WorldWideScience

Sample records for affect plasma arginine

  1. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  2. How does spa treatment affect cardiovascular function and vascular endothelium in patients with generalized osteoarthritis? A pilot study through plasma asymmetric di-methyl arginine (ADMA) and L-arginine/ADMA ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Fatih; Ozkuk, Kagan; Seringec Karabulut, Serap; Bekpinar, Seldag; Karagulle, Mufit Zeki; Erdogan, Nergis

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of spa treatment on vascular endothelium and clinical symptoms of generalized osteoarthritis. Forty generalized osteoarthritis (GOA) patients referred to a government spa hospital, and 40 GOA patients followed on university hospital locomotor system disease ambulatory clinics were included as study and control groups, respectively. Study group received spa treatment including thermal water baths, physical therapy modalities, and exercises. Control group was followed with home exercises for 15 days. Plasma ADMA, L-arginine, L-arginine/ADMA ratio, routine blood analyses, 6-min walking test, including fingertip O2 saturation, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate, were measured at the beginning and at the end of treatment. Groups were evaluated with VAS pain, patient, and physician global assessment; HAQ; and WOMAC at the beginning, at the end, and after 1 month of treatment. In study group, L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio showed statistically significant increase after treatment. Plasma ADMA levels did not change. There is no significant difference in intergroup comparison. Study group displayed statistically significant improvements in all clinical parameters. The study showed that spa treatment does not cause any harm to the vascular endothelium through ADMA. Significant increase in plasma L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio suggests that balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases. Balneotherapy provides meaningful improvements on clinical parameters of GOA.

  3. Sensitive radioimmunoassay for plasma arginine vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.; Soto, M.E.; Corvol, P.; Milliez, P.; Marchetti, J.; Menard, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using an ion exchange resin, a sensitive radioimmunoassay for plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) was developed. This assay was characterized by the absence of blank values, an excellent recovery rate, great sensitivity (0.1 pg of AVP was significantly detected) and reproducibility. In 8 normal men, plasma AVP after overnight dehydration was 1.57+-0.17 pg/ml, and dropped to 0.58+-0.11 pg/ml after 20 ml/kg oral water loading. Significant correlations between plasma AVP levels and plasma or urinary osmolality confirm the validity of this assay. In complete pituitary diabetes insipidus (n=4) plasma AVP was undetectable whereas it was frankly increased in Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (3 to 33 pg/ml, n=8) [fr

  4. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlich, E.; Weber, P.; Groeschel-Stewart, U.; Roeschlau, T.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1975-01-01

    Antibodies for the radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin (AVP) described here were produced in rabbits using synthetic AVP coupled to rabbit γ-globulin with carbodiimide. In three out of six rabbits, significant antibody titres were obtained. Using the best antisera produced, 40% of labelled AVP was bound at a final dilution of 1 : 50,000. After iodination of synthetic AVP with 125 I using the chloramin-T method, a gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 was performed to purify the iodinated AVP. For separation of antibody bound and free hormone, a second antibody precipitation was used. There was no crossreactivity with oxytocin. AVP was extracted from plasma after ammoniumsulfate precipitation of the proteins by adsorption to Florisil. The recovery of AVP added to plasma in amounts of 5-25 pg/ml was 60 +- 15% (n = 6). The minimum amount of AVP detectable was 1 pg per ml plasma. The plasma level in normal adults under standard conditions was 3.4 +- 2.2 pg/ml. This is in agreement with data recently published by other researchers. The applicability and reproducibility was further tested in measurements of samples taken hourly during the entire day under water diuresis and after hormonal stimulation of AVP. (orig.) [de

  5. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine in various diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Nobuto; Hayakawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kohzo; Noto, Yutaka; Ohno, Taro

    1978-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of abnormal glucose metabolism in the secondary diabetes, we examined the dynamics of plasma glucagon levels in various diseases which may accompany glucose intolerance. Plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were observed in 20 liver cirrhotics, 8 patients with chronic renal failure, 6 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 4 patients, with hyperthyroidism, 22 diabetics and 9 normal controls. Plasma glucagon levels were determined by the radioimmunoassay method of Unger using 125 I-glucagon and antiserum 30K which is specific for pancreatic glucagon. In the cirrhotics, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were significantly higher than in normal controls. The patients whose BSP retention at 45 minutes were above 30% showed higher plasma glucagon responses than in the patients whose BSP retention at 45 minutes were below 30%, suggesting that the more severely the liver was damaged, the more the plasma glucagon levels were elevated. In the patients with chronic renal failure, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were also significantly higher than in normal controls. These abnormal levels were not improved by a hemodialysis, although serum creatinine levels were fairly decreased. In the patients with chronic pancreatitis, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were the same as those in normal controls. In the patients with hyperthyroidism the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine seemed to be lower than normal controls. In the diabetics, the plasma glucagon responses to L-arginine were almost the same as in normal controls. However their glucagon levels seemed to be relatively high, considering the fact that diabetics had high blood glucose levels. (auth.)

  7. Estimation of Plasma Arginine Vasopressin Concentration Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    affected by glucose and urea may be inappropriate. Keywords: ... antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is a nine amino acid peptide with a ... in sodium and water homeostasis (Mckenna and ... study were any history of diabetes and cardiovascular.

  8. Low plasma arginine:asymmetric dimethyl arginine ratios predict mortality after intracranial aneurysm rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsø, Jonatan Myrup; Bergström, Anita; Edsen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, predicts mortality in cardiovascular disease and has been linked to cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this prospective study, we assessed whether circulating ADMA, arginine...

  9. Plasma L-arginine levels distinguish pulmonary arterial hypertension from left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Anna; Schneede, Jörn; Kylhammar, David; Henrohn, Dan; Lundgren, Jakob; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Rådegran, Göran; Wikström, Gerhard

    2018-03-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by an imbalance of vasoactive substances and remodeling of pulmonary vasculature. Nitric oxide, formed from L-arginine, is essential for homeostasis and smooth muscle cell relaxation in PAH. Our aim was to compare plasma concentrations of L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in PAH compared to left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and healthy subjects. This was an observational, multicenter study comparing 21 patients with PAH to 14 patients with LVSD and 27 healthy subjects. Physical examinations were obtained and blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA, L-arginine, L-ornithine, and L-citrulline were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plasma levels of ADMA and SDMA were higher, whereas L-arginine and L-arginine/ADMA ratio were lower in PAH patients compared to healthy subjects (p L-arginine than patients with LVSD (p L-Arginine correlated to 6 min walking distance (6MWD) (r s  = 0.58, p = 0.006) and L-arginine/ADMA correlated to WHO functional class (r s  = -0.46, p = 0.043) in PAH. In conclusion, L-arginine levels were significantly lower in treatment naïve PAH patients compared to patients with LVSD. Furthermore, L-arginine correlated with 6MWD in PAH. L-arginine may provide useful information in differentiating PAH from LVSD.

