parameters, or carcass characteristics.

  12. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people living......); and (iii) semi-structured interviews with service providers (n = 37). Results The mean number of sexual partners, frequency of multiple concurrent partnerships and engagement in transactional sex were significantly higher in the border community than in the national population. Knowledge about HIV was...

  13. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - Nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the project ''Application of Isotopes and radiation to increasing agricultural production'' a mission was spent in Indonesia. This travel report provides details on the progress of studies on the effects of urea-molasses block food supplements on growth and milk production in cattle, sheep and goats and on reproduction in goats. Also discussed is the use of iodine-125 radioimmunoassay procedures to monitor progesterone levels. 4 tabs

  14. Pathological and anatomical abnormalities affecting buffalo cows reproductive tracts in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Azawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to assess the type and prevalence of abnormalities occurring in the female reproductive tracts of 405 buffalo cows slaughtered at Mosul abattoir. Out of the 405 buffalo genital tracts examined, various abnormalities with different degrees of severity were observed in 216 (53.3% of cases. Twenty two (5.4% were pregnant and the remaining 41.2% (167/405 were macroscopically normal. The most common abnormalities encountered were endometritis 50 (12.3%, ovarobursal adhesions 26 (6.4% and hydrosalpinx 20 (4.9%. Other abnormalities recorded were follicular cyst, luteal cyst, cystic corpus luteum, paraovarian cyst, ovarian sarcoma, inactive ovaries, senility anestrous, pyosalpinx, hemosalpinx, obstruction of oviduct, salpingitis, double oviduct, hydrometra, mucometra, pyometra, permetritis, parametritis, uterine edema, perimetrial adhesions, parametrial adhesions, parauterine abscess and uterine tumor. Histopathological examinations in this study revealed that reproductive tract lesions seem to be an important problem with possible subsequent infertility and sterility in buffalo cows leading to animals slaughtered.

  15. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  16. Production and nutrient dynamics of reproductive components of teak trees in the dry tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmacharya, S B; Singh, K P

    1992-12-01

    Dry matter production and nutrient dynamics were quantified in the reproductive components of 14- and 30-year-old teak (Tectona grandis L.) stands growing in a dry tropical region. Flower production per tree was positively related to tree size. Despite massive flower production (33 x 10(6) and 171 x 10(6) ha(-1) year(-1) in 14- and 30-year-old trees, respectively), only about 0.5-0.7% flowers developed into fruits. Immature fruit abscission totalled 34 and 58% of the total number of fruits initiated in the 14- and 30-year-old stands, respectively. The production of reproductive components (flowers, peduncles and fruits) was 245 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 14-year-old stand and 1122 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in the 30-year-old stand. In both stands, relatively greater amounts of dry matter and nutrients were allocated to reproductive parts in September than in other months. Toward the end of the fruit maturation period, considerable nutrient resorption occurred. More than 90% of the nutrients accumulated in the peduncle were resorbed. Smaller amounts, ranging from 21% for K to 58% for N, were resorbed from mature, winged indehiscent fruits. PMID:14969941

  17. Naloxone affects reproductive system in a rat model with polycystic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manizheh Karami; Maryam Darban Fooladi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To make interaction between morphine and naloxone in the rat model of PCOS, we evidenced the opioid receptors involvement in this efficacy. Methods:A total of 48 female animals (Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g) were kept diestrous before experimental procedure began. They were grouped in single L-arginine (50 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 9 days), naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., once daily for 9 days), morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p., once a day for 9 days), and naloxone (0.4 mg/kg) pre-treated to L-arginine (50 mg/kg), morphine (5 mg/kg) pre-treated to L-arginine, morphine pre-treated to the collective naloxone-L-arginine. Control group solely received saline (1 mL/kg, once daily for 9 days). At the end of the treatment period all animals were surgically studied. The rats’ ovaries and uteri were examined both biometrically and pathologically. Results:The ovaries of rats treated with L-arginine showed polycystic characteristics and their uteri illustrated inflammation changes to the controls. The samples obtained from rats pre-treated with naloxone revealed a decrease in sign of inflammation compaired with L-arginine received speciments, the signs got worse in the presence of the morphine. Conclusion:Aspect of rat reproductive system may be linked with the cystic characteristic of ovary. This study involves opioid receptors in the naloxone efficacy on reproductive agents of rat with polycystic aspect.

  18. Reproductive traits affect the rescue of valuable and endangered multipurpose tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinébou, Viviane; Quinet, Muriel; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Conservation strategies are urgently needed in Tropical areas for widely used tree species. Increasing numbers of species are threatened by overexploitation and their recovery might be poor due to low reproductive success and poor regeneration rates. One of the first steps in developing any conservation policy should be an assessment of the reproductive biology of species that are threatened by overexploitation. This work aimed to study the flowering biology, pollination and breeding system of V. doniana, a multipurpose threatened African tree, as one step in assessing the development of successful conservation strategies. To this end, we studied (1) traits directly involved in pollinator attraction like flowering phenology, flower numbers and morphology, and floral rewards; (2) abundance, diversity and efficiency of flower visitors; (3) breeding system, through controlled hand-pollination experiments involving exclusion of pollinators and pollen from different sources; and (4) optimal conditions for seed germination. The flowering phenology was asynchronous among inflorescences, trees and sites. The flowers produced a large quantity of pollen and nectar with high sugar content. Flowers attracted diverse and abundant visitors, counting both insects and birds, and efficient pollinators included several Hymenoptera species. We detected no spontaneous self-pollination, indicating a total dependence on pollen vectors. Vitex doniana is self-compatible and no inbreeding depression occurred in the first developmental stages. After extraction of the seed from the fruit, seed germination did not require any particular conditions or pre-treatments and the seeds showed high germination rates. These pollination and breeding characteristics as well as germination potential offer the required conditions to develop successful conservation strategies. Protection, cultivation and integration in agroforestry systems are required to improve the regeneration of the tree. PMID:27354660

  19. Gonadal steroids and affective symptoms during in vitro fertilization: implication for reproductive mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Miki; Aharonov, Inbar; Ben Avi, Irit; Schreiber, Shaul; Amit, Ami; Weizman, Abraham; Azem, Foad

    2011-07-01

    Gonadal steroids (GSs) have been associated with the onset of a number of reproductive-related mood disorders in women, in which fluctuating or unstable hormonal levels are postulated to act as the trigger for the destabilization of mood. There is, however, rather limited direct clinical evidence that can link rapidly changing GS levels with the induction of mood symptoms. We aimed to study the effect of controlled and rapid GS fluctuations on mood in an in vivo model. Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (n=108) were assessed for depression and anxiety levels on 3 time points: during a low estradiol and progesterone baseline, during a gonadotropin stimulated estradiol-dominant phase, and after embryo transfer, during a progesterone-dominant low estrogen phase. Plasma levels for estrogen and progesterone were drawn on these time points. Symptoms of depression and anxiety significantly increased from baseline to the high estradiol levels but were not correlated with estrogen. The sharp drop from high estradiol levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to low levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly correlated with rising depression scores. The rise in progesterone levels from low levels at the estradiol-dominant phase to high levels at the progesterone-dominant phase was significantly and inversely correlated with depression scores. This study suggests that the mechanism underlying the role of estrogen in reproductive-related mood disorders involves an abrupt and precipitous drop in its plasma level that can precipitate negative mood states. This finding has implications on the treatment of GS-related mood disorders. PMID:21106297

  20. Benefit of Protected Fat for Improving Production and Reproduction of Ruminant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat or free fatty acid is one of the energy sources which is high density and gives higher energy than any other nutrients. Indonesia has a huge potency for free fatty acid as alternative energy source for ruminant. However, in a certain amount, fat or fatty acid will cause negative effect on the rumen function. Therefore, several technologies to protect fat or fatty acid were developed. In early lactation, dairy cow requires additional energy from high density ingredient without causing any negative effect on rumen function. This paper describes fat metabolism in the rumen and post rumen, technology to protect fat or free fatty acid and the effect of protected fat or fatty acid on nutritional value, production and reproductive performances, carcass quality and milk quality. In conclusion, the utilization of protected fat or fatty acid gives positive effects on productive and reproductive performances.

  1. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy; João Teodoro Pádua; João Restle; Regis Luis Missio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 mo...

  2. 'This year I will not put her to work': the production/reproduction nexus in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi; Akoum, Mélanie Stephanie; Murray, Susan F

    2013-04-01

    Global advocacy campaigns increasingly highlight the negative impact of reproductive morbidity on economic productivity and development in order to justify donor investment in maternal health. Anthropological approaches nuance such narrow economic estimations of reproductive health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork from Burkina Faso in West Africa, this paper analyses the dynamic, and sometimes contradictory, relationship between women's work and reproductive health in impoverished communities. Specifically, it examines the consequences of life-threatening 'near-miss' obstetric complications for women's work across domestic, agricultural and economic spheres over a four-year period. Such events provide a window onto the diverse ways in which production and reproduction are intimately linked within women's everyday lives. Reproduction and production entail sources of potential empowerment and enhancement, as well as potential threats, to health and well-being. In the aftermath of 'near-miss' events, the realms of reproduction and production sometimes jeopardise each other and at other times reinforce each other, while strength in one domain can compensate for weakness in the other. Women's experiences thus reveal how 'production' and 'reproduction' are mutually constituted, challenging the purely instrumental accounts of pregnancy-related 'productivity loss' that dominate current global health discourse. PMID:22897630

  3. Prepartum stocking density: effects on metabolic, health, reproductive, and productive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P R B; Dresch, A R; Machado, K S; Moraes, J G N; Lobeck-Luchterhand, K; Nishimura, T K; Ferreira, M A; Endres, M I; Chebel, R C

    2014-09-01

    -hydroxybutyrate (80SD=508.2±14.3, 100SD=490.9±13.6μmol/L) were not different between treatments. Treatment had no effect on percentage of cows removed from the herd on the first 60 d postpartum (80SD=6.1, 100SD=5.1%) and on rate of removal from the herd up to 305 d postpartum 80SD=referent, 100SD [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)]=1.02 (0.75, 1.38). Percentages of cows pregnant to first (80SD=41.9, 100SD=48.4%) and second (80SD=49.3, 100SD=42.0%) postpartum AI were not different between treatments. Finally, treatment did not affect energy-corrected milk yield up to 155 d postpartum (80SD=33.8±0.5, 100SD=33.4±0.5kg/d). In herds with weekly or twice weekly movement of new cows to the prepartum pen and separate housing of nulliparous and parous animals, a target stocking density of 100% of headlocks on the day of movement is not expected to affect health, metabolic, reproductive, and productive parameters. PMID:24952785

  4. Mercury concentrations in fish-eating birds from the Pinchi Lake area in relation to productivity and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weech, S.A. [Minnow Environmental Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Scheuhammer, T.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre

    2006-07-01

    A known bird breeding area along the Pinchi fault in central British Columbia is a source of geologic mercury (Hg) in the form of cinnabar. Lakes with a range of sediment Hg concentrations are also present. This study examined the extent to which inorganic Hg from local geologic sources is methylated and incorporated into the food chain of birds feeding on fishes. The possible toxic effects of natural and mining-related Hg releases on local piscivorous breeding bird populations were also studied. Bald eagles and red-necked grebes were monitored from 2000 to 2002 in an effort to determine if increased Hg concentrations were affecting reproductive success and productivity. Fish tissues were collected from rainbow trout and northern pike minnow to determine if Hg levels were elevated. Eagles breeding on 5 lakes were sampled for blood- and feather-Hg concentrations. Red-necked grebe eggs were also collected. All samples were analyzed for total Hg. It was shown that Hg does not appear to have any obvious adverse effects on reproduction. Concentrations of Hg in all grebe eggs were below 0.5 {mu}g.g wet weight, the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for Hg developmental toxicity in birds. Although the level of Hg in tissues of Pinchi Lake birds was elevated, the birds were in excellent condition and showed similar reproductive success and productivity to reference populations. This study showed that concurrent tissue sampling and population monitoring can provide a helpful way to prove or refute findings that may indicate a potential contaminant effect on local wildlife. 27 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. Key Factors Affecting Reproductive Success of Thoroughbred Mares and Stallions on a Commercial Stud Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, E A; Bijnen, Mlj; Osborne, M; More, S J; Henderson, Isf; Duffy, P; Crowe, M A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate factors contributing to fertility of thoroughbred mares, data from 3743 oestrous periods of 2385 mares were collected on a large thoroughbred farm in Ireland. Fourteen stallions (mean age 8.3 years; range 4-15 years) had bred 2385 mares (mean age 9.4 years; range 3-24 years). Maiden mares accounted for 12%, mares with a foal at foot for 64%, and barren, slipped or rested mares for 24% of the total. The mean pregnancy rate per cycle was 67.8% (68.6% in year 1 and 66.9% in year 2). Backward stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to develop two models to evaluate mare factors, including mare age, reproductive status, month of foaling, dystocia, month of cover, foal heat, cycle number, treatments, walk-in status and stallion factors including stallion identity, stallion age, shuttle status, time elapsed between covers and high stallion usage on the per cycle pregnancy rate and pregnancy loss. Old age (p < 0.001) and cover within 20 days post-partum (p < 0.003) were associated with lowered pregnancy rates. High mare age (p < 0.05) and barren, slipped or rested reproductive status (p = 0.05) increased the likelihood of pregnancy loss. Uterine inflammation or infection, if appropriately treated, did not affect fertility. Only high usage of stallions (used more than 21 times in previous week) was associated with lowered (p = 0.009) pregnancy rates. However, shuttle stallions were more likely to have increased (p = 0.035) pregnancy survival, perhaps reflecting a bias in stallion selection. In conclusion, mare age exerted the greatest influence on fertility; nonetheless, thoroughbreds can be effectively managed to achieve high reproductive performance in a commercial setting. PMID:26815482

  6. Quantity and quality of light affect growth and reproduction of the invasive annual plant Impatiens glandulifera

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Christian Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions occur worldwide and are among the primary causes of biodiversity loss. Some ecosystems are more prone to biological invasions due to interactions between traits of the invasive species and their new environment. For plants, light quantity and quality affect community invasibility, and previous studies show that the performance of the invasive summer-annual Impatiens glandulifera (Royle) is negatively affected by shade due to reduced light quantity, but effects of light qu...

  7. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  8. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  9. Soybean seed yield and its components as affected by different irrigation regimes at different reproductive stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of an efficient and economical irrigation management system for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is essential to apply irrigations at specific stages of reproductive ontogeny. Soybean cultivar, Williams-82 was subjected to a factorial set of irrigated treatments: R1 to R2 flowering (F), R3 to R4 pod elongation (P) and R5 to R6 seed enlargement (S). The experiment was conducted for two years in spring 1986 and 1987 on a clay-loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad. An F-irrigation at flowering sage had great effect on seed yield (2253 kg/ha). Almost similar yield response was observed for an F-S irrigation and F-P-S irrigation, soybean seed yield for S-irrigation, P-irrigation, F-P and P-S irrigations were significantly lower than a single F-irrigation, F-S and F-P-S irrigation. Also a single irrigation at pod elongation stage (P) and seed enlargement stage (S) enhanced more yield than duel irrigations of F-P and P-S.(author)

  10. Factor affecting the reproductive performance in Nelore cattle raised in the humid tropical Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onset of puberty and postpartum ovarian activity were studied in Nelore cattle. A group of 10 heifers and 11 cows reared under extensive management, and 8 heifers reared under improved nutritional management in a private farm in the humid tropical Amazon region were used. Sequential rectal examinations were performed once or twice a week to assess morphological changes of the uterus and the development of ovarian structures. Visual observation of oestrous signs with the aid of a teaser bull was undertaken twice daily. Weekly blood samples were collected to monitor plasma progesterone profiles. The age and body weight at puberty were 646 ± days and 364 ± 34 kg, and 760 ± 35 days and 316 ± 19 kg, for heifers under improved nutrition and extensive management, respectively (P<0.01). The age at first calving was 920 ± 68 and 1044 ± 34 days for heifers in the same groups mentioned above, respectively (P<0.01). The intervals from calving to a complete clinical uterine involution were 40 ± 45 days, to the first oestrus was 106 ± 45 days and to conception was 191 ± 83 days; and the calving interval was 478 ± 72 days. The results indicate that the reproductive performance of Nelore animals can be improved through management and nutrition. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. DESTAF: A database of text-mined associations for reproductive toxins potentially affecting human fertility

    KAUST Repository

    Dawe, Adam Sean

    2012-01-01

    The Dragon Exploration System for Toxicants and Fertility (DESTAF) is a publicly available resource which enables researchers to efficiently explore both known and potentially novel information and associations in the field of reproductive toxicology. To create DESTAF we used data from the literature (including over 10. 500 PubMed abstracts), several publicly available biomedical repositories, and specialized, curated dictionaries. DESTAF has an interface designed to facilitate rapid assessment of the key associations between relevant concepts, allowing for a more in-depth exploration of information based on different gene/protein-, enzyme/metabolite-, toxin/chemical-, disease- or anatomically centric perspectives. As a special feature, DESTAF allows for the creation and initial testing of potentially new association hypotheses that suggest links between biological entities identified through the database.DESTAF, along with a PDF manual, can be found at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/destaf. It is free to academic and non-commercial users and will be updated quarterly. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  12. An investigation into the factors affecting the natural reproduction of Opsaridium peringueyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.

    An endangered freshwater fish, Opsaridium peringueyi, was studied from January, 2009 to December, 2009. The analysis of the environmental conditions indicated that the fish is found in streams with moderate to fast flow, high oxygen levels, a depth greater than 0.6 m and temperatures between 10 and 24 °C. O. peringueyi is sexually dimorphic with males growing at a faster rate and attaining a larger size than females. The breeding biology of this species was investigated in glass aquarium tanks. The spawning behaviour is described for the first time. The breeding colour of the male is deep red on the operculum, ventral part, caudal and ventral fins. The breeding colour in the female is the same as the male except the red colour is lighter. The breeding of O. peringueyi is a four stage process which begins with the appearance of breeding colour culminating in the laying of eggs after courtship. Temperature, flow-rate, conductivity and substrate were identified as the environmental cues important in the reproduction of this species. All these factors had a significant effect on the breeding activity of O. peringueyi. The possible effect of climate change on O. peringueyi is discussed.

  13. Behavioral factors affecting exposure potential for household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, D C; Small, M J; Davidson, C I; Fischhoff, B

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral experiments were performed on 342 subjects to determine whether behavior, which could affect the level of personal exposure, is exhibited in response to odors and labels which are commonly used for household chemicals. Potential for exposure was assessed by having subjects perform cleaning tasks presented as a product preference test, and noting the amount of cleaning product used, the time taken to complete the cleaning task, the product preference, and the exhibition of avoidance behavior. Product odor was found to affect product preference in the study with the pleasant odored product being preferred to the neutral and unpleasant products. Product odor was also found to influence the amount of product used; less of the odored products was used compared to the neutral product. The experiment also found that very few of the subjects in the study read the product labels, precluding analysis of the effect of such labels on product use. A postexperiment questionnaire on household cleaning product purchasing and use was administered to participants. The results indicate that significant gender differences exist. Women in the sample reported more frequent purchase and use of cleaning products resulting in an estimated potential exposure 40% greater than for the men in the sample. This finding is somewhat countered by the fact that women more frequently reported exposure avoidance behavior, such as using gloves. Additional significant gender differences were found in the stated importance of product qualities, such as odor and environmental quality. This study suggests the need for further research, in a more realistic use setting, on the impact of public education, labels, and product odor on preference, use, and exposure for different types of consumer products. PMID:9306234

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers affect the reproduction and development, and alter the sex ratio of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as flame retardants and now become ubiquitous in the global environment. Using zebrafish as a model, we tested the hypothesis that PBDEs may affect the reproduction and development of fish. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (a congener of PBDE commonly found in the environment) throughout their whole life cycle, and the effects of DE-71 on gonadal development, gamete quality, fertilization success, hatching success, embryonic development and sex ratio were investigated. Despite gonadal development was enhanced, reductions in spawning, fertilization success, hatching success and larval survival rate were evident, while significant increases in malformation and percentage of male were also observed in the F1 generation. Our laboratory results suggest that PBDEs may pose a risk to reproductive success and alter the sex ratio of fish in environments highly contaminated with PBDEs. -- Highlights: •Zebrafish were exposed to PBDE from eggs to adults. •An increase in Gonadal-Somatic Index and enhanced gonadal development was enhanced. •Fertilization and hatching successes were reduced, while malformation was increased. •PBDE alters sex differentiation, leading to a male biased F1 population. •Environmental relevant concentrations of PBDE threaten natural fish populations. -- PBDE reduces fertilization and hatching successes, causes malformation and leads to a male biased F1 generation in fish

  15. The economic bases of demographic reproduction: from the domestic mode of production to wage-earning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillassoux, C

    1983-10-01

    This paper explores the economic basis of demographic reproduction through an analysis of the shift from self-sustaining agricultural production to wage earning in the industrial sector. In subsistence societies, the upper limits of demographic reproduction are set more by agricultural capacities than by women's natural fecundity. An increase in the productivity of agriculture is a necessary precondition for demographic growth. Such societies are based on intergenerational circulation of surplus product, i.e., the community contains preproductive members who are fed and bred until they reach a productive age, producers whose surplus product exceeds their individual consumption, and postproducers who depend on the younger generation for their subsistence. The domestic mode of collective labor becomes weakened, however, when producer members become wage earners as a result of temporary or permanent rural exodus. Under such conditions, the investment of the older generation in the next may be lost to the benefit of the industrial sector employing the rural migrants. The shift has 2 major implications. 1st, population growth is no longer tied to domestic agricultural productivity or the storage capcity of the community; rather, it is related to access to cash, wage levels, employment duration, and food prices. These circumstances foster a higher probability of demographic growth. 2nd, disruption of the circulation of subsistence produces depopulation of the rural areas and severe deterioration of the living conditions in these areas. PMID:12266014

  16. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  17. Developmental methoxychlor exposure affects multiple reproductive parameters and ovarian folliculogenesis and gene expression in adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide with estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic properties. To investigate whether transient developmental exposure to MXC could cause adult ovarian dysfunction, we exposed Fischer rats to 20 μg/kg/day (low dose; environmentally relevant dose) or 100 mg/kg/day (high dose) MXC between 19 days post coitum and postnatal day 7. Multiple reproductive parameters, serum hormone levels, and ovarian morphology and molecular markers were examined from prepubertal through adult stages. High dose MXC accelerated pubertal onset and first estrus, reduced litter size, and increased irregular cyclicity (P < 0.05). MXC reduced superovulatory response to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females (P < 0.05). Rats exposed to high dose MXC had increasing irregular estrous cyclicity beginning at 4 months of age, with all animals showing abnormal cycles by 6 months. High dose MXC reduced serum progesterone, but increased luteinizing hormone (LH). Follicular composition analysis revealed an increase in the percentage of preantral and early antral follicles and a reduction in the percentage of corpora lutea in high dose MXC-treated ovaries (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining and quantification of the staining intensity showed that estrogen receptor β was reduced by high dose MXC while anti-Mullerian hormone was upregulated by both low- and high dose MXC in preantral and early antral follicles (P < 0.05). High dose MXC significantly reduced LH receptor expression in large antral follicles (P < 0.01), and down-regulated cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage. These results demonstrated that developmental MXC exposure results in reduced ovulation and fertility and premature aging, possibly by altering ovarian gene expression and folliculogenesis

  18. Revision of the ICH guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products: SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul

    2016-09-01

    SWOT analysis was used to gain insights and perspectives into the revision of the ICH S5(R2) guideline on detection of toxicity to reproduction for medicinal products. The current ICH guideline was rapidly adopted worldwide and has an excellent safety record for more than 20 years. The revised guideline should aim to further improve reproductive and developmental (DART) safety testing for new drugs. Alternative methods to animal experiments should be used whenever possible. Modern technology should be used to obtain high quality data from fewer animals. Additions to the guideline should include considerations on the following: limit dose setting, maternal toxicity, biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, testing strategies by indication, developmental immunotoxicity, and male-mediated developmental toxicity. Emerging issues, such as epigenetics and the microbiome, will most likely pose challenges to DART testing in the future. It is hoped that the new guideline will be adopted even outside the ICH regions. PMID:27046733

  19. The influence of sensory product properties on affective and symbolic product experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fenko, A.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Creating pleasurable products requires understanding of the influence of sensory product properties on affective user experience and symbolic meaning of products. This paper gives an overview of a series of studies, in which we investigated the impact of sensory product properties (color, material, sound, smell, and taste) on affective user experiences (pleasure, annoyance, satisfaction, and surprise) and symbolic meanings of products (freshness, warmth, and noisiness). The results demonstrat...

  20. A perspective on the impact of reproductive technologies on food production in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marle-Köster, Esté; Webb, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Africa for the largest part is still regarded as part of the developing world and has a history of political instability, natural disasters, floods and droughts that all had an effect on the development of livestock production systems and the potential application of biotechnologies. It is expected that the human population in sub Saharan Africa will experience a growth of 1.2 % per year over the next 30 years. There is therefore pressure to increase sustainable productivity of livestock. Reproductive technologies such as Artificial Insemination in Africa were driven primarily by the need to control or prevent venereal diseases like Trichomoniases and Campylobacter fetus in cattle. Reproductive biotechnology had a limited impact in Africa due to several factors including a lack of infrastructure and animal recording systems, clear breeding objectives and continuously changing production systems and markets. Africa has a large variety of genetic resources adapted to the diverse environment and production systems and biotechnology should be applied within this context for an increase in food production. PMID:24170361

  1. Relations between affective music and speech: Evidence from dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoluan eLiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compares affective piano performance with speech production from the perspective of dynamics: unlike previous research, this study uses finger force and articulatory effort as indexes reflecting the dynamics of affective piano performance and speech production respectively. Moreover, for the first time physical constraints such as piano fingerings and speech articulatory distance are included due to their potential contribution to different patterns of dynamics. A piano performance experiment and speech production experiment were conducted in four emotions: anger, fear, happiness and sadness. The results show that in both piano performance and speech production, anger and happiness generally have high dynamics while sadness has the lowest dynamics, with fear in the middle. Fingerings interact with fear in the piano experiment and articulatory distance interacts with anger in the speech experiment, i.e., large physical constraints produce significantly higher dynamics than small physical constraints in piano performance under the condition of fear and in speech production under the condition of anger. Using production experiments, this study firstly supports previous perception studies on relations between affective music and speech. Moreover, this is the first study to show quantitative evidence for the importance of considering motor aspects such as dynamics in comparing music performance and speech production in which motor mechanisms play a crucial role.

  2. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nybakken, L.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Univ. of Eastern Finland. Dept. of Biology, Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO{sub 2} or enhanced temperature? + enhanced CO{sub 2}. The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO{sub 2} increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth. (Author)

  3. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, E.; Wang, B.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, espe

  4. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  5. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  6. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Chandra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt. Engelm.] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses.

  7. Timing and extent of tissue removal affect reproduction characteristics of an invasive species Heracleum mantegazzianum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pyšek, Petr; Krinke, L.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Perglová, Irena; Pergl, Jan; Moravcová, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2007), s. 335-351. ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Grant ostatní: Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme(XE) EVK2-CT-2001-00128 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Allien plant * Fruit production * Fruit weight Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.125, year: 2007

  8. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  9. An Australasian perspective on the role of reproductive technologies in world food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme B

    2014-01-01

    Industries based on small ruminants are major contributors to world food supply but, in extensive grazing systems, reproductive technology is not directly relevant to most enterprises. More important is the need to respond to demand in high-profit export markets for products that are 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE). This combination of issues led to the concept of CGE management of reproduction that is based on scientific evidence but does not require complex technology. Nutrition is the major challenge because we are limited primarily to the grazing of forages and pastures, but responding to this challenge opens up opportunities-new forages can supply energy and protein whilst improving animal health and welfare, and reducing carbon emissions. A second major factor is the need for accurate coordination of nutritional inputs with reproductive events to ensure that the metabolic signals are appropriate. To control of the timing of reproduction, we need to move beyond simply managing the presence of the male and seek more precision. Our ultimate CGE package is thus based on manipulation of male socio-sexual signals as well as nutrition, in combination with greater use of ultrasound and birth-site management to prevent neonatal mortality. Finally, genetics is critical in the development of the CGE package.It would be difficult to incorporate the entire package in one hit-adaptations are needed to cover variations in genotype and the geographical and socio-economic environment, and some concepts need research and development. Therefore, we have suggested staged introduction of the elements of the package.CGE management can be simple and cost-effective, and improve productivity whilst safeguarding the future of the industries in society and the marketplace. Reproductive technology might not be used by many farmers but it will be an essential tool for realizing the vision because it underpins the acceleration of genetic progress in otherwise tardy grazing industries

  10. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Löf, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...

  11. Key weather extremes affecting potato production in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Timmermans, B.G.H.; Meinke, H.B.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The possible impact of climate change on frequency and severity of weather extremes is hotly debated among climate scientists. Weather extremes can have a significant impact on agricultural production, but their effect is often unclear; this due to interaction with other factors that affect yield an

  12. Key weather extremes affecting potato production in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Timmermans, B.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    This dataset contains the underlying data for the study: Van Oort, P. A. J., B. G. H. Timmermans, H. Meinke, and M. K. Van Ittersum. "Key weather extremes affecting potato production in The Netherlands." European Journal of Agronomy 37, no. 1 (2012): 11-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2011.09.00

  13. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and dairy cows: metabolism, reproduction and products quality

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate in dairy cows the effects of the supplementation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, as natural feed (pasture) or as additive (CLA rumen protected), on quality of dairy products and on cow metabolism and reproduction. In the first experiment three farms of the Alta Irpina area, (Campania region, Italy) were surveyed focusing on three main features 1.00 2.00 3.00 In the farms surveyed, cows’ requirements were seldom met due to the poor q...

  14. Production and reproduction of egg- and meat-type quails reared in different group sizes

    OpenAIRE

    TC Santos; AE Murakami; JC Fanhani; CAL Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Egg- and meat-type quails were reared in groups of different sizes with a fixed female-to-male ratio of 2 to 1 and an area of 158 cm² per bird. The aim was to investigate the influence of group size on quail production and reproductive variables. To this end, 360 quails (180 meat and 180 egg-type quails) were assigned in a completely randomized experimental design to one of three treatments with ten replicates each. The treatments consisted of groups with nine, six, or three quails per cage. ...

  15. The influence of sensory product properties on affective and symbolic product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Creating pleasurable products requires understanding of the influence of sensory product properties on affective user experience and symbolic meaning of products. This paper gives an overview of a series of studies, in which we investigated the impact of sensory product properties (color, material,

  16. Reproduction, population dynamics and production of (Nereididae: Polychaeta) on the rocky coast of El Kala National Park, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daas, Tarek; Younsi, Mourad; Daas-Maamcha, Ouided; Gillet, Patrick; Scaps, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The polychaete Nereis falsa Quatrefages, 1866 is present in the area of El Kala National Park on the East coast of Algeria. Field investigations were carried out from January to December 2007 to characterize the populations? reproductive cycle, secondary production and dynamics. Reproduction followed the atokous type, and spawning occured from mid-June to the end of August/early September when sea temperature was highest (20?23?C). The diameter of mature oocytes was approx...

  17. Genetic and non-genetic analysis for milk production and reproductive traits in Holstein cattle in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid-Allah E

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate genetic, non-genetic affecting factors and estimate genetic parameters for milk production and reproductive traits of Holstein cows via animal model. The data was obtained from a commercial farm (Safi Masr for Developing the Animal Resources, located in the Nile Delta, Dakahlia, Egypt. Data included 4791 records of 1797 cows, 794 dams and 67 sires that represented the period from 2002 to 2012. The means and coefficient of variability (CV% of milk traits as total milk yield (TMY, 305 day milk yield (305-dMY, lactation period (LP and dry period (DP were 5787.8 kg (31.1%, 4695 kg (22.1%, 332 day (14.9% and 72.3 day (27.7%, respectively. Also, the means (CV% of reproductive traits as days open (DO and age at first calving (AFC were 157.9 day (22.6% and 30.5 month (16.8%, respectively. Sire, dam, parity of cow, year and season of calving had significant effects on traits studied. Heritability estimated were 0.223, 0.184, 0.112, 0.118, 0.105 and 0.285 for TMY, 305-dMY, LP, DP, DO and AFC, respectively. Estimated rG and rP among milk production traits were positive but it takes negative trend with DP and DO. Moderate heritability estimates and positive genetic correlation for most of traits studied suggested that genetic improvement of these traits would be achieved via multi-trait selection.

  18. Energy sources in low intake supplements on the productive and reproductive performance of Zebu cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes de Godoy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous zebu cows supplemented on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with supplements of low intake composed of different energy sources in the postpartum period. Sixty cow-calf pairs were divided into three treatments, a standard mineral salt supplement, a supplement based on ground corn and another containing protected fat, under the same conditions of pasture. The cows had an average initial age of 36 months and 295.9 ± 20 kg of initial body weight. The evaluation period lasted from November 2006 to May 2007, the 24 days after delivery until weaning of calves to 192 days of age. Cows fed the supplement based on ground corn (351 g day-1 and protected fat (357 g day-1 showed a similar increase in body weight, which was higher in relation cows fed with the mineral mixture (179 g day-1. Mineral mixture supplementation resulted in body condition score loss of cows between 80 and 136 days after calving. Cows fed energy supplements of low consumption produced more milk, weaned heavier calves and showed higher pregnancy rate than those fed only with the mineral mixture. The use of 3% calcium salts of fatty acids in energy supplements of low consumption did not alter the productive and reproductive performance of primiparous Zebu cows.

  19. The affecting of perceived product quality and perceived risk on perceived product value

    OpenAIRE

    Pisnik Korda, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Perceived value is an extremely important concept in marketing and many authors have dealt with it in the recent years. There are numerous factors affecting perceived product value and we focused on three: perceived product price, perceived product quality and perceived risk. In this paper we present two of them: perceived product quality and perceived risk. Perceived product value is the difference between value in use and price. Value in use is a mix of benefits, which a customer is likely ...

  20. Developmental exposure to ethinylestradiol affects reproductive physiology, the GnRH neuroendocrine network and behaviors in female mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyes eDerouiche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2, the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR or pharmacological (PHARMACO doses (0.1 and 1 µg/kg (body weight/day respectively, from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs.

  1. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rashid

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The ques...

  2. STRAIN EFFECT ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE TRAITS OF LOCAL IMPROVED EGYPTIAN AND CANADIAN CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. TAHA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of strain on some productive as well as some reproductive traits of local improved dual purpose three Canadian strains (Shaver A, B and C and two Egyptian chicken strains (Salam and Mandarah. Results revealed that strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for (body weight at sexual maturity, body weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age, also strain effect was evident for shaver C strain for feed consumption (at sexual maturity, 90 days of egg production, 42 weeks and 65 weeks of age and (egg weight at 90 days of egg production, 42 and 65 weeks of age. While strain effect for fertility, hatchability and scientific hatchability, age at sexual maturity, Egg number at first 90 days of egg production and egg number at 42 and 65 weeks of age were recorded for Egyptian chickens. Moreover, negative correlation estimates were observed between age at sexual maturity and egg number at different periods as well as positive correlation between body weight at 8 weeks of age and most of productive traits that of high great benefits to select for economic traits in chickens at earlier age.

  3. Milk production and reproductive performances of Murrah buffaloes in Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the production and reproductive traits of Murrah buffaloes (1980 lactation records of 698 animals) were collected from the Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India. The overall least-squares means (± SE) for peak milk yield, days to attain peak yield, 305-d yield, lactation length and milk yield, service period, calving interval and dry period were 8.87 ± 0.05 kg, 53.4 ± 0.8 d., 1804.9 ± 14.7 kg., 297.8 ± 1.9 d., 1 855.6 ± 16.1 kg., 225.0 ± 5.5, 532.8 ± 5.5 and 230.2 ± 4.9 d respectively. Period of calving had a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on all the traits studied except days to attain peak yield, where it had only significant (P < 0.05) effect. Season of calving had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on peak yield and lactation milk yield and a highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on days to attain peak yield, 305 d milk yield, milk yield/day of lactation and all the reproductive traits studied. The lowest calving interval was observed in southwest monsoon calvers and they differed significantly (P < 0.05) with winter and summer calvers. Parity had a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) on all the traits studied. Pair-wise comparison revealed that the lactation milk yield was lowest in first parity and differed significantly (P < 0.05) from other parities. In general, reproductive traits such as service period, calving interval and dry period were slightly higher than those observed elsewhere and hence better breeding management and introduction of genetic evaluation programmes are needed for genetic improvement of these traits. (author)

  4. Productive and reproductive efficiency of different genotypes of goat in Bangladesh influenced by nutritional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    lack of sufficient forages. The hilly area remains free of flood, covered by dense forest and has a vast grazing land with low human population density. Animals in this area get sufficient forage naturally. The better performances in growth and reproduction in goats reared in hilly area is certainly for better nutrition that occurs naturally. On the hand, crossbred maintained urban area had better performances over Black Bengal goats. This may be for heterosis effect as well as supplementation of feeds. The preliminary study of this experiment indicates that nutrition as well as genotypes has significant influence in the production and reproduction performances of goats in Bangladesh. In fact, this is the first work on Black Bengal goats in the hilly area and crossbred goats of Bangladesh. Further experiment has been planned for confirming this fact. (author)

  5. Reproductive disorder control and herd health monitoring programme for improvement of dairy production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five dairy farms were randomly chose among those with average to good management practices. Each of the total of 1265 cows was followed from calving to pregnancy. The herd health programme consisted of systematic examination of the key periods of the sexual cycle: at about 30 days post-partum to monitor uterine involution and to detect and treat uterine infection; at about 60 days post-partum to examine and treat anestrous animals, and following insemination, to test for pregnancy by assaying progesterone levels in milk samples collected on day 22 post-insemination and to examine and treat cows inseminated more than three times and still not pregnant (repeat breeders). Pregnancy diagnosis by examination per rectum was carried out at about 60 days post insemination. Manual recording of the age of animal, the number of the lactation, and conditions at calving (dystocia and retention of placenta) was done. Data from 1265 calvings were analysed. Reproductive performance before and after the application of the programme, as well as effects of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on pathology and reproductive performance, were also investigated. The results show the effectiveness of such programmes in improving productivity and the importance of matching genotypes to the local environment. (author). 30 refs, 4 tabs

  6. Identification of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Inhibitors Through an Oriented Screening on Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-gui; DAI Fei-yan; CHENG Yong-xian; YIN Ge-fen; BI Jun-long; LI Dian-peng

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome(PRRS) caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV) is one of the most infectious diseases in the swine industry worldwide,causing big economic losses.Vaccines are major weapons against PRRSV,however,current available vaccines have several limitations.Developing chemical drugs as alternatives is required.On the basis of traditional medical knowledge,we purposely selected 15 natural products originated from Chinese herbs with anti-infectious effects.Their antiviral activities were evaluated by PRRSV-induced cytopathic effect(CPE) on MARC-145 cells and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) assay.Compounds ethoxysanguinarine(EOSG) and atractylodinol were found to be the hits which could significantly reduce PRRSV-associated CPE with 50% inhibited concentration(IC50) values of 7.9 and 39.4 μmol/L,respectively.Meanwhile,compounds ethoxysanguinarine and atractylodinol significantly decreased mRNA expression of ORF7 gene in a dose-dependent manner.Study results suggest that compounds ethoxysanguinarine and atractylodinol may be useful anti-PRRSV drugs for swine industry or the hits for further lead optimization.

  7. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness

  8. Ultraviolet-B irradiation of seeds affects photochemical and reproductive performance of the arid-environment ephemeral Dimorphotheca pluvialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A higher polyphenolic content and thicker sclerenchymatous cylinder in the pericarp of ray than of disc seed morphs (diaspores) of Dimorphotheca pluvialis (L.) Moench (Asteraceae) could limit possible damage to the embryo during long-term seed exposure to solar UV-B radiation. This hypothesis was tested by irradiating sun-dried disc and ray diaspores continuously for 6 weeks with four different doses of biologically effective UV radiation, viz 0.0, 0.2, 9.46 and 11.97 kj m−2 8 hr−1 of visible (> 400 nm), UV-A (320–400 nm), ambient and enhanced UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation, respectively. Total effective UV-B doses approximated those received over an 18-week period following seed dispersal at this species' northerly distribution limit (26° 38′ S), at normal ozone levels (ambient UV-B) and anticipated 20% ozone depletion (enhanced UV-B). Irradiation of diaspores with enhanced UV-B improved germination in both seed morphs. However, disc diaspores exhibited a greater fractional increase in germination than ray diaspores. Disc and ray plants grown from diaspores irradiated with enhanced UV-B exhibited decreased photochemical efficiency (reduced variable to maximal fluorescence, Fv/Fm), but only disc plants showed decreased potential photosynthetic activity (reduced areas over fluorescence curves, Afd). This was accompanied by increased diaspore production and reduced diaspore mass. Irradiation of diaspores with photoreactivating UV-A produced a contrasting response (increased Fv/Fm and Afd, accompanied by decreased diaspore production) in disc plants only. Altered photochemical and reproductive performance, and visibly diminished leaf pigmentation, in disc plants indicated increased sensitivity to photoinhibition, a possible consequence of UV-B induced cellular (membrane and DNA) damage in seeds. (author)

  9. Production and reproduction of egg- and meat-type quails reared in different group sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TC Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Egg- and meat-type quails were reared in groups of different sizes with a fixed female-to-male ratio of 2 to 1 and an area of 158 cm² per bird. The aim was to investigate the influence of group size on quail production and reproductive variables. To this end, 360 quails (180 meat and 180 egg-type quails were assigned in a completely randomized experimental design to one of three treatments with ten replicates each. The treatments consisted of groups with nine, six, or three quails per cage. Birds were observed for three cycles of 14 days. Daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were influenced (p < 0.05 by group size in both types of quails. Quail type influenced (p < 0.05 daily feed intake, feed conversion, and egg weight due to the typical differences between meat and egg-type birds. Despite the observed differences in production parameters, the mean values observed were typical of meat- and egg-type quails. The number of hydrolysis points (holes per mm² on the vitelline membrane on the germinal disc area was higher in meat quails (2.89 ± 0.21 than in egg quails (2.15 ± 0.13. This parameter was not influenced by the number of birds per cage, which suggests that the number of males inside the cage did not modify the spermatozoa pool inside the female oviduct. We concluded that a ratio of two females per male in cages with three, six, and nine birds/cage is recommended, as no deleterious effect on quail reproduction was observed.

  10. Factors influencing the reproduction and production performance of the Nguni cattle ecotypes in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Sónia Maria Ataíde; Fair, Michael Denis; Scholtz, Michiel Matthys; Neser, Frederick Wilhelm Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the reproductive and productive performance of Nguni cattle distributed among 11 farms in four regions of South Africa. Only data of registered Appendix A to Stud Proper Nguni animals from the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa’s database were used. Data were collected from 2061 dams and 3285 calves between 1990 and 2009. Overall means for age at first calving (AFC) and calving intervals (CI) were 33.79 ± 4.90 months and 400.29 ± 78.70 days, respectively. Dry season-born heifers had lower AFC than wet season-born heifers. Dry seasons 4 and wet seasons 1 had lower CI than seasons 2 and 3, indicating that conceptions take place between December and May. Average growth weights of calves were 24.87 ± 3.13, 151.91 ± 21.09, 169.25 ± 23.68 and 237.96 ± 27.34 kg at birth (BW), weaning (WW), 12 months (YW) and 18 months of age, respectively. BW was higher in dry seasons 4 and wet seasons 1; WW and YW were higher in dry than in wet seasons. This is the first study demonstrating that performance of Nguni cattle is influenced by ecological regions of the dam’s origin, year-season of birth/calving, breeder’s management, parity and herdbook status, confirming that environment-genotype interactions influence the performance of Nguni cattle in southern Africa. This stimulated a follow-up study on the use of geographic information systems to specifically identify factors influencing the reproductive and productive performance of Nguni cattle in southern Africa. PMID:26466944

  11. Seasonality of reproduction and production in farm fishes, birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B; Brillard, J P; Fostier, A

    2007-03-01

    A very large majority of farm animals express seasonal variations in their production traits, thus inducing seasonal availability of fresh derived animal products (meat, milk, cheese and eggs). This pattern is in part the consequence of the farmer's objective to market his products in the most economically favourable period. It may also be imposed by the season-dependent access to feed resources, as in ruminants, or by the specific requirements derived from adaptation to environmental conditions such as water temperature in fish. But seasonal variations in animal products are also the consequence of constraints resulting from the occurrence of a more or less marked seasonal reproductive season in most farm animal species including fish, poultry and mammals. Like their wild counterparts, at mid and high latitudes, most farm animals normally give birth at the end of winter-early spring, the most favourable period for the progeny to survive and thus promote the next generation. As a consequence, most species show seasonal variations in their ovulation frequency (mammals and fish: presence or absence of ovulation; birds: variations or suppression of laying rates), spermatogenic activity (from moderate to complete absence of sperm production), gamete quality (variations in fertilisation rates and embryo survival), and also sexual behaviour. Among species of interest for animal production, fishes and birds are generally considered as more directly sensitive to external factors (mainly temperature in fish, photoperiod in birds). In all species, it is therefore advisable that artificial photoperiodic treatments consisting of extra-light during natural short days (in chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, sheep and goats) or melatonin during long days (in goats, sheep) be extensively used to either adjust the breeding season to animal producer needs and/or to completely overcome seasonal variations of sperm production in artificial insemination centres (mammals) and breeder flock

  12. Do ICTs Affect Workforce Productivity in Egyptian Industrial Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elsaadani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the influence of Information Communication Technologies-ICTs’ dimensions (Information Technology (IT, Management Information System (MIS, Office automation (OA, Intranet and Internet on workforce productivity for a group of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt. The population of the study included managers and staff members working in different areas related to ICTs in selected industrial organizations at various managerial levels. A descriptive-statistical combined research study was conducted. Simple random sampling was used for the selection of the participating industrial organization. A questionnaire was used as the data collection method. Expert comments were used to check the validity of study instrument, and the reliability of questions was calculated as 79% using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Single variable t-test, Friedman and variance analysis tests were used for the analysis. Study findings revealed that the specified dimensions of ICTs positively affect workforce productivity of industrial organizations in Alexandria - Egypt.

  13. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  14. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  15. Evaluation of a reproductive index for estimating productivity of grassland breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M.R.; Norment, C.; Runge, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Declining populations of grassland breeding birds have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality is breeding success, which is challenging to determine for many cryptic-nesting grassland birds. This difficulty led Vickery et al. (1992) to propose a reproductive index based on behavioral observations rather than nest fate. We rigorously evaluated the index for 2 years using a Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) population in western New York and found a weak correlation in classification of the breeding stages of monitored territories among multiple observers (r = 0.398). We also discovered a large difference between overall territory and nest success rates independently estimated with the index (9.8% over the entire breeding cycle) and with nest searching and monitoring (41.7% of nests successfully fledged young). Most importantly, we made territory-level comparisons of index estimates with actual nest fate and found that the index correctly predicted fates for only 43% of the monitored nests. A Mayfield logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only index rank 4 (eggs hatched, but young failed to fledge) showed a strong positive correlation with nest success. Although the reproductive index may function as a coarse indicator of habitat suitability (e.g., documenting production in potential ecological traps), in our study the index exhibited neither internal consistency nor the ability to predict nest fate at the plot or territory level and functioned poorly as a substitute for nest searching and monitoring. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  16. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Mosale Venkatesh Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  17. Production and evaluation of virus-like particles displaying immunogenic epitopes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ambika Mosale Venkatesh; Ni, Yanyan; Meng, Xiangjin; Zhang, Chenming

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS. PMID:25874763

  18. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Improving the reproductive performance of large and small ruminants in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the activities of the expert during a three-week mission to Thailand to discuss work aimed at increasing the reproductive efficiency of cattle and buffaloes. In addition the expert assessed the potential for the introduction of hormonal assays to increase productivity in goats. Discussions focussed on the techniques used, the increase in understanding of the reproductive status of the cattle and buffaloes in the region, the impact of the findings on husbandry, breeding and management priorities, the usefulness of the progesterone test and on what additional research is required

  19. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  20. Effect of inhibin gene immunization on antibody production and reproductive performance in Partridge Shank hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Dagan; Bai, Wujiao; Hui, Fengming; Yang, Liguo; Cao, Shaoxian; Xu, Yinxue

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of inhibin gene immunization on antibody production and reproductive performance in broiler breeder females, Partridge Shank hens aged 380 days were immunized with inhibin recombinant plasmid pcISI. One hundred and twenty hens were randomly assigned to four groups and treated intramuscularly with 25, 75, or 125 μg/300-μL inhibin recombinant plasmid pcISI (T1∼T3) or 300-μL saline as control (C), respectively. Booster immunization was given with the same dosage 20 days later. Blood and egg samples were collected to detect the antibody against inhibin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and to evaluate egg performance. The ovaries were collected to classify the follicles and detect the FSH receptor (FSHR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by reverse transcription-PCR. The results showed that immunization against pcISI could elicit antibody against inhibin in both plasma and egg yolk compared with the control (P lay during the first 30 days after primary vaccination (P laying performance in Partridge Shank hens, which provides a good foundation for the application of inhibin DNA vaccine in avian production. PMID:26739531

  1. HERITABILITY OF PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION TRAITS IN COLORED SYNTHETIC BROILER BREEDER CHICKEN OF ODISHA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.D.Nayak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding program in Odisha was started in 1994 to improve productivity of coloured synthetic broiler breeder chicken. The pedigree in the current study descended from 69 sires and 552 dams. Genetic parameters were estimated using sire and dam component of variances for various production and reproduction traits after necessary corrections for hatch effects were done. Heritability in male was found to be 0.232 ± 0.615 for body weight at 5th week while it was high (0.718 ± 0.129 in female. Age at first egg showed a low heritability (0.127 ± 0.131 estimated from sire component and was 0.191 ± 0.336 estimated from dam component of variance. Heritability for egg numbers up to 40 weeks laying was 0.624 ± 0.439 when estimated from dam component of variance but, was negative from sire component. Heritability value for body weight at 20th week of age (male was very high but it was low in females (0.035 ± 0.134 when estimated from sire component of variance. Egg weight had a very high heritability value (0.644 ± 0.265 but egg shape index had a low value (0.150 ± 0.240 when estimation was from sire component. The comparative rg values among 5th week body weight, 20th week body weight, ASM, egg weight, egg production were significant (p < 0.05. These traits seemed to have additive effect of genes and utilizing them as selection traits would improve both egg production and growth performance of breeder broiler chicken.

  2. Mn(II) Oxidation by an Ascomycete Fungus is Linked to Superoxide Production During Asexual Reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansel, Colleen M.; Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.

    2012-07-16

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  3. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  4. Production measurements affected by x irradiation of chicken semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Comb White Leghorn (S.C.W.L.) and Dark Cornish semen was x-irradiated with 1000 R and introduced into S.C.W.L. hens to produce S.C.W.L. and crossbred chicks. The irradiation reduced the fertilizing capacity of the semen about 25% and the hatchability of the embryos about 38%. Semen of the two breeds was affected differently since there was much less alteration of embryonic development among purebred, S.C.W.L. chicks than among Cornish-sired crossbreds. As is typical, crossbred chicks gained weight faster than purebred S.C.W.L. irrespective of radiation damage. After irradiation, live weight was 4% less at 16 weeks of age for the crossbreds but no substantial effect on growth was evident for the S.C.W.L., although they were significantly heavier at hatching in the irradiated population. The rate of egg production in the first 30 days declined 15% under pressure from the irradiation damage. The distribution, as well as the frequency, of embryonic mortalities changed after parental semen irradiation. The majority of embryonic deaths occurred during the first 6 days of incubation with a coincidental decrease in the proportion of deaths occurring late during incubation. Posthatching mortalities were not affected for S.C.W.L. but were doubled for Cornish up to 16 weeks old

  5. Differential investment into testes and sperm production in alternative male reproductive tactics of the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    OpenAIRE

    Schradin, Carsten; Eder, Susanne; Müller, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Males that follow alternative reproductive tactics might differ in their investment into testis development and sperm production. The resource-allocation hypothesis predicts that males following a sneaker tactic should invest more into sperm production than dominant territorial males which should invest more into mate guarding. This hypothesis is supported by studies in species where individual males cannot switch between tactics (fixed tactics). Here we present the first data for a species w...

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: vet@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE

  8. Milk production and reproduction performance of Murrah buffalo of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data pertaining to variable production and reproduction traits (1980 lactation records of 698 Murrah buffaloes) distributed over a period of 28 years (1979 to 2006) were collected from Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India. To utilise all available data the entire duration of the study was grouped into seven periods and each year was classified into four seasons. In addition, parity effect was also considered. First six parities were considered and parties six and above were lumped together as sixth parity. LSMLMW and MIXMDL PC-2 Version computer programme was used to study the effect of various non-genetic factors. The overall least-squares means for different production traits viz. peak yield, days to attain peak yield, 305-day milk yield, lactation length, lactation milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation were 8.87 ± 0.05 kg, 53.4 ± 0.8 d, 1804.9 ± 14.7 kg, 297.8 ± 1.9 d, 1855.6 ± 16.1 kg and 6.16 ± 0.04 kg respectively. The overall least-squares means for reproduction traits such as service period, calving interval and dry period were 225.0 ± 5.5, 532.8 ± 5.5 and 230.2 ± 4.9 d respectively. Period of calving had highly significant effect on all the traits studied except lactation length, where it had only significant effect. The highly significant (P < 0.01) influence of period of calving on lactation length observed corroborated with the previous finding on Murrah buffaloes. The significant differences in milk production and reproduction performances among different periods may be attributed to differences in management, selection of bulls and environmental conditions such as the ambient temperature, humidity, rainfall, etc. Season of calving had significant (P < 0.05) effect on peak yield and lactation milk yield and highly significant (P < 0.05) effect on days to attain peak yield, 305-day milk yield, milk yield per day of lactation and all the reproduction traits studied. The winter and summer calvers produced maximum

  9. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2015-10-01

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object's size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object's bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  10. Crop production in salt affected soils: A biological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant are susceptible to deleterious effects of various abiotic and biotic stresses, thus grossly affecting the growth and productivity. Amongst the abiotic stresses, soil salinity is most significant and prevalent in both developed and developing countries. As a consequences, good productive lands are being desertified at a very high pace. To combat this problem various approaches involving soil management and drainage are underway but with little success. It seems that a durable solution of the salinity and water-logging problems may take a long time and we may have to learn to live with salinity and to find other ways to utilize the affected lands fruitfully. A possible approach could be to tailor plants to suit the deleterious environment. The saline-sodic soils have excess of sodium, are impermeable, have little or no organic matter and are biologically almost dead. Introduction of a salt tolerant crop will provide a green cover and will improve the environment for biological activity, increase organic matter and will improve the soil fertility. The plant growth will result in higher carbon dioxide levels, and would thus create acidic conditions in the soil which would dissolve the insoluble calcium carbonate and will help exchange sodium with calcium ions on the soil complex. The biomass produced could be used directly as fodder or by the use of biotechnological and other procedures it could be converted into other value added products. However, in order to tailor plants to suit these deleterious environments, acquisition of better understanding of the biochemical and genetic aspects of salt tolerance at the cellular/molecular level is essential. For this purpose model systems have been carefully selected to carry out fundamental basic research that elucidates and identifies the major factors that confer salt tolerance in a living system. With the development of modern biotechnological methods it is now possible to introduce any foreign genetic material known

  11. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambika Mosale Venkatesh Murthy; Yanyan Ni; Xiangjin Meng; Chenming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV) have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subu...

  12. Clinical state, reproductive and productive indices of cattle in the near zone of the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987 specialists of Scientific and Technical Centre of RIA ''Pripyat'' carry out investigations of physiological and cytogenetic state of cattle at an experimental vivarium at the 30-km Chernobyl zone. The animals are represented by ones endured the Chernobyl accident at the closest zone and their generation, and by animals carried inside the zone after 1990. The first animals got about 130 Gy on thyroid gland, 2.5 Gy on whole body and 10-11 Gy on gastro-intestinal tract. Some health decline of them were observed in 1987-1988. During last 5 years of the research the most indices of cattle state, as well as productivity and reproduction, are in physiological norm limits. Since 1989 yearly calves of three generation have got from all suffered cows. Decrease of chromosome aberrations frequency to total population level has been showed. Some data testify of tension existence in hemopoietic and antioxidantic systems of organism. Nevertheless, until now there is no unique opinion of origin nature of the found atypical features. In the report numerous data of hematological, biochemical, hormonal, cytogenetic features of the animals have been presented and discussed

  13. Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  14. Impact of bio-energy production and climate change on soil organic matter reproduction in Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Uwe; Volk, Martin; Witing, Felix; Jäckel, Greta

    2014-05-01

    For the region of Central Germany global change scenarios lead to the prediction of a growing risk of declining amounts of soil organic matter (SOM). The production of bioenergy is one strategy to counteract the growing anthropogenic CO2-emissions. Both issues have a close connection: SOM is one important base of soil productivity and requires a steady reproduction flux. Bioenergy production requires productive soils and partly consumes plant biomass carbon thus reducing the available amount for SOM reproduction. This study delivers a methodology for the identification of areas with possible conflicts between bioenergy production and SOM reproduction based on i) the prediction of climate change impact on SOM reproduction and ii) an analysis of the regional distribution of biogas plants. The proposed algorithm is applied for the region of Central Germany as a pilot region. The quantification of climate change impact was based on regionalized climate data from the IPCC scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 as prognosis for 2001 - 2100 in relation to the retrospective C20 data for 1961-2000 calculations. For downscaling we used the regional climate models REMO and WETTREG, the latter with 3 different subsets for wet, normal and moist conditions. For all resulting datasets the annual sum of rainfall and the average of air temperature were calculated. Soil impact is represented by means of the top soil texture that has been taken from the German soil map (BUEK1000; scale 1:1,000,000). The map shows 71 different soil mapping units in the study area. Each soil unit has been assigned a characteristic soil profile ("Leitprofil") where soil texture was derived by using the guidelines for soil mapping (KA4). Results indicate a growing demand (10%-30%) of fresh organic carbon for SOM production. The analysis reveals that bioenergy carbon demand is not evenly distributed over the study region. There is no significant correlation between matter demand for bioenergy and carbon amount required

  15. Effects Of Copper Sulphate On Productive, Reproductive Performance And Some Blood Constituents Of Laying Japanese Quail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out at the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, from February to September 2008 to study the effect of four levels of copper sulphate supplementation (CuSO4,0,200,300 and 400 mg/kg diet) on some of productive and reproductive performance, egg weight, some blood constituents and economical efficiency of laying Japanese quails. Four diets were used from one week of age until mature and egg production stage (30 days age). Body weight was recorded weekly while egg production and egg weight were recorded daily. Resulted eggs were incubated to study the effect of Cu supplementation on fertility, embryonic mortality percentage and hatchability rate. At the end of experiment (6 months of age),10 birds of each group (5 males and 5 females) were slaughtered to study the effect of Cu supplementation on some organs weights such as carcass, liver, heart, gizzard, small intestine, proventricular, ovary, oviduct and tests. Blood components and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were determined. The results showed that body weight was significantly lowered in groups 3 (300 mg) and 4 (400 mg) than group 2 (200 mg). Liver, heart, ovary and oviduct weights were also depressed at the two highest levels of Cu supplementation (groups 3 (300 mg) and 4 (400 mg)). In addition, high level of Cu supplements ≥ 300 mg Cu/kg decreased egg production, hatchability and fertility percentage while they were good or better in group had 200 mg Cu/kg. On the other hand, G2 (200 mg Cu/kg) had the smallest egg weight than other groups. Non-significant effects were observed in serum total protein, albumin and globulin of laying quails had the different levels of CuSO4 except G3 that had the lowest values. Reverse trend was observed in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3) in groups supplemented high dietary CuSO4. In conclusion, copper is often added to poultry diets at prophylactic concentration of 200 mg

  16. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the variation in backfat at weaning and its relations to reproduction results in organic sow herds in Denmark. The study included eight herds and 573 sows. The average backfat at weaning (mean = 13 mm; SD = 4.2 mm) ranging from 10.5 to 17.3 mm among herds shows that...... it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first...

  17. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    maternal half-sib families from four different populations of the herb Plantago coronopus growing in either a dry or wet greenhouse environment. Plants originated from populations with an annual or a perennial life form, with annuals prevailing in drier habitats with greater seasonal variation in both...... showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity. For the...... perennial populations, one showed a large variation among maternal families in resource allocation and expressed significant negative genetic correlations between reproductive and vegetative biomass under drought. The other perennial population showed less variation in response to treatment and had trait...

  18. Photosynthesis in Relation to Reproductive Success of Cypripedium flavum

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, SHIBAO; Hu, Hong; Zhou, Zhekun; Xu, Kun; YAN, NING; LI, SHUYUN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cypripedium flavum is a rare, endemic alpine slipper orchid of China, which is under threat from excessive collection and habitat changes. Conservation and re-introduction of C. flavum is restricted by lack of knowledge of the plant's photosynthesis and how that affects reproductive success. The hypothesis is tested that reproductive success is determined by photosynthetic production.

  19. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lucie Kučerová; Ulrich Theopold; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with thi...

  20. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility. PMID:26380863

  1. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culli...

  2. 1962 reproductive success in North American geese: Winter appraisals of productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An occasional year of poor reproductive success is no novelty among Arcticnesting birds. Conservationists have become reconciled to this fact, although they still...

  3. 1961 reproductive success in North American geese: Winter appraisals of productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the summer of 1961, reproductive success among North American geese was seldom better than fair, and in some cases was decidedly poor. Nesting conditions...

  4. Gender and social reproduction: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, B; Brenner, J

    1989-01-01

    It is argued that gender relations and social reproduction were both shaped by macrohistorical processes and shaped the processes. Social reproduction is defined within feminist theory as more than production in the Marxist sense. Societal reproduction is a combination of the organization of production, the organization of social reproduction, the perpetuation of gender, and the continuation of class relations. Social reproduction includes the care and socialization of children and care of the elderly or infirm. Social reproduction includes the organization of sexuality, biological reproduction, and how food, clothing, and shelter are made available. Most social reproduction occurs within the family unit. It is pointed out that variations in the distribution of the work of social reproduction are affected by the family, market, community, and state. The ways in which women construct their own worlds of activity is a central concern. The feminist concept of social reproduction differs from modernization theory, which is concerned with the institutional location of the tasks of social reproduction and the structural effects on the family and gender relations. This literature review focuses only on the history of family strategies and separate gender-related activities. The authors describe the changes in family organization that define men as income producers and women as caretakers, who base child rearing on love and feminine virtue rather than patriarchal authority and religious doctrine. The discussion focuses on the differences in marital relationships, motherhood, and sexuality between upper and middle class and working class women in the 19th century. Among working class women, a good wife was an efficient manager, a skilled domestic worker, and an income earner. The turn of the century was a period of social change marked by smaller average family size, the decline of household production, the rise in real wages, and increased consumption. It is argued that

  5. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and their correlation with production and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Tássia Souza Bertipaglia; Luis Orlando Duitama Carreño; Carlos Henrique Cavallini Machado; Cristiana Andrighetto; Ricardo da Fonseca

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of visual scores of body structure, precocity and muscularity with production (body weight at 18 months and average daily gain) and reproductive (scrotal circumference) traits in Brahman cattle in order to determine the possible use of these scores as selection criteria to improve carcass quality. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using an animal model that included contemporary group as...

  6. Effect of kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci on milk production traits and reproductive performance of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, AM; Bargouli, GG; Banos, G.; Boscos, CM

    2005-01-01

    The effects of kappa-casein (kappa-CN) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) loci on milk production traits (milk, fat, protein, and lactose yield, fat, protein, and lactose content) and reproductive performance (gestation length, calving interval, age at first and second calving, number of services per conception) was estimated for 278 Holstein cows in the first 2 lactations. Genotypes of kappa-CN and beta-LG were determined by alkaline and acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Milk producti...