  10. Plasma l-citrulline concentrations in l-arginine-supplemented healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, K M; Kellihan, H B; Trepanier, L A

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether oral l-arginine increases plasma [l-citrulline] in dogs. Eleven healthy staff-owned dogs were used in this study. Dogs (n = 3) were given l-arginine (50mg/kg PO q8h) for 7 days, and plasma [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography at baseline (BL), steady state trough, and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after final dosing on day 7. Eleven dogs were then treated with 100mg/kg l-arginine PO q8h for 7 days, and [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] were measured at BL, steady state trough, and at peak 4 hrs after dosing (T4 hrs). - Plasma [l-arginine] and [l-citrulline] peaked at T4 hrs on the 50mg/kg dosage. Target outcome, modeled after human study results, of a doubling of [l-arginine] and a 25-30% increase in [l-citrulline] from BL were not reached. After the 100mg/kg dosage, plasma [l-arginine] increased from a BL median of 160.1 μM (range, 100.2-231.4 μM) to a peak of 417.4 μM (206.5-807.3 μM) at T4 hrs, and plasma [l-citrulline] increased from a BL median of 87.8 μM (59.1-117.1 μM) to peak of 102.2 μM (47.4-192.6 μM) at T4 hrs. Ten of eleven dogs showed a doubling of plasma [l-arginine] and 4/11 dogs achieved 25-30% or greater increases in plasma [l-citrulline]. No adverse effects on heart rate or blood pressure were noted. - Oral l-arginine dosage of 100mg/kg q8h doubles plasma [l-arginine] in healthy dogs, but conversion to l-citrulline is quite variable. Further evaluation of this dosage regimen in dogs with pulmonary hypertension is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in plasma L-arginine and methylarginines in heart failure and after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Jakob; Sandqvist, Anna; Hedeland, Mikael; Bondesson, Ulf; Wikström, Gerhard; Rådegran, Göran

    2018-04-12

    Endothelial function, including the nitric oxide (NO)-pathway, has previously been extensively investigated in heart failure (HF). In contrast, studies are lacking on the NO pathway after heart transplantation (HT). We therefore investigated substances in the NO pathway prior to and after HT in relation to hemodynamic parameters. 12 patients (median age 50.0 yrs, 2 females), heart transplanted between June 2012 and February 2014, evaluated at our hemodynamic lab, at rest, prior to HT, as well as four weeks and six months after HT were included. All patients had normal left ventricular function post-operatively and none had post-operative pulmonary hypertension or acute cellular rejection requiring therapy at the evaluations. Plasma concentrations of ADMA, SDMA, L-Arginine, L-Ornithine and L-Citrulline were analyzed at each evaluation. In comparison to controls, the plasma L-Arginine concentration was low and ADMA high in HF patients, resulting in low L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio pre-HT. Already four weeks after HT L-Arginine was normalized whereas ADMA remained high. Consequently the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio improved, but did not normalize. The biomarkers remained unchanged at the six-month evaluation and the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio correlated inversely to pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) six months post-HT. Plasma L-Arginine concentrations normalize after HT. However, as ADMA is unchanged, the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio remained low and correlated inversely to PVR. Together these findings suggest that (i) the L-Arginine/ADMA-ratio may be an indicator of pulmonary vascular tone after HT, and that (ii) NO-dependent endothelial function is partly restored after HT. Considering the good postoperative outcome, the biomarker levels may be considered "normal" after HT.

  12. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depl...

  13. Functional variation in the arginine vasopressin 2 receptor as a modifier of human plasma von Willebrand factor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Robben, J H; Deen, P M T

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: Stimulation of arginine vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R) with arginine vasopressin (AVP) results in a rise in von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII plasma levels. We hypothesized that gain-of-function variations in the V2R gene (AVPR2) would lead to higher plasma levels of V...

  14. Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to malnourished hemodialysis patients improves plasma arginine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, E; Hampl, H; Steudle, V; Nündel, M

    1996-01-01

    Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to 24 malnourished hemodialysis patients for 1 year leads to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 53.6 +/- 18.3 (compared to a healthy control group: 87.5 +/- 27.3) to 71.1 +/- 15.9 mumol/l (p calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration.

  15. Radioimmunoassay for human plasma 8-arginine-vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte-Devolx, B.; Rougon-Rapuzzi, G.; Millet, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human plasma vasopressin (AVP) which permits the estimation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level as low as 0.8pg/ml, was developed. The average plasma level of AVP after overnight water restriction was found to be 14.3pg/ml (sd=4.4pg/ml) in normal subjects. They provoked a hypersecretion of ADH by the intravenous injection of 1-2mg of nicotine. In 11 volunteer normal subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH hypersecretion which reached a maximum between 2nd and 15th minutes after injection. In 3 cases of diabetes insipidus, nicotine injection did not induce ADH hypersecretion: in 1 case of potomania this response was weak; in 2 cases of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, AVP plasma levels were elevated and the response after nicotine stimulation was exaggerated [fr

  16. Radioimmunoassay for human plasma 8-arginine-vasopressin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte-Devolx, B [Hopital de la Conception, 13 - Marseille (France); Rougon-Rapuzzi, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France); Millet, Y [Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille (France)

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human plasma vasopressin (AVP) which permits the estimation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level as low as 0.8pg/ml, was developed. The average plasma level of AVP after overnight water restriction was found to be 14.3pg/ml (sd=4.4pg/ml) in normal subjects. They provoked a hypersecretion of ADH by the intravenous injection of 1-2mg of nicotine. In 11 volunteer normal subjects this stimulation by nicotine provoked ADH hypersecretion which reached a maximum between 2nd and 15th minutes after injection. In 3 cases of diabetes insipidus, nicotine injection did not induce ADH hypersecretion: in 1 case of potomania this response was weak; in 2 cases of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, AVP plasma levels were elevated and the response after nicotine stimulation was exaggerated.

  17. Radio-immunoassay of plasma arginine vasopressin in man. Comparison of two methods of extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Dumoulin, G.; Henriet, M.T.; Baulay, A.; Berthelay, S.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of extraction, prior to radio-immunoassay (RIA) of human plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) were tested: ethanol extraction (ETH), chromatography with ODS-Silice (ODS-Sil). Recovery of 125 I AVP was higher when using ODS-Sil than when using ETH. Recovery of standard AVP was found to be more efficient and reproducible for ODS-Sil. However, the RIA used, performed after chromatography with ODS-Sil, is not enough sensitive to detect low concentrations but is able to detect high concentrations and physiological variations of plasma AVP [fr

  18. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhi, Sunit; Parshad, Omkar

    1985-01-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  19. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R [Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  1. A UV-induced mutation in neurospora that affects translational regulation in response to arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, M.; Dighde, N.; Sachs, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa arg-2 gene encodes the small subunit of arginine-specific carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. The levels of arg-2 mRNA and mRNA translation are negatively regulated by arginine. An upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the transcript's 5' region has been implicated in arginine-specific control. An arg-2-hph fusion gene encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase conferred arginine-regulated resistance to hygromycin when introduced into N. crassa. We used an arg-2-hph strain to select for UV-induced mutants that grew in the presence of hygromycin and arginine, and we isolated 46 mutants that had either of two phenotypes. One phenotype indicated altered expression of both arg-2-hph and arg-2 genes; the other, altered expression of arg-2-hph but not arg-2. One of the latter mutations, which was genetically closely linked to arg-2-hph, was recovered from the 5' region of the arg-2-hph gene using PCR Sequence analyses and transformation experiments revealed a mutation at uORF codon 12 (Asp to Asn) that abrogated negative regulation. Examination of the distribution of ribosomes on arg-2-hph transcripts showed that loss of regulation had a translational component, indicating the uORF sequence was important for Arg-specific translational control. Comparisons with other uORFs suggest common elements in translational control mechanisms

  2. Plasma Oxytocin and Arginine-Vasopressin Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: Associations with Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Wu, Jing; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Shui; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by impairments of social interaction and the presence of obsessive behaviors. The "twin" nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are known to play regulatory roles in social behaviors. However, the plasma levels and behavioral relevance of OXT and AVP in children with ASD have seldom been investigated. It is also unknown whether their mothers have abnormal plasma peptide levels. Here, using well-established methods of neuropeptide measurement and a relatively large sample size, we determined the plasma levels of the two neuropeptides in 85 normal children, 84 children with ASD, and 31 mothers from each group of children. As expected, children with ASD had lower plasma OXT levels than gender-matched controls (P = 0.028). No such difference was found for plasma AVP concentrations. Correlation analysis showed that ASD children with higher plasma OXT concentrations tended to have less impairment of verbal communication (Rho = -0.22, P = 0.076), while those with higher plasma AVP levels tended to have lower levels of repetitive use of objects (Rho = -0.231, P = 0.079). Unlike the findings in children, maternal plasma OXT levels showed no group difference. However, plasma AVP levels in the mothers of ASD children tended to be lower than in the mothers of normal children (P = 0.072). In conclusion, our results suggest that the OXT system is dysregulated in children with ASD, and that OXT and AVP levels in plasma seem to be associated with specific autistic symptoms. The plasma levels of OXT or AVP in mothers and their ASD children did not seem to change in the same direction.

  3. Proglucagon products in plasma of noninsulin-dependent diabetics and nondiabetic controls in the fasting state and after oral glucose and intravenous arginine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Jeppesen, J; Madsbad, S

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the major products of proglucagon (PG) processing in plasma in the fasting state, after intravenous arginine and after an oral glucose load in noninsulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM) and in weight matched controls using specific radioimmunoassays and analytical gel filtration...... integrated incremental responses after intravenous arginine were identical in the two groups. After oral glucose the insulin concentrations in plasma were lower and the concentrations of all proglucagon products were higher in the NIDDM group compared to the control group. The gel filtration analysis showed....... In the fasting state the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) immunoreactivity was significantly elevated in the NIDDM group compared with the control group. Both after intravenous arginine and after an oral glucose load a rise in the plasma concentrations of all immunoreactive moieties measured was seen. All...

  4. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  5. Isosorbide-Induced Decompression Effect on the Scala Media: Participation of Plasma Osmolality and Plasma Arginine Vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Takeda, Setsuko; Uehara, Natsumi; Yanagisawa, Shungaku; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Kakigi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between the isosorbide-induced decompression effect on the endolymphatic space and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) or plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP) was investigated on comparing two different dosages of isosorbide (2.8 and 1.4 g/kg) to elucidate why the decompression effect is delayed with a large dose of isosorbide. Two experiments were performed using 80 guinea pigs. Experiment 1 was designed to morphologically investigate the sequential influence of the oral intake of 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide on the endolymphatic volume. The animals used were 50 guinea pigs (control: 10, experimental: 40). All animals underwent surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic sac of the left ear. One month after the surgery, control animals were sacrificed 3 hours after the intake of distilled water, and experimental animals were sacrificed 3 and 6 hours after the isosorbide intake. All of the left temporal bone served for the quantitative assessment of changes in the endolymphatic space, and the cross-sectional area of the scala media was measured from the mid-modiolar sections of the cochlea.Experiment 2 was designed to investigate changes in p-OSM and p-AVP levels 3 hours after the oral intake of isosorbide. Animals used were 15 guinea pigs (control: 5, experimental: 10). The control group received the oral administration of distilled water (4 ml/kg), and the experimental animals were subdivided into two groups consisting of 10 animals each by the dosage of isosorbide (1.4 or 2.8 g/kg). All animals were sacrificed for the measurement of p-OSM and p-AVP concentrations 3 hours after the intake of water or 70% isosorbide solution. Morphologically, an isosorbide-induced decompression effect was noted in animals with both 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide. According to the regression analysis, however, the volumetric decrease of the endolymphatic space was more evident in cases with the small dose (1.4 g/kg) 3 hours after the intake

  6. N-terminal arginines modulate plasma-membrane localization of Kv7.1/KCNE1 channel complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenawit Girmatsion

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks is important for cardiac action potential termination. The underlying channel is composed of Kv7.1 α-subunits and KCNE1 β-subunits. While most evidence suggests a role of KCNE1 transmembrane domain and C-terminus for the interaction, the N-terminal KCNE1 polymorphism 38G is associated with reduced I(Ks and atrial fibrillation (a human arrhythmia. Structure-function relationship of the KCNE1 N-terminus for I(Ks modulation is poorly understood and was subject of this study. METHODS: We studied N-terminal KCNE1 constructs disrupting structurally important positively charged amino-acids (arginines at positions 32, 33, 36 as well as KCNE1 constructs that modify position 38 including an N-terminal truncation mutation. Experimental procedures included molecular cloning, patch-clamp recording, protein biochemistry, real-time-PCR and confocal microscopy. RESULTS: All KCNE1 constructs physically interacted with Kv7.1. I(Ks resulting from co-expression of Kv7.1 with non-atrial fibrillation '38S' was greater than with any other construct. Ionic currents resulting from co-transfection of a KCNE1 mutant with arginine substitutions ('38G-3xA' were comparable to currents evoked from cells transfected with an N-terminally truncated KCNE1-construct ('Δ1-38'. Western-blots from plasma-membrane preparations and confocal images consistently showed a greater amount of Kv7.1 protein at the plasma-membrane in cells co-transfected with the non-atrial fibrillation KCNE1-38S than with any other construct. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study indicate that N-terminal arginines in positions 32, 33, 36 of KCNE1 are important for reconstitution of I(Ks. Furthermore, our results hint towards a role of these N-terminal amino-acids in membrane representation of the delayed rectifier channel complex.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality ( 2 O). (orig.)