  7. Do highly divergent loci reside in genomic regions affecting reproductive isolation? A test using next-generation sequence data in Timema stick insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosil Patrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic divergence during speciation with gene flow is heterogeneous across the genome, with some regions exhibiting stronger differentiation than others. Exceptionally differentiated regions are often assumed to experience reduced introgression, i.e., reduced flow of alleles from one population into another because such regions are affected by divergent selection or cause reproductive isolation. In contrast, the remainder of the genome can be homogenized by high introgression. Although many studies have documented variation across the genome in genetic differentiation, there are few tests of this hypothesis that explicitly quantify introgression. Here, we provide such a test using 38,304 SNPs in populations of Timema cristinae stick insects. We quantify whether loci that are highly divergent between geographically separated (‘allopatric’ populations exhibit unusual patterns of introgression in admixed populations. To the extent this is true, highly divergent loci between allopatric populations contribute to reproductive isolation in admixed populations. Results As predicted, we find a substantial association between locus-specific divergence between allopatric populations and locus-specific introgression in admixed populations. However, many loci depart from this relationship, sometimes strongly so. We also report evidence for selection against foreign alleles due to local adaptation. Conclusions Loci that are strongly differentiated between allopatric populations sometimes contribute to reproductive isolation in admixed populations. However, geographic variation in selection and local adaptation, in aspects of genetic architecture (such as organization of genes, recombination rate variation, number and effect size of variants contributing to adaptation, etc., and in stochastic evolutionary processes such as drift can cause strong differentiation of loci that do not always contribute to reproductive isolation. The

  8. Effect of strategic feed supplementation with multinutrient blocks on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was carried out on four commercial farms in Guarico state, Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of multinutrient blocks (UMB) on the body condition score (BCS), milk production and reproductive performance of dual-purpose cows. Forty crossbred animals (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) in each farm were randomly allocated to supplemented and not-supplemented groups through a period of 105 days. The UMB composition was: 46% sugar-cane molasses, 10% urea, 10% Glyricidia sepium, 5% mineral mixture, 11% calcium hydroxide, 5% triple superphosphate, 10% maize crop residue and 3% animal fat. UMB intake was recorded every two days and individual milk production was registered daily or twice a week. Block consumption was higher during the dry season than in the rainy season. There were no significant differences in total milk production during the first 15 weeks of lactation between treatments in Farms 1 and 3. Body condition at calving and during the early post-partum period may explain some of the improvements on reproductive performance which occurred during the dry season. This indicates the importance of nutritional status of cows before calving on post-partum reproductive activity. 25 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Sexual reproduction of the pentaploid, short-styled Oxalis pes-caprae allows the production of viable offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J; Ferrero, V; Loureiro, J; Castro, M; Navarro, L; Castro, S

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is a key factor for the successful establishment and spread of introduced species. Oxalis pes-caprae is a tristylous species with a self- and morph-incompatibility sexual system that, in the invaded range of the western Mediterranean Basin, has been found to reproduce asexually because only the pentaploid, short-styled morph (5x S-morph) was introduced. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the 5x S-morph of O. pes-caprae to produce viable offspring in the absence of compatible mates, exploring the hypothesis that new morphs could have emerged by sexual reproduction events of the initially introduced morph. Pollen germination, pollen tube development, fruit and seed production, seed germination and offspring ploidy levels were analysed after controlled hand-pollinations to assess self- and morph-incompatibility and production of viable gametes by the 5x S-morph. The self-incompatibility system is still operating, but a partial breakdown in the morph-incompatibility system combined with the production of viable gametes was observed, allowing sexual reproduction of the 5x S-morph in the invaded range. The ability of the 5x S-morph to reproduce sexually may have major consequences for the dynamics of invasive populations of O. pes-caprae and could be one of the factors involved in the occurrence of new floral morphs in this invaded range. PMID:23594049

  10. Knowledge of Repetitions Range Affects Force Production in Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Halperin, Saied J. Aboodarda, Fabien A. Basset, David G. Behm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have examined pacing strategies with cyclical activities (running and cycling. It has been demonstrated that males employ different pacing strategies during repeated maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs dependent upon a known endpoint. Since different fatiguing mechanisms have been identified between the genders, it is not known if females use comparable pacing strategies. The purpose of this study was to examine if informing female subjects regarding the number of MVCs to perform would affect force and electromyography (EMG. Twenty well-trained females completed 3 fatiguing protocols in a randomized order. In the control condition participants were informed they would perform twelve MVCs and then actually completed twelve. In the unknown condition they were not told how many MVCs to perform but were stopped after twelve. In the deception condition they were initially informed to perform 6 MVCs, but after the 6th MVC they were asked to perform a few more MVCs and were stopped after twelve. During the first 6 MVCs, forces in the deception condition were greater compared to the unknown (p = 0.021, ES = 0.65, 5% and control (p = 0.022, ES = 0.42, 3% conditions. No differences were found between conditions in the last 6 MVCs. A main effect for repetitions showed force deficits during the first 6 MVCs (p = 0.000, ES = 1.81, 13% and last 6 MVCs (p = 0.05, ES = 0.34, 3%. No differences were found between conditions in biceps and triceps EMG. However, EMG decreased during the first 6 MVCs for biceps (p = 0.001, ES = 1.0, 14% and triceps (p = 0.001, ES = 0.76, 14% across conditions. No differences were found in the last 6 MVCs. The anticipation of performing fewer MVCs led to increased force, whereas no endpoint led to decreased force production.

  11. Improving the productive and reproductive efficiency in the new zealand rabbits under the egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was planned to study the effects of different alleviation techniques under both mild and hot conditions on productive and reproductive traits of growing female and male rabbits, mature bucks and mature does during pregnancy. In growing males and females, the results showed that the heat stress conditions caused significant decrease in body weight, daily body gain, feed consumption, as well as, significant decrease in most blood hematology, blood components and blood minerals, blood vitamins and hormonal levels, and increase in water intake, concentration of creatinine. In mature bucks, heat stress caused significant decrease in physical and chemical of semen characteristics and blood components. In pregnant does, heat stress caused significant decrease in DOE traits, as well as, significant decrease in most blood hematology, blood components and blood minerals, blood vitamins and hormonal levels, and increase in water intake.With regard to the effects of alleviation of heat load by drinking cool water during hot period or by injection of Tri-B two times weakly for growing male and female rabbits, as compared to without treated rabbits caused significant increase in growth performance, physiological traits and economic traits. In mature bucks, short treatment by injection of Tri-B induced increase in semen quality, i.e., ejaculate volume, sperm motility and sperm-cell concentration and decrease in dead sperm, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal abnormalities. In pregnant does, treatment by cool water during hot period improved daily body gain, litter size, litter weight, feed consumption and blood components and significant decrease in percentage of mortality rate.

  12. Differential investment into testes and sperm production in alternative male reproductive tactics of the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten; Eder, Susanne; Müller, Karin

    2012-05-01

    Males that follow alternative reproductive tactics might differ in their investment into testis development and sperm production. The resource-allocation hypothesis predicts that males following a sneaker tactic should invest more into sperm production than dominant territorial males which should invest more into mate guarding. This hypothesis is supported by studies in species where individual males cannot switch between tactics (fixed tactics). Here we present the first data for a species where males can switch between tactics (plastic tactics). We studied African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) in captivity, mimicking three tactics observed in the field: philopatric group-living males, singly-housed males representing roaming males, and group-living breeding males. We measured quantitative and qualitative reproductive traits, as well as serum and testis hormone concentrations. We found no support for the resource-allocation hypothesis, since breeding and singly-housed males invested similarly in testes and sperm. However, philopatric males had significantly smaller testes and epididymides, lower sperm counts, lower testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than males of the two other tactics. Philopatric males did not reach a larger body mass than singly-housed males with well developed reproductive traits, indicating that they did not trade investment in sperm production against growth. Interestingly, testis testosterone concentrations of philopatric males did not differ from those of other males. Our data suggest that philopatric males are reproductively suppressed by the breeding male, but might be ready to increase their serum testosterone levels when social and environmental conditions allow for this physiological switch accompanying the behavioral switch between tactics. PMID:22445749

  13. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  14. Nest-site selection and reproductive success of greater sage-grouse in a fire-affected habitat of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying links between micro-habitat selection and wildlife reproduction is imperative to population persistence and recovery. This information is particularly important for landscape species such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse). Although this species has been widely studied, because environmental factors can affect sage-grouse populations, local and regional studies are crucial for developing viable conservation strategies. We studied the habitat-use patterns of 71 radio-marked sage-grouse inhabiting an area affected by wildfire in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada during 2009–2011 to determine the effect of micro-habitat attributes on reproductive success. We measured standard vegetation parameters at nest and random sites using a multi-scale approach (range = 0.01–15,527 ha). We used an information-theoretic modeling approach to identify environmental factors influencing nest-site selection and survival, and determine whether nest survival was a function of resource selection. Sage-grouse selected micro-sites with greater shrub canopy cover and less cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover than random sites. Total shrub canopy, including sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) and other shrub species, at small spatial scales (0.8 ha and 3.1 ha) was the single contributing selection factor to higher nest survival. These results indicate that reducing the risk of wildfire to maintain important sagebrush habitats could be emphasized in sage-grouse conservation strategies in Nevada. Managers may seek to mitigate the influx of annual grass invasion by preserving large intact sagebrush-dominated stands with a mixture of other shrub species. For this area of Nevada, the results suggest that ≥40% total shrub canopy cover in sage-grouse nesting areas could yield improved reproductive success. 

  15. The Natural Reproduction and Economic Reproduction of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of Marx’s materialism,the thesis expounds the natural reproduction and economic reproduction of agriculture,and analyzes the relationship between the two production processes.The natural reproduction of agriculture,the contradicted unification of agricultural organism and natural environment,conforms to natural law and has the specific objective environmental requirements.The economic reproduction of agriculture is the process of people’s production and labor which takes keeping the life vitality of agricultural organism as objective,including the reproduction of agricultural productivity and the reproduction of agricultural production relations.The agricultural productivity comprises social productivity and natural productivity.The process of agricultural economic reproduction must conform to the objective natural law and economic law.The relationship of agricultural natural reproduction and economic reproduction is that the agricultural natural reproduction process is intertwined with economic reproduction process;the variation trend of agricultural natural reproduction ability and economic reproduction ability is identical;the agricultural economic reproduction dominates over the natural reproduction.

  16. Productive and reproductive behavior of three herd of Cebu cattle of the Magdalena Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The productive and reproductive behavior of 3 herd of cattle is studied of Cebu cattle located in Savannah of Torres, Giron and Lebrija to the northwest of Santander, with heights of 118 to 160 m.s.n.m, temperatures of 25 to 27 centigrade degrees, relative humidity of 65 to 80 percent and plane topography with waves and acid soil. The exploitation system evolved from the continuous shepherding in native prairies to the rotational with improved prairies and mineral supplementation. The system of it mounts it was continuous and oscillate among 35 cows/bull to the beginning and 25-30 cows/bull at the end. Due to the location and different handling, the 3 herds were analyzed independently. 1, 1843 observations were analyzed to measure the interval between childbirths and 478 for the weight to the birth and the weaning (270 days). An analysis was used by minimum squares with unequal subclasses. The weight to the weaning was adjusted by covariance, due to the dispersion of the age to the weaning. For the natality rate they were processed and they analyzed for high X to the 2 3175 herds. The prevalence of infectious illnesses of the reproduction was studied in 156 blood samples and it was analyzed by the pattern 1 of Cavanzo. The intervals among childbirths for the herds 1, 2 and 3 were: 466 days (C V same 24 percent), 458 days (C V same 29 percent) and 513 days (C V same 31 percent), respectively. When studying the effect of the month of the childbirth on the interval among childbirths, the months of low precipitation (December to March and July) they diminished the interval the bull it also influenced in the duration of the interval among childbirths; in all the herds, the effect of the reproducer increased or it diminished the interval significantly. In the herd 1, the weight average to the birth was of 32 but or less 1.9 kg and the males weighed 3.8 kg more that the females. The weight to the weaning was of 219.4 but or less 16.9 kg (C V similar to 8.0 percent) and it

  17. THE POTENTIAL OF FIVE ECO-BIORATIONAL PRODUCTS ON THE REPRODUCTION OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE AND PLANT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Khalil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to select potentially useful eco-biorational product that could be used to reduce the reproduction of root-knot nematode. The experiment was carried out in pots under net house. The results revealed that the bio-product Dipel® (Bacillus thuringiensis proved to be the most effective treatment that reduced the root galls and egg masses by 71.60 and 77.78%, respectively. Also, Dipel® (B. thuringiensis & Bio-nematon® (Paecilomyces lilacinus showed their superiority between all treatments on the shoot, root length and root weight.

  18. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  19. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  20. The sleeping beauty: how reproductive diapause affects hormone signaling, metabolism, immune response and somatic maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I Kubrak

    Full Text Available Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3 display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy.

  1. The Sleeping Beauty: How Reproductive Diapause Affects Hormone Signaling, Metabolism, Immune Response and Somatic Maintenance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Theopold, Ulrich; Nässel, Dick R.

    2014-01-01

    Some organisms can adapt to seasonal and other environmental challenges by entering a state of dormancy, diapause. Thus, insects exposed to decreased temperature and short photoperiod enter a state of arrested development, lowered metabolism, and increased stress resistance. Drosophila melanogaster females can enter a shallow reproductive diapause in the adult stage, which drastically reduces organismal senescence, but little is known about the physiology and endocrinology associated with this dormancy, and the genes involved in its regulation. We induced diapause in D. melanogaster and monitored effects over 12 weeks on dynamics of ovary development, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as expression of genes involved in endocrine signaling, metabolism and innate immunity. During diapause food intake diminishes drastically, but circulating and stored carbohydrates and lipids are elevated. Gene transcripts of glucagon- and insulin-like peptides increase, and expression of several target genes of these peptides also change. Four key genes in innate immunity can be induced by infection in diapausing flies, and two of these, drosomycin and cecropin A1, are upregulated by diapause independently of infection. Diapausing flies display very low mortality, extended lifespan and decreased aging of the intestinal epithelium. Many phenotypes induced by diapause are reversed after one week of recovery from diapause conditions. Furthermore, mutant flies lacking specific insulin-like peptides (dilp5 and dilp2-3) display increased diapause incidence. Our study provides a first comprehensive characterization of reproductive diapause in D. melanogaster, and evidence that glucagon- and insulin-like signaling are among the key regulators of the altered physiology during this dormancy. PMID:25393614

  2. Logistic Analysis of Factors Affecting the Productivity of Peanut Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Topcu, Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    Due to low domestic production, the domestic peanut demand cannot be met and therefore, foreign trade always gives deficit in favor of import. Peanut is an important raw material for food industry, and Turkey has potential to increase her peanut production capacity. However, up to now, neglecting this production unit and not taking required incentives and guidance for producers have created current problems. To explore these problems, the effects of ecologic and topographic structures of Osma...

  3. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of...

  4. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  5. Simvastatin reduces fetal testosterone production and permanently alters reproductive tract development in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androgen signaling by fetal Leydig cells is critical in the proper development of the male reproductive tract. As cholesterol is a precursor for hormone biosynthesis,inhibition of the cholesterol pathway during sex differentiation may reduce testosterone {T). We hypothesized tha...

  6. Cotton responses to simulated insect damage: radiation-use efficiency, canopy architecture and leaf nitrogen content as affected by loss of reproductive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key cotton pests feed preferentially on reproductive organs which are normally shed after injury. Loss of reproductive organs in cotton may decrease the rate of leaf nitrogen depletion associated with fruit growth and increase nitrogen uptake and reduction by extending the period of root and leaf growth compared with undamaged plants. Higher levels of leaf nitrogen resulting from more assimilation and less depletion could increase the photosynthetic capacity of damaged crops in relation to undamaged controls. To test this hypothesis, radiation-use efficiency (RUE = g dry matter per MJ of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the canopy) of crops in which flowerbuds and young fruits were manually removed was compared with that of undamaged controls. Removal of fruiting structures did not affect RUE when cotton was grown at low nitrogen supply and high plant density. In contrast, under high nitrogen supply and low plant density, fruit removal increased seasonal RUE by 20–27% compared to controls. Whole canopy measurements, however, failed to detect the expected variations in foliar nitrogen due to damage. Differences in RUE between damaged and undamaged canopies were in part associated with changes in plant and canopy structure (viz. internode number and length, canopy height, branch angle) that modified light distribution within the canopy. These structural responses and their influence on canopy light penetration and photosynthesis are synthetised in coefficients of light extinction (k) that were 10 to 30% smaller in damaged crops than in controls and in a positive correlation between RUE−1 and k for crops grown under favourable conditions (i.e. high nitrogen, low density). Changes in plant structure and their effects on canopy architecture and RUE should be considered in the analysis of cotton growth after damage by insects that induce abscission of reproductive organs. (author)

  7. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Castillo Lopez

    Full Text Available The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus, were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae, through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of

  8. Vertebrate Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Sally; Fissore, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrate reproduction requires a myriad of precisely orchestrated events-in particular, the maternal production of oocytes, the paternal production of sperm, successful fertilization, and initiation of early embryonic cell divisions. These processes are governed by a host of signaling pathways. Protein kinase and phosphatase signaling pathways involving Mos, CDK1, RSK, and PP2A regulate meiosis during maturation of the oocyte. Steroid signals-specifically testosterone-regulate spermatogenesis, as does signaling by G-protein-coupled hormone receptors. Finally, calcium signaling is essential for both sperm motility and fertilization. Altogether, this signaling symphony ensures the production of viable offspring, offering a chance of genetic immortality. PMID:26430215

  9. Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children’s Lexical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning. PMID:19338981

  10. Statistical frequency in perception affects children's lexical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-06-01

    Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning. PMID:19338981

  11. Reproductive biology and nectar production of the Mexican endemic Psittacanthus auriculatus (Loranthaceae), a hummingbird-pollinated mistletoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Crespo, M J; Ornelas, J F; Martén-Rodríguez, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Lara, C

    2016-01-01

    Many mistletoe species produce 'bird'-pollinated flowers; however, the reproductive biology of the majority of these species has not been studied. Psittacanthus auriculatus is a Mexican endemic mistletoe, most common in open, dry mesquite grassland. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of P. auriculatus is essential for understanding species formation and diversification of Psittacanthus mistletoes, but it is currently poorly understood. Thus, we studied floral biology and phenology, nectar production and breeding system and pollination of this species. The hermaphroditic red-pink flowers open from the middle to the tip and petals are curly, but remain partially fused forming a floral tube of ca. 20-mm long. Flowers are partially protandrous, produce large amounts of nectar, last 2 days, and stigma receptivity is highest during the second day. We recorded hummingbirds (Cynanthus latirostris, Hylocharis leucotis, Amazilia beryllina, A. violiceps, Calothorax lucifer, Archilochus colubris) and less commonly butterflies (Agraulis vanillae, Anteos clorinde, Papilio multicaudatus, Phocides urania, Phoebis sennae) as floral visitors. P. auriculatus flowers are self-compatible. However, this mistletoe is an obligate animal-pollinated species, as the sensitive stigma avoids self-pollination. Under natural conditions, reproductive success was higher than in manually selfed or cross-pollinated flowers, likely due to the traplining foraging behaviour of hummingbirds. We suggest that the apparent efficient foraging behaviour of hummingbirds maintains gene flow among P. auriculatus, promoting outcrossing. PMID:26154599

  12. Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children’s Lexical Production

    OpenAIRE

    Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect o...

  13. How does household production affect measured income inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Frazis, Harley; Stewart, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Although income inequality has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of household production. Economic theory predicts that households with less money income will produce more goods at home. Thus extended income, which includes the value of household production, should be more equally distributed than money income. Previous studies have found this to be the case and have speculated that the more-equal distribution of extended income is due to the weak...

  14. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture. PMID:27213896

  15. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  16. Factors Affecting the Reproduction, Recruitment, Habitat, and Population Dynamics of Pallid Sturgeon and Shovelnose Sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, Carl E., (Edited By)

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  17. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Erlinda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core element of broad control programs against this ectoparasite, in which acquired immunity in cattle to Bm86 is combined with a rational use of acaricides. At present, the conventional vaccine scheme consists of three doses that should be administered at weeks 0, 4 and 7, followed by a booster every six months. Results In this study we assayed a reduction in the number of the initial doses of Gavacplus, evaluated the time course and the level of bovine anti-Bm86 antibodies elicited, and analyzed the vaccine effect on ticks engorging on immunized cattle under production conditions. Following three different immunization schemes, the bovines developed a strong and specific immune response characterized by elevated anti-Bm86 IgG titers. A reduction in the weight of engorging female ticks, in the weight of the eggs laid and also in R. microplus viable eggs percentage was obtained by using only two doses of Gavacplus administered at weeks 0 and 4, followed by a booster six months later. This reduction did not differ from the results obtained on ticks engorging on cattle immunized at weeks 0, 4 and 7. It was also demonstrated that anti-Bm86 antibody titers over 1:640, measured in bovines immunized at weeks 0 and 4, were sufficient to affect weight and reproductive potential of female ticks as compared with ticks engorging on unvaccinated animals. In addition, no statistically significant differences were detected in the average weight of eggs laid by ticks engorged on

  18. Yucca brevifolia fruit production, predispersal seed predation, and fruit removal by rodents during two years of contrasting reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Mark I.; DeFalco, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The distribution of Yucca brevifolia, a keystone species of the Mojave Desert, may contract with climate change, yet reproduction and dispersal are poorly understood. We tracked reproduction, seed predation, and fruit dispersal for two years and discuss whether Y. brevifolia is a masting species. METHODS: Fruit maturation, seed predation (larval yucca moths), and fruit dispersal (rodents) were monitored on a random sample of panicles during 2013 and 2014, which were years of high and low reproduction, respectively. Fates of fruits placed on the ground and in canopies were also tracked. Rodents were live-trapped to assess abundance and species composition. KEY RESULTS: In 2013, 66% of inflorescences produced fruit of which 53% escaped larval predation; 19.5% of seeds were destroyed in infested fruits. Total seed production was estimated to be >100 times greater in 2013 than 2014. One-third of the fruit crop fell to the ground and was removed by rodents over the course of 120 d. After ground fruits became scarce, rodents exploited canopy fruits. Rodent numbers were low in 2013, so fruits remained in canopies for 370 d. In 2014, fruit production was approximately 20% lower. Larvae infested the majority of fruits, and almost twice the number of seeds were damaged. Fruits were exploited by rodents within 65 d. CONCLUSIONS: High fertilization, prolific seed production, and low predispersal predation in 2013 suggests that pollinator attraction and satiation of seed predators influence masting in Y. brevifolia. Abundant, prolonged fruit availability to seed-dispersing rodents likely extends recruitment opportunities during mast years.

  19. Production of progesterone antibodies and their use in studying reproductive functions in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of antisera raised in six rabbits by immunization with progesterone-3-0-carboxymethyloxime-BSA are described. The performance of a progesterone RIA involving the use of the best antiserum is described. This progesterone RIA, carried out in sheep and goat plasma samples collected throughout the different stages of the reproductive life cycle turned out to be a reliable method to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Production of workers, queens and males in Plebeia remota colonies (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), a stingless bee with reproductive diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D A; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Santos-Filho, P S

    2009-01-01

    Queen, male and worker production was studied during one year in three Plebeia remota colonies from Atlantic Rainforest in Cunha, São Paulo State, and two from a subtropical Araucaria forest in Prudentópolis, Paraná State. All the colonies were kept in São Paulo city during our study. Plebeia remota has reproductive diapause during autumn and winter, which makes its biology of special interest. Brood production begins before spring, renewing the colony cycle. We sampled brood combs monthly in these five colonies. The number of cells in each comb varied significantly with time of the year; the smallest brood combs appear to be a consequence of reduced food availability. However, worker, queen and male frequencies did not differ significantly in time, and this presumably is due to the fact that they all are necessary for the growth, maintenance and reproduction of the colony. Although some molecular, morphological and behavioral differences have been detected in several studies comparing populations from Cunha and from Prudentópolis, we did not find significant differences between the colonies from these two localities in number of brood cells and worker, queen and male production. PMID:19554766

  1. Reproduction, population dynamics and production of Nereis falsa (Nereididae: Polychaeta) on the rocky coast of El Kala National Park, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Tarek; Younsi, Mourad; Daas-Maamcha, Ouided; Gillet, Patrick; Scaps, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    The polychaete Nereis falsa Quatrefages, 1866 is present in the area of El Kala National Park on the East coast of Algeria. Field investigations were carried out from January to December 2007 to characterize the populations' reproductive cycle, secondary production and dynamics. Reproduction followed the atokous type, and spawning occured from mid-June to the end of August/early September when sea temperature was highest (20-23°C). The diameter of mature oocytes was approximately 180 μm. Mean lifespan was estimated to about one year. In 2007, the mean density was 11.27 ind. m-2 with a minimum of 7.83 ind. m-2 in April and a maximum of 14.5 ind. m-2 in February. The mean annual biomass was 1.36 g m-2 (fresh weight) with a minimum of 0.86 g m-2 in December and a maximum of 2.00 g m-2 in June. The population consisted of two cohorts distinguishable from size frequency distributions. One cohort corresponded to the recruitment of 2006 and the other appeared during the study period in September 2007. The annual production of N. falsa was 1.45 g m-2 year-1, and the production/biomass ratio was 1.07 year-1.

  2. Conditional deletion of the relaxin receptor gene in cells of smooth muscle lineage affects lower reproductive tract in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2015-04-01

    Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1(+/-) females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  3. Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ament; V. Krasikov; S. Allmann; M. Rep; F.L.W. Takken; R.C. Schuurink

    2010-01-01

    The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene enco

  4. Affected functional networks associated with sentence production in classic galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; van den Hurk, Job; Hofman, Paul Am; Zimmermann, Luc Ji; Uludağ, Kâmil; Jansma, Bernadette M; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

    2015-08-01

    Patients with the inherited metabolic disorder classic galactosemia have language production impairments in several planning stages. Here, we assessed potential deviations in recruitment and connectivity across brain areas responsible for language production that may explain these deficits. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural activity and connectivity while participants carried out a language production task. This study included 13 adolescent patients and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Participants passively watched or actively described an animated visual scene using two conditions, varying in syntactic complexity (single words versus a sentence). Results showed that patients recruited additional and more extensive brain regions during sentence production. Both groups showed modulations with syntactic complexity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region associated with syntactic planning, and in right insula. In addition, patients showed a modulation with syntax in left superior temporal gyrus (STG), whereas the controls did not. Further, patients showed increased activity in right STG and right supplementary motor area (SMA). The functional connectivity data showed similar patterns, with more extensive connectivity with frontal and motor regions, and restricted and weaker connectivity with superior temporal regions. Patients also showed higher baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF) in right IFG and trends towards higher CBF in bilateral STG, SMA and the insula. Taken together, the data demonstrate that language abnormalities in classic galactosemia are associated with specific changes within the language network. These changes point towards impairments related to both syntactic planning and speech motor planning in these patients. PMID:25979518

  5. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Atilgan-Inan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of management in the related periods. The results indicated that organizational factors have always been important for new product development process, which is in line with the nature of the innovation process. But the emphasis on internal factors has increased in the 21st century which is congruent with the change in management perspective foregrounding resource based view. The study differs from the similar literature review studies on the point that it deals with the topic from international marketing perspective. Therefore, R&D and other marketing studies are not included in the review and the study proposes the important factors from international firms’ point of view.

  6. The FRIABLE1 gene product affects cell adhesion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Neumetzler

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1, was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246. Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion.

  7. Affecting Factors and Security System of Food Production - A Case Study of Mingshan County

    OpenAIRE

    Lin zheng; Wenxiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The Grey Relational Analysis of food production has been established based on the data of grain production in Mingshan County, Sichuan province, collected from 2003 to 2008. According to the Relational Grade, factors that affect the County’s input on grain production and the degree of their influence have been analyzed. The conclusion is that unit grain yield, sown area of grain, and rural labor force is important factors affecting the county’s food production. Thus many advices were proposed...

  8. Soil surface properties affected by organic by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Pachepsky Ya.A.; Rawls W.J.; Fournier L.L.; Filgueira R.R.; Sikora L.J.

    2002-01-01

    The beneficial effects of amending soils with organic by-products include improvement of both chemical and physical factors. Very few studies have investigated changes in the soil specific surface area (SSA) after amendments with manures or composts. Soil samples were taken from plots before and after four years� application of manures, composts or nitrogen fertilizer. A corn-wheat-soybean rotation was grown. Soil samples were tested for changes in water retention at �15 bar, bu...

  9. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in BWR severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical changes may significantly alter physical properties of fission product materials, and hence their state and transport rate. Thus, it is possible that an appropriate accounting of chemical change could have a large impact on transport model results. This paper will describe how the chemical reactions of Cs, I, and Te are being implemented in the transport model that is used in the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

  10. Do Personality Traits Affect Productivity? Evidence from the Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Cubel, Maria; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana; Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Vidal-Fernández, Marian

    2014-01-01

    While survey data supports a strong relationship between personality and labor market outcomes, the exact mechanisms behind this association remain unexplored. In this paper, we take advantage of a controlled laboratory set-up to test whether this relationship operates through productivity, and isolate this mechanism from other channels such as bargaining ability or self-selection into jobs. Using a gender neutral real-effort task, we analyse the impact of the Big Five personality traits on p...

  11. Does thalidomide affect IL-2 response and production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L P; Schlegel, P G; Baker, J; Chen, Y; Chao, N J

    1995-08-01

    The exact mechanism of immunosuppression by thalidomide is poorly understood. A common denominator in the pathogenesis of graft-vs.-host disease, graft rejection, reactional lepromatous leprosy, and autoimmune disorders modulated by thalidomide is the activation of T lymphocytes culminating in the synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors, and the induction of proliferation. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on the production of IL-2 by the human leukemia cell line Jurkat through induction of IL-2 gene enhancer activity and through the presence of IL-2 in supernatants. beta-galactosidase activity, encoded by a reporter lac z construct and controlled by a transcription factor in thalidomide-treated PMA- and ionomycin-stimulated Jurkat cells, was similar (97 +/- 1.33%; p > 0.1) to non-thalidomide-treated controls at all drug concentrations tested. IL-2 enhancer-driven beta-galactose activity of thalidomide-treated and stimulated cells was also similar to that of untreated controls (p > 0.2). The IL-2 production of activated nontransfected Jurkat cells was gauged by using the IL-2-dependent cell line HT-2 as a readout and by ELISA. Jurkat cells were subcloned by limiting dilution. Bulk cultures and three subclones (J.5.2.5., J.5.2.9., and J.5.3.8.) were assayed at 6, 12, and 24 hours after PHA/PMA-induced stimulation. No inhibitory effect on the IL-2 production by thalidomide could be detected at any of the drug concentrations tested (5-30 micrograms/mL), whereas 10 to 100 ng/mL of cyclosporine inhibited the IL-2 production by 95 to 100%. In addition, we observed neither inhibition of IL-2-dependent proliferation of HT-2 nor inhibition of PHA-induced proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells by thalidomide at all drug concentrations used (5-30 micrograms/mL). These results do not support the possibility of a modulatory effect on the immune response by thalidomide via IL-2 production and IL-2 response. PMID:7635184

  12. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kavya, K. M.; Jerome, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species. PMID:27182135

  13. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) as a Parameter Affecting Workplace Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanovska Ceravolo, Ljubica; Mirakovski, Dejan; Polenakovik, Radmil; Ristova, Emilija; Sovreski, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a review of the effects of indoor air quality (IAQ) upon the productivity and performance within the workplace. IAQ is known to be a factor causing health issues and has been connected with sick-leave among office workers through many studies in developed countries. This is a problem which persists in developed countries, however it has not been given the attention it deserves in developing countries, considering the fact that there is a lack of information an...

  14. Study of the effects of lameness on production and reproduction in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Bellet i Elias, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Póster Lameness incidence have greats variability and the third cause of economic losses in dairy farms, after mastitis and reproductive inefficiency (Weaver et al., 2005). The major cause of lameness is subclinical rumen acidosis, and it alters the follicular phase forming ovarian cysts (Blowey, 1998). The rest of the cow and hooves trimming of the cows 2 - 3 times per year, reduces the incidence of lameness (Mill and Ward, 1994; Manske et al., 2002). The aim of this study is to determine...

  15. Impurities in mixed streams that affect specification products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1960's new markets were recognized for natural gas liquids. These new markets, butanes as a gasoline additive and propane as a potential motor fuel, brought with them the problems that high levels of contaminants, chiefly sulfur compounds and unwanted olefins, caused. This paper reports that the Clean Air Act of 1990 will require the gas processing industry to reduce the contaminants in its products. One of the early steps in this quality control program was the industry approval of HD-5 as a propane specification. The use of NGL butanes in the new Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) market indicates the need for similar butane specifications. While some companies have established specifications for certain situations, the need for acceptable specifications on an industry wide basis is apparent. These should be developed under the guidance and direction of the entire gas processing industry

  16. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  17. Male reproductive system and spermatophores production and storage in Histioteuthis bonnellii (Cephalopoda: Histioteuthidae): A look into deep-sea squids' reproductive strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccu, Danila; Mereu, Marco; Agus, Blondine; Cau, Angelo; Culurgioni, Jacopo; Sabatini, Andrea; Jereb, Patrizia

    2014-09-01

    Coleoid cephalopods go through a single breeding period in their life cycle, i.e., they are semelparous, although a great flexibility has been observed in their reproductive strategies, which range from simultaneous terminal spawning over a short period at the end of the animal's life to continuous spawning over a long period of the animal's life. So far, the information available on deep-sea species reproductive strategies is still poor and most of our knowledge about squid reproduction relates to females. In particular, not much is known on what strategy male squids have evolved to store sperm into spermatophores and adapt to semelparity. In this study an investigation of male reproductive strategy of the deep-sea umbrella squid Histioteuthis bonnellii (Férussac, 1835) is presented. The reproductive system was examined in 119 males caught in the Sardinian waters (Central Western Mediterranean) and is described for the first time. Results indicate that this species produces and stores spermatophores over a considerable period of time. The total number of spermatophores found in the reproductive system ranged between 12 and 3097 and the size of spermatophores stored by a single individual varied greatly, up to over 300%. Spermatophore length (SpL) gradually decreased towards the distal end of the reproductive system, so that spermatophores found in the proximal part of Needham's Sac were larger than those found in the terminal organ. Body size and SpL of spermatophores from the proximal part of Needham's Sac were positively correlated. Both indices of the sperm mass and of the ejaculatory apparatus decreased with the increase of SpL, while the cement body index increased, indicating that larger spermatophores contain less sperm and are equipped with larger cement bodies. Up to 64 spermatangia were found, exclusively in the terminal organ. The large size range of mature males (ML: 60.0-198.0 mm; TW: 113.50-2409.00 g) and the variation in spermatophore number and

  18. OVARIAN HORMONE PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY AMYGDALIN ADDITION IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halenár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural substance, is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring in the seeds of apricots and bitter almonds. It is a controversial anti-tumor compound that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one of benzaldehyde, which induces an analgesic action, and one of hydrocyanic acid, which is an anti-neoplastic compound. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the possible impact of amygdalin (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg/mL on the secretory activity of granulosa cells (GCs from porcine cyclic ovaries. The release of progesterone and estradiol-17β by GCs were evaluated by ELISA. In our study, the noticeable changes in estradiol-17β release by ovarian GCs were determined after the amygdalin addition. Amygdalin, at the highest dose (10 000 μg/mL, significantly (P≤0.05 stimulated the release of estradiol-17β by GCs, in comparison to the untreated control cells. On the contrary, no significant (P≥0.05 changes in the progesterone release by GCs caused by amygdalin addition were observed. In conclusion, obtained results showed that the amygdalin application (various doses to ovarian GCs caused a dose-dependent stimulation of the estradiol-17β release, but not progesterone, and its possible modulatory impact on the steroid production in porcine ovaries.