  8. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-02-15

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality (< 170 mosmol/kg H/sub 2/O).

  9. Efficacy of desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate for hypersensitivity relief in MIH-affected molars: an 8-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekes, Katrin; Heinzelmann, Karolin; Lettner, Stefan; Schaller, Hans-Günter

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)-affected molars immediately and over 8 weeks combining a single in-office application and a homed-based program with desensitizing products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate. Nineteen children with at least one MIH-affected molar with hypersensitivity were included. Hypersensitivity was assessed with an evaporative (air) stimulus and a tactile stimulus. Each child received a single in-office treatment with a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (elmex Sensitive Professional desensitizing paste), followed by 8 weeks of brushing twice daily with a desensitizing toothpaste containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate with 1450 ppm fluoride (elmex Sensitive Professional toothpaste), using the elmex Sensitive Professional toothbrush. Additionally, the corresponding mouthwash (elmex Sensitive Professional mouthwash) was used. Clinical assessments were made at baseline, immediately after the in-office treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks of brushing twice daily. Fifty-six molars with an air blast hypersensitivity score of 2 or 3 (Schiff Cold Air Sensitivity Scale) were included. Application of the desensitizing paste decreased hypersensitivity significantly immediately and throughout the 8 weeks recalls (p MIH. This is the first study evaluating the desensitizing effect of a desensitizing paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate in patients with MIH.

  10. Effect of l-arginine therapy on plasma NO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 3/ levels, and blood pressure in uremic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Khemomal, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normal kidney function is regulated by Nitric oxide (NO) and Superoxide (O/sub 2/-) in the body, and consequently controls blood pressure. Nitric Oxide promotes natriuresis and diuresis, and therefore results in reduction of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure, urinary protein, nitrite and nitrate in addition to blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in uremic rabbits. Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. A total of 48 rabbits were included in the study. Twenty-four of the rabbits on surgical intervention were prepared as uremic and so became hypertensive as well. Two groups were uremic, one group was given L-arginine and the other was remained untreated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured on week 0, week 2, week 4, and week 6, while blood and urine was collected on week 0 and week 6. Results: On supplementation with L-arginine to uremic rabbits systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased significantly. Nitrite/nitrate and urinary protein were corrected to some extent while blood urea and serum creatinine were unaffected. Conclusion: L-arginine has a beneficial role as blood pressure lowering agent in uremic rabbits. It corrects NO/sub 2/NO/sub 3/ plasma level and proteinuria which is indicator of renal failure. (author)

  11. Comparison of Three Sample Preparation Procedures for the Quantification of L-Arginine, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Symmetric Dimethylarginine in Human Plasma Using HPLC-FLD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human plasma has been associated with reduced generation of nitric oxide, leading to atherosclerotic diseases. ADMA may therefore be an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, three sample preparation techniques were co...... sample preparation of human plasma samples before HPLC-FLD in providing important information regarding elevated ADMA concentrations.......Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human plasma has been associated with reduced generation of nitric oxide, leading to atherosclerotic diseases. ADMA may therefore be an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, three sample preparation techniques were...... compared regarding the quantification of L-arginine and ADMA in human plasma: (A) protein precipitation (PP) based on aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCA), (B) PP using a mixture of ammonia and acetonitrile, and (C) solid-phase extraction (SPE). The samples were analysed by using high-performance liquid...

  12. Comparison of Three Sample Preparation Procedures for the Quantification of L-Arginine, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Symmetric Dimethylarginine in Human Plasma Using HPLC-FLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie Voigt

    2018-01-01

    Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in human plasma has been associated with reduced generation of nitric oxide, leading to atherosclerotic diseases. ADMA may therefore be an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. In the present study, three sample preparation techniques were compared regarding the quantification of L-arginine and ADMA in human plasma: (A) protein precipitation (PP) based on aqueous trichloroacetic acid (TCA), (B) PP using a mixture of ammonia and acetonitrile, and (C) solid-phase extraction (SPE). The samples were analysed by using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The analytical performance of (A) was comparable with that of (C), demonstrating recoveries of >90%, coefficient of variations (CVs, %) of 0.994), precision (sample preparation of human plasma samples before HPLC-FLD in providing important information regarding elevated ADMA concentrations. PMID:29484214

  13. Induction of arginosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression affects the antiproliferative activity of arginine deiminase (ADI) in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Antonella; Sini, Maria Cristina; Izzo, Francesco; Ascierto, Paolo A; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Botti, Gerardo; Gentilcore, Giusy; Capone, Marilena; Mozzillo, Nicola; Rozzo, Carla; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Arginine deiminase (ADI), an arginine-degrading enzyme, has been used in the treatment of tumours sensitive to arginine deprivation, such as malignant melanoma (MM) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Endogenous production of arginine is mainly dependent on activity of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) enzymes. We evaluated the effect of ADI treatment on OTC and ASS expression in a series of melanoma cell lines. Twenty-five primary melanoma cell lines and normal fibroblasts as controls underwent cell proliferation assays and Western blot analyses in the presence or absence of ADI. Tissue sections from primary MMs (N = 20) and HCCs (N = 20) were investigated by immunohistochemistry for ASS expression. Overall, 21/25 (84%) MM cell lines presented a cell growth inhibition by ADI treatment; none of them presented constitutive detectable levels of the ASS protein. However, 7/21 (33%) ADI-sensitive melanoma cell lines presented markedly increased expression levels of the ASS protein following ADI treatment, with a significantly higher IC50 median value. Growth was not inhibited and the IC50 was not reached among the remaining 4/25 (16%) MM cell lines; all of them showed constitutive ASS expression. The OTC protein was found expressed in all melanoma cell lines before and after the ADI treatment. Lack of ASS immunostaining was observed in all analyzed in vivo specimens. Our findings suggest that response to ADI treatment in melanoma is significantly correlated with the ability of cells to express ASS either constitutively at basal level (inducing drug resistance) or after the treatment (reducing sensitivity to ADI).