  19. Does concrete composition affect photoneutron production inside radiation therapy bunkers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of concretes are used for bunker construction for radiation therapy. As neutron production occurs in high-energy photon beams, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different concretes on photoneutron doses at an isocenter and maze entrance door. The 18-MV photon beam of a Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator and a radiation therapy bunker were simulated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Different commercially available concretes were used in photoneutron calculations for the simulated bunker. Higher neutron doses of the water phantom were seen for barytes and galena concretes, while there was no significant (less than 1%) difference between the neutron dose of the phantom for all other concretes. Also, the neutron fluence at the inner and outer maze entrance varied up to 36% depending on the concretes' atomic compositions. It can be concluded that application of high-density concretes in order to use limited space or for other purposes may cause higher neutron doses in the maze entrance door and consequently may impose stricter requirements for neutron shielding of maze entrance doors. (author)

  20. Enhanced early-life nutrition promotes hormone production and reproductive development in Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Alysha; Thundathil, Jacob; Wilde, Randy; Blondin, Patrick; Kastelic, John

    2015-02-01

    Holstein bull calves often reach artificial insemination centers in suboptimal body condition. Early-life nutrition is reported to increase reproductive performance in beef bulls. The objective was to determine whether early-life nutrition in Holstein bulls had effects similar to those reported in beef bulls. Twenty-six Holstein bull calves were randomly allocated into 3 groups at approximately 1 wk of age to receive a low-, medium-, or high-nutrition diet, based on levels of energy and protein, from 2 to 31 wk of age. Calves were on their respective diets until 31 wk of age, after which they were all fed a medium-nutrition diet. To evaluate secretion profiles and concentrations of blood hormones, a subset of bulls was subjected to intensive blood sampling every 4 wk from 11 to 31 wk of age. Testes of all bulls were measured once a month; once scrotal circumference reached 26cm, semen collection was attempted (by electroejaculation) every 2 wk to confirm puberty. Bulls were maintained until approximately 72 wk of age and then slaughtered at a local abattoir. Testes were recovered and weighed. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet were younger at puberty (high=324.3 d, low=369.3 d) and had larger testes for the entire experimental period than bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Bulls fed the high-nutrition diet also had an earlier and more substantial early rise in LH than those fed the low-nutrition diet and had increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) earlier than the bulls fed the low-nutrition diet. Furthermore, we detected a temporal association between increased IGF-I concentrations and an early LH rise in bulls fed the high-nutrition diet. Therefore, we inferred that IGF-I had a role in regulating the early gonadotropin rise (in particular, LH) and thus reproductive development of Holstein bulls. Overall, these results support our hypothesis that Holstein bull calves fed a high-nutrition diet reach puberty earlier and have larger testes than

  1. Determination of Testosterone Level During Different Reproductive Stages and Affecting Factors in Syrian Awassi Male Lambs Throughout the Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-six Awassi ram lambs, aged between 5.0-5.5 months, represented two types of birth (single and twin) and two production lines (milk and meat) were used. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein once a week for a period of 2 months and then twice a month for the following 10 months. Plasma was prepared and stored frozen at -20 deg. C until analysed for testosterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). The effect of weight and age of lambs, type of birth and production line on testosterone level were studied. Results showed that there was only a significant effect (P -1. This level was higher in the lambs of the milk than those of meat line (5.6 ± 0.7 vs. 3.9 ± 0.7 nmol l -1), and in the single than in twin births (5.8 ± 0.9 vs. 4.2 ± 0.6 nmol l -1), and the first peak occurred at 9 months of age. It was concluded that the level of testosterone in Awassi ram lambs increased with age. It was also concluded that the attainment of puberty in Awassi ram lambs based on the level of testosterone in the blood was at the age of 9 months. (authors)

  2. Productivity and reproductive performance of grazing beef heifers bred at 18 months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nunes Motta de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and body development of beef heifers reared from 15 to 18 months of age on Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum, Alexandergrass pasture (Urochloa plantaginea or native pasture invaded by Annoni-2 grass (Eragrostis plana Nees. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, with three treatments and two replications. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate in order to maintain the sward height at 40 cm. Masses of leaf, stem and dead material, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were similar between Pearl millet and Alexandergrass. Average daily gain, stocking rate, live weight gain per hectare, body weight, body condition score, weight-to-height ratio and reproductive tract score of the heifers kept on annual summer pastures (Pearl millet or Alexandergrass were superior, compared with the heifers on Annoni-2 grass pasture.

  3. Reproductive conflict in social insects: Male production by workers in a slave-making ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H.;

    2005-01-01

    expected to be less detrimental for colony efficiency than in related, nonparasitic species. Furthermore, as slave-making workers usually do not perform brood care and thus might have little power in manipulating sex allocation, they might be more strongly selected to increase their direct fitness by......AbstractIn insect societies, workers cooperate but may also pursue their individual interests, such as laying viable male eggs. The case of obligatory slave-making ants is of particular interest because workers do not engage in maintenance activities and foraging. Therefore, worker egg laying is...... producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus...

  4. Productivity of taggar goats as affected by sex of kids and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushara I

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Taggar goats to evaluate the effect of two different levels of protein and energy in the rations on some reproductive and productive traits. Sixty two (62 kids of Taggar goats were allocated to sex and birth type in a complete randomized design according to live body weight. The results indicated that supplemented does secured higher litter size 1.50 and 1.33 compared to control group 1.2. Kidding rate was high in supplemented groups 100% compared with control group 93.8%. Body weight was heavier at time of kidding and weaning for supplemented does compared with control does. These results indicated that supplementation reduced body weight losses throughout the lactation period. The kidding interval for the supplemented does was shorter 247.81±8.38 and 242.60±7.88 days for does in groups B and C respectively compared to does in control group, 288.94±6.84 days. Similarly, the service period had been reduced in supplemented does than those in control group. Results from milk analysis indicated that higher protein, lactose and total solid content in supplemented does whereby fat content was higher in control group. The supplementation had reduced the incidence of abortion and mortality rates compared to the un supplemented does. In conclusion the investigated environmental factors showed an impact on both reproductive and productive traits of the Taggar goats under rangeland farming system. Keywords: Taggar goats, production, reproduction, concentrate ration, dry land.

  5. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size

  6. Sublethal gamma irradiation affects reproductive impairment and elevates antioxidant enzyme and DNA repair activities in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus koreanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han [Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • No mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). • A reduced fecundity of Brachionus koreanus at over 150 Gy with a decrease in lifespan. • Dose-dependent ROS increase with GST enzyme activity at sub-lethal doses. • Significant impact on life table parameters, particularly fecundity. • Significant up-regulation of DNA repair-associated genes at sublethal doses. - Abstract: To examine the effects of gamma radiation on marine organisms, we irradiated several doses of gamma ray to the microzooplankton Brachionus koreanus, and measured in vivo and in vitro endpoints including the survival rate, lifespan, fecundity, population growth, gamma ray-induced oxidative stress, and modulated patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions after DNA damage. After gamma radiation, no individuals showed any mortality within 96 h even at a high intensity (1200 Gy). However, a reduced fecundity (e.g. cumulated number of offspring) of B. koreanus at over 150 Gy was observed along with a slight decrease in lifespan. At 150 Gy and 200 Gy, the reduced fecundity of the rotifers led to a significant decrease in population growth, although in the second generation the population growth pattern was not affected even at 200 Gy when compared to the control group. At sub-lethal doses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels dose-dependently increased with GST enzyme activity. In addition, up-regulations of the antioxidant and chaperoning genes in response to gamma radiation were able to recover cellular damages, and life table parameters were significantly influenced, particularly with regard to fecundity. DNA repair-associated genes showed significantly up-regulated expression patterns in response to sublethal doses (150 and 200 Gy), as shown in the expression of the gamma-irradiated B. koreanus p53 gene, suggesting that these sublethal doses were not significantly fatal to B. koreanus but induced DNA damages leading to a decrease of the population size.

  7. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  8. Investigations into factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of dairy cattle in peri-urban areas of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the productivity, feeding and fertility of 63 cows from 6 farms and a second survey of 49 cows from 5 farms, including in both surveys one with pure bred Holstein Friesians and the rest with cross breeds, showed that those calving in thinner body condition had significantly poorer subsequent fertility. This implied that nutrition in late pregnancy may be an important determining factor in fertility in dairy cows in the peri-urban areas of Khartoum. Cows calving during the dry season were more at risk. No clear advantages or disadvantages were identified for pure-bred cows. Laboratory analysis of feeds, some assessment of intakes and some blood metabolite measurements suggested that neither dietary protein nor phosphate were constraints. The number of days to first progesterone rise on all farms was not extended and many cows conceived in less than 83 days after calving. Many others did not conceive at all but the number showing no evidence of oestrous cycles was small. Failure to conceive seemed to have been a greater problem than failure to cycle. With 27% of blood samples showing evidence of chronic inflammation through high globulin values, investigations into possible disease causes of poor fertility are needed. (author)

  9. Moderate Increase of Mean Daily Temperature Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersicon esculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, S; Kamiyama, M; Iwata, T.; Makita, N; Furukawa, H.; Ikeda, H

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since temperature is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate temperature increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated.

  10. CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of reproduction is important for seed stock production, selective breeding, growth rate, feed efficiency, meat quality, and biosecurity. These needs to control reproduction differ among cultivars and even segments of the same industry. No matter the impetus for aquaculturists to want to alte...

  11. Parameters of the reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, daily sperm production and major seminal plasma proteins of tropically adapted morada nova rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, F M L; Lobo, C H; Menezes, E S B; Rego, J P A; Oliveira, R V; Lima-Souza, A C; Fioramonte, M; Gozzo, F C; Pompeu, R C F F; Cândido, M J D; Oliveira, J T; Moura, A A

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the reproductive parameters of Morada Nova rams, a breed of hair sheep from Brazil and with unique adaption to tropical environments. At 42 weeks of age, 15 rams were subjected to semen collection and, 1 week later, animals were slaughtered for collection of testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands. We conducted 2-D electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins and major spots of stained gels were identified by LC-MS/MS. Total RNA was isolated from testis, epididymis and vesicular glands and subjected to qPCR. At slaughter, scrotal circumference and testicular weight were 27.5 ± 0.5 cm and 109.5 ± 6.0 g, respectively. Seminiferous tubule (ST) diameter was 188.3 ± 4.0 μm and each testis contained 1.9 ± 0.1 Sertoli cells (×10(9) ). Each Sertoli cell supported 0.1 ± 0.01 A spermatogonia, 3.0 ± 0.2 pachytene spermatocytes and 7.7 ± 0.5 round spermatids/tubule cross section. Daily sperm production reached 5.6 × 10(6)  cells/g of testis parenchyma. Testis size appeared as indicative of ST diameter and associated with epididymal measurements, as well as with the population of round spermatids and Sertoli cells/testis. Rams with heavier testes had greater daily sperm production and more Sertoli cells/testis. We detected 90.9 ± 9.6 spots per 2-D gel of seminal plasma. Major seminal proteins were identified as ram seminal vesicle proteins at 14 and 22 kDa, representing 16.2% and 12.8% of the total intensity of valid spots in the gels, respectively. Expression of both genes was greater in the vesicular glands as compared to testis and epididymis. Pixel intensity for those proteins in the 2-D gels was significantly correlated with seminal vesicle weight. This is the first description of the basic reproductive aspects of Morada Nova rams, including protein profiles of their seminal plasma. These findings will allow a better understanding of their reproductive physiology. PMID:24716618

  12. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  13. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  14. Novel ETHE1 mutation in a carrier couple having prior offspring affected with ethylmalonic encephalopathy: Genetic analysis, clinical management and reproductive outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, David J

    2010-03-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is an autosomally recessive inherited disorder with a relentlessly progressive decline in neurological function, usually fatal by the age of ten. It is characterised by generalised hypotonia, psychomotor regression, spastic tetraparesis, dystonia, seizures and, eventually, global neurological failure. Approximately 50 reports have been published worldwide describing this devastating disease, most involving patients of Mediterranean or Arab origin. The fundamental defect in EE likely involves the impairment of a mitochondrial sulphur dioxygenase coded by the ETHE1 gene responsible for the catabolism of sulphide, which subsequently accumulates to toxic levels. A diagnosis of EE should initiate careful genetic evaluation and counselling, particularly if the parents intend to have additional offspring. The present report describes the diagnosis of EE in a reproductive endocrinology context, where both members of a non-consanguineous couple were confirmed to be carriers of an identical A↷G mutation. This previously unknown mutation at nucleotide position c.494 resulted in an amino acid substitution, p.Asp165Gly. Although consideration was given to in vitro fertilisation, embryo biopsy and single gene pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, the couple decided to first utilise a less aggressive therapeutic approach with donor sperm insemination. Pregnancy with a low risk of EE was indeed achieved; however, the infant was affected with a different anomaly (hypoplastic left heart). As this case demonstrates, prior to the initiation of fertility therapy, genetic analysis may be used to provide a confirmatory diagnosis when EE is suspected.

  15. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  16. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text...

  17. Overexpression of the kiwifruit SVP3 gene affects reproductive development and suppresses anthocyanin biosynthesis in petals, but has no effect on vegetative growth, dormancy, or flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongmei; Wang, Tianchi; McGie, Tony; Voogd, Charlotte; Allan, Andrew C; Hellens, Roger P; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2014-09-01

    SVP-like MADS domain transcription factors have been shown to regulate flowering time and both inflorescence and flower development in annual plants, while having effects on growth cessation and terminal bud formation in perennial species. Previously, four SVP genes were described in woody perennial vine kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), with possible distinct roles in bud dormancy and flowering. Kiwifruit SVP3 transcript was confined to vegetative tissues and acted as a repressor of flowering as it was able to rescue the Arabidopsis svp41 mutant. To characterize kiwifruit SVP3 further, ectopic expression in kiwifruit species was performed. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. deliciosa did not affect general plant growth or the duration of endodormancy. Ectopic expression of SVP3 in A. eriantha also resulted in plants with normal vegetative growth, bud break, and flowering time. However, significantly prolonged and abnormal flower, fruit, and seed development were observed, arising from SVP3 interactions with kiwifruit floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins. Petal pigmentation was reduced as a result of SVP3-mediated interference with transcription of the kiwifruit flower tissue-specific R2R3 MYB regulator, MYB110a, and the gene encoding the key anthocyanin biosynthetic step, F3GT1. Constitutive expression of SVP3 had a similar impact on reproductive development in transgenic tobacco. The flowering time was not affected in day-neutral and photoperiod-responsive Nicotiana tabacum cultivars, but anthesis and seed germination were significantly delayed. The accumulation of anthocyanin in petals was reduced and the same underlying mechanism of R2R3 MYB NtAN2 transcript reduction was demonstrated. PMID:24948678

  18. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  19. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  20. Effect of supplementation of concentrates or selenium on production and reproduction in cows grazing pastures of high protein degradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried out to determine whether the deleterious effects of high amounts of degradable protein on reproduction and production of dairy cows could be minimized by a supplemental source of undergradable protein, or grain supplementation while grazing; and to study the effect of selenium supplementation before calving on the incidence of stillbirths, mastitis, puerperal and metabolic disorders. In a first experiment, 24 Holstein cows fed on red and white clover pasture, paired by previous milk production, calving data and body condition, were supplemented with corn silage and one of two concentrates differing only in the proportion of degradable protein (Group H: 71.5% and Group L: 51.5%). The degradable protein intake from pasture supplied 93% of the requirements in both groups. The addition of undergradable protein in the concentrate of Group L did not improve reproductive performance nor milk, butterfat or solids non-fat production. In a second experiment, 132 Holstein cows and heifers were paired likewise. Both animals in each pair were fed similar forage resources, but each one was supplemented with 2 kg/cow corn grain four times a day (Herd 1) or 4 kg/cow tow times a day (Herd 2). One animal in each pair was randomly assigned to receive a barium selenate injection before calving. In this experiment, rumen ammonia was higher in Herd 1 in both sampling dates (17 vs 4.2 mg/100 ml and 12 vs 9 mg/100 ml), as well as serum urea up to 50 days post-partum (26 vs 19 mg/100 ml, P<0.02). Body condition scores were similar at calving but significantly lower in Herd 1 during the lactation period (P<0.05). Total milk and butterfat production were higher in Herd 2 (6406.2 vs 6893.8 kg and 190.4 vs 203.5 kg, respectively). Selenium improved pregnancy rate to first artificial insemination in Herd 2 (71 vs 50%), and decreased the frequency of downer cows in both herds (5 vs 0%), but had not effect regarding the Wisconsin Mastitis Test results. (author). 36

  1. Measurements of body composition during late gestation and lactation in first and second parity sows and its relationship to piglet production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize variation of multiple body condition traits in a white crossbred composite population of first- and second-parity sows and determine if these traits relate to litter production and reproductive parameters. As expected, parity 2 dams were heavier (P < 0...

  2. The Product-Agnosia Effect: How More Visual Impressions Affect Product Distinctiveness in Comparative Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson Shi Jia; Baba Shiv; Sanjay Rao

    2014-01-01

    Consumer choice is often based on the relative visual appeal of competing products. Lay intuition, common marketing practice, and extant literature all suggest that more visual impressions help consumers distinguish products. This research shows that the opposite can occur. Rather than highlighting differences, seeing more pictures of products being compared can obfuscate perceptions, reduce distinctiveness and attractiveness of products, and increase choice uncertainty. Six experiments demon...

  3. Radio-transmitters do not affect seasonal productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Gesmundo, Callie; Johnson, Michael K.; Fish, Alexander C.; Lehman, Justin A.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the potential effects of handling and marking techniques on study animals is important for correct interpretation of research results and to effect progress in data-collection methods. Few investigators have compared the reproductive output of radio-tagged and non-radio-tagged songbirds, and no one to date has examined the possible effect of radio-tagging adult songbirds on the survival of their fledglings. In 2011 and 2012, we compared several parameters of reproductive output of two groups of female Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) breeding in Minnesota, including 45 females with radio-transmitters and 73 females we did not capture, handle, or mark. We found no difference between groups in clutch sizes, hatching success, brood sizes, length of incubation and nestling stages, fledging success, number of fledglings, or survival of fledglings to independence. Thus, radio-tags had no measurable impact on the productivity of female Golden-winged Warblers. Our results build upon previous studies where investigators have reported no effects of radio-tagging on the breeding parameters of songbirds by also demonstrating no effect of radio-tagging through the post-fledging period and, therefore, the entire breeding season.

  4. Plagiorchis elegans (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) infections in Stagnicola elodes (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): host susceptibility, growth, reproduction, mortality, and cercarial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1999-06-01

    Eggs of Plagiorchis elegans were readily ingested by Stagnicola elodes of all ages, but were more infective to immature than mature snails. Infection enhanced the growth of the host in a dose-dependent manner. The number of cercariae released by immature snails increased with the age of the snail host; mature snails yielded fewer cercariae. Heavily infected snails tended to die prematurely, thereby reducing their total production of cercariae to levels below those of more lightly infected individuals. Even light infections castrated the snail host. Snails that acquired the infection as juveniles never produced eggs. Actively reproducing snails ceased egg laying within days of infection and never recovered. All parasite effects on the growth and reproduction of the snail host first manifested themselves during the early stages of infection, long before the development of daughter sporocysts and cercariae, and are therefore attributable to the effects of mother sporocysts. The study provides insight into how this natural enemy of mosquito larvae may be established in natural snail populations by means of strategically timed introductions of parasite eggs, with a goal of maximizing cercarial production for the biological control of sympatric mosquito larvae. PMID:10386437

  5. Evaluation of Relationship between Traits of Milk Production and Reproduction Traits in Dairy Cows of the Slovak spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bujko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim this work was to evaluate relationships between traits of milk production and reproduction traits in breeding herds of Slovak spotted breed in the period 1992-2010 the results for 10 514 Slovak cows. The basic statistic analysis were analysed using the SAS version 9.1. In the first lactation of dairy cows produced 4 685.18 kg of milk, 193.82 kg of fat and 156.51 kg of proteins. Correlation between evaluated traits of milk production and age at first calving were lower negative and statistically high significant (P<0.0001, scilicet between kgs of milk age at first calving = - 0.06731and correlation between milk in kg with calving interval 1 (r= - 0.06945 and with calving interval 2 (r= - 0.04554 were statistically high significant (P<0.0001. The analyses by the effect on age of first calving was the highest effect of HYS R2= 0.4478 and on calving interval was the highest effect of HYS R2= 0.1526.

  6. Factors affecting industrial wood, material production yield in Turkey’s natural beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are to determine the most important factors affecting industrial wood material production yield in natural oriental beech forests in Turkey using a multifaceted approach and to help entrepreneurs consider these factors to develop more sensitive and realistic production plans. In Günye Forest Management in Bartın province of the West Black Sea Region of Turkey, 41 production units were chosen as the study area. The 1277 ha study area was included in the 2007 and 2010 production management plan. The general state of the stand, natural stand structure, and production methods and tools are the factors thought most strongly affect industrial wood material production yield; 26 variables representing these factors were evaluated in the study. Through multidimensional statistical analyses, including main components, factor and regression  analysis, we found that the most important factors affecting production yield were fertility, aspect of land, skidding method, stand structure, skidding distance, growing stock, transportation and harmful abiotic factors. Production units were divided into three groups based on yield rates and the 26 variables, using discriminate analysis. From the results of the study, a sample model can be developed to help forest managers predict and plan annual industrial wood production more sensitively and realistically.

  7. Growth characteristics, reproductive performance, and evaluation of their associative relationships in Brangus cattle managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Nevarez, P; Bailey, D W; Bailey, C C; VanLeeuwen, D M; Enns, R M; Silver, G A; DeAtley, K L; Thomas, M G

    2010-05-01

    Balancing growth and reproductive performance in beef cattle managed in desert environments is challenging. Our objectives were to 1) evaluate trends in growth and reproductive traits, and 2) assess associative relationships between growth characteristics and reproductive performance in a Brangus herd managed in a Chihuahuan Desert production system from 1972 to 2006. Data were from bull (n = 597) and heifer calves (n = 585; 1988 to 2006) and cows (n = 525; repeated records of cows, n = 2,611; 1972 to 2006). Variables describing the growth curve of each cow were estimated using a nonlinear logistic function (each cow needed 6 yr of data). Mixed-effect models and logistic regression were used to analyze trends across years in growth and reproductive traits (both continuous and categorical). For continuous traits of calves, a slight cubic response (P Brangus herd managed in the Chihuahuan Desert. Opposing relationships were observed among measures of cow size and fertility; as growth curves shifted toward earlier maturity, measures of reproductive performance suggested that fertility improved. PMID:20154157

  8. Eating disorders and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J F

    1999-05-01

    Eating disorders are common and characteristically affect young women at what would otherwise be their peak of reproductive functioning. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa impinge on reproduction both behaviourally and physiologically, with effects on menstruation, ovarian function, fertility, sexuality and pregnancy. This review presents a summary of current knowledge and makes suggestions for future research, along with some clinical recommendations for the management of eating disorders in pregnancy. PMID:10755771

  9. Floral Phenology of Upper Amazon Cocoa Trees: Implications for Reproduction and Productivity of Cocoa

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Adjaloo; Oduro, W.; B. K. Banful

    2012-01-01

    A study of the floral phenology of cocoa trees was carried out between 2006 and 2008 at Kubease in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, using one hundred cocoa trees from ten farm plots. The objective was to assess the contribution of floral phenology to the productivity of cocoa. Cocoa like all tropical tree species exhibited seasonally-related phenological patterns involving overlapping cycles under both intrinsic and extrinsic controls. However, unlike most tropical plants, flowering was in the ra...

  10. Gender commodification and precarity in Portuguese call centres: the (re)production of inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Patrícia Alves de

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine the extent to which gender is a commodity in the Portuguese call centre regime of value creation; and how gendered products of labour are embedded in both historical local gender idioms and neoliberal trends associated with recent class and employment restructurings of the European economy (precarity). Despite the existence of some formal academic studies and various activist essays in web-based journals focusing on the gendered nature of precarious work, the empiric...

  11. Inferring causal relationships between reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins using recursive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Tiezzi, F; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2015-04-01

    Health disorders in dairy cows have a substantial effect on the profitability of a dairy enterprise because of loss in milk sales, culling of unhealthy cows, and replacement costs. Complex relationships exist between health disorders and production traits. Understanding the causal structures among these traits may help us disentangle these complex relationships. The principal objective of this study was to use producer-recorded data to explore phenotypic and genetic relationships among reproductive and metabolic health disorders and production traits in first-lactation US Holsteins. A total of 77,004 first-lactation daughters' records of 2,183 sires were analyzed using recursive models. Health data contained information on reproductive health disorders [retained placenta (RP); metritis (METR)] and metabolic health disorders [ketosis (KETO); displaced abomasum (DA)]. Production traits included mean milk yield (MY) from early lactation (mean MY from 6 to 60 d in milk and from 61 to 120 d in milk), peak milk yield (PMY), day in milk of peak milk yield (PeakD), and lactation persistency (LP). Three different sets of traits were analyzed in which recursive effects from each health disorder on culling, recursive effects of one health disorder on another health disorder and on MY, and recursive effects of each health disorder on production traits, including PeakD, PMY, and LP, were assumed. Different recursive Gaussian-threshold and threshold models were implemented in a Bayesian framework. Estimates of the structural coefficients obtained between health disorders and culling were positive; on the liability scale, the structural coefficients ranged from 0.929 to 1.590, confirming that the presence of a health disorder increased culling. Positive recursive effects of RP to METR (0.117) and of KETO to DA (0.122) were estimated, whereas recursive effects from health disorders to production traits were negligible in all cases. Heritability estimates of health disorders ranged

  12. Effect of Crossbreeding Indigenous Sheep with Awassi and Corriedale Sires on Reproductive Performance under Smallholder Production System in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Getachew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on reproductive performance. A village based sheep crossbreeding project has been implemented since 1998 in three villages in the South Wollo, Menz and Chacha districts in Ethiopia. Crossbred rams (3/4 Awassi x 1/4 Local were supplied to a group of farmers aiming to upgrading the indigenous genotype through backcrossing. The combined levels of location and genotype, year, season and parity had significant effects on the reproductive performance of ewes. Generally, local genotypes showed better (p<0.05 reproductive performance except for number of lambs weaned per ewe per year. The interaction of genotype and location was significant for age at first lambing and lambing interval. In Wollo, Corriedale x local crossbred ewes had similar reproductive performance to that of the local breed. The variation in reproductive performance among locations indicated the importance of delineating crossbreeding areas depending on environmental situation and farmers’ capacity.

  13. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains summarized data on the effects of urea-molasses block (UMB) food supplements in dairy and beef cattle, sheep and goats in Java. In addition to improvements in growth and milk production, UMB supplements cause a significant enhancement of ovulation rate and hence fecundity in sheep and goats. Similar data for dairy cattle are not yet available. 5 tabs

  14. Ranking factors affecting the productivity of human resources using MADM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shekari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For improving and efficient uses of various resources such as labor, capital, materials, energy and information, productivity is the purpose of all economic and industrial organizations and service enterprises. The human factor is the main strategic resource and the realization axis of productivity for each type of organization. Therefore the factors affecting the productivity, depends on suitable conditions for labor. This study is performed to identification and prioritization the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company. The objective of this research is an applied and the data collection methods and conclusions are descriptive - survey. Statistical sample size by using Cochran's formula is considered equal to 120. To perform this study with the Delphi method, we identify the factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company and by using MADM techniques, prioritization of these factors has been done. Also Team Expert Choice2000 software have used for analysis. Research results show that factors affecting the productivity of human resources in Khorasan Razavi Gas Company in order of importance are: Health aspects, leadership style, motivational factors, organizational commitment, work experience, general and applied education, demographic characteristics, physical environment within the organization, external environment and competitive spirit.

  15. ASSESMENT OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF AMBER CHARKHA AND ERGONOMIC EVALUATION OF WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. THAKRE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demands of the cotton fabrics, now a day has made it necessary to increase the production of cotton fabrics. To increase the production it is necessary to study the factors affecting the performance of the women workers working on Amber charkha. Most of the Amber charkha in rural areas are hand operated (i.e. they runwith the help of human energy input. There are various medical, technical and environmental factors which affect the productivity of women workers working on Amber charkha. This paper discusses some of those factors which are responsible for this. The various factors that are affecting the productivity are health factors,sitting posture, working environment, raw material properties, and man machine system. Each of these factors plays an important role in the overall performance of the women workers. Analysis is carried out by comparing the actual readings with the standard norms available in the literature. The detailed project work is carried out to study the different factors affecting the productivity of Amber charkha. The basic necessity of this study is to provide comfortable sitting arrangement and good working environment which would help the workers for achieving better productivity with work satisfaction.

  16. Productive and Reproductive Performances of Female Etawah Crossbred Goats in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Etawah Crossbred (PE goat is considered to be dual purpose (meat and milk goat, it is mainly raised for meat production. Since early 1990, there has been a growing interest of the farmer in some places to raise PE goat for milk production without sacrificing its role to produce kids for meat. The average birth weight of PE kids varied widely (2.8 – 5 kg, resulted in a high variation in weaning weight (9 – 14 kg. A high pre-weaning mortality of 10 – 50% was a major source of lost in goat production in Indonesia, partly due to low birth weight and/or miss mothering ability. Young female PE goat reached puberty at 8 – 12 months of age and at body weight of about 18 – 22 kg or about 53 – 60% of mature body weight. Gestation length varied between 142 – 156 days, and first post partum estrous occurred at 3 – 5 months after parturition took place, resulted in 8 – 10 months of kidding intervals. Lactation period lasted for 5 – 8 months with total milk yield of 177 – 203 kg/lactation (average 0.85 kg/day. Although milk yield of PE goat was not as high as milk yield of some other dairy goats, the ability of PE goat to cope with harsh local environment, particularly climate and feed conditions, was an advantage. Therefore, raising PE goat would still be an important part of farmer activities in the rural areas in Indonesia.

  17. Milk production potential, quality of raw milk and reproductive efficiency of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Old world camelids (Dromedary and Bactrian camels) are important source of milk in rural areas of many arid countries. However, extensive production system cannot guarantee constant quality and quantity raw milk for the market. Development of the world first large scale-camel milking farm in Dubai draws attention to camels as potential source for high quality milk and meat in developing countries. This presentation summarizes the development and results of the project. Animals: Intensive management and production require concentration of camels. Camels arrived to the farm from different countries of the region with variable age, condition and lactation stage resulting in great range in individual milk production. In practice, history of the purchased animals (health status, previous production) is not available. Despite the negative preconception, camels can be trained successfully to adopt the machine milking technology. Training takes 1-4 weeks depending on the background of the animal. So far we have trained more than 1400 camels for machine milking. Infectious disease control, general and udder health: Due to lack of history, it is extremely important to establish and maintain strict quarantine. Infectious diseases (Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Surra, FMD etc.) are monitored with serological tests. The main problem is that most of the tests are not validated for camels and kits from different manufacturers may give controversial results. The prevalence of Brucellosis exceeded 30% in purchased animals from certain regions. Udder health is also monitored carefully. In previously hand milked, multiparous camels, teats are frequently enlarged/deformed or the udder is infected with pathogen bacteria (Str. agalactiae, Str. bovis, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Staph. aureus, etc.). In a recent survey, 21.8% (54 camels) of 248 new lactating animals were infected. These camels should be either rejected or treated before starting machine milking. Adaptation of milking

  18. Gendering Dormitory Labour System: Production and Reproduction of Labour Use in South China

    OpenAIRE

    (潘毅), Pun Ngai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this article, I discuss a specific Chinese labour regime – the dormitory labour system under which the lives of women migrant workers are shaped by the international division of labour. With a gender perspective, we understand this dormitory labour system as a gendered form of labour used to fuel global production in new industrialized regions, especially in South China. Since the set-up of four economic special zones in South China in the early 1980s, the new export-oriented ...

  19. A guided search genetic algorithm using mined rules for optimal affective product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Chris K. Y.; Kwong, C. K.; Chan, Kit Yan; Jiang, H.

    2014-08-01

    Affective design is an important aspect of new product development, especially for consumer products, to achieve a competitive edge in the marketplace. It can help companies to develop new products that can better satisfy the emotional needs of customers. However, product designers usually encounter difficulties in determining the optimal settings of the design attributes for affective design. In this article, a novel guided search genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to determine the optimal design attribute settings for affective design. The optimization model formulated based on the proposed approach applied constraints and guided search operators, which were formulated based on mined rules, to guide the GA search and to achieve desirable solutions. A case study on the affective design of mobile phones was conducted to illustrate the proposed approach and validate its effectiveness. Validation tests were conducted, and the results show that the guided search GA approach outperforms the GA approach without the guided search strategy in terms of GA convergence and computational time. In addition, the guided search optimization model is capable of improving GA to generate good solutions for affective design.

  20. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  1. Estimates of genetic parameters for visual scores and their correlation with production and reproductive traits in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Souza Bertipaglia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of visual scores of body structure, precocity and muscularity with production (body weight at 18 months and average daily gain and reproductive (scrotal circumference traits in Brahman cattle in order to determine the possible use of these scores as selection criteria to improve carcass quality. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using an animal model that included contemporary group as fixed effect. A total of 1,116 observations of body structure, precocity and muscularity were used. Heritability was 0.39, 043 and 0.40 for body structure, precocity and muscularity, respectively. The genetic correlations were 0.79 between body structure and precocity, 0.87 between body structure and muscularity, and 0.91 between precocity and muscularity. The genetic correlations between visual scores and body weight at 18 months were positive (0.77, 0.57 and 0.59 for body structure, precocity and muscularity, respectively. Similar genetic correlations were observed between average daily gain and visual scores (0.60, 0.57 and 0.48, respectively, whereas the genetic correlations between scrotal circumference and these scores were low (0.13, 0.02, and 0.13. The results indicate that visual scores can be used as selection criteria in Brahman breeding programs. Favorable correlated responses should be seen in average daily gain and body weight at 18 months. However, no correlated response is expected for scrotal circumference.

  2. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively. PMID:23636408

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for productive life, reproduction, and milk-production traits in US dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Bustos, V J; Montaldo, H H; Torres-Hernández, G; Pérez-Elizalde, S; Valencia-Posadas, M; Hernández-Mendo, O; Shepard, L

    2014-01-01

    Heritabilities and correlations for milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), protein yield (PY), combined fat and protein yield (FPY), fat percentage (F%), protein percentage (P%), age at first kidding (AFK), interval between the first and second kidding (KI), and real and functional productive life at 72mo (FPL72) of 33,725 US dairy goats, were estimated using animal models. Productive life was defined as the total days in production until 72mo of age (PL72) for goats having the opportunity to express the trait. Functional productive life was obtained by correcting PL72 for MY, FY, PY, and final type score (FS). Six selection indexes were used, including or excluding PL72, with 6 groups of different economic weights, to estimate the responses to selection considering MY, FY, PY, and PL72 as selection criteria. The main criteria that determined the culling of a goat from the herd were low FS, MY, and FY per lactation. Heritability estimates were 0.22, 0.17, 0.37, 0.37, 0.38, 0.39, 0.54, 0.64, 0.09, and 0.16 for PL72, FPL72, MY, FY, PY, FPY, F%, P%, KI, and AFK, respectively. Most genetic correlations between the evaluated traits and PL72 or FPL72 were positive, except for F% (-0.04 and -0.06, respectively), P% (-0.002 and -0.03, respectively), and AFK (-0.03 and -0.01, respectively). The highest genetic correlations were between FPL72 and MY (0.39) and between PL72 and MY (0.33). Most phenotypic correlations between the traits evaluated and FPL72 and PL72 were positive (>0.23 and >0.26, respectively), except for F% (-0.004 and -0.02, respectively), P% (-0.05 and -0.02), KI (-0.01 and -0.07), and AFK (-0.08 and -0.08). The direct selection for PL72 increased it by 102.28d per generation. The use of MY, FY, PY, KI, or AFK as selection criteria increased PL72 by 39.21, 27.33, 35.90, -8.28, or 2.77d per generation, respectively. The inclusion of PL72 as selection criterion increased the expected response per generation from 0.15 to 17.35% in all selection indices studied. PMID

  4. Potential sites of bioactive gibberellin production during reproductive growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianhong; Mitchum, Melissa G; Barnaby, Neel; Ayele, Belay T; Ogawa, Mikihiro; Nam, Edward; Lai, Wei-Chu; Hanada, Atsushi; Alonso, Jose M; Ecker, Joseph R; Swain, Stephen M; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2008-02-01

    Gibberellin 3-oxidase (GA3ox) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of bioactive gibberellins (GAs). We examined the expression patterns of all four GA3ox genes in Arabidopsis thaliana by promoter-beta-glucuronidase gene fusions and by quantitative RT-PCR and defined their physiological roles by characterizing single, double, and triple mutants. In developing flowers, GA3ox genes are only expressed in stamen filaments, anthers, and flower receptacles. Mutant plants that lack both GA3ox1 and GA3ox3 functions displayed stamen and petal defects, indicating that these two genes are important for GA production in the flower. Our data suggest that de novo synthesis of active GAs is necessary for stamen development in early flowers and that bioactive GAs made in the stamens and/or flower receptacles are transported to petals to promote their growth. In developing siliques, GA3ox1 is mainly expressed in the replums, funiculi, and the silique receptacles, whereas the other GA3ox genes are only expressed in developing seeds. Active GAs appear to be transported from the seed endosperm to the surrounding maternal tissues where they promote growth. The immediate upregulation of GA3ox1 and GA3ox4 after anthesis suggests that pollination and/or fertilization is a prerequisite for de novo GA biosynthesis in fruit, which in turn promotes initial elongation of the silique. PMID:18310462

  5. Production of reproductively sterile fish by a non-transgenic gene silencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel bath-immersion technology to produce large numbers of infertile fish. As seafood consumption shifts from fishery harvests towards artificially propagated species, optimization of aquaculture practices will be necessary to maximize food production and minimize ecological impact. Farming infertile fish is the most effective genetic-containment strategy to support the development of environmentally-responsible aquaculture. We discovered that a molecular transporter, Vivo, can effectively carry the Morpholino oligomer (MO) across the chorion, enter the embryo and reach target cells. Vivo-conjugated MO against zebrafish deadend (dnd-MO-Vivo) effectively caused primordial germ cell mis-migration and differentiation into somatic cells, which resulted in generation of infertile fish. Optimal conditions were achieved when embryos, immediately after fertilization, were immersed with dnd-MO-Vivo at the initial concentration of either 60 or 40 μM followed by a lower serially diluted concentration. Under these conditions, 100% induced sterility was achieved even when the total immersion time was reduced from 24 to 5 hours. In 8 independent experiments, 736 adults developed from these conditions were all found to be infertile fish that possessed minimally-developed gonads that lacked any gametes. The results demonstrate that dnd-MO-Vivo bath immersion is an effective strategy to produce infertile fish without introducing transgenic modifications. PMID:26510515

  6. Market Research: How Different Product Attributes Affect Consumers’ Buying Decision of Medium- haul Flights

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaja, Anna-Emilia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a market research of consumers’ buying behaviour. The scope is to find out how distinct product attributes affect consumers’ buying decision when purchasing a flight for a European destination. Flight as a product is a more complex than described in the thesis. The study is outlined further so that the focus in the buying process is on the evaluation of alternatives. The objective of the research is to gain up to date information about consumers’ buying behaviour, how different...

  7. Prizes and Productivity- How Winning the Fields Medal Affects Scientific Output

    OpenAIRE

    Borjas, George J.; Kirk B. Doran

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge generation is key to economic growth, and scientific prizes are designed to encourage it. But how does winning a prestigious prize affect future output? We compare the productivity of Fields medalists (winners of the top mathematics prize) to that of similarly brilliant contenders. The two groups have similar publication rates until the award year, after which the winners' productivity declines. The medalists begin to "play the field," studying unfamiliar topics at the expense of wr...

  8. Factors affecting phaeomelanin production by a melanin-producing (mel) mutant of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivins, B E; Holmes, R K

    1981-01-01

    In a previous study we isolated melanin-producing (mel) mutants of Vibrio cholerae and demonstrated that production of melanin during growth on solid media was stimulated by L-tyrosine and L-cysteine. In the studies reported here we analyzed factors that affected melanin production in liquid media and determined the abilities of radioactively labeled amino acids to serve as precursors for the formation of melanin by V. cholerae. Radioactivity from L-cysteine and from L-tyrosine was preferenti...

  9. Organizational climate and company productivity: the role of employee affect and employee level

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Malcolm; Warr, Peter; West, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with a growing number of models about affect and behaviour and with a recognition that perception alone provides no impetus for action, it was predicted that associations between company climate and productivity would be mediated by average level of job satisfaction. In a study of 42 manufacturing companies, subsequent productivity was significantly correlated in controlled analyses with eight aspects of organizational climate (e.g. skill development and concern for employee welfar...

  10. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Dairy Cow Production in the South East of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Loan, Chu Thi Kim; YOKOGAWA, hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Tsunemasa

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the factors affecting dairy production in Ho Chi Minh and Binh Duong provinces in 2003, based on original data collected from 80 dairy farm households and 40 non-dairy forma households. Descriptive and production function analysis are the principal methods used in the study. The finding indicate that dairy farmers in the region have been faced with limited quality of veterinary and breeding services, and a lack of capital and technical knowledge. In addition, herd manageme...

  11. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  12. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  13. Hormonal profiles, physiological parameters, and productive and reproductive performances of Girolando cows in the state of Ceará-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Júnior, Péricles Afonso Montezuma; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-02-01

    This study compared two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of physiological, productive, and reproductive parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in a semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the Companhia de Alimentos do Nordeste (CIALNE) farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Eighty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 40 of each breed group were kept under an extensive system during the wet season and an intensive system during the dry season. The collection of physiological data and blood samples were obtained in the afternoon after milking. Rectal temperature (RT), surface temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) were obtained for each cow after milking. Blood samples were obtained by tail vein puncture and were determined triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and cortisol. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH) and air temperature (AT), and from these, a temperature and humidity index (THI) was calculated. Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the Proc GLM of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of pregnancy rate (PR) and the number of AI's to obtain pregnancy. It can be concluded that the breed group ½ Holstein ½ Gyr is most suited for farming under conditions of thermal stress.

  14. Metaphor priming in sentence production: concrete pictures affect abstract language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Manami; Schafer, Amy J; Bergen, Benjamin K

    2015-03-01

    People speak metaphorically about abstract concepts-for instance, a person can be "full of love" or "have a lot of love to give." Over the past decade, research has begun to focus on how metaphors are processed during language comprehension. Much of this work suggests that understanding a metaphorical expression involves activating brain and body systems involved in perception and motor control. However, no research to date has asked whether the same is true while speakers produce language. We address this gap using a sentence production task. Its results demonstrate that visually activating a concrete source domain can trigger the use of metaphorical language drawn from that same concrete domain, even in sentences that are thematically unrelated to the primes, a metaphorical priming effect. This effect suggests that conceptual metaphors play a part in language production. It also shows that activation in the perceptual system that is not part of an intended message can nevertheless influence sentence formulation. PMID:25443987

  15. How Planting Density Affects Number and Yield of Potato Minitubers in a Commercial Glasshouse Production System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der A.J.H.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial potato minituber production systems aim at high tuber numbers per plant. This study investigated by which mechanisms planting density (25.0, 62.5 and 145.8 plants/m2) of in vitro derived plantlets affected minituber yield and minituber number per plantlet. Lowering planting density result

  16. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire...

  18. Enhancing productivity of salt affected soils through crops and cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reclamation of salt affected soils needs the addition of soil amendment and enough water to leach down the soluble salts. The operations may also include other simple agronomic techniques to reclaim soils and to know the crops and varieties that may be grown and other management practices which may be followed on such soils (Khan, 2001). The choice of crops to be grown during reclamation of salt affected soils is very important to obtain acceptable yields. This also decides cropping systems as well as favorable diversification for early reclamation, desirable yield and to meet the other requirements of farm families. In any salt affected soils, the following three measures are adopted for reclamation and sustaining the higher productivity of reclaimed soils. 1. Suitable choice of crops, forestry and tree species; 2. Suitable choice of cropping and agroforestry system; 3. Other measures to sustain the productivity of reclaimed soils. (author)

  19. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    OpenAIRE

    G. William Skinner

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869) to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir), coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reprodu...

  20. Prevalence of infection with porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in an integrated swine production system experiencing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Fraile, Lorenzo; Calsamiglia, Maria; Mateu, Enric; Espinal, Anna; Cuxart, Anna; Seminati, Chiara; Martín, Marga; Domingo, Mariano; Segalés, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of infection with porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) through a longitudinal study in an integrated swine production system (7 farms) experiencing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Risk factors for PCV-2 infection and for PCV-2 and PRRSV coinfection were also evaluated. Fifteen sows from each herd and 4 non-cross-fostered piglets from each sow were randomly sele...

  1. Egg-laying "intermorphs" in the ant Crematogaster smithi neither affect sexual production nor male parentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but--due to relatedness asymmetries--allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  2. Reproductive performance in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) may be affected by organohalogen contaminants as shown by physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Gustavson, Kim; Rigét, Frank F.;

    2009-01-01

    quotient (RQ) evaluation to more quantitatively evaluate the effect risk on reproduction (embryotoxicity and teratogenicity) based on the critical body residue (CBR) concept and using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We applied modelling approaches to PCBs, p,p′-DDE, dieldrin...

  3. Antifungal activity of different natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Mari selvam; AJA Ranjit Singh; K Kalirajan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study to evaluate the anti fungal activity of natural dyes against traditional products affected fungal pathogens. Methods: Many traditional craft products affected fungal pathogens were isolated using potato dextrose agar medium. The isolated fungus were identified by morphological and microscopically characterization using Alexopolus manual. 50μl of Turmeric, Terminalli, Guava and Henna natural dyes were poured into the wells of the culture plates. If antifungal activity was present on the plates, it was indicated by an inhibition zone surrounding the well containing the natural dye. Result: At a dose level of 50μl of terminalli dye was able to inhibit the growth of all the fungi tested. The absorbance rate of natural dyes analyzed by UV Spectrophotometer. The absorbance rate is high in terminalli (2.266) and turmeric (2.255). Conclusions: Natural dyes were bound with traditional products to give good colour and good antimicrobial activity against isolated fungal pathogens.

  4. The effect of supplementation strategies on reproductive and productive performance of cows kept under different husbandry systems in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three extensive systems of husbandry practices were chosen in the semi-arid rainfed area of Western Sudan (Latitude 11 deg. 15' and 16 deg. 30' N, Longitude 27 deg. and 32 deg. E). Cattle production in sedentary, transhumance and migratory systems were closely monitored through a period of 365 days (June 1999-June 2000). Cattle herders were randomly selected from those who were willing to participate in the project and implementation of supplementary feeding with poultry manure/molasses or molasses alone. Selection was based on different geographical sites around El Obeid city (600 km west to Khartoum capital). In the sedentary system seven groups of cattle herders were selected and were designated as farms SA, SB, SC, SD, SE, SF, and SG. In the transhumance system the cattle herders were designated as TA, TB, and TC and in the migratory system, MA, MB, MC, MD, and ME. In each system the recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. Regression analyses were done for fertility parameters against body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) at calving, 30, 60, and 90 days from calving, as well as milk yield (MY) at 30, 60, and 90 days from calving. Poultry manure/molasses mixture was used to replace farmer's concentrate diet in farm SB (supplementation) of the sedentary system while in others the concentrate ration usually used by the farmer was partially substituted by molasses. In the migratory system the poultry manure/molasses mixture partially supplemented the farmer's concentrate diet (substitution) of all animals. In the farms belonging to transhumance system molasses alone was used as a substitution diet. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception in all systems of production. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception, especially in the

  5. Reproductive technologies and reproductive rights

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Pinhas Shifman

    2014-01-01

    We observe a modern approach that allows for the possibility of a planned separation between sexual relations and procreation. The widespread use of contraceptives created the possibility of sex without reproduction, just as reproductive technologies created the possibility of reproduction without sex. Consequentially, the individual`s ability to control and plan childbirth has expanded, but parallel possibilities have been created for societal intervention in that process. The question wheth...

  6. Factors affecting Small-Scale Coffee Production in Githunguri District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Njeri Gathura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the factors affecting small scale coffee production in Kenya. The establishments under study were small-scale coffee farms in Githunguri District.It was to determine whether marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources affect coffee production in Githunguri District. Primary sources included use of questionnaires, observation and interviews. Secondary sources included desk research, library research on journals, text books and factory publications. The target population was over 700,000 small-scale coffee producers in Kenya out of which the accessible population of 10,000 producers drawn from Githunguri District in Kiambu County was selected which a sample size of 120 respondents was sampled. Stratified sampling technique was employed to compare views among coffee producers from the various coffee societies in the area. Data analysis was both qualitative and quantitative using descriptive statistics. Data presentation was in form of tables to help interpret findings and generate conclusions that aided solutions to identified problems. The research established that marketing factors, finances, government policies and physical and human resources greatly affected coffee production. The study recommended that the government should encourage coffee production by formulating favorable marketing factors and other policies and provide finances to small scale coffee producers. Producers on the other hand should strive to provide conducive working environment to their workers so as to sustain them in their farms. This will help to improve coffee yields and quality.

  7. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B.; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J.; Faulkner, Catherine L.; Moorby, Jon M.; Perdok, Hink B.; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Pmethane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations. PMID:26509835

  8. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity does not affect productivity and drought response in competitive stands of Trifolium repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun eHuber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning.We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions.Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly

  10. Emerging issues and methodological advances in fisheries reproductive biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario;

    2011-01-01

    Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards a...... development, which is most accurately evaluated with histology. This special section of Marine and Coastal Fisheries contains contributions from a workshop on the gonadal histology of fishes that was held in Cadiz, Spain, during June 2009. These papers cover a wide range of species and reproductive topics...... while introducing improved and new histological techniques. In this introduction, we address the following needs: (1) to employ standardization, thereby improving our ability to conduct comparative studies; (2) to better understand patterns of gonadal development and spawning events over time; and (3...

  11. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart; Carolin Mayer; Mathieu Jonard; Valérie Cawoy

    2012-01-01

    In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering peri...

  12. Breeding resource distribution affects selection gradients on male phenotypic traits: experimental study on lifetime reproductive success in the bitterling fish (Rhodeus amarus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Ondračková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Smith, C.; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2009), s. 377-390. ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : directional selection gradient * individual and population consequences of behavior * opportunity for selection * parentage analysis * sexual selection * reproductive effort Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.429, year: 2009

  13. Do abundance and proximity of the alien Impatiens glandulifera affect pollination and reproductive success of two sympatric co-flowering native species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Jacquemart

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In invasion ecology, potential impacts of aliens on native flora are still under debate. Our aim was to determine the pollinator mediated effects of both proximity and abundance of an alien species on the reproductive success of natives. We chose the highly invasive Impatiens glandulifera and two native species: Epilobium angustifolium and Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum. These species share characteristics allowing for pollination interactions: similar biotopes, overlapping flowering periods and same main pollinators. The effects of abundance (5, 25 and 100 individuals and proximity (0 and 15 m of the alien on visitation rate, insect behaviour, pollen deposition and reproductive success of both natives were investigated during 2 flowering seasons. We used centred visitation rates as they can be directly interpreted as a positive or negative effect of the invasive.Both abundance and proximity of the alien increased bumblebee visitation rates to both natives. On the other hand, abundance of the exotic species had a slight negative effect on honeybee visits to natives while its proximity had no effect. The behaviour of bumblebees changed as visitors left significantly more often the native plants for I. glandulifera when its abundance increased. As a consequence of this “inconstancy”, bees deposited considerable quantities of alien pollen on native stigmas. Nevertheless, this interspecific pollen transfer did not decrease seed set in natives. Self-compatibility and high attractiveness of both native species probably alleviate the risk of altered pollinator services and reproductive success due to the invader in natural populations.

  14. Preliminary Examination of Factors Affecting Manufacture of Value Added Products From Recycled Pallet Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosterman, Nathan Scott

    2000-01-01

    A Preliminary Examination of Factors Affecting Manufacture of Value Added Products From Recycled Pallet Parts Nathan S. Hosterman Abstract Pallets are the single largest consumer of hardwood lumber in the United States. While the pallet industry has effectively adopted widespread pallet recycling, many pallets still go into landfills with little or no value gained from their material. Recovered pallet lumber has been proposed as a potential source of material for value added woo...

  15. The effect of affect in advertising: can product preference be conditioned by background music?

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    The present experiment provides a recent replication of Gorn’ (1982) affective conditioning study, investigating the role of music-induced mood in advertising and its subsequent effect on product choice. As an extension to Gorn’s original procedure, the experiment has addressed certain procedural concerns and expanded the scope of the study to investigate the effect of ‘mere exposure’. This was achieved by incorporating an additional background colour variable into the procedur...

  16. [Reproductive toxicity of lindane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Nicole; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Bouvet, Suzanne; Goudey-Perrière, Françoise

    2002-01-01

    The present paper bears on the main effects of lindane (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane) on endocrine and reproductive functions in mammals. This pesticide, once widely used to kill lice and a variety of pests that attack agricultural products, livestock and trees, has been progressively eliminated from many applications since the mid-1970s in Europe or USA, but is still used in the rest of the world. Lindane is absorbed through respiratory, digestive or cutaneous routes and accumulates in fat tissues. It damages human liver, kidney, neural and immune systems and induces birth defects, cancer and death. Chronic administration results in endocrine disruption in birds as well as in mammals. Treatment with 1-40 mg of lindane/kg b.w. disrupts testicular morphology, decreases spermatogenesis, inhibits testicular steroidogenesis, reduces plasma androgen concentrations and may adversely affect reproductive performances in males. In females, lindane disrupts the estrous cycle, reduces serum estrogen and progesterone levels, decreases sexual receptivity whereas in pregnant dams it decreases whelping rate and litter size. These effects were also observed in some rats exposed to residual environmental doses. In addition, there is concern that irreversible effects may be induced when animals are exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critically susceptible phases of sexual differentiation or development. These effects would results from (i) alterations of gonade or gamete cell membranes (ii) cell metabolism changes including alterations of ionic exchanges (mainly calcium or potassium), direct or free radical-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis (iii) or neuroendocrine changes leading to a decrease in sexual performance of either parents or their offsprings exposed in utero or through lactation. PMID:12645304

  17. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, and erectile ... during a process that some people call andropause. Aging changes in the male reproductive system occur primarily ...

  18. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  19. Egg Production and Donation: A New Frontier in the Global Landscape of Cross-Border Reproductive Care: Ethical Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Margherita; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Pascale, Natasha; Riezzo, Irene; Pomara, Cristoforo

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is a multifaceted phenomenon. It may involve both the movement of patients to undertake assisted reproductive treatment through technologies otherwise denied and the movement of assisted reproduction professionals, egg and sperm donors and surrogates, as well as the importing and exporting of gametes. The reasons for CBRC vary between countries. In this global landscape, the search for donor oocytes is one of the main reasons for patients seeking cross-border reproductive care. The egg market has led to ethical and political concerns about the means of procuring donor oocytes, the possibility of exploiting economically underprivileged women mainly in poor countries, and the issue of the responsibility and accountability of medical doctors and fertility clinics. Ethical concerns relating to international egg donation are discussed with special focus on the issues of compensation/ reimbursement, the health and welfare of women donating eggs, informed consent to donation, the possible conflict of interest for physicians involved in egg donation programmes, and equity in the distribution of economic resources from CBRC. Finally, the need for global solutions to this global issue is underlined. PMID:26775650

  20. Blastocyst rate of in vitro embryo production in sheep is affected by season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, L; Sanna, D; Casu, S; Dattena, M; Muñoz, I M Mayorga

    2014-08-01

    It has been reported that the number and quality of in vitro produced embryos is season related. This study was conducted to assess the effect of season on cleavage, blastocyst and lambing rates of in vitro produced ovine embryos during 3 years of collection data. Ovaries of Sarda sheep were collected from a slaughterhouse. In total, 5035 oocytes were recovered and matured in TCM-199 with 4 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA), 100 μM cysteamine, 0.3 mM Na pyruvate, 0.1 UI/ml recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (r-FSH), 0.1 UI/ml recombinant luteinising hormone (r-LH), and 1 μg/ml estradiol-17β. Matured oocytes were fertilized with fresh semen in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) with 20% heat inactivated estrous sheep serum. The presumptive zygotes were cultured for 6-7 days (blastocyst stage) in SOF medium supplemented with 1% Basel Medium Eagle (BME), 1% Minimum Essential Medium, 1 mM glutamine and 8 mg/ml fatty acid-free BSA. The embryos produced were vitrified and a total of 165 blastocysts (80 from the breeding season and 85 from the anoestrous season) were transferred in pairs into recipient ewes during the reproductive period. There were no significant differences in cleavage rates between seasons in any of the 3 years examined (84% versus 83%, 81% versus 80% and 80% versus 79%, respectively). The blastocyst rate varied significantly between seasons in 2005 and 2007 (P < 0.05), and in 2006 (P < 0.001). There were no differences in pregnancy and lambing rates between embryos during anoestrous versus during the breeding season. In conclusion, only the blastocyst rate appeared to have been affected by season, possibly due to variation in the number of developmentally competent oocytes. PMID:23458093

  1. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  2. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  3. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  4. Fermentation Conditions that Affect Clavulanic Acid Production in Streptomyces clavuligerus: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Jacob, Sabrina Anne; Palanisamy, Uma Devi; Chan, Kok-Gan; Goh, Bey-Hing; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid is frequently used in combination with β-lactam antibiotics to treat a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Clavulanic acid prevents drug resistance by pathogens against these β-lactam antibiotics by preventing the degradation of the β-lactam ring, thus ensuring eradication of these harmful microorganisms from the host. This systematic review provides an overview on the fermentation conditions that affect the production of clavulanic acid in the firstly described producer, Streptomyces clavuligerus. A thorough search was conducted using predefined terms in several electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect, EBSCO), from database inception to June 30th 2015. Studies must involve wild-type Streptomyces clavuligerus, and full texts needed to be available. A total of 29 eligible articles were identified. Based on the literature, several factors were identified that could affect the production of clavulanic acid in S. clavuligerus. The addition of glycerol or other vegetable oils (e.g., olive oil, corn oil) could potentially affect clavulanic acid production. Furthermore, some amino acids such as arginine and ornithine, could serve as potential precursors to increase clavulanic acid yield. The comparison of different fermentation systems revealed that fed-batch fermentation yields higher amounts of clavulanic acid as compared to batch fermentation, probably due to the maintenance of substrates and constant monitoring of certain entities (such as pH, oxygen availability, etc.). Overall, these findings provide vital knowledge and insight that could assist media optimization and fermentation design for clavulanic acid production in S. clavuligerus. PMID:27148211

  5. Effect of Vitamin E-Selenium Administration during Late Gestation on Productive and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Buffaloes and on Growth Performance of their Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Siddiq, L. A. Lodhi, G. Muhammad1 and H. Jamil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E-selenium administration during last month of gestation in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes and on growth performance of their calves. For this purpose, 40 Nili-Ravi buffaloes in their last month of pregnancy were randomly divided into two groups. The buffaloes in group 1 were treated with 10 ml of vitamin E-Se (Farvet Holland, containing 50 mg of vitamin E and 0.5 mg of sodium selenite/ml intramuscularly on day 30 and 15 prior to expected date of parturition, while buffaloes in group II served as control. All the experimental buffaloes were kept under similar management and feeding conditions. The data on productive performance showed that the colostrum production was 22% higher (P0.05 in Vit E-Se treated buffaloes (706.90  314.29L as compared to control group (663.85  225.46L. Data on reproductive performance showed that vitamin E-Se administration significantly (P0.05. It was inferred that the administration of vitamin E-Se during late gestation in buffaloes have beneficial effect on colostrum production, post partum estrus rates and conception rates.

  6. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    OpenAIRE

    KG Makade; SB Padhyegurjar; RN Kulkarni; MS Padhyegurjar

    2013-01-01

    Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive ag...

  7. Phthalates as developmental reproductive toxicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PE are a large family ofcompounds used in a wide array ofconsumer, industrial and medical products. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period offetal reproductive development produced male reproductive mal...

  8. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P cats. Testicular tissue score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P cats. In experiment 2, testes from prepubertal (n = 6) and adult (n = 6) male cats were collected after castration and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. No differences were observed in the protein expression of LHR and FSHR between the two groups, whereas mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in prepubertal cats (P cats (P reproductive function without any adverse effects for at least 48 weeks in male cats. PMID:26620725

  9. Do non-native plant species affect the shape of productivity-diversity relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, J.M.; Cleland, E.E.; Horner-Devine, M. C.; Fleishman, E.; Bowles, C.; Smith, M.D.; Carney, K.; Emery, S.; Gramling, J.; Vandermast, D.B.; Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between ecosystem processes and species richness is an active area of research and speculation. Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted in numerous ecosystems. One finding of these studies is that the shape of the relationship between productivity and species richness varies considerably among ecosystems and at different spatial scales, though little is known about the relative importance of physical and biological mechanisms causing this variation. Moreover, despite widespread concern about changes in species' global distributions, it remains unclear if and how such large-scale changes may affect this relationship. We present a new conceptual model of how invasive species might modulate relationships between primary production and species richness. We tested this model using long-term data on relationships between aboveground net primary production and species richness in six North American terrestrial ecosystems. We show that primary production and abundance of non-native species are both significant predictors of species richness, though we fail to detect effects of invasion extent on the shapes of the relationship between species richness and primary production.

  10. Nuclear DNA content affects the productivity of conifer forests by altering hydraulic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Josu; Resco de Dios, Víctor

    2014-05-01

    Predictions of future global climate rely on feedbacks between terrestrial vegetation and the global carbon cycle, but the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are still being discussed. One of the key knowledge gaps lies on the scaling of cellular processes to the ecosystem level. Here we examine whether an under-explored plant trait, inter-specific variation in the bulk amount of DNA in unreplicated somatic cells (2C DNA content), can explain inter-specific variation in the maximum productivity of conifer forests. We expected 2C DNA content to be negatively related to conifer productivity because: 1) it is positively correlated with cell volume (which, in turn, potentially affects structural features such as leaf mass area, a strong predictor of photosynthetic capacity); 2) it is positively correlated with stomatal size (with larger stomata leading to lower overall stomatal conductance and, by extension, lower CO2 uptake); and 3) larger genome sizes may reduce P availability in RNA (which has been hypothesized to slow growth). We present the results of regression and independent contrasts in different monospecific forests encompassing a 52º latitudinal gradient, each being dominated by 1 of 35 different conifer species. Contrary to expectations, we observed a positive correlation between genome size and maximum Gross Primary Productivity (R2 = 0.47) and also between genome size maximum tree height (R2 = 0.27). This correlation was apparently driven by the effects of genome size on stem hydraulics, since 2C DNA was positively correlated with wood density (R2 = 0.40) and also with resistance to cavitation (P50, R2 = 0.28). That is, increased genome sizes have a positive effect on the productivity of conifer forests by affecting the vascular tissues to increase their capacity for water transport. Our results shed a new light on the evolution of the vascular system of conifer forests and how they affect ecosystem productivity, and indicate the potential to

  11. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Arda Kovanlıkaya; H. Melih Yavuz; Duygu Udum; Abdülkadir Orman; Çağdaş Kara

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS) in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1) received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2) received three drenches at...

  12. TLR-mediated NF-kB-dependent cytokine production is differently affected by HIV therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren Riis; Mogensen, Trine; Tolstrup, Martin; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumonia and N. Meningococcus. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...... results suggest an opposing effect of the drugs Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated production of NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines. We present data on the mechanisms behind the drug-mediated remodeling of innate immune activation and how the drugs effect early host...

  13. Does humor in radio advertising affect recognition of novel product brand names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, E M; Lippman, L G

    2001-04-01

    The authors proposed that item selection during shopping is based on brand name recognition rather than recall. College students rated advertisements and news stories of a simulated radio program for level of amusement (orienting activity) before participating in a surprise recognition test. Humor level of the advertisements was varied systematically, and content was controlled. According to signal detection analysis, humor did not affect the strength of recognition memory for brand names (nonsense units). However, brand names and product types were significantly more likely to be associated when appearing in humorous advertisements than in nonhumorous advertisements. The results are compared with prior findings concerning humor and recall. PMID:11506048

  14. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth;

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover the...... period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks/ceilings; and...

  15. An Affective Prototyping Approach for the User-Satisfying Assistive Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Yoke Chin

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the key concepts of a study whose main aim is to devise an integrated design method for efficiently designing usable assistive products. The study grounds on Affective Design principle formulated for user’s needs, emotions and experience handling in an attempt to outline an...... integrated approach so that the key concept of participatory design could be practiced. Incorporating the maturing Augmented Reality technology is expected to create a design setting that could motivate active end-user involvement from the start throughout the product design process. With the aids of...... ontological modeling approach, the design setting is envisioned suitable for disabled and elderly end users participation and to support capturing the abstract but valuable user’s real needs that are influenced by emotions and experiences. The ontology model will outline the basis of a design knowledge...

  16. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  17. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity for voluntary culling and has a negative influence on the subsequent productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is influenced by the interactive effect of environment, management, health, and genetic factors. In addition, diseases mainly affect dairy cow productivity by decreasing reproductive efficiency, shortening the expected length of productive life and by lowering milk production. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull dairy cows showing one or more of these problems is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is considerable debate among dairy scientists and bovine practitioners regarding the economic impact of these problems in a dairy operation and the most effective management or therapeutic intervention for treating them. Because of this controversy, dairy managers should focus on prevention and control of risk factors associated with each problem rather than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions.