  14. Characterization of conserved arginine residues on Cdt1 that affect licensing activity and interaction with Geminin or Mcm complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Ode, Koji L; Shindo, Mayumi; Takisawa, Haruhiko; Masai, Hisao

    2016-05-02

    All organisms ensure once and only once replication during S phase through a process called replication licensing. Cdt1 is a key component and crucial loading factor of Mcm complex, which is a central component for the eukaryotic replicative helicase. In higher eukaryotes, timely inhibition of Cdt1 by Geminin is essential to prevent rereplication. Here, we address the mechanism of DNA licensing using purified Cdt1, Mcm and Geminin proteins in combination with replication in Xenopus egg extracts. We mutagenized the 223th arginine of mouse Cdt1 (mCdt1) to cysteine or serine (R-S or R-C, respectively) and 342nd and 346th arginines constituting an arginine finger-like structure to alanine (RR-AA). The RR-AA mutant of Cdt1 could not only rescue the DNA replication activity in Cdt1-depleted extracts but also its specific activity for DNA replication and licensing was significantly increased compared to the wild-type protein. In contrast, the R223 mutants were partially defective in rescue of DNA replication and licensing. Biochemical analyses of these mutant Cdt1 proteins indicated that the RR-AA mutation disabled its functional interaction with Geminin, while R223 mutations resulted in ablation in interaction with the Mcm2∼7 complex. Intriguingly, the R223 mutants are more susceptible to the phosphorylation-induced inactivation or chromatin dissociation. Our results show that conserved arginine residues play critical roles in interaction with Geminin and Mcm that are crucial for proper conformation of the complexes and its licensing activity.

  15. Cellular transport of l-arginine determines renal medullary blood flow in control rats, but not in diabetic rats despite enhanced cellular uptake capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Patrik; Fasching, Angelica; Teerlink, Tom; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability thereby affecting renal blood flow regulation. Previous reports have demonstrated that cellular uptake of l-arginine is rate limiting for nitric oxide production and that plasma l-arginine concentration is decreased in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether regional renal blood flow regulation is affected by cellular l-arginine uptake in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital, and the left kidney was exposed. Total, cortical, and medullary renal blood flow was investigated before and after renal artery infusion of increasing doses of either l-homoarginine to inhibit cellular uptake of l-arginine or N ω -nitro- l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase. l-Homoarginine infusion did not affect total or cortical blood flow in any of the groups, but caused a dose-dependent reduction in medullary blood flow. l-NAME decreased total, cortical and medullary blood flow in both groups. However, the reductions in medullary blood flow in response to both l-homoarginine and l-NAME were more pronounced in the control groups compared with the diabetic groups. Isolated cortical tubular cells displayed similar l-arginine uptake capacity whereas medullary tubular cells isolated from diabetic rats had increased l-arginine uptake capacity. Diabetics had reduced l-arginine concentrations in plasma and medullary tissue but increased l-arginine concentration in cortical tissue. In conclusion, the reduced l-arginine availability in plasma and medullary tissue in diabetes results in reduced nitric oxide-mediated regulation of renal medullary hemodynamics. Cortical blood flow regulation displays less dependency on extracellular l-arginine and the upregulated cortical tissue l-arginine may protect cortical hemodynamics in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  17. Herring and chicken/pork meals lead to differences in plasma levels of TCA intermediates and arginine metabolites in overweight and obese men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Andrew; Savolainen, Otto I; Sen, Partho

    2017-01-01

    citrate, fumarate, isocitrate, glycolate, oxalate, agmatine and methyhistidine and increased asparagine, ornithine, glutamine and the hexosamine glucosamine. Modelling found that the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate, and argininemetabolism were affected by the intervention. The effect on arginine...... metabolism was supported by an increase in blood nitric oxide in males on the herring diet. Conclusion: The results suggest that eating herring instead of chicken and lean pork leads to important metabolic effects, particularly on energy and amino acid metabolism. Our findings support the hypothesis...... that there are metabolic effects of herring intake unrelated to the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content....

  18. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratima; Chandra, M

    2009-01-01

    Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days) resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH) and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO). These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes. PMID:20716909

  19. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  20. Overexpression of arginase I in enterocytes of transgenic mice elicits a selective arginine deficiency and affects skin, muscle, and lymphoid development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Wouter J.; Hallemeesch, Marcella M.; Kwikkers, Karin L.; Ruijter, Jan M.; de Gier-de Vries, Corrie; van Roon, Marian A.; Meijer, Alfred J.; Marescau, Bart; de Deyn, Peter P.; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arginine is required for the detoxification of ammonia and the synthesis of proteins, nitric oxide, agmatine, creatine, and polyamines, and it may promote lymphocyte function. In suckling mammals, arginine is synthesized in the enterocytes of the small intestine, but this capacity is

  1. L-arginine biosensors: A comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Verma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO and tumor growth. A number of methods are being used for arginine detection, but biosensors technique holds prime position due to rapid response, high sensitivity and high specificity. However, there are many problems still to be addressed, including selectivity, real time analysis and interference of urea presence in the sample. In the present review we aim to emphasize the significant role of arginine in human physiology and foods. A small attempt has been made to discuss the various techniques used for development of arginine biosensor and how these techniques affect their performance. The choice of transducers for arginine biosensor ranges from optical, pH sensing, ammonia gas sensing, ammonium ion-selective, conductometric and amperometric electrodes because ammonia is formed as a final product.

  2. Depletion of Arabidopsis SC35 and SC35-like serine/arginine-rich proteins affects the transcription and splicing of a subset of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingqing; Xia, Xi; Sun, Zhenfei; Fang, Yuda

    2017-03-01

    Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors which play significant roles in spliceosome assembly and splicing regulation. However, little is known regarding their biological functions in plants. Here, we analyzed the phenotypes of mutants upon depleting different subfamilies of Arabidopsis SR proteins. We found that loss of the functions of SC35 and SC35-like (SCL) proteins cause pleiotropic changes in plant morphology and development, including serrated leaves, late flowering, shorter roots and abnormal silique phyllotaxy. Using RNA-seq, we found that SC35 and SCL proteins play roles in the pre-mRNA splicing. Motif analysis revealed that SC35 and SCL proteins preferentially bind to a specific RNA sequence containing the AGAAGA motif. In addition, the transcriptions of a subset of genes are affected by the deletion of SC35 and SCL proteins which interact with NRPB4, a specific subunit of RNA polymerase II. The splicing of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) intron1 and transcription of FLC were significantly regulated by SC35 and SCL proteins to control Arabidopsis flowering. Therefore, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the functions of plant SC35 and SCL proteins in the regulation of splicing and transcription in a direct or indirect manner to maintain the proper expression of genes and development.