  18. El bienestar animal en la reproducción y producción de cerdos - The animal welfare in the reproduction and production of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Córdova Izquierdo

    2007-12-01

    animals to live under the best possible conditions, without suffering unnecessary physical or psychological sufferings. For all the animal ones and especially for those whose destination will be to serve from source of foods to the man, the ethical commitment is intensified of offering them along its productive life the best conditions possible of habitat, sanity, handling, feeding and cares in general. At the present time,concepts of animal well-being, are question of complex and multifaceted public interest that includes important scientific, ethical, economic and political dimensions. To be a topic ofgrowing importance in the society, the animal welfare must approach nowadays on true scientific bases. The causes of the problems of animal welfare, are due to the erroneous perception about the animals, as beings that don't feel and that therefore, they are not able to suffer. It is easy that negative attitudes are developed toward the animals, that which isreflected in behaviors of negligence, cruelty or disrespectful treatment. The producers, veterinary doctors, as well as the society in general, concientes of the care of the animals,knows the importance about knowing the aspects of the comfort of the animals since the physiology, the development and the behavior of the animal they are affected by the bad environmental conditions, of production and of handling in general. In this review, aspects related with the animal welfares are presented in the reproduction and production of pigs.

  19. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  20. Factors affecting the milk production of dairy cattle in northern rural areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Begum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted to observe the factors affecting the productive performance of dairy cattle from northern rural areas of Bangladesh during July and September 2013. Data of 105 cows, 85 (80.95% from local and 20 (19.05% cows from cross breed, were randomly selected for the study. A binary logistic regression, expressed by odds ratio with 95% confidence interval, was done to determine the association of daily milk production categorized into ≤ 2 and > 2 liters (L, based on median, with the significant explanatory variables of body weight, age at first calving, lactation period, vitamin use, type of floor and milking person. The result demonstrated that the probability of milk production of >2 L was 6.16, 4.5, 20.65 and 5.7 times higher from the with animal body weight of >140 kg, age at first calving of >36 m, lactation period of >8 m and vitamin use than that of body weight of 140 kg, age at first calving of ≤36 m, lactation period of ≤ 8 m, and not vitamin used respectively. The chance of milk production of > 2 L was 0.25 and 0.22 times lower for mud floor, and owner milking than that of brick floor and gowala (professional milking person respectively.

  1. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Klop-Toker

    Full Text Available Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds. We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations

  2. We Made Your Bed, Why Won't You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop-Toker, Kaya; Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn't breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  3. We Made Your Bed, Why Won’t You Lie in It? Food Availability and Disease May Affect Reproductive Output of Reintroduced Frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Jose; Stockwell, Michelle; Fardell, Loren; Clulow, Simon; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation to offset the impacts of land development is becoming increasingly common, with reintroductions and created habitat programs used as key actions. However, numerous reviews cite high rates of poor success from these programs, and a need for improved monitoring and scientific testing to evaluate outcomes and improve management actions. We conducted extensive monitoring of a released population of endangered green and golden bell frogs, Litoria aurea, within a created habitat, as well as complementary surveys of a surrounding wild population. We then compared differences between the created habitat and natural ponds where extant frogs either bred or didn’t breed in order to determine factors that contributed to the breeding failure within the created habitat. We evaluated differences of L. aurea abundance, abundance of other fauna, vegetation, water quality, habitat structure, invasive fish, and disease between the three pond types (created habitat, breeding ponds, non-breeding ponds). We discovered that vegetation and invertebrate diversity were low within the created habitat, potentially reducing energy and nutritional resources required for breeding. Also, a greater proportion of frogs in the created habitat were carrying the chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, compared to the wild populations. In addition to causing the potentially fatal disease, chytridiomycosis, this pathogen has been shown to reduce reproductive functioning in male L. aurea, and subsequently may have reduced reproductive activities in the created habitat. Conspecific attraction, pond hydrology, and aquatic vegetation may also have had some influence on breeding behaviours, whilst the presence of the invasive mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, and heterospecific tadpoles were unlikely to have deterred L. aurea from breeding within the created habitat. Through the use of scientific testing and monitoring, this study is able to make recommendations for future

  4. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  5. Soil water repellency affects production and transport of CO2 and CH4 in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and transport of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the transport of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 transport within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which affects the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only affects the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and transport and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.

  6. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  7. Somos muchos (we are so many): population politics and "reproductive othering" in Mexican fertility clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Lara

    2013-03-01

    Although Mexican state officials have long attributed Mexico's "overpopulation problem" to its "high" fertility rate, that rate is almost at replacement level today. Nevertheless, anxieties about overpopulation rooted in reproduction persist. Based on my ethnographic fieldwork in Mexico City fertility clinics, this article examines how overpopulation anxieties affect infertile women as they use assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) to try to conceive children. I examine how these women attempt to justify their seemingly out-of-place use of ARTs in this "overpopulated" context by evoking discourses of "reproductive othering." Through these discourses they lay claim to a whiter, worthier status than racialized Others on the basis of their purported reproductive practices. I contend that their discourses reveal that infertility and its care are potent sites for the local production and reproduction of personhood, parenthood, and citizenship. PMID:23674326

  8. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  9. Application of syndromic surveillance on routinely collected cattle reproduction and milk production data for the early detection of outbreaks of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Anouk; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; Marceau, Alexis; Madouasse, Aurélien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine; Welby, Sarah; Wever, Paul; van Schaik, Gerdien

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of routinely collected reproductive and milk production data for the early detection of emerging vector-borne diseases in cattle in the Netherlands and the Flanders region of Belgium (i.e., the northern part of Belgium). Prospective space-time cluster analyses on residuals from a model on milk production were carried out to detect clusters of reduced milk yield. A CUSUM algorithm was used to detect temporal aberrations in model residuals of reproductive performance models on two indicators of gestation length. The Bluetongue serotype-8 (BTV-8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 and the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) epidemic of 2011 were used as case studies to evaluate the sensitivity and timeliness of these methods. The methods investigated in this study did not result in a more timely detection of BTV-8 and SBV in the Netherlands and BTV-8 in Belgium given the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. This could be due to (i) the large geographical units used in the analyses (country, region and province level), and (ii) the high level of sensitivity of the surveillance systems in place when these viruses emerged. Nevertheless, it might be worthwhile to use a syndromic surveillance system based on non-specific animal health data in real-time alongside regular surveillance, to increase the sense of urgency and to provide valuable quantitative information for decision makers in the initial phase of an emerging disease outbreak. PMID:26732291

  10. Docosahexaenoic diet supplementation, exercise and temperature affect cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capó, Xavier; Martorell, Miquel; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Juan Miguel; Tur, Josep Antoni; Pons, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise induces changes in peripheral mononuclear cells' (PBMCs) capabilities to produce cytokines. The aim was to investigate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) diet supplementation on cytokine production, by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PBMCs after exercise, and the in vitro influence of temperature. Fifteen male soccer players were randomly assigned to a placebo or an experimental group. The experimental group consumed an almond-based beverage enriched with DHA (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, whereas the placebo group consumed a similar non-enriched beverage. Blood samples were taken before and after the nutritional intervention in basal conditions and 2 h after acute exercise. Nutritional intervention significantly increased the DHA content in erythrocytes only in experimental group (from 34 ± 3.6 to 43 ± 3.6 nmols DHA/10(9) erythrocytes). Exercise significantly increased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in PBMCs but only in the placebo group (203 %). Exercise also significantly increased IL6, IL8, VEGF, INFγ, TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, MCP1, and EGG production rates by LPS-stimulated PBMCs, and this response was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Temperature but not DHA also affected the pattern of cytokine production increasing IL6, IL8, IL1β, and MCP1 synthesis. The higher change was evidenced in IL1β increasing the production rate at 39.5 °C from 3.19 ± 0.77 to 22.4 ± 6.1 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in placebo and from 2.36 ± 0.11 to 10.6 ± 0.38 pg/h 10(6) PBMC in the supplemented group. The profile of affected cytokines differs between temperature and exercise, suggesting a different PBMC activation pathway. DHA diet supplementation only attenuated cytokine production after exercise and not that induced by temperature. PMID:27139422

  11. Opposing effects of D-aspartic acid and nitric oxide on tuning of testosterone production in mallard testis during the reproductive cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assisi Loredana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp and nitric oxide (NO play an important role in tuning testosterone production in the gonads of male vertebrates. In particular, D-Asp promotes either the synthesis or the release of testosterone, whereas NO inhibits it. In this study, we have investigated for the first time in birds the putative effects of D-Asp and NO on testicular testosterone production in relation to two phases of the reproductive cycle of the adult captive wild-strain mallard (Anas platyrhynchos drake. It is a typical seasonal breeder and its cycle consists of a short reproductive period (RP in the spring (April-May and a non reproductive period (NRP in the summer (July, a time when the gonads are quiescent. The presence and the localization of D-Asp and NO in the testis and the trends of D-Asp, NO and testosterone levels were assessed during the main phases of the bird's reproductive cycle. Furthermore, in vitro experiments revealed the direct effect of exogenously administered D-Asp and NO on testosterone steroidogenesis. Methods By using immunohistochemical (IHC techniques, we studied the presence and the distributional pattern of D-Asp and NO in the testes of RP and NRP drakes. D-Asp levels were evaluated by an enzymatic method, whereas NO content, via nitrite, was assessed using biochemical measurements. Finally, immunoenzymatic techniques determined testicular testosterone levels. Results IHC analyses revealed the presence of D-Asp and NO in Leydig cells. The distributional pattern of both molecules was in some way correlated to the steroidogenic pathway, which is involved in autocrine testosterone production. Indeed, whereas NO was present only during the NRP, D-Asp was almost exclusively present during the RP. Consistently, the high testosterone testicular content occurring during RP was coupled to a high D-Asp level and a low NO content in the gonad. By contrast, in sexually inactive drakes (NRP, the low testosterone

  12. Factors affecting the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HTR is one of the advanced nuclear reactors which has inherent safety system, graphite moderated and helium gas cooled. In general, these reactors are designed with the TRISO coated particle consist of four coating layers that are porous pyrolytic carbon (PyC). inner dense PyC (IPyC), silicon carbide (SiC), and outer dense PyC (OPyC). Among the four coating layers, the SiC plays an important role beside in retaining metallic fission products, it also provides mechanical strength to fuel particle. However, results of post irradiation examination indicate that fission product palladium can react with and corrode SiC layer, This assessment is conducted to get the comprehension about resistance of SiC layer on irradiation effects, especially in order to increase the fuel bum-up. The result of this shows that the corrosion of SiC layer by fission product palladium is beside depend on the material characteristics of SiC, and also there are other factors that affect on the SiC layer corrosion. Fuel enrichment, bum-up, and irradiation time effect on the palladium flux in fuel kernel. While, the fuel density, vapour pressure of palladium (the degree depend on the irradiation temperature and kernel composition) effect on palladium migration in fuel particle. (author)

  13. New product, familiar taste: Effects of slogans on cognitive and affective responses to an unknown food product among food neophobics and neophilics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Leufkens, Jean-Marie; Hoof, van J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Food neophobia is considered a potential barrier for the introduction of new food products. This study investigated how advertising slogans could influence cognitive and affective responses to a new product in food neophobics and food neophilics. An unknown dairy product was used to examine the effe

  14. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  15. Production of recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) in vegetatively reproductive Kalanchoe pinnata by in planta transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Rhee, Yong; Auh, Chung-Kyoon; Shim, Hyekyung; Choi, Jung-Jin; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Yang, Joo-Sung; Kim, Donggiun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Sukchan

    2009-10-01

    We developed an asexual reproductive plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, as a new bioreactor for plant-based molecular farming using a newly developed transformation method. Leaf crenate margins were pin-pricked to infect the plant with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and vacuum infiltration was also applied to introduce the target gene into the plants. Subsequently, the young mother leaf produced new clones at the leaf crenate margins without the need for time- and labor-consuming tissue culture procedures. The average transformation rates were approximately 77 and 84% for pin-prickling and vacuum-infiltration methods, respectively. To functionally characterize an introduced target protein, a nucleic acid hydrolyzing recombinant 3D8 scFv was selected and the plant based 3D8 scFv proteins were purified and analyzed. Based on abzyme analysis, the purified protein expressed with this system had catalytic activity and exhibited all of properties of the protein produced in an E. coli system. This result suggested that vegetatively reproductive K. pinnata can be a novel and potent bioreactor for bio-pharmaceutical proteins. PMID:19688214

  16. How the Structure of Mesoscale Precipitation Systems Affects their Production of Transient Luminous Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. J.; Lyons, W.; Rutledge, S. A.; Cummer, S. A.; MacGorman, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Recently, Lang et al. (2010) analyzed the parent lightning of transient luminous events (TLEs) in the context of the structure and evolution of two mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). These two MCSs were very different - one a giant symmetric leading-line/trailing stratiform storm, and one a small asymmetric MCS that contained a mesoscale convective vortex. These structural differences were associated with substantially different TLE-parent lightning structure as well as TLE production. The results suggested that TLE (especially sprite) production, and TLE-parent positive charge altitude, depend on MCS morphology. Current work is focused on analyzing the structure, evolution, lightning behavior, and TLE production of additional MCSs over various regions of the United States. Several additional TLE-producing MCS cases already have been identified for the years 2008-2010, featuring a variety of organizational modes (symmetric, asymmetric, and other more exotic varieties) in different meteorological regimes (including some cold-season cases). More cases will be incorporated as they occur and are observed. Data sources include geostationary satellite imagery, Doppler radar, three-dimensional lightning mapping networks, ground-strike detection networks, charge moment change measurements, and low-light video observations. The ultimate goal is to further test the hypothesis that MCS structure affects TLE production, and if so to quantify its impact. Research on two Oklahoma case studies, a multicellular system that occurred on 24 March 2009 and a classic bow-echo MCS that occurred on 19 August 2009, is ongoing. Over a 2.5-h period, the March case produced 23 observed TLEs (all sprites) whose parent flashes occurred within 175 km of the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OKLMA). The median altitude of LMA sources during the TLEs was 5.9 km above Mean Sea Level (MSL), or -19.2 °C. The August storm produced, in 2.5 hours, 34 TLEs (all sprites) with 32 of those having parent

  17. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System Print A ... reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  18. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Johnson, Sarah L; Abate, Anna C; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine evidence supporting the role of reproductive steroids in the regulation of mood and behavior in women and the nature of that role. In the first half of the article, we review evidence for the following: (i) the reproductive system is designed to regulate behavior; (ii) from the subcellular to cellular to circuit to behavior, reproductive steroids are powerful neuroregulators; (iii) affective disorders are disorders of behavioral state; and (iv) reproductive steroids affect virtually every system implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. In the second half of the article, we discuss the diagnosis of the three reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders (premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postpartum depression, and perimenopausal depression) and present evidence supporting the relevance of reproductive steroids to these conditions. Existing evidence suggests that changes in reproductive steroid levels during specific reproductive states (i.e., the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturition, and the menopause transition) trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women, thus suggesting the etiopathogenic relevance of these hormonal changes in reproductive mood disorders. Understanding the source of individual susceptibility is critical to both preventing the onset of illness and developing novel, individualized treatments for reproductive-related affective dysregulation. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1135-1160, 2016e. PMID:27347888

  19. Environmental factors influencing trace house gas production in permafrost-affected soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Josefine; Knoblauch, Christian; Böhme, Luisa; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    The permafrost-carbon feedback has been identified as a major feedback mechanism to climate change. Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition in the active layer and thawing permafrost is an important source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Decomposability and potential CO2 and CH4 production are connected to the quality of SOM. SOM quality varies with vegetation composition, soil type, and soil depth. The regulating factors affecting SOM decomposition in permafrost landscapes are not well understood. Here, we incubated permafrost-affected soils from a polygonal tundra landscape in the Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia, to examine the influence of soil depth, oxygen availability, incubation temperature, and fresh organic matter addition on trace gas production. CO2 production was always highest in topsoil (0 - 10 cm). Subsoil (10 - 50 cm) and permafrost (50 - 90 cm) carbon did not differ significantly in their decomposability. Under anaerobic conditions, less SOM was decomposed than under aerobic conditions. However, in the absence of oxygen, CH4 can also be formed, which has a substantially higher warming potential than CO2. But, within the four-month incubation period (approximate period of thaw), methanogenesis played only a minor role with CH4 contributing 1-30% to the total anaerobic carbon release. Temperature and fresh organic matter addition had a positive effect on SOM decomposition. Across a temperature gradient (1, 4, 8°C) aerobic decomposition in topsoil was less sensitive to temperature than in subsoil or permafrost. The addition of labile plant organic matter (13C-labelled Carex aquatilis, a dominant species in the region) significantly increased overall CO2 production across different depths and temperatures. Partitioning the total amount of CO2 in samples amended with Carex material into SOM-derived CO2 and Carex-derived CO2, however, revealed that most of the additional CO2 could be assigned to the organic carbon from the amendment

  20. Factors affecting remote handling productivity during installation of the ITER-like wall at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall. ► Examines the factual difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those achieved, with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between the two. ► The paper will elaborate and highlight the contributing factors. This offers an opportunity to provide provenance for availability estimates of devices such as ITER and DEMO. ► The paper will identify and describe the factors influencing the ratio between estimated versus the actual durations for remote handling operations. -- Abstract: Remote handling operations at JET have encountered many challenges to achieve the installation of the ILW beryllium sliced wall during the Enhanced Performance stage 2 (EP2) shutdown of JET. This was a demanding and challenging activity which was based on the experience gained from a period of over 15 years (20,000 h operations) of JET In-Vessel remote handling operations. This paper describes the difference between estimated remote handling in-vessel durations and those actually achieved with a view to quantifying the typical disparity between them. There are many factors that affect productivity of the remote handling operations and it is important to accommodate these either in the design of the component or within the production of the operational procedures with a view to minimise all impact on the final task duration. Some factors that affect the efficiency are outside the control of the design and operational procedures. These are unforeseen anomalies that were encountered during the removal, naked wall survey and installation of the components. Recoveries from these anomalies are extremely challenging and need to be addressed efficiently in order to minimise the impact on the shutdown duration and prevent optimised panned activities from becoming inefficient by fragmentation

  1. Conditional Deletion of the Relaxin Receptor Gene in Cells of Smooth Muscle Lineage Affects Lower Reproductive Tract in Pregnant Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftanovskaya, Elena M.; Huang, Zaohua; Lopez, Carolina; Conrad, Kirk; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relaxin hormone secreted into the circulation during pregnancy was discovered through its effects on pubic symphysis relaxation and parturition. Genetic inactivation of the relaxin gene or its cognate relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) in mice caused failure of parturition and mammary nipple enlargement, as well as increased collagen fiber density in the cervix and vagina. However, the relaxin effect on discrete cells and tissues has yet to be determined. Using transgenic mice with a knockin LacZ reporter in the Rxfp1 allele, we showed strong expression of this gene in vaginal and cervical stromal cells, as well as pubic ligament cells. We produced a floxed Rxfp1 allele that was used in combination with the Tagln-cre transgene to generate mice with a smooth muscle-specific gene knockout. In pregnant females, the ROSA26 reporter activated by Tagln-cre was detected in smooth muscle cells of the cervix, vagina, uterine artery, and in cells of the pubic symphysis. In late pregnant females with conditional gene ablation, the length of pubic symphysis was significantly reduced compared with wild-type or heterozygous Rxfp1+/− females. Denser collagen content was revealed by Masson trichrome staining in reproductive tract organs, uterine artery, and pubic symphysis. The cervical and vaginal epithelium was less developed than in heterozygous or wild-type females, although nipple size was normal and the dams were able to nurse their pups. In summary, our data indicate that relaxin/RXFP1 signaling in smooth muscle cells is important for normal collagen turnover and relaxation of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy. PMID:25715795

  2. Factors affecting wild rabbit production in extensive breeding enclosures: how can we optimise efforts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The declining rabbit population in the Iberian Peninsula has led hunters and authorities to rear rabbits in captivity systems for their subsequent release. One alternative method to intensive rabbitry systems is the use of extensive breeding enclosures, since they produce animals of greater quality for hunting and conservation purposes. However, some of the factors that affect rabbit production in breeding enclosures are still unknown. The present study used partial least squares regression (PLSR to analyse the effects of plot size, scrub cover, slope, initial rabbit abundance, the resources needed to dig warrens, predation and proximity to other enclosures on rabbit abundance. The results of our study show a positive effect of the number of other fenced plots within a radius of 3 km, a positive relationship with the availability of optimal resources for building warrens and a positive influence of intermediate values of scrub cover. According to our results, to maximise rabbit production in the enclosures it would be advisable to concentrate the restocking effort by ensuring that the restocking plots are close to each other, thus avoiding isolated enclosures. Furthermore, the selection of plots with an appropriate scrub cover and high availability of elements that favour the construction of warrens, such as large stones, sloping land or tall shrubs, may optimise results.

  3. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

  4. Association of porcine heparanase and hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with reproductive and production traits in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Rempel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell-cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a milieu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyaluronan. Heparanase (HPSE and hyaluronidases (HYAL are responsible for degrading heparan sulfate and hyaluronan, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs distinct to HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2 with measurements of reproduction and production traits in swine. Single trait associations were performed on a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population using SNPs discovered and identified in HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2. Analyses were conducted on an extended pedigree and SNPs were found to be associated with reproductive and production traits. Prior to multiple-testing corrections, SNPs within HPSE were weakly associated (P < 0.03 having additive effects with age at puberty (-2.5d + 1.08, ovulation rate (0.5 corpora lutea + 0.24, and number of piglets born alive (0.9 piglets + 0.44. A HYAL1 and two HYAL2 SNP were nominally associated (P < 0.0063 with number of piglets born alive after multiple-testing corrections (effects between 1.02 and 1.44 piglets, while one of the same HYAL2 markers maintained a modest association (P = 0.0043 having a dominant effect with number of piglets weaned (1.2 piglets + 0.41 after multiple-testing correction. Functionally, HPSE and HYAL1 and 2 have been shown to participate in events related to ovarian and placental activity. SNPs from these studies could potentially assist with understanding genetic components underlying sow lifetime productivity as measured by piglet survivability based on number born alive and number weaned, thereby contributing to a greater number of pigs/sow/year.

  5. Soil hydraulic properties affected by topsoil thickness in cultivated switchgrass and corn-soybean rotation production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of productive topsoil by soil erosion over time can reduce the productive capacity of soil and can significantly affect soil hydraulic properties. This study evaluated the effects of reduced topsoil thickness and perennial switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) versus corn (Zea mays L.)/soybean [Gly...

  6. Characterisation of TNF block haplotypes affecting the production of TNF and LTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J H; Temple, S E L; Kee, C; Waterer, G W; Tan, C R T; Gut, I; Price, P

    2011-02-01

    Polymorphisms in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (particularly TNF and adjacent genes) associate with several immunopathological diseases and with susceptibility to pneumonia. The MHC is characterised by strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), so identification of loci affecting disease must be based on haplotypes. We have defined 31 tumour necrosis factor (TNF) block haplotypes (denoted FV1-31) in Caucasians, Asians and Australian Aboriginals. This study correlates the carriage of TNF block haplotypes with TNF and lymphotoxin alpha (LTA) protein production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 205 healthy Caucasian subjects, following in vitro stimulation with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae; gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (E. coli; gram-negative bacteria) or TNF over 4, 8 and 24 h. Fifteen haplotypes were present at >1%, accounting for 94.5% of the cohort. The haplotypes were grouped into five families based on common alleles. Following stimulation, cells from carriers of the FV10 haplotype (family 2) produced less LTA compared with non-FV10 carriers. Carriers of the FV18 haplotype (family 4) produced more LTA than other donors. Induction of TNF by S. pneumoniae following 24 h stimulation was also greater in donors with FV18. The FV18 haplotype associated with the 44.1 MHC ancestral haplotype (HLA-A2, -C5, -B44, -DRB1*0401 and -DQB1*0301) that has few disease associations. FV16 occurred in the 8.1 MHC haplotype (HLA-A2, B8, DR3) that is associated with multiple immunopathological diseases. FV16 did not affect TNF or LTA levels. The findings suggest that many genetic variations critical in vivo are not effectively modelled by short-term cultures. PMID:21214521

  7. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production in a commercial oocyte transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Fernando L; Roldán, Jaime E; Gomez, José; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Transfer of donor oocytes to the oviducts of inseminated recipient mares (oocyte transfer, OT) presents a valuable method for production of foals from otherwise infertile mares. Little information is available, however, on factors affecting success of OT in a clinical setting. We report the findings over three breeding seasons in a commercial OT program developed at an equine embryo transfer center in Argentina. Overall, 25 mares were enrolled, and 197 follicle aspiration procedures were performed. The average mare age was 23 years. Follicle aspiration was performed with a needle placed through the flank; the oocyte recovery rate per follicle aspirated was 149 of 227 (66%). Induction of donor ovulation with deslorelin + hCG resulted in a significantly higher oocyte recovery rate than did induction with deslorelin alone (75% vs. 58%). There was no significant effect of mare age (17-20, 21-24, or 25-27 years) on oocyte recovery rate. Twelve oocytes were degenerating or lost during handling; transfer of the remaining 137 oocytes resulted in 42 pregnancies (31%) at 14 days. Of these, 32 (23% per transfer) went on to produce a foal or ongoing pregnancy. Transfer of oocytes recovered with a compact cumulus, without donor follicle induction, or less than 20 hours after induction was associated with a significantly reduced pregnancy rate (1/16, 6%), as was use of noncycling, hormone-treated recipients (2/22, 9%). To evaluate management factors affecting pregnancy rate, noncycling, hormone-treated recipients were disregarded, and only procedures using mature (expanded cumulus) oocytes recovered and transferred on the standard schedule (n = 99) were included. Mare age did not significantly affect rates of pregnancy or pregnancy loss. Similar pregnancy rates were obtained using recipients inseminated from 1 to 27 hours before transfer. Counterintuitively, insemination of recipients immediately (1-2 hours) after aspiration of the recipient follicle was associated with

  8. Energy: reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ovulatory activity in the livestock depends on the readiness of nutritious energy with relationship to its use for the nursing. During the early nursing the cup of increment in the production of milk exceeds to the consumption of food, the difference in the energy consumption of the diet with relationship to the energy used for production is a negative energy balance. During the first weeks of nursing this reaches their maximum and it diminishes slowly with the increment in the consumption of dry matter. This first metabolic sign is in an increment in the pulses of hormone luteinizant that acts as and stimulate for the ovary and that with a great readiness of insulin, it takes to the ovarian follicles to respond to the stimulus. The sub-alimentation seems to affect the hypothalamic function and ovarian. The return to the positive energy balance in cows highly producers can be accelerated by the consumption of protected fat. The functions of the lipids are to provide energy for normal maintenance and production, to serve as source of essential fatty acids and eat payee of liposoluble vitamins. The importance of the addition of vegetable fat is that this is not degraded in the rumen but rather it is digested in its entirety in abomasa and absorbed in intestine. The addition of a source of Ca to diets with fats promotes the formation of insoluble soaps achieving that the fat doesn't inhibit the fiber fermentation; the chloride of Ca to be of high solubility in water it is completely ionized in rumen and it is more efficient in the formation of insoluble soaps of Ca. The addition of fat in the diet bears increase in the production of N microbial, inhibition of methane formation, increase and change in population of bacteria and mushrooms. The efficiency of the fat is superior when sources of fatty acids of long chain are used, the employment of these, in its protected form, in a diet, stimulates the number of follicles and it increases its size. The linolic acid is

  9. The effects of oxidative stress on female reproduction: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Ashok

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oxidative stress (OS, a state characterized by an imbalance between pro-oxidant molecules including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant defenses, has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. The adverse effects of OS on sperm quality and functions have been well documented. In females, on the other hand, the impact of OS on oocytes and reproductive functions remains unclear. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants can lead to a number of reproductive diseases such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, and unexplained infertility. Pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortion, recurrent pregnancy loss, and preeclampsia, can also develop in response to OS. Studies have shown that extremes of body weight and lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and recreational drug use can promote excess free radical production, which could affect fertility. Exposures to environmental pollutants are of increasing concern, as they too have been found to trigger oxidative states, possibly contributing to female infertility. This article will review the currently available literature on the roles of reactive species and OS in both normal and abnormal reproductive physiological processes. Antioxidant supplementation may be effective in controlling the production of ROS and continues to be explored as a potential strategy to overcome reproductive disorders associated with infertility. However, investigations conducted to date have been through animal or in vitro studies, which have produced largely conflicting results. The impact of OS on assisted reproductive techniques (ART will be addressed, in addition to the possible benefits of antioxidant supplementation of ART culture media to increase the likelihood for ART success. Future randomized controlled clinical trials on humans are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms

  10. Variable Isoflavone Contents of Red Clover Products Affect Intestinal Disposition of Biochanin A, Formononetin, Genistein and Daidzein

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Stephen W. J.; Chen, Yan; Joseph, Tiby; Ming HU

    2008-01-01

    Marketed red clover products use a wide variety of labels and the isoflavone contents from the lable is ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the content of various isoflavone products, and determined a) the content and b) how sample matrix of red clover products affects intestinal disposition of main isoflavones within it using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Analysis using high and ultra-performance liquid chromatography indicates that the isoflavone content varied significan...

  11. The effect of vaccination against Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) on the Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) load in porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) affected pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Genzow, Marika; Schwartz, Kent; Gonzalez, Glenda; Anderson, Gail; Chittick, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A diagnostic project was initiated across the United States in 2006 to improve the understanding of porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) as well as to identify co-factors in PCVAD-affected farms. A Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) DNA real-time polymerase chain reaction quantitation (qPCR) was established according to a published method and sera from a total of 23pig farms across the United States were examined for viral loads for PCV-2 and analyzed for any possible effects of Porcine r...

  12. Lifetime reproductive effort in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Oskar; Walker, Robert; Hamilton, Marcus J.

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime reproductive effort (LRE) measures the total amount of metabolized energy diverted to reproduction during the lifespan. LRE captures key components of the life history and is particularly useful for describing and comparing the life histories of different organisms. Given a simple energetic production constraint, LRE is predicted to be similar in value for very different life histories. However, humans have some unique ecological characteristics that may alter LRE, such as the long p...

  13. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  14. Predicting the Affects of Climate Change on Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Productivity of Semi-arid Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peri, L.; Tyler, S. W.; Zheng, C.; Pohll, G. M.; Yao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Many arid and semi-arid regions around the world are experiencing water shortages that have become increasingly problematic. Since the late 1800s, upstream diversions in Nevada's Walker River have delivered irrigation supply to the surrounding agricultural fields resulting in a dramatic water level decline of the terminal Walker Lake. Salinity has also increased because the only outflow from the lake is evaporation from the lake surface. The Heihe River basin of northwestern China, a similar semi-arid catchment, is also facing losses from evaporation of terminal locations, agricultural diversions and evapotranspiration (ET) of crops. Irrigated agriculture is now experiencing increased competition for use of diminishing water resources while a demand for ecological conservation continues to grow. It is important to understand how the existing agriculture in these regions will respond as climate changes. Predicting the affects of climate change on groundwater flow, surface water flow, ET and agricultural productivity of the Walker and Heihe River basins is essential for future conservation of water resources. ET estimates from remote sensing techniques can provide estimates of crop water consumption. By determining similarities of both hydrologic cycles, critical components missing in both systems can be determined and predictions of impacts of climate change and human management strategies can be assessed.

  15. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  16. Cowpea production as affected by dry spells in no-tillage and conventional crop systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Magno Oliveira de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods of water shortage in no-tillage and conventional crop systems on cowpea yield components and grain yield in the Mossoró-RN region. For this, an experiment was conducted using two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage subjected to periods of irrigation suspension (2; 6; 10; 14; 18 end 22 days, started at flowering (34 days after sowing. Plants were harvested 70 days after sowing, and the studied variables were: Pods length (CV, number of grains per pod (NGV, number of pods per plant (NPP, the hundred grains weight (PCG and grain yield (kg ha-1. The no-tillage system is more productive than the conventional under both irrigation and water stress treatments. The water stress length affected grain yield and all yield components studied in a negative way, except for the hundred grains weight. Among the systems studied, the no-tillage provides higher values for the yield components, except the hundred grains weight.