  3. An onion byproduct affects plasma lipids in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Marín, Eduvigis; Jensen, Runa I; Krath, Britta N; Kristensen, Mette; Poulsen, Morten; Cano, M Pilar; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Dragsted, Lars O

    2010-05-12

    Onion may contribute to the health effects associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption. A considerable amount of onion production ends up as waste that might find use in foods. Onion byproduct has not yet been explored for potential health benefits. The aim of this study is to elucidate the safety and potential role of onion byproducts in affecting risk markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). For that purpose, the effects of an onion byproduct, Allium cepa L. cepa 'Recas' (OBP), and its two derived fractions, an ethanolic extract (OE) and a residue (OR), on the distribution of plasma lipids and on factors affecting cholesterol metabolism in healthy rats have been investigated. The OBP or its fractions did not significantly reduce cholesterol or down-regulate hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) gene expression. The OR even had the effect of increasing plasma triacylglycerides (TAG) and cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) fraction. Neither total bile acids nor total primary or secondary bile acids were significantly affected by feeding rats the OBP or its fractions. Principal component analysis combining all markers revealed that the controls could be completely separated from OBP, OE, and OR groups in the scores plot and also that OE and OR groups were separated. Plasma lipids and bile acid excretion were the discriminating loading factors for separating OE and OR but also contributed to the separation of onion-fed animals and controls. It was concluded that the onion byproduct did not present significant beneficial effects on individual markers related to plasma lipid transport in this healthy rat model but that onion byproduct contains factors with the ability to modulate plasma lipids and lipoprotein levels.

  4. Systemic inflammation is linked to low arginine and high ADMA plasma levels resulting in an unfavourable NOS substrate-to-inhibitor ratio: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwan, L.P.; Scheffer, P.G.; Dekker, J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Heine, R.J.; Teerlink, T.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with a reduced availability of NO in the vasculature. We investigated the possible involvement of altered levels of the substrate (arginine) and the inhibitor [ADMA (asymmetric ω-N

  5. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  6. A novel mutation affecting the arginine-137 residue of AVPR2 in dizygous twins leads to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and attenuated urine exosome aquaporin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichs, Gitte R; Hansen, Louise H; Nielsen, Maria R

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the vasopressin V2 receptor gene AVPR2 may cause X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by defective apical insertion of aquaporin-2 in the renal collecting duct principal cell. Substitution mutations with exchange of arginine at codon 137 can cause nephrogenic syndrome...... of inappropriate antidiuresis or congenital X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. We present a novel mutation in codon 137 within AVPR2 with substitution of glycine for arginine in male dizygotic twins. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus was demonstrated by water deprivation test and resistance to vasopressin...

  7. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for arginine vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, K.; Murase, T.; Yamaji, T.

    1976-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for arginine vasopressin (AVP) was developed utilizing the antisera against lysine vasopressin (LVP) in combination with a labeled AVP. The assay employs an acetone extraction procedure and detects as little as 0.8 pg. per millimeter of AVP in human plasma. In normal subjects, the mean (+- S.D.) plasma concentration of AVP was 4.9 +- 1.2 pg. per milliliter after fluid deprivation and 1.2 +- 0.4 pg. per milliliter after water loading. Plasma AVP levels correlated significantly with plasma osmolalities. In four patients with diabetes insipidus, plasma AVP concentrations ranged from less than 0.8 to 1.2 pg. per milliliter, whereas six patients with the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion showed plasma levels of AVP which correspond to those of the dehydrated state in normal subjects or greater, although plasma osmolalities were low in all cases. It was concluded that the present radioimmunoassay method for AVP provides a useful way of assessing neurohypophyseal function in man

  8. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance H Rodan

    Full Text Available To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31P-MRS in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes syndrome.We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR in MTTL1 gene with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine.At baseline (no L-Arg, MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001. On 3(1P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr (p = 0.05, decreased ATP (p = 0.018, and decreased intracellular Mg(2+ (p = 0.0002 when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1 increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT (2 increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3 small increase in VO(2peak. On (31P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1 A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis (2 increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP suggesting increased work capacity (3 a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4 increase in torque.These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study.Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  9. L-Arginine Affects Aerobic Capacity and Muscle Metabolism in MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes) Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodan, Lance H; Wells, Greg D; Banks, Laura; Thompson, Sara; Schneiderman, Jane E; Tein, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of L-arginine (L-Arg) on total body aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism as assessed by (31)Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) in patients with MELAS (Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes) syndrome. We performed a case control study in 3 MELAS siblings (m.3243A>G tRNA(leu(UUR)) in MTTL1 gene) with different % blood mutant mtDNA to evaluate total body maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) using graded cycle ergometry and muscle metabolism using 31P-MRS. We then ran a clinical trial pilot study in MELAS sibs to assess response of these parameters to single dose and a 6-week steady-state trial of oral L-Arginine. At baseline (no L-Arg), MELAS had lower serum Arg (p = 0.001). On 3(1)P-MRS muscle at rest, MELAS subjects had increased phosphocreatine (PCr) (p = 0.05), decreased ATP (p = 0.018), and decreased intracellular Mg(2+) (p = 0.0002) when compared to matched controls. With L-arginine therapy, the following trends were noted in MELAS siblings on cycle ergometry: (1) increase in mean % maximum work at anaerobic threshold (AT) (2) increase in % maximum heart rate at AT (3) small increase in VO(2peak). On (31)P-MRS the following mean trends were noted: (1) A blunted decrease in pH after exercise (less acidosis) (2) increase in Pi/PCr ratio (ADP) suggesting increased work capacity (3) a faster half time of PCr recovery (marker of mitochondrial activity) following 5 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (4) increase in torque. These results suggest an improvement in aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects in response to supplementation with L-Arg. Intramyocellular hypomagnesemia is a novel finding that warrants further study. Class III evidence that L-arginine improves aerobic capacity and muscle metabolism in MELAS subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01603446.

  10. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine has vasodilatory effects, via its conversion by nitric oxide (NO) synthase into NO, and immunomodulatory actions that play important roles in sepsis. Protein breakdown affects arginine availability, and the release of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, may therefore a...

  11. Plasma metabolic profiling of dairy cows affected with clinical ketosis using LC/MS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Xu, C; Xia, C; Zhang, Hy; Sun, Lw; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Ketosis in dairy cattle is an important metabolic disorder. Currently, the plasma metabolic profile of ketosis as determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has not been reported. To investigate plasma metabolic profiles from cows with clinical ketosis in comparison to control cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows were divided into two groups based on clinical signs and plasma β-hydroxybutyric acid and glucose concentrations 7-21 days postpartum: clinical ketosis and control cows. Plasma metabolic profiles were analyzed using LC/MS. Data were processed using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Compared to control cows, the levels of valine, glycine, glycocholic, tetradecenoic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased significantly in clinical ketosis. On the other hand, the levels of arginine, aminobutyric acid, leucine/isoleucine, tryptophan, creatinine, lysine, norcotinine, and undecanoic acid decreased markedly. Our results showed that the metabolic changes in cows with clinical ketosis involve complex metabolic networks and signal transduction. These results are important for future studies elucidating the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prevention of clinical ketosis in dairy cows.