  17. Physiological and behavioral effects of coniferyl benzoate on avian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubas, W J; Wentworth, B C; Karasov, W H

    1993-10-01

    Various plant secondary metabolites related to cinnamic acid are of interest because of their repellency to birds and their occurrence in ecologically important food items. Coniferyl benzoate (CB), a phenylpropanoid ester that occurs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is of particular ecological interest because of its effect on ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) feeding behavior and its possible influence on the population dynamics of this bird. During detoxification processes, CB and other analogous compounds are metabolized into by-products, such as ferulic acid (FA), that can cause anti-reproductive effects. We tested whether consumption of CB produces antire-productive effects similar to FA using male and female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) as avian models for ruffed grouse. The parameters we investigated included: the production, morphology, and development of eggs; reproductive characteristics influenced by estrogen; serum prolactin levels; and male reproductive behavior. Dietary CB did not produce antireproductive effects similar to FA at intake levels that Japanese quail and ruffed grouse would freely consume. Consumption of CB by Japanese quail significantly reduced egg production and body mass but did not affect male reproductive performance. Coniferyl benzoate's effect on egg production may be explained by lower energy acquisition and retention rather than endocrine changes per se. Contrary to previous reports, it is unlikely that FA, or similar compounds act directly as estrogen mimics or antagonists. Although, CB did reduce egg production in quail, it is unlikely that it would affect egg production in wild ruffed grouse. Detoxification costs and the effects of CB on nutrient utilization may explain why ruffed grouse avoid high dietary levels of CB. PMID:24248582

  18. Factors influencing brown trout reproductive success in Ozark tailwater rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, D.R.; Kwak, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    The reproductive success of brown trout Salmo trutta in White River, Arkansas, tailwater reaches is highly variable, resulting in the need for supplemental stocking. A better understanding of the physical and biotic factors affecting reproduction and survival would enhance the contribution of wild fish. We compared fecundity, reproductive chronology, physical habitat, water quality, trout density, food availability, diet, predation, and competitive interactions among four tailwater reaches to identify factors influencing brown trout reproductive success. The fecundity and condition factor of prespawning brown trout were significantly lower at Beaver Tailwater, a reach known for reproductive failure, than at other sites, among which no differences were found. Brown trout spawning was observed from 11 October to 23 November 1996, and juvenile emergence began on 28 February 1997. Significant among-site differences were detected for spawning and juvenile microhabitat variables, but the variables fell within or near suitable or optimal ranges reported in the literature for this species. Age-0 brown trout density differed significantly among sites, but growth and condition did not. Predation by Ozark sculpin Cottus hypselurus on trout eggs or age-0 trout of any species was not observed among the 418 stomachs examined. Ozark sculpin density and diet overlap with age-0 brown trout were highest and invertebrate food availability and water fertility were lowest at Beaver Tailwater relative to the other reaches. Our findings indicate that differences in trophic conditions occur among tailwater reaches, and a lower system productive capacity was identified at Beaver Tailwater. We suggest that management efforts include refining the multispecies trout stocking regime to improve production efficiency, enhancing flow regulation, and increasing habitat complexity to increase invertebrate and fish productivity. Such efforts may lead to improved natural reproduction and the

  19. 40 CFR 63.5795 - How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... composites production facility is a new affected source or an existing affected source? 63.5795 Section 63... for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5795 How do I know if my reinforced plastic composites production facility is a new affected source...

  20. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy produc...... such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected....... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  1. Two initial vaccinations with the Bm86-based Gavacplus vaccine against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus induce similar reproductive suppression to three initial vaccinations under production conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Erlinda; Suárez Marisela; Lleonart Ricardo; Méndez Luis; Rodríguez Elsa; Machado Héctor; Joglar Marisdania; Alfonso Aymé; Valdés Mario; Pérez Danny; Sánchez Dunia; Montero Carlos; Vargas Milagros; Estrada Mario P; Rodríguez-Mallón Alina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, affects livestock production in many regions of the world. Up to now, the widespread use of chemical acaricides has led to the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and to environmental contamination. Gavacplus is a subunit vaccine based on the recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in yeast, capable to control infestations of R. microplus under controlled and production conditions. The vaccine constitutes the core el...

  2. Policies Affecting Production Practices and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management for Jamaican Farmers in Ebony Park, Clarendon

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrodowczyk, Joseph Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Farmers' decisions to adopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technologies depend on the profitability of IPM systems relative to the traditional production methods. Government policies may affect the profitability of the IPM technologies. A linear programming model was developed and used to evaluate the economic incentives for adoption of Integrated Pest Mangement (IPM) practices by Jamaican farmers in Ebony Park, Clarendon. Further analysis was completed to determine the affect of policy ...

  3. EFFECT OF PREPARTUM TREATMENT OF VITAMIN E-SELENIUM ON POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF EXOTIC COWS AND THEIR CALVES UNDER SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SATTAR, R. H. MIRZA1 AND S. M. I. HUSSAIN2

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan. Forty exotic cows (20 each of Holstein Friesian and Jersey breed in their last trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected. These cows were divided into two equal groups. Animals of group-I served as control and were injected with 20 ml sterile normal saline intramuscularly, while each cow in group-II was treated with vitamin E-selenium (vitamin E acetate 50.0 mg and sodium selenite 0.5 mg/ml twice (20 ml at each time with one-week interval. First injection was given at about 40-60 days prior to the expected date of calving. Calves born to the experimental cows were monitored to study the carry over effect of treatment, if any, from dams to the calves. The reproductive parameters, viz. placental expulsion period, uterine involution period, postpartum insemination interval, service period and number of services per conception in the cows of treated group were significantly (P<0.05 lesser compared with those of the control group. However, the differences in production parameters, i.e., lactation milk yield, lactation length and wet average between the two groups were statistically non significant. The same was true for birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate upto weaning between calves of the two groups. In conclusion, it appears that administration of vitamin E-selenium before calving may be beneficial in improving the postpartum reproductive parameters in exotic cows. However, number of animals used in each group was too small to draw any definite conclusion.

  4. Pollinator limitation on reproductive success in Iris tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Variation in plant and floral size can have conflicting effects on pollination and fruit production in flowering plants. This research examines the contributions of plant height, flower size and pollinator visitation to reproductive success in four populations of Iris tuberosa. The plants were pollinated exclusively by hymenopteran species, primarily during sunny days. Pollination supplementation increased the proportion of flowers that matured into fruit, with 95 % fruit set for hand-pollinated compared with 74.15 % for naturally pollinated flowers. The pollinator visitation rate and the proportion of fruit produced were not significantly different between tall and short plants or between small and large flowers. Furthermore, the increase in plant size and floral display did not increase the frequency of pollinator visitations and so did not increase the fruit set. Thus, despite the widespread effects of flowering plant size on pollinator attraction and plant reproduction in other species, these effects are lacking in I. tuberosa. This study quantifies the role of pollinators in the reproductive success of I. tuberosa. Pollinators visited tall/short plants and large/small flowers in equal proportion, suggesting that plant and floral display size do not affect pollinator attraction and reproductive success in I. tuberosa. These results suggest that sexual reproduction of I. tuberosa is fairly limited by pollinators and not by resource limitation. PMID:25527476

  5. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. PMID:20471819

  6. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO2 quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  7. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.

  8. Population dynamics of dechlorinators and factors affecting the level and products of PCB dechlorination in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.; Sokol, R.C.; Liu, X.; Bethoney, C.M.; Rhee, G.Y. [State Univ. of New York and New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) often stops although a significant number of removable chlorines remain. To determine the reason for the cessation, we investigated the limitation of organic carbon, PCB bioavailability, and inhibition by metabolic products. Enrichment with carbon sources did not induce additional chlorination, indicating the plateau was not due to depletion of organic carbon. The bioavailability was not limiting, since a subcritical micelle concentration of the surfactant, which enhanced desorption without inhibiting dechlorinating microorganisms, failed to lower the plateau. Neither was it due to accumulation of metabolites, since no additional dechlorination was detected when plateau sediments were incubated with fresh medium. Similarly, dechlorination was not inhibited in freshly spiked sediment slurries. Dechlorination ended up at the same level with nearly identical congener profiles, regardless of treatment. These results indicate that cessation of dechlorination was due to the accumulation of daughter congeners, which cannot be used as electron acceptors by microbes. To determine whether the decreasing availability affected the microorganisms, we determined the population dynamics of dechlorinators using the most probable number technique. The growth dynamics of the dechlorinators mirrored the time course of dechlorination. It started when the population increased by two orders of magnitude. Once dechlorination stopped the dechlorinating population also began to decrease. When dechlorinators were inoculated into PCB-free sediments, the population decreased over time. The decrease of the population as dechlorination ceased confirms that the diminishing availability of congeners was the reason for the incomplete dechlorination. Recent findings have shown that a second phase of dechlorination of certain congeners can occur after a long lag. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Diseases, reproductive performance, and changes in milk production associated with subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: a meta-analysis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Mounié, M; Maigné, E

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have shown that subclinical ketosis (SCK) is associated with an increased risk of developing various diseases, reproductive disorders, and changes in milk production. The present work aims at producing an overview between this disorder and theses outcomes. A meta-analysis of the literature, including 131 different models from 23 papers, or a review when the literature was scarce was conducted. For each outcome, the odds ratio (OR), relative risk, or hazard ratio was presented for various moderators to reduce heterogeneity among the studies. The raw change in milk production associated with SCK was estimated and adjusted, taking into consideration the outcomes known to interact with milk production during the peripartum period. The results showed that 2 main categories of moderators had a significant effect on the adjusted risk. First, the adjustment made by defining SCK as (1) β-hydroxybutyrate concentration >1.4 mM, (2) nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration >0.4 mM prepartum, or (3) NEFA concentration >1.0 mM postpartum corrected the underestimated risk (despite low significance). This is because several trials reported the relevant risks using lower thresholds for the β-hydroxybutyrate or NEFA values. Using a low threshold leads to lower risk of disease compared with using a high threshold. Second, the correction produced using the polyfactorial terms corrected the overestimation of risk because many trials reported only univariable models. The relative risk or OR (95% confidence interval) related to abomasal displacement, clinical ketosis, early culling and death, metritis, placental retention, clinical mastitis, lameness, and a doubling of the SCC in cases with SCK were 3.33 (2.60-4.25), 5.38 (3.27-8.83), 1.92 (1.60-2.30), 1.75 (1.54-2.01), 1.52 (1.20-1.93), 1.61 (1.24-2.09), 2.01(1.64-2.44), and 1.42 (1.26-1.60), respectively. The precision level of the estimate depended on the outcome. The direct mean ± standard deviation of the 305-d

  10. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  11. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  12. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M;

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...

  13. Female Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  14. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  15. Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Skip sharing on social media links Share ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012). Assisted reproductive technologies: A guide for patients . Retrieved June 11, 2012, ...

  16. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrong With the Male Reproductive System en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... cutting off its blood supply, is also a medical emergency that, thankfully, is not common. Surgery is ...

  17. Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da ação inseticida The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Rossi Forim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect.

  18. The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action; Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da acao inseticida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Matos, Andreia Pereira; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista, E-mail: mrforim@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect. (author)

  19. Critical Factors Affecting the Success of Cloning, Expression, and Mass Production of Enzymes by Recombinant E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Fakruddin; Reaz Mohammad Mazumdar; Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin Mannan; Abhijit Chowdhury; Md. Nur Hossain

    2012-01-01

    E. coli is the most frequently used host for production of enzymes and other proteins by recombinant DNA technology. E. coli is preferable for its relative simplicity, inexpensive and fast high-density cultivation, well-known genetics, and large number of compatible molecular tools available. Despite all these advantages, expression and production of recombinant enzymes are not always successful and often result in insoluble and nonfunctional proteins. There are many factors that affect the s...

  20. Factors affecting productivity and the role of customer relationship management: A case study of home appliance manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirzamohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive world, productivity- as a core source of production - is the most important target of the organization. Experimental studies in developed industrial countries prove that productivity improvements resulted from development of management systems play a more important role in production than physical increases in labor and capital factors. This paper, while focusing on productivity from a CRM perspective, employs a European Organizational Excellence Model framework to identify factors affecting productivity and the role of CRM systems. We perform an empirical study for a case study of home appliance manufacturing and using a questionnaire computed present status and compared with desired status of CRM components such as customer leadership, strategy, skill and motivation of labor work, effective use of information technology and process management.

  1. Factors affecting the production of eremofortin C and PR toxin in Penicillium roqueforti.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, S. C.; Wei, Y H; Wei, D L; Chen, Y. Y.; Jong, S C

    1991-01-01

    Eremofortin C (EC) and PR toxin are secondary metabolites of Penicillium roqueforti. Of 17 strains from the American Type Culture Collection that were studied for their ability to produce EC and PR toxin, 13 produced these metabolites. Toxin production by strains grown in solid media (10 cereals and 8 other agricultural products) was also investigated. Production of EC and PR toxin by fungi grown on cereals was greater than production of EC and PR toxin by fungi grown on legumes; fungi grown ...

  2. PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING CONSUMERS' FRESH BEEF CUT PURCHASING DECISIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, JAPAN, AND AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Erikson, Glade R.; Wahl, Thomas I.; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; SHI, HONGQI

    1998-01-01

    The effects of product and economic characteristics on consumers who purchase six cuts of fresh beef (blocks/parts, steak, thinly sliced, diced, chopped, and ground) in urban areas of the United States, Japan, and Australia will be examined in this paper. Certain product characteristics (such as product freshness and display case cleanliness) were important to consumers of beef in all three countries while other product characteristics (such as price considerations for ground beef consumers) ...

  3. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  4. Reproductive success and fry production of the paiche or pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz), in the region of Iquitos, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez Rodriguez, Jesus; Chu-Koo, F.; Berland, Magali; Arevalo, L.; Ribeyro, O.; Duponchelle, Fabrice; Renno, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Arapaima gigas (paiche) is the largest scaled fish species living in the Amazon basin. Its biology is both fascinating and misunderstood. In a context of overfishing, hence reduced natural populations, aquaculture of a fish with such interesting characteristics (large size, high growth rate, no intramuscular spines) is an important issue. The development of farming production would also reduce the fishing pressure on natural populations and allow re-stocking programmes in certain areas. To de...

  5. Terroir et vignoble: how the farming management can affect the production of a quality wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alba; Bini, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Italian wine is one of the most exported wine in the world. The particular climate, the soil characteristics and other several factors have contributed to this success. Italy is located in the temperate belt, with a suitable climate for grapevine cultivation. For this reason, all regions in Italy produce wine, first of all the Veneto region, with 8.569.000 hl of wine in 2011. Wine quality derives from the perfect interaction among climate, morphology, soil and plant, i.e. the terroir. So, knowledge of the land characteristics, together with cultivation techniques and management, is essential to understand this interaction and the typicality of the wine. For example, large utilization of fertilizers and pesticides may determine accumulation of toxic substances in soil and possible translocation to the food chain. For this reason, metal contamination of soils and plants becomes a main issue in agricultural production. Therefore, our attention was focused on the determination of soil quality of the Prosecco DOCG (controlled and guaranteed denomination of origin) area, particularly in Conegliano. Conegliano is a town located in Veneto, in the province of Treviso, known for its wine. This wine variety is regulated by the Conegliano-Valdobbiadene production Consortium, to protect both consumers and producers. The goals of this research are: evaluation of trace metal content (Al ,Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn) in soils and possible uptake by grape leaves; estimation of biological soil quality (QBS-ar index); analysis of oxidative stress in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and grape leaves, by the Lipid peroxidation test (LPO test). Results concerning trace metal concentration show: i) a high content of Al, Mg and P in soils, and ii) high concentration of Al, Cu, Fe and Zn in grape leaves. High contents of Al in topsoil are consistent with the high concentration of organic matter. Instead, high Al contents in subsoil are related to clay. Mg and P are usually

  6. Changing nutrient stoichiometry affects phytoplankton production, DOP accumulation and dinitrogen fixation - A mesocosm experiment in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, J.; Löscher, C. R.; Neulinger, S. C.;

    2016-01-01

    Ocean deoxygenation due to climate change may alter redox-sensitive nutrient cycles in the marine environment. The productive eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) upwelling region may be particularly affected when the relatively moderate oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) deoxygenates further and...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart XXXX of Part...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart XXXX of Part...

  9. 40 CFR Table 12 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 12 Table 12 to Subpart XXXX of Part...

  10. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Initial Compliance With the Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 7 Table 7 to Subpart XXXX of Part...

  11. Grandparental effects on reproductive strategizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes data from the household registers for two villages in the Nôbi region of central Japan in the late Edo period (1717-1869 to assess how grandparents may have affected reproductive strategizing in stem families. The particulars of the family system fostered a culturally favored set of reproductive goals, in particular, a daughter as eldest child, followed by a son (and heir, coupled with gender alternation in subsequent reproduction and overall gender balance. This reproductive strategy was generally followed during the stem phase of the domestic cycle, when one or both grandparents were present, especially when the family head was in the senior generation. By contrast, a son-first strategy was favored when childbearing began in the conjugal phase of the cycle. This suggests grandparental influence on the junior couple's reproductive decisions in favor of the cultural ideal. I find that the senior couple's decision to marry the heir early or late strongly affects the reproductive strategies followed by him after marriage. I show that when a grandmother is present at the onset of childbearing, especially if she is relatively young, the junior couple ends up with more offspring on average. A controlled analysis of infanticiding behavior is interpreted in terms of conjugal power and coalition formation. It appears that a grandmother gets her way only when she and her son gang up on the daughter-in-law, but such a coalition is likely only when her son dominates the conjugal relationship (which in turn reflects the grandmother's success in binding the son tightly to her emotionally and in delaying his marriage. Otherwise, the grandmother may be shut out from reproductive decision-making by the solidary conjugal coalition.

  12. Factors affecting the relative competitiveness of cassava production in southwestern Trinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson-Andrews, Hazel; Pemberton, Carlisle

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the factors affecting the relative competitiveness (RC) measured as the normalized profit per acre, of cassava farmers in South Western Trinidad through a determination of the factors affecting the mean and variance of the RC inefficiency term of the farmers. A sample of 112 small farmers growing cassava as their main crop provided the data for the study. A normalized translog stochastic RC frontier model was estimated. The model also determined the factors affe...

  13. Egg-Laying “Intermorphs” in the Ant Crematogaster smithi neither Affect Sexual Production nor Male Parentage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettler, Jan; Dijkstra, Michiel B.; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We study male parentage and between-colony variation in sex allocation and sexual production in the desert ant Crematogaster smithi, which usually has only one singly-mated queen per nest. Colonies of this species are known to temporarily store nutrients in the large fat body of intermorphs, a specialized female caste intermediate in morphology between queens and workers. Intermorphs repackage at least part of this fat into consumable but viable male-destined eggs. If these eggs sometimes develop instead of being eaten, intermorphs will be reproductive competitors of the queen but—due to relatedness asymmetries—allies of their sister worker. Using genetic markers we found a considerable proportion of non-queen sons in some, but not all, colonies. Even though intermorphs produce ∼1.7× more eggs than workers, their share in the parentage of adult males is estimated to be negligible due to their small number compared to workers. Furthermore, neither colony-level sex allocation nor overall sexual production was correlated with intermorph occurrence or number. We conclude that intermorph-laid eggs typically do not survive and that the storage of nutrients and their redistribution as eggs by intermorphs is effectively altruistic. PMID:24130699

  14. Phthalates, perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines and reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Smit, Lidwien A M;

    2015-01-01

    than 70% of blood samples, including metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), perfluoroalkyl acids, metals and organochlorines. Twenty-two reproductive biomarkers were assessed, including serum levels of reproductive hormones, markers of semen quality, sperm chromatin...... contaminants provides further indications that some organochlorines and phthalates adversely affect some parameters of male reproductive health....

  15. How Multi-Tasking Job Designs Affect Productivity: Evidence from Australian Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shingo Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    The author studies how the Australian coal mining industry adopted multitasking job designs by eliminating two types of task demarcations: (a) the demarcation between production and maintenance stream tasks and (b) the demarcation within the production stream. Using an original data set of Australian open-cut coal mines covering the period 1985-2005, he estimates the effect of multi-tasking on productivity and explains its effects. Results indicate that the elimination of between-demarcation ...

  16. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  17. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolhamid ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the

  18. Reproductive performance and milk production of Damascus goats fed acacia shrubs or berseem clover hay in North Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaewi, M M; Abdel-Samee, A M; Bakr, E A

    2001-02-01

    Thirty-three adult Damascus does (29 +/- 1.1 kg BW) were fed 0.6 kg per head per day of a concentrate diet plus ad libitum rice straw (Oryza sativa, control, R), or green acacia (Acacia saligna, A) or berseem clover hay (Trifolium alexandrinum, B). All treatment groups had free access to underground saline water containing 3600 ppm TDS. The DM intake was lower (p milk yield over 10 weeks and the milk composition (total solids, fat and protein percentages) were significantly different between the three groups; group B having the highest means and group R the lowest. These results suggest that supplemental feeding is required to enhance the productivity of goats in arid or semi-arid environments and Acacia saligna should not be used fresh in excessive quantities for extended periods. PMID:11234194

  19. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M; Heindel, Jerrold; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia; Iguchi, Taisen; Juul, Anders; McLachlan, John A; Schwartz, Jackie; Skakkebaek, Niels; Soto, Ana M; Swan, Shanna; Walker, Cheryl; Woodruff, Teresa K; Woodruff, Tracey J; Giudice, Linda C; Guillette, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  20. Genetic, Physiological, and Environmental Factors Affecting Acrylamide Concentration in Fried Potato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of acrylamide in processed potato products has brought increased interest in the controlling Maillard reaction precursors (reducing sugars and amino acids) in potato tubers. Because of their effects on nonenzymatic browning of fried potato products, reducing sugars and amino acids have...

  1. Phenolic compounds affect production of pyocyanin, swarming motility and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ugurlu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: We may suggest that if swarming and consecutive biofilm formation could be inhibited by the natural products as shown in our study, the bacteria could not attach to the surfaces and produce chronic infections. Antimicrobials and natural products could be combined and the dosage of antimicrobials could be reduced to overcome antimicrobial resistance and drug side effects.

  2. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process. PMID:25574813

  3. Does species richness affect fine root biomass and production in young forest plantations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Dawud, Seid Muhie; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Tree species diversity has been reported to increase forest ecosystem above-ground biomass and productivity, but little is known about below-ground biomass and production in diverse mixed forests compared to single-species forests. For testing whether species richness increases below-ground biomass...... and production and thus complementarity between forest tree species in young stands, we determined fine root biomass and production of trees and ground vegetation in two experimental plantations representing gradients in tree species richness. Additionally, we measured tree fine root length and...... determined species composition from fine root biomass samples with the near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy method. We did not observe higher biomass or production in mixed stands compared to monocultures. Neither did we observe any differences in tree root length or fine root turnover. One reason for this...

  4. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  5. The Number of Loci That Affect Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Amanda Jane; McPartlan, Helen Clare; Goddard, Michael Edward

    2007-01-01

    We have used the results of an experiment mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk yield and composition to estimate the total number of QTL affecting these traits. We did this by estimating the number of segregating QTL within a half-sib daughter design using logic similar to that used to estimate the “false discovery rate” (FDR). In a half-sib daughter design with six sire families we estimate that the average sire was heterozygous for ∼5 QTL per trait. Also, in most cases only ...

  6. Reproductive Issues in Women with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Lisal J; Fuqua, John S

    2015-12-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities affecting female infants. The severity of clinical manifestations varies and it affects multiple organ systems. Women with Turner syndrome have a 3-fold increase in mortality, which becomes even more pronounced in pregnancy. Reproductive options include adoption or surrogacy, assisted reproductive techniques, and in rare cases spontaneous pregnancy. Risks for women with Turner syndrome during pregnancy include aortic disorders, hepatic disease, thyroid disease, type 2 diabetes, and cesarean section delivery. Providers must be familiar with the risks and recommendations in caring for women with Turner syndrome of reproductive age. PMID:26568488

  7. MODE OF PRODUCTION AND EDUCATION: CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT EDUCATION IN THE CAPITALIST REPRODUCTION AND IN THE TRANSITION TO THE SOCIALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Trópia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This text works about the relation between mode of production and education, from the contributions of the althusseriana view. The contributions of this approach allow the overcoming review to the economicist and reductionist view about the kind of articulation between the base/economic structure and the political and ideological superstructure and its implications for education. From this point of view, the school, the school education, is really a place of contradiction. However, any internal transformation to the school to make it, in fact, a school to serve the working classes would demand a breakup with the organic commitment of the educational unit. But from different approaches, economism and structuralism, come the question: “although some criticisms to the traps of the non-economist reviews are pertinent, cannot the rejection of the tests developed by the ‘sociological criticism of the education’ in the educational field put us in so many others and more devilish traps, such as those from idealism and reformism?”.

  8. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kovanlıkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1 received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2 received three drenches at calving, 24h after calving and 7 days after calving. The cows in treatment 3 (T3 were the control. Each drench contained 143g of calcium as calcium propionate (0.68kg. Parameters studied were serum calcium, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations, dry matter intake (DMI, BCS, milk production (MP, incidence of retained placenta (RP and metritis. Milk fever developed in 5 of 8 cows, in 3 of 8 cows and in 3 of 8 cows in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, at calving. There was no cow with milk fever in T1 and T2 at 4h after second drench (about 28h after calving but 3 of 8 cows in T3 had still milk fever at this time. The cows receiving two drenches recovered from milk fever in a shorter term as compared to the cows in T3. There were no differences among treatments for DMI, BCS, MP, RP, serum glucose and NEFA concentrations during the experimental period. There was no difference for metritis between T1 and T3 but incidence of metritis in T2 was significantly lower as compared to T3 (P<0.05. Two drenches of calcium propionate were beneficial in treating milk fever and three drenches of calcium propionate were considered to have had a preventive effect for metritis.

  9. Microsatellite analysis of the parental contribution of Piaractus mesopotamicus to the production of offspring in the semi-natural system of reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Aparecido Povh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and the parental contribution of Piaractus mesopotamicus in the production of offspring in the semi-natural system of reproduction. Twenty parental fishes (eleven males and nine females and the total of 100 larvae were evaluated by microsatellite marker. The parents and offspring had thirty-one alleles and heterozygosity of 0.550 and 0.563, respectively. The females were fertilised by two up to six males while the males fertilised three up to five females. The contribution of the females and males to the offspring were 66.6 and 58%, respectively. Such results indicated no loss in the genetic variability in the offspring, and the parents had multiple paternity and reasonable contribution to the offspring production.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética e a contribuição parental de Piaractus mesopotamicus na produção de descendência no sistema seminatural de reprodução. Vinte peixes parentais (onze machos e nove fêmeas e o total de 100 larvas foram avaliados por meio do marcador microssátelite. Os parentais e a progênie tiveram trinta e um alelos e heterozigosidade de 0,550 e 0,563, respectivamente. As fêmeas foram fertilizadas por dois até seis machos enquanto machos fertilizaram três até cinco fêmeas. A contribuição de fêmeas e machos para a descendência seja 66,6 e 58,0%, respectivamente. Tais resultados não indicam diminuição da variabilidade genética na progênie e os parentais apresentaram paternidade múltipla e razoável contribuição à produção de descendência.

  10. Reproduction of Przewalski's Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaříková, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    This work is about reproduction of Przewalski’s horses (Equus Przewalskii, Poliakov, 1881), which is similar to reproduction of domestic horses (Equus caballus, Linaeus, 1758). Przewalski’s horses are considered to only living ancestor of domestic horses, logically they have similar biology and reproduction. Despite different numbers of chromosome they could have fertile offspring. Reproductive differences are mainly in length of reproduction indicators. For example Przewalsky’s horses ar...

  11. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  12. Factors affecting plasmid production in Escherichia coli from a resource allocation standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Drew S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmids are being reconsidered as viable vector alternatives to viruses for gene therapies and vaccines because they are safer, non-toxic, and simpler to produce. Accordingly, there has been renewed interest in the production of plasmid DNA itself as the therapeutic end-product of a bioprocess. Improvement to the best current yields and productivities of such emerging processes would help ensure economic feasibility on the industrial scale. Our goal, therefore, was to develop a stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli metabolism in order to (1 determine its maximum theoretical plasmid-producing capacity, and to (2 identify factors that significantly impact plasmid production. Results Such a model was developed for the production of a high copy plasmid under conditions of batch aerobic growth on glucose minimal medium. The objective of the model was to maximize plasmid production. By employing certain constraints and examining the resulting flux distributions, several factors were determined that significantly impact plasmid yield. Acetate production and constitutive expression of the plasmid's antibiotic resistance marker exert negative effects, while low pyruvate kinase (Pyk flux and the generation of NADPH by transhydrogenase activity offer positive effects. The highest theoretical yield (592 mg/g resulted under conditions of no marker or acetate production, nil Pyk flux, and the maximum allowable transhydrogenase activity. For comparison, when these four fluxes were constrained to wild-type values, yields on the order of tens of mg/g resulted, which are on par with the best experimental yields reported to date. Conclusion These results suggest that specific plasmid yields can theoretically reach 12 times their current experimental maximum (51 mg/g. Moreover, they imply that abolishing Pyk activity and/or transhydrogenase up-regulation would be useful strategies to implement when designing host strains for plasmid

  13. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Devic; Pierre-Olivier Maquart

    2015-01-01

    Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758) is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production), egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 19...

  14. How will conversion to organic cereal production affect carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Olof; Kätterer, Thomas; Kirchmann, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Soil carbon changes were modelled over 30 years with the focus on cereal crops, since leys are often managed similarly in organic and conventional agriculture. Other crops were not considered due to difficulties in large-scale cropping of oilseed rape and potatoes organically because of pest problems. Four scenarios were used: 0%, 8% (current), 20% and 100% organic cereal production. Conversion to organic cereal crop production was found to reduce the amount of carbon stored as organic matter...

  15. The Inventive, the Educated, and the Creative: How Do They Affect Metropolitan Productivity?

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, José; Mellander, Charlotta; Stolarick, Kevin; Strumsky, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    A longstanding research tradition assumes that endogenous technological development increases regional productivity. It has been assumed that measures of regional patenting activity or human capital are an adequate way to capture the endogenous creation of new ideas that result in productivity improvements. This process has been conceived as occurring in two stages. First, an invention or innovation is generated, and then it is developed and commercialized to create benefits for the individua...

  16. Analyzing factors Affecting Consumers’ Attitude & Intention to Purchase Counterfeit products of luxury Brands In clothing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    abdolhamid ebrahimi; mehdi jafarzadeh; saber bozorgi

    2012-01-01

    One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit p...

  17. Counterfeiters: Foes or Friends? How Do Counterfeits Affect Different Product Quality Tiers?

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Qian

    2011-01-01

    A key concern about counterfeits and weak intellectual property protection is that they may hamper innovation by displacing legitimate sales. This paper combines a natural policy experiment with randomized lab experiments to estimate the heterogeneous impacts of counterfeiting on the sales and consumer purchase intent related to branded products of various quality levels. I collect new product-line-level panel data (1993-2004) on Chinese shoe companies. I identify heterogeneous effects of cou...

  18. Corn Production as Affected by Phosphorus Enhancers, Phosphorus Source and Lime

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Dudenhoeffer; Kelly A. Nelson; Motavalli, Peter P.; David Dunn; Stevens, William E.; Goyne, Keith W.; Manjula Nathan; Peter Scharf

    2012-01-01

    Prompted by high cost of fertilizer, farmers are investigating ways to enhance the efficiency of phosphorus (P) fertilizers. This study examined the effects of liming application (0 Mg ha-1 and recommended rate), P source [non-treated control and a broadcast application of diammonium phosphate (DAP) or triple superphosphate (TSP)], and the presence or absence of two commercial enhanced efficiency P products (Avail? and P2O5-Max?) on corn (Zea mays L.) production. The study was conducted at No...

  19. Optimization of key factors affecting hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by a thermophilic anaerobic pure culture

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Zhicheng; Zhu, Muzi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, JuFang; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen is regarded as an attractive future energy carrier for its high energy content and zero CO2 emission. Currently, the majority of hydrogen is generated from fossil fuels. However, from an environmental perspective, sustainable hydrogen production from low-cost lignocellulosic biomass should be considered. Thermophilic hydrogen production is attractive, since it can potentially convert a variety of biomass-based substrates into hydrogen at high yields. Results Sugarcane baga...

  20. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  1. Short communication: Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Barrio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total proteins, albumin, urea and hepatic enzymes were analyzed. Reproductive indexes were recorded during the next 11 months. Endometrial cytology was considered indicative of SE if percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was superior to 5% of all cells present in the smear, except erythrocytes. Results indicated that 14.9% of the cows sampled for uterine cytology had SE, and that healthy cows become pregnant significantly before than those with SE (hazard ratio=2.35; 95% confidece interval: 1.05-5.3. From all the metabolic and productive variables analyzed, only triglycerides affected negatively to reproduction; serum albumin concentration, body condition score and milk production had positive effects on the reproductive performance. In conclusion, our results indicate that SE has a negative impact on reproductive performance and uterine cytology is necessary to diagnose it since almost 15% of the affected animals were not detected by other diagnosis methods.

  2. Productive love promotion via affective technology : An approach based on social psychology and philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Solves Pujol; Hiroyuki Umemuro

    2010-01-01

    A recent development in the technology acceptance literature is the inclusion of gender as a moderator of the relationships between intention and its antecedents, such that some are stronger for men than women, and vice versa. While the effects have been well established, the mechanisms by which they operate, that is, which specific gender differences are in operation and how they affect intention to adopt, have not been thoroughly explored. In this research, psychological cons...

  3. Modelling performance consequences on the probability of reproducing, and thereby on productive lifespan in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Ngoc, Phuong; Blavy, Pierre; Martin, Olivier; Delaby, Luc; Schmidely, Philippe; Friggens, Nicolas Charles

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive success is a key component of lifetime efficiency (ratio of total energy in milk to total energy intake over the lifespan) as failure to get in calf results in culling and thus has a negative effect on productive lifespan. At the animal level, breeding and feeding management can substantially affect milk yield, body condition, and energy balance of cows, which are all major contributors to reproductive failure in dairy cattle. This study developed a reproductive...

  4. How does increased corn-ethanol production affect US natural gas prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been a push to increase biofuel production in the United States. The biofuel of choice, so far, has been ethanol produced from corn. The effects of increased corn-ethanol production on the consumer prices of food and energy continue to be studied and debated. This study examines, in particular, the effects of increased corn-ethanol production on US natural gas prices. A structural model of the natural gas market is developed and estimated using two stage least squares. A baseline projection for the period 2007-2018 is determined, and two scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, current biofuel policies including EISA mandates, tariffs, and tax credits are removed. In the second scenario, we hold ethanol production to the level required only for largely obligatory additive use. The results indicate that the increased level of corn-ethanol production occurring as a result of the current US biofuel policies may lead to natural gas prices that are as much as 0.25% higher, on average, than if no biofuel policies were in place. A similar comparison between the baseline and second scenario indicates natural gas prices could be as much as 0.5% higher, on average, for the same period. (author)

  5. How does increased corn-ethanol production affect US natural gas prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, there has been a push to increase biofuel production in the United States. The biofuel of choice, so far, has been ethanol produced from corn. The effects of increased corn-ethanol production on the consumer prices of food and energy continue to be studied and debated. This study examines, in particular, the effects of increased corn-ethanol production on US natural gas prices. A structural model of the natural gas market is developed and estimated using two stage least squares. A baseline projection for the period 2007-2018 is determined, and two scenarios are simulated. In the first scenario, current biofuel policies including EISA mandates, tariffs, and tax credits are removed. In the second scenario, we hold ethanol production to the level required only for largely obligatory additive use. The results indicate that the increased level of corn-ethanol production occurring as a result of the current US biofuel policies may lead to natural gas prices that are as much as 0.25% higher, on average, than if no biofuel policies were in place. A similar comparison between the baseline and second scenario indicates natural gas prices could be as much as 0.5% higher, on average, for the same period.

  6. Reproductive problems of the work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, G D; Ravindran, J

    2000-03-01

    The number of women in the workforce in increasing. A substantial proportion are in the reproductive age which brings to attention the problem of work exposures that adversely affect reproductive outcome. These exposures include chemicals, radiation, strenuous physical activity and infections. They affect reproduction by effect on the germ cells, through hormonal distribution which in turn affects transport of germ cells or zygote, implantation and development. Some of these exposures are teratogenic. At present, some regulations and policies seem to be directed at women workers while there is evidence to show that women are not the only victims. Paternal exposures have also been reported to be associated with infertility, spontaneous abortions and other adverse outcomes. There is insufficient information about reproductive effects of work exposures and hence further research is required in this area. PMID:11072503

  7. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer’s Some Traditional Food Products Preferences by Multidimensional Scaling Method

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Oraman G. Unakıtan E. Yılmaz B. Başaran

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate consumer behaviour towards factors affecting purchase decision of some traditional food products and grouping those consumer attitudes. The original data was obtained from results of a survey conducted in 14 different districts in Tekirdag. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted within a total sample of 166 households randomly. In the study, multidimensional scaling analysis is used for evaluating the effective factors of consumer prefer...

  8. Evaluation of factors affecting cucumber- and- tomato greenhouse farmers\\\\\\' attitudes toward healthy crops production in Isfahan Township

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sandoghi; Yousefi, A.; A.M AMINI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors affecting the attitude of cucumber and tomato greenhouse farmers toward production of healthy crops in Isfahan County. Data were collected on a sample of 110 farmers through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was initially evaluated on a pre-test study respectively by using Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) criteria and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Factors influencin...

  9. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  10. PREDICTING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY LOGIT REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma KARABAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

  11. Process parameters affecting the sustainability of fermentative hydrogen production: A short-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dinamarca, Rune Bakke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation is regarded as the least energy intensive method for H2 production. Extensive literature on experimental attempts to achieve the highest possible theoretical yield (e.g. 4 mol H2/mol glucose is available. All published steady state, mixed culture studies show yields much lower than the theoretical maximums for the substrates applied. This article summarizes the influence of key process parameters (pH and buffer systems, temperature, H2 partial pressure, feed stock, and reactor configuration on fermentative hydrogen production. The following three requirements for successful Bio-H2 fermentation in mixed cultures are identified: (1 Maintain environmental conditions for the formation of oxidized products; (2 Optimize the relationship between biomass and hydrogen yields; and (3 Maintain unfavorable conditions for hydrogen consuming organisms. Fulfilling these requirements has not yet been achieved in stable continuous cultures, and it may not be achievable do to some fundamental limitation.

  12. Mixed populations of marine microalgae in continuous culture: Factors affecting species dominance and biomass productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, D L; Ivancic, N

    1984-11-01

    Marine microalgae were grown in multispecies continuous cultures. Under carbon dioxide limitation, blue-green algae dominated. Under nitrate and light limitation, species dominance depended on the initial conditions. When the inoculum consisted primarily of blue-green algae with smaller amounts of other species, blue-green algae and pennate diatoms dominated. When the inoculum consisted of equal amounts of all species, green flagellates and pennate diatoms dominated. Green flagellates and blue-green algae were incompatible and never shared dominance. When nutrient limitations were overcome, the productivity of seawater was increased 100-fold before light limitation occurred. The productivity could be further increased by reducing photorespiration in the culture. The dilution rates studied (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 day(-1)) had no effect on species dominance, nor did the higher dilution rates select for smaller cells. The maximum productivity occurred at a dilution rate of 0.2 day(-1). Temperature had the greatest effect on species dominance, with green flagellates, pennate diatoms, and blue-green algae dominating at 20 degrees C and only blue-green algae dominating at 35 degrees C. The productivity at 35 degrees C was lower than that at 20 degrees C because of the lower solubility of carbon dioxide at higher temperatures. At 10% salinity, green flagellates and pennate diatoms dominated. The productivity at this salinity was 50% that obtained at the salinity of seawater (3.5%). At 25% salinity, only the green flagellate, Dunaliella salina, survived at a productivity of 1% that obtained at the salinity of seawater. PMID:18551649

  13. Biological short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production from waste-activated sludge affected by surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Su; Chen, Yinguang; Zhou, Qi; Gu, Guowei

    2007-07-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the preferred carbon sources for biological nutrient removal, are the important intermediate products in sludge anaerobic fermentation. Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) is a widespread used surfactant, which can be easily found in waste-activated sludge (WAS). In this investigation, the effect of SDBS on SCFAs production from WAS was investigated, and the potential of using fermentative SCFAs to promote enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was tested. Results showed that the total SCFAs production increased significantly in the presence of SDBS at room temperature. At fermentation time of 6 days, the maximum SCFAs was 2599.1mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L in the presence of SDBS 0.02g/g, whereas it was only 339.1mg (COD)/L in the absence of SDBS. The SCFAs produced in the case of SDBS 0.02g/g and fermentation time 6 days consisted of acetic acid (27.1%), propionic acid (22.8%), iso-valeric acid (20.1%), iso-butyric acid (11.9%), n-butyric acid (10.4%) and n-valeric acid (7.7%). It was found that during sludge anaerobic fermentation, the solubilization of sludge particulate organic-carbon and hydrolysis of solubilized substrate as well as acidification of hydrolyzed products were all increased in the presence of SDBS, while the methane formation was decreased, the SCFAs production was therefore remarkably improved. Further investigation showed that the production of SCFAs enhanced by SDBS was caused mainly by biological effects, rather than by chemical effects and SDBS decomposition. With the fermentative SCFAs as the main carbon source, the EBPR maintained high phosphorus removal efficiency ( approximately 97%). PMID:17499838

  14. Cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay as affected by information about organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (Pconventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms. PMID:20196900

  15. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... and significantly decreased bulk density, with no effect on plant available water compared to the control. Fresh and dry fruit weights were significantly increased after compost addition. Plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, and total biomass did not significantly improve after compost addition. Spent mushroom...

  16. Engaged or exhausted—How does it affect dentists’ clinical productivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari J. Hakanen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examines whether job burnout (exhaustion and work engagement are associated with the clinical productivity of dentists measured by the amount of paid procedure fees in a single month. We conducted an OLS regression analyses of data on dentists working at municipal health centers in Finland (N = 269; response rate 37%. The results indicated that work engagement was positively associated with the amount of procedure fees and consequently with dentists’ pay level after several work-related and demographic background variables were controlled for. However, exhaustion was not related to productivity after controlling for the impact of other factors.

  17. Uso de CLAE no controle de qualidade em produtos comerciais de Nim: reprodutibilidade da ação inseticida The use of HPLC in the control of Neem commercial products quality: reproduction of the insecticide action

    OpenAIRE

    Moacir Rossi Forim; Andréia Pereira Matos; Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da Silva; Quézia Bezerra Cass; Paulo Cezar Vieira; João Batista Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluat...

  18. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  19. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of infant gut microbial communities in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Bahl, Martin Iain; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine;

    2015-01-01

    14 : 0 and MAG 12 : 0) or long-chained NEFA (LC-NEFA; 16 : 0 to 18 : 1 and MAG 16 : 0) with and without sphingosine, representing lipid hydrolysis products characteristic for intestinal hydrolysis of breast milk lipids. Ion Torrent sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that the...

  20. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA...... productivity may be improved by using different fatty acids for transition and lactating sows....

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Pyocin Production Affects Population Dynamics within Mixed-Culture Biofilms▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Richard D.; Curtis, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptomic and phenotypic studies showed that pyocins are produced in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 aerobic and anaerobic biofilms. Pyocin activity was found to be high in slow-growing anaerobic biofilms but transient in aerobic biofilms. Biofilm coculture of strain PAO1 and a pyocin-sensitive isolate showed that pyocin production had a significant impact on bacterial population dynamics, particularly under anaerobic conditions.

  2. Intestinal microbial affects of yeast products on weaned and transport stressed pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Study objectives were to determine effects of a commercially available yeast product (XPC, Diamond-V Mills) and stress of transportation on total Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Lactobacilli populations in the intestine of weaning pigs. In a RCB design with a 2 x 2 factorial ar...

  3. Pig slurry characteristics, nutrient balance and biogas production as affected by separation and acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, S. G.; Hjorth, M.; Leahy, J. J.;

    2015-01-01

    Animal slurry is separated in order to avoid excessive nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilization of crops in the field. To enhance fertilizer efficiency further, slurry and its separation products may be acidified, for instance in animal houses. The current study quantified the effec...

  4. Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Production of ethanol from lignocellulosic materials has a promising market potential, but the process is still only at pilot/demonstration scale due to the technical and economical difficulties of the process. Operating the process at very high solids concentrations (above 20% dry matter—DM) has...

  5. Statistical analysis of factors affecting crop production in Navrongo, Tono irrigation dam a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. JAKPERIK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the essential factors of production in the Tono irrigation dam of the Upper East Region. The accessibility and patronage of these factors by farmers in this area was studied and how they influence crop production in the Region. A total of two hundred questionnaires designed by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture for farmers in Navrongo were administered. A snowball sampling design was employed to identify farmers on these facilities in the study area. Pearson correlation coefficient, principal component analysis, and subset regression analysis were used to unveil the relevant information in the study. The results revealed a high correlation between the factors of production being studied with each pair having a probability level less than 0.0001. The full general linear model was highly significant (F=662.50, psmaller tahn 0.0001 with only two factors (Farm size and Fertilizer accounting for 98.86% of the total variation in yield. This is a clear indication of multicollinearity and a subset regression analysis was used to identify the best subset that improves yield in the irrigation dam. The best subset comprised of Age, Farm size, seed, and Fertilizer accounting for 97.75% of the total variation in crop production in Navrongo. To enhance yield in Navrongo therefore, high yielding seeds, timely granting of fertilizer credit to farmers who mature enough and responsible with reasonable farm sizes should be encouraged.

  6. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  7. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta José L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C. We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii.

  8. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6180 - Reproductive media and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproductive media and supplements. 884.6180 Section 884.6180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Reproductive media and supplements. (a) Identification. Reproductive media and supplement are products that...

  10. Reproductive performance of Bracon hebetor females following acute exposure to sulphur dioxide in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petters, R.M.; Mettus, R.V.

    1982-02-01

    Bracon hebetor females were exposed to 3 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 3 h and 5 h and their reproductive performance was assayed for 20 days. Lifespan of the treated females and their egg production were not different from those of control wasps. Also, egg hatchability, an important indicator of fertility, was not consistently affected. These results indicate Bracon reproductive performance, a sensitive toxicological assay system, to be resistant to acute SO/sub 2/ exposure. Putative SO/sub 2/ effects on parasitic wasp populations in nature are therefore probably not due to interference with female fecundity and fertility.

  11. Chemical composition of tomato seeds affected by conventional and organic production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by INAA. The results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop management adopted in the different tomato production systems. (author)

  12. Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer’s Some Traditional Food Products Preferences by Multidimensional Scaling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oraman G. Unakıtan E. Yılmaz B. Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate consumer behaviour towards factors affecting purchase decision of some traditional food products and grouping those consumer attitudes. The original data was obtained from results of a survey conducted in 14 different districts in Tekirdag. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews conducted within a total sample of 166 households randomly. In the study, multidimensional scaling analysis is used for evaluating the effective factors of consumer preferences for traditional products and grouping their preferences. It is found that taste, food safety and freshness have similar effects on consumer preferences for yogurt, molasses and noodles. Price has an important and positive loaded effect on other variables for the three products.

  13. Factors affecting process temperature and biogas production in small-scale rural biogas digesters in winter in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuong, Pham Hung; Vu, C.C.; Sommer, Sven G.;

    2014-01-01

    and 180 cm, biogas production and methane (CH4) concentration in biogas from August to February. In parallel the temperature of the air (100 cm above ground), in the slurry mixing tank and in the soil (10, 100, 140, and 180 cm depth) was measured by thermocouple. The influent amount was measured daily...... and the influent chemical composition was measured monthly during the whole experimental period. Seasonal variations in air temperature significantly affected the temperature in the soil, mixing tank and digester. Consequently, biogas production, which is temperature dependent, was influenced by the...... season. The main factors determining the internal temperature in the digesters were insulation with Styrofoam, air temperature and temperature of slurry in the mixing tank. Biogas production is low due to the cold climate conditions in winter in Northern Vietnam, but the study proved that storing slurry...

  14. Milk production of rabbit doe and kit mortality as affected by dietary katuk leaf meal (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Akbar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed as to determining the effect of katuk (Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf on influence rabbit doe milk production and kits mortality during 3 weeks weeks of age. Twenty four does aged 6-12 months, divided into three blocks, of four treatment diets, were used in our replicity. The diet treatments used katuk leaf meal: 0% (P0, 1% (P1, 2% (P2, and 3% (P3. The parameters observed were: doe’s milk production, kits mortality, kit as level: body weight gain, and immune response. The results showed that supplementation of katuk leaf meal increased (P < 0,05 doe milk production and body weight gain of kits during 3 weeks experiment, whereas mortality and immune responses were not affected by katuk leaf meal supplementation.

  15. Microorganisms and dietary factors affecting biohydrogenation and conjugated linoleic acid production in the rumen ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Margarida Rosa Garcez

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências Veterinárias, especialidade de Produção Animal Consumption of animal fat has been associated with an increased incidence of chronic diseases, as cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Ruminant products, milk and meat, have high saturated fatty acids (FA) content as a result of biohydrogenation by microbial metabolic activity in the rumen. Biohydrogenation also originates FA with health promoting or disease preventing properties, including...

  16. Descriptive study of production factors affecting performance traits in growing-finishing pigs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Agostini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to build up a data set including productive performance and production factors data of growing-finishing (GF pigs in Spain in order to perform a representative and reliable description of the traits of Spanish growing-finishing pig industry. Data from 764 batches from 452 farms belonging to nine companies (1,157,212 pigs were collected between 2008 and 2010 through a survey including five parts: general, facilities, feeding, health status and performance. Most studied farms had only GF pigs on their facilities (94.7%, produced ‘industrial’ pigs (86.7%, had entire male and female (59.5% and Pietrain-sired pigs (70.0%, housed between 13-20 pigs per pen (87.2%, had  50% of slatted floor (70%, single-space dry feeder (54.0%, nipple drinker (88.7% and automatic ventilation systems (71.2%. A 75.0% of the farms used three feeding phases using mainly pelleted diets (91.0%, 61.3% performed three or more antibiotic treatments and 36.5% obtained water from the public supply. Continuous variables studied had the following average values: number of pigs placed per batch, 1,515 pigs; initial and final body weight, 19.0 and 108 kg; length of GF period, 136 days; culling rate, 1.4%; barn occupation, 99.7%; feed intake per pig and fattening cycle, 244 kg; daily gain, 0.657 kg; feed conversion ratio, 2.77 kg kg-1 and mortality rate, 4.3%. Data reflecting the practical situation of the Spanish growing and finishing pig production and it may contribute to develop new strategies in order to improve the productive and economic efficiency of GF pig units.

  17. Phenolic compounds affect production of pyocyanin, swarming motility and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Aylin Ugurlu; Aysegul Karahasan Yagci; Seyhan Ulusoy; Burak Aksu; Gulgun Bosgelmez-Tinaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of plant-derived phenolic compounds (i.e. caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and vanillic acid) on the production of quorum sensing regulated virulence factors such as pyocyanin, biofilm formation and swarming motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates. Methods: Fourteen clinical P. aeruginosa isolates obtained from urine samples and P. aeruginosa PA01 strain were included in the study. The antibacterial effects of phenolic comp...

  18. PRODUCTION ECONOMICS OF EGYPTIAN COTTON IN THE SALT-AFFECTED LAND

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shahat, Ali Ahmed Ibrahim Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water is the natural resource that exerts the greatest constraint on Egypt's agricultural production system. Most of Egypt's cultivated lands depend on irrigation from Nile. However, Egypt’s agriculture is under pressure to justify its use of water resource, which is scarce due to increased competition for water resources. The water management problem is currently increasing in the context of the ongoing national transition from a government-controlled market with government intervention i...

  19. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    OpenAIRE

    Revuelta José L; Santos María A; Jiménez Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the c...

  20. Genetic diversity affects productivity in early but not late stages of stand development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skálová, Hana; Hadincová, Věroslava

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2009), s. 411-419. ISSN 1439-1791 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050820; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050623; GA ČR GA206/06/0098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : clonal grass * complementarity * diversity-productivity relationships Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.422, year: 2009

  1. The interactive effects of affect and shopping goal on information search and product evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangyuan; Wyer, Robert S; Shen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Although shoppers often want to evaluate products to make a purchase decision, they can also shop for enjoyment. In each case, the amount of time they spend on shopping and the number of options they consider can depend on the mood they happen to be in. We predicted that mood can signal whether the goal has been attained and when people should stop processing information. When people are primarily motivated to purchase a particular type of product, positive mood signals that they have done enough. Thus, they consider less information if they are happy than if they are unhappy. When people shop for enjoyment, however, positive mood signals that they are still having fun. Thus, they consider more information when they are happy than when they are not. Four experiments among university students (N = 827) examined these possibilities. Experiment 1 provided initial evidence for the interactive effects of mood and goals on search behavior and product evaluation. Other studies examined the implications of this conceptualization for different domains: (a) the relative impact of brand and attribute information on judgments (Experiment 2), (b) gender differences in shopping behavior (Experiment 3), and (c) the number of options that people review in an actual online shopping website (Experiment 4). PMID:26460676

  2. Methyl jasmonate and miconazole differently affect arteminisin production and gene expression in Artemisia annua suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, S; Quarta, A; Durante, M; Nisi, R; De Paolis, A; Blando, F; Mita, G

    2011-01-01

    Artemisia annua L. is a herb traditionally used for treatment of fevers. The glandular trichomes of this plant accumulate, although at low levels, artemisinin, which is highly effective against malaria. Due to the great importance of this compound, many efforts have been made to improve knowledge on artemisinin production both in plants and in cell cultures. In this study, A. annua suspension cultures were established in order to investigate the effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and miconazole on artemisinin biosynthesis. Twenty-two micro molar MeJA induced a three-fold increase of artemisinin production in around 30 min; while 200 μm miconazole induced a 2.5-fold increase of artemisinin production after 24 h, but had severe effects on cell viability. The influence of these treatments on expression of biosynthetic genes was also investigated. MeJA induced up-regulation of CYP71AV1, while miconazole induced up-regulation of CPR and DBR2. PMID:21143725

  3. Effects of sexual reproduction of the inferior competitor Brachionus calyciflorus on its fitness against Brachionus angularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Niu, Cuijuan

    2015-03-01

    Sexual reproduction adversely affects the population growth of cyclic parthenogenetic animals. The density-dependent sexual reproduction of a superior competitor could mediate the coexistence. However, the cost of sex may make the inferior competitor more vulnerable. To investigate the effect of sexual reproduction on the inferior competitor, we experimentally paired the competition of one Brachionus angularis clone against three Brachionus calyciflorus clones. One of the B. calyciflorus clones showed a low propensity for sexual reproduction, while the other two showed high propensities. The results show that all B. calyciflorus clones were excluded in the competition for resources at low food level. The increased food level promoted the competition persistence, but the clones did not show a clear pattern. Both the cumulative population density and resting egg production increased with the food level. The cumulative population density decreased with the mixis investment, while the resting egg production increased with the mixis investment. A trade-off between the population growth and sexual reproduction was observed in this research. The results indicate that although higher mixis investment resulted in a lower population density, it would not determinately accelerate the exclusion process of the inferior competitor. On the contrary, higher mixis investment promoted resting egg production before being excluded and thus promised a long-term benefit. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixis investment, to some extent, favored the excluded inferior competitor under fierce competition or some other adverse conditions.

  4. Identification of significant medium components that affect docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Hamid, Aidil A.

    2013-11-01

    Central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the significance of glucose, yeast extract, MSG and sea salt in affecting the amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulated by a locally isolated strain of Schizochytrium. Design Expert software was used to construct a set of experiments where each medium component mentioned above was varied over three levels. Cultivation was carried out in 250mL flasks containing 50mL of medium, incubated at 30°C with 200 rpm agitation for 96 hours. ANOVA was conducted to identify the influential factors and the level of their significance where factors that scored a probability value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The level of influence for each independent variable was also interpreted using perturbation whereas pattern of interaction between the factors were interpreted using interaction plots. This experiment revealed that yeast extract and monosodium glutamate have significant influence on DHA accumulation process by Schizochytrium sp. SW1.

  5. Social Factors Affecting Wetlands Utilization for Agriculture in Nigeria: A case study of sawah rice production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have immense poverty-fighting potentials and in Nigeria,more and more people are dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods.To examine the social factors affecting the current status of the wetlands utilization for agriculture in Nigeria,a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 farmers cultivating wetlands and a structured questionnaire was applied to elicit the information on the social factors.Data collected were described using frequency and percentage and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant variables that are determinants of wetland utilization.The results of the analysis showed that significant variables included crop preferences,farming system,culture,taste,land tenure,knowledge of wetland cultivation,perceived suitability,farmers' tribe,location of wetland,and farmers' age.It was concluded with suggestions for the right combination of policies,public awareness,and appropriate farming methods in order to improve wetland utilization in Nigeria.

  6. Carnosine inhibits KRAS-mediated HCT116 proliferation by affecting ATP and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovine, Barbara; Iannella, Maria Luigia; Nocella, Francesca; Pricolo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2012-02-28

    Carnosine is a natural dipeptide that has generated particular interest for its antioxidant, anti-aging and especially for its antiproliferative properties. In this study, we demonstrate that carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human HCT116 colon cancer cells. In this cell line, the activating KRAS mutation induces mitochondrial ROS, the signaling molecules for cell proliferation. We observed that 50-100 mM carnosine decreases ATP and ROS concentration and induces cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In HCT116 cells these effects are related to decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and increased p21waf1 protein. Our findings support the concept that carnosine could inhibit HCT116 cell growth via its antioxidant activity and its ability to affect glycolysis. PMID:22137144

  7. Transfer from long to short photoperiods affects production efficiency of day-neutral rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, K. R.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The day-neutral, semidwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Ai-Nan-Tsao was grown in a greenhouse under summer conditions using high-pressure sodium lamps to extend the natural photoperiod. After allowing 2 weeks for germination, stand establishment, and thinning to a consistent planting density of 212 plants/m2, stands were maintained under continuous lighting for 35 or 49 days before shifting to 8- or 12-h photoperiods until harvest 76 days after planting. Non-shifted control treatments consisting of 8-, 12-, or 24-h photoperiods also were maintained throughout production. Tiller number increased as duration of exposure to continuous light increased before shifting to shorter photoperiods. However, shoot harvest index and yield efficiency rate were lower for all plants receiving continuous light than for those under the 8- or 12-h photoperiods. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production had the highest grain yield per plant and equaled the 8-h-photoperiod control plants for the lowest tiller number per plant. As long as stands were exposed to continuous light, tiller formation continued. Shifting to shorter photoperiods late in the cropping cycle resulted in newly formed tillers that were either sterile or unable to mature grain before harvest. Late-forming tillers also suppressed yield of grain in early-forming tillers, presumably by competing for photosynthate or for remobilized assimilate during senescence. Stands receiving 12-h photoperiods throughout production not only produced the highest grain yield at harvest but had the highest shoot harvest index, which is important for resource-recovery strategies in advanced life-support systems proposed for space.

  8. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production by Comamonas sp. EB172 Using Central Composite Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azman Mohd Johar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Statistical approach, central composite design (CCD was used to investigate the complex interaction among temperature (25-37 °C, initial medium pH (5-9, inoculum size (4-10 % (v/v, concentration of (NH42SO4 (0-1 g/L and concentration of mixed organic acids (5-10 g/L in the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Comamonas sp. EB172.Methodology and Results: Mixed organic acids derived from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME containing acetic:propionic:butyric (ratio of 3:1:1 were used as carbon source in the batch culture of Comamonas sp. EB172 to produce polyhydoxyalkanoates (PHAs. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that all five factors were significantly important in the batch fermentation by shake flask with a P value of less than 0.001. The optimal temperature, initial medium pH, inoculum size, concentration of (NH42SO4 and concentration of mixed organic acids were 30 °C, 7.04, 4.0 % (v/v, 0.01 g/L and 5.05 g/L respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Optimization of the production medium containing mixed organic acids has improved the PHA production for more than 2 folds. Under optimal condition in the shake flask fermentation, the predicted growth is 2.98 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW with 47.07 wt % of PHA content. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g of PHA per g mixed organic acids.

  9. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Magnetic nanowires and hyperthermia: How geometry and material affect heat production efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia, which refers to the production of heat by magnetic nanostructures under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has been previously investigated with superparamagnetic nanobeads as a cancer therapy method. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) used in hyperthermia can be very promising, as it has been shown that they have a larger magnetic moment per unit of volume compared to the nanobeads. Moreover, Fe NWs proved to have a higher heating efficiency compared to Fe nanobeads, when exposed to an AMF at the same concentration [1].

  11. How Does A Decrease In Oil Production Affect The World Economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Naohiko Yahaba

    2010-01-01

    The world's oil consumption has been increasing for more than a century with a few exceptions. However, there would be a possibility that the recent increase in oil consumption in developing countries such as China and India tighten the long term oil market. Since the exact amount of oil reserves is unknown, it is difficult to predict when the ultimate decrease in oil production will come. However, for the last two decades, the amount of oil consumption per year has surpassed the amount of oi...

  12. How does a decrease in oil production affect the world's economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Naohiko Yahaba

    2010-01-01

    The world's oil consumption has been increasing for more than a century with a few exceptions. However, there would be a possibility that the recent increase in oil consumption in developing countries such as China and India tighten the long term oil market. Since the exact amount of oil reserves is unknown, it is difficult to predict when the ultimate decrease in oil production will come. However, for the last two decades, the amount of oil consumption per year has surpassed the amount of oi...

  13. Market oriented new product development: How can a means-end chain approach affect the process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    Few disagree on the advantage of market oriented product development. However, can a well-known theory on consumer behaviour be used as a catalyst for achieving it? This paper describes a case study where means-end chain (MEC) approach was introduced to a cross-functional development team at two...... different stages of the development process. Results show that MEC data is perceived as a good way of gaining knowledge about consumers; that the information serves well as the basis of discussions and for keeping project goals fixed. The results also indicate that MEC data are most valuable to the team in...... the early stages of development process....

  14. Marx, Irigaray, and the politics of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbaum, A E

    1994-01-01

    Both the concept and practice of reproduction have been newly configured, with reproductive labor assuming an abstract value as social labor and women around the globe work to produce baby commodities which enter the market along with other domestic and imported products. This situation dictates that surrogacy not be treated as an aberration. One must instead reconceptualize the maternal body as a reproductive resource and rethink the relationship between mother and fetus. This paper attempts to develop a materialist analysis of reproductive labor by offering a strategy for renarrativizing the mother. It briefly explains what feminists involved in the pro-abortion movement could gain by incorporating a Marxist understanding of reproductive labor as productive in the strictest sense, and then suggests, through an analysis of the work of Luce Irigaray, the simultaneous need for a self-reflexive renarrativization of the maternal body which may account for women's role as reproductive laborers. Sections are on reproduction, maternal as mimetic matrix, and reproductive ethics and sexual rights. PMID:12290609

  15. Squalus cubensis Reproduction Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reproductive data from Squalus cubensis (Cuban dogfish) were opportunistically collected from 2005-2012. Data include those necessary to examine reproductive cycle,...

  16. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  17. Bioaugmentation of Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B affects hydrogen production through altering indigenous bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Shi, Xiaoshuang; He, Shuai; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Dang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Bioaugmentation can facilitate hydrogen production from complex organic substrates, but it still is unknown how indigenous microbial communities respond to the added bacteria. Here, using a Hydrogenispora ethanolica LX-B (named as LX-B) bioaugmentation experiments, the distribution of metabolites and the responses of indigenous bacterial communities were investigated via batch cultivation (BC) and repeated batch cultivation (RBC). In BC the LX-B/sludge ratio of 0.12 achieved substantial high hydrogen yield, which was over twice that of control. In RBC one-time bioaugmentation and repeated batch bioaugmentation of LX-B resulted in the hydrogen yield that was average 1.2-fold and 0.8-fold higher than that in control, respectively. This improved hydrogen production performance mainly benefited from a shift in composition of the indigenous bacterial community caused by LX-B bioaugmentation. The findings represented an important step in understanding the relationship between bioaugmentation, a shift in bacterial communities, and altered bioreactor performance. PMID:27023388

  18. Do interactions of land use and climate affect productivity of waterbirds and prairie-pothole wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of aquatic invertebrates on migration and breeding areas influences recruitment of ducks and shorebirds. In wetlands of Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), aquatic invertebrate production primarily is driven by interannual fluctuations of water levels in response to wet-dry cycles in climate. However, this understanding comes from studying basins that are minimally impacted by agricultural landscape modifications. In the past 100–150 years, a large proportion of wetlands within the PPR have been altered; often water was drained from smaller to larger wetlands at lower elevations creating consolidated, interconnected basins. Here I present a case study and I hypothesize that large basins receiving inflow from consolidation drainage have reduced water-level fluctuations in response to climate cycles than those in undrained landscapes, resulting in relatively stable wetlands that have lower densities of invertebrate forage for ducks and shorebirds and also less foraging habitat, especially for shorebirds. Furthermore, stable water-levels and interconnected basins may favor introduced or invasive species (e.g., cattail [Typha spp.] or fish) because native communities "evolved" in a dynamic and isolated system. Accordingly, understanding interactions between water-level fluctuations and landscape modifications is a prerequisite step to modeling effects of climate change on wetland hydrology and productivity and concomitant recruitment of waterbirds.

  19. Potato Production as Affected by Crop Parameters and Meteoro Logical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André B.; Villa Nova, Nilson A.; Pereira, Antonio R.

    Meteorological elements directly influence crop potential productivity, regulating its transpiration, photosynthesis, and respiration processes in such a way as to control the growth and development of the plants throughout their physiological mechanisms at a given site. The interaction of the meteorological factors with crop responses is complex and has been the target of attention of many researchers from all over the world. There is currently a great deal of interest in estimating crop productivity as a function of climate by means of different crop weather models in order to help growers choose planting locations and timing to produce high yields with good tuber quality under site-specific atmospheric conditions. In this manuscript an agrometeorological model based on maximum carbon dioxide assimilation rates for C3 plants, fraction of photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, photoperiod duration, and crop parameters is assessed as to its performance under tropical conditions. Crop parameters include leaf areaand harvest indexes, dry matter content of potato tubers, and crop cycles to estimate potato potential yields. Productivity obtained with the cultivar Itararé, grown with adequate soil water supply conditions at four different sites in the State of São Paulo (Itararé, Piracicaba, TatuÍ, and São Manuel), Brazil, were used to test the model. The results showed thatthe agrometeorological model tested under the climatic conditions of the State of São Paulo in general underestimated irrigated potato yield by less than 10%.This justifies the recommendation to test the performance of the model in study in other climaticregions for different crops and genotypes under optimal irrigationconditions in further scientific investigations. We reached the conclusion that the agrometeorological model taking into account information on leaf area index, photoperiod duration, photosynthetically active radiation and air temperature is feasible to estimate

  20. Interval between first dose and booster affected antibody production in cattle vaccinated against rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we compared the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced by inactivated rabies vaccine in cattle by using three alternative immunization procedures. Forty-five bovines (breed nelore were then organized in three groups (A, B and C, with 15 animals/group. Group A received only one vaccine dose at day zero and Group B received the first dose at day zero and then another dose at day 30 (early booster. Group C was also immunized with two doses; however, the booster was postponed until day 180 after the first dose (delayed booster. Blood samples were withdrawn at days zero (before the first dose and 30, 210, 390, and 540 after the beginning of immunization and the antibody titers were evaluated by mouse neutralization test. The protocol used to immunize Group C (booster at day 180 was clearly more efficient. In this group, antibody levels were higher and also remained higher for longer periods in comparison with the other two groups. These results show that booster timing significantly affected antibody levels. Therefore, programs addressed to control this disease in cattle should consider not only the use of a booster but also its administration time.