  12. Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Hsu, Jean W; Emrick, Lisa T; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  14. The Ergogenic Potential of Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Bounty Paul M

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is involved in protein synthesis, the detoxification of ammonia, and its conversion to glucose as well as being catabolized to produce energy. In addition to these physiological functions, arginine has been purported to have ergogenic potential. Athletes have taken arginine for three main reasons: 1 its role in the secretion of endogenous growth hormone; 2 its involvement in the synthesis of creatine; 3 its role in augmenting nitric oxide. These aspects of arginine supplementation will be discussed as well as a review of clinical investigations involving exercise performance and arginine ingestion.

  15. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia J. H. Brinkmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

  16. Flavanol plasma bioavailability is affected by metabolic syndrome in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margalef, M.; Pons, Z.; Iglesias-Carres, L.; Bravo, F.I.; Muguerza, B.; Arola-Arnal, A.

    2017-01-01

    Flavanols, which exert several health benefits, are metabolized after ingestion. Factors such as the host physiological condition could affect the metabolism and bioavailability of flavanols, influencing their bioactivities. This study aimed to qualitatively evaluate whether a pathological state

  17. Effect of methylation on the side-chain pKa value of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evich, Marina; Stroeva, Ekaterina; Zheng, Yujun George; Germann, Markus W

    2016-02-01

    Arginine methylation is important in biological systems. Recent studies link the deregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases with certain cancers. To assess the impact of methylation on interaction with other biomolecules, the pKa values of methylated arginine variants were determined using NMR data. The pKa values of monomethylated, symmetrically dimethylated, and asymmetrically dimethylated arginine are similar to the unmodified arginine (14.2 ± 0.4). Although the pKa value has not been significantly affected by methylation, consequences of methylation include changes in charge distribution and steric effects, suggesting alternative mechanisms for recognition. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  18. Non-Targeted Metabolomics Analysis of Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy-Affected Muscles Reveals Alterations in Arginine and Proline Metabolism, and Elevations in Glutamic and Oleic Acid In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad; Kornegay, Joe N.; Honcoop, Aubree; Parry, Traci L.; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Patterson, Cam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model of DMD is characterized by muscle necrosis, progressive paralysis, and pseudohypertrophy in specific skeletal muscles. This severe GRMD phenotype includes moderate atrophy of the biceps femoris (BF) as compared to unaffected normal dogs, while the long digital extensor (LDE), which functions to flex the tibiotarsal joint and serves as a digital extensor, undergoes the most pronounced atrophy. A recent microarray analysis of GRMD identified alterations in genes associated with lipid metabolism and energy production. Methods: We, therefore, undertook a non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the milder/earlier stage disease GRMD BF muscle versus the more severe/chronic LDE using GC-MS to identify underlying metabolic defects specific for affected GRMD skeletal muscle. Results: Untargeted metabolomics analysis of moderately-affected GRMD muscle (BF) identified eight significantly altered metabolites, including significantly decreased stearamide (0.23-fold of controls, p = 2.89 × 10−3), carnosine (0.40-fold of controls, p = 1.88 × 10−2), fumaric acid (0.40-fold of controls, p = 7.40 × 10−4), lactamide (0.33-fold of controls, p = 4.84 × 10−2), myoinositol-2-phosphate (0.45-fold of controls, p = 3.66 × 10−2), and significantly increased oleic acid (1.77-fold of controls, p = 9.27 × 10−2), glutamic acid (2.48-fold of controls, p = 2.63 × 10−2), and proline (1.73-fold of controls, p = 3.01 × 10−2). Pathway enrichment analysis identified significant enrichment for arginine/proline metabolism (p = 5.88 × 10−4, FDR 4.7 × 10−2), where alterations in L-glutamic acid, proline, and carnosine were found. Additionally, multiple Krebs cycle intermediates were significantly decreased (e.g., malic acid, fumaric acid, citric/isocitric acid, and succinic acid), suggesting that altered energy metabolism may be underlying the observed GRMD BF muscle

  19. Associations of Plasma Nitrite, L-Arginine and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine with Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Garred, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide system could play an important role in the pathophysiology related to necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI). Accordingly, we investigated the association between plasma nitrite level at admission and the presence of septic shock in patients with NSTI. We also evalu...

  20. L-arginine increases nitric oxide and attenuates pressor and heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    heart rate responses to change in posture in sickle cell anemia subjects. 1 .... the standing position and measurements made immediately. Arterial ... pressure was the difference between systolic and diastolic ... Table 3. Effect of L-Arginine Supplementation on Blood Pressure Parameters, Plasma L-Arginine and Nitric Oxide.

  1. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary arginine and linear growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W

    2013-01-01

    Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept......The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...

  3. The L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio is improved by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in inflammatory arthropathies. Associations with aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Kristin; Provan, Sella Aarrestad; Mowinckel, Petter; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Kvien, Tore Kristian; Atar, Dan

    2012-11-01

    Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α therapy improves vascular pathology in inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. The l-arginine/ADMA ratio is important for modulation of the nitric oxide synthase activity. We examined the effect of TNF-α antagonists on ADMA and l-arginine/ADMA, and associations between ADMA, L-arginine/ADMA, aortic stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. Forty-eight patients who started with anti-TNF-α therapy were compared with a non-treated group of 32 patients. Plasma ADMA and L-arginine were assessed at baseline, 3 and 12 months. In a subgroup of 55 patients, aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) was measured at baseline, 3 and 12 moths, and CIMT was examined at baseline and 12 months. Anti-TNF-α therapy increased the L-arginine/ADMA ratio (mean [SD]) in the treatment group compared to the control group after 3 months (12 [29] vs. -13 [20], P < 0.001) and 12 months (7 [27] vs. -8 [19], P = 0.008), but did not affect ADMA (3 months: 0.00 [0.09] μmol/L vs. 0.02 [0.07] μmol/L, P = 0.42, 12 months: 0.01 [0.08] μmol/L vs. 0.01 [0.09] μmol/L, P = 0.88). Baseline aPWV was associated with ADMA (P = 0.02) and L-arginine/ADMA (P = 0.02) in multiple regression analyses, and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio was continuously associated with aPWV after initiation of anti-TNF-α therapy (P = 0.03). ADMA and L-arginine/ADMA were not correlated with CIMT. Anti-TNF-α therapy improved the L-arginine/ADMA ratio in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. ADMA and the L-arginine/ADMA ratio were associated with aPWV, and might have a mechanistic role in the aortic stiffening observed in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialvera, Theodora-Eirini; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Richter, Dimitris J; Yfanti, Georgia; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Micha, Renata; Goumas, Giorgos; Diamantopoulos, Emmanouil; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have observed decreased levels of lipophilic antioxidants after supplementation with phytosterols and stanols. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of phytosterol supplementation on plasma total antioxidant capacity in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a parallel arm, randomized placebo-controlled design, 108 patients with metabolic syndrome were assigned to consume yogurt beverage which provided 4 g of phytosterols per day or yogurt beverage without phytosterols. The duration of the study was 2 months and the patients in both groups followed their habitual westernized type diet. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 2 months, and the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. After 2 months of intervention, plasma total antioxidant capacity did not differ between and within the intervention and the control groups. Phytosterol supplementation does not affect plasma antioxidant status.

  5. Arginine inhibits the malignant transformation induced by interferon-gamma through the NF-κB-GCN2/eIF2α signaling pathway in mammary epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wenbo; Li, Yang; Xia, Xiaojing; Guo, Wenfei; Zhai, Taiyu; Jin, Yuting; Che, Yanyi; Gao, Haidi; Duan, Xiumei; Ma, Hongxi; Huang, Tinghao; Huang, Jing; Lei, Liancheng

    2018-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignant tumors in the world. It seriously affects women's physical and mental health and the leading cause of cancer death among women. Our previous study demonstrated that diet-derived IFN-γ promoted the malignant transformation of primary bovine mammary epithelial cells by accelerating arginine depletion. The current study aimed to explore whether arginine addition could inhibit the degree of malignant transformation and its molecular mechanism. The results indicate that arginine addition could alleviate the malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells induced by IFN-γ, including reducing cell proliferation, cell migration and colony formation, through the NF-κB-GCN2/eIF2α pathway. The in vivo experiments also consistently confirmed that arginine supplementation could significantly inhibit tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, the investigation of the clinical data also revealed that the plasma or tissue from human breast cancer patients owned lower arginine level and higher IFN-γ level than that from patients with benign breast disease, showing IFN-γ may be a potential control target. Our findings demonstrate that arginine supplement could antagonize the malignant transformation of mammary epithelial cells induced by IFN-γ (nutritionally induced) both in vitro and in vivo, and IFN-γ was higher in breast cancer women. This might provide a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer regarding to nutrition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arginine does not exacerbate markers of inflammation in cocultures of human enterocytes and leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Negrier, I.; Neveux, N.

    2007-01-01

    with arginine did not affect epithelial integrity, production of any of the cytokines investigated, or the amount of nitric oxide. The amino acid used primarily by nonstimulated intestinal epithelial cells cocultured with leukocytes was glutamine. Activation of IEC with bacteria significantly enhanced...... the catabolism of serine, asparagine, and lysine, and reduced glutamine catabolism. Addition of arginine increased ornithine formation and moderately reduced transepithelial transport of methionine and other amino acids. Hence, arginine supplementation does not interfere with inflammation-associated cross...

  7. Factors which affect operation of a plasma focus in various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    It is shown that the axial transit time t a and γ, the ratio of specific heats, are the main factors which affect the operation of a plasma focus in various gases. An energy balance theory is used to explore this dependence. The results are consistent with previous calculations and with experiment. (author). 12 refs

  8. L-Arginine Supplementation and Metabolism in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Linderholm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L-Arginine, the amino acid substrate for nitric oxide synthase, has been tested as a therapeutic intervention in a variety of chronic diseases and is commonly used as a nutritional supplement. In this study, we hypothesized that a subset of moderate to severe persistent asthma patients would benefit from supplementation with L-arginine by transiently increasing nitric oxide levels, resulting in bronchodilation and a reduction in inflammation. The pilot study consisted of a 3 month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-arginine (0.05 g/kg twice daily in patients with moderate to severe asthma. We measured spirometry, exhaled breath nitric oxide, serum arginine metabolites, questionnaire scores, daily medication use and PEFR with the primary endpoint being the number of minor exacerbations at three months. Interim analysis of the 20 subjects showed no difference in the number of exacerbations, exhaled nitric oxide levels or lung function between groups, though participants in the L-arginine group had higher serum L-arginine at day 60 (2.0 ± 0.6 × 10−3 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 × 10−3 µmol/L, p < 0.05, ornithine at day 30 (2.4 ± 0.9 vs. 1.2 ± 0.3 µmol/L serum, p < 0.05 and ADMA at day 30 (6.0 ± 1.5 × 10−1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10−1 µmol/L serum, p < 0.05 on average compared to the placebo group. The study was terminated prematurely. Supplementing asthma subjects with L-arginine increases plasma levels; whether subgroups might benefit from such supplementation requires further study.

  9. Guanidinoacetic acid loading affects plasma γ-aminobutyric acid in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine and an innovative dietary agent, activates γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors yet clinical effects of dietary GAA on GABA metabolism are currently unknown. The main aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether GAA loading affected peripheral GABA homeostasis in healthy humans. Eight healthy male volunteers aged 22-25 years were randomized in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (three grams daily) or placebo by oral administration for 3 weeks. At baseline and after 3 weeks participants provided fasting blood samples for free plasma levels of GABA, GAA, creatine and glutamine. Following 3 weeks of intervention, plasma GABA level dropped significantly in participants receiving 3 g of GAA per day as compared to the placebo (P = 0.03). GAA loading significantly decreased plasma GABA by 88.8 nmol/L (95% confidence interval; 5.4-172.1) after 3 weeks of intervention as compared to the baseline (P = 0.03). GAA intervention positively affected both plasma GAA and creatine (P GABA metabolism, and potentially down-regulates GABA synthesis in peripheral tissues. Possible GABAergic action of dietary GAA adds to the safety profile of this novel dietary supplement.

  10. Plasma membrane factor XIIIA transglutaminase activity regulates osteoblast matrix secretion and deposition by affecting microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil F Al-Jallad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2 and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA, has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics.

  11. The subcellular compartmentalization of arginine metabolizing enzymes and their role in endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eChen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS through the conversion of its substrate, L-arginine to L-citrulline. Reduced access to L-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2 metabolize L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea and increased expression of arginase has been proposed as a mechanism of reduced eNOS activity secondary to the depletion of L-arginine. Indeed, supplemental L-arginine and suppression of arginase activity has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and ameliorate cardiovascular disease. However, L-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis suggesting additional mechanisms. The compartmentalization of intracellular L-arginine into poorly interchangeable pools has been proposed to allow for the local depletion of L-arginine. Indeed the subcellular location of L-arginine metabolizing enzymes plays important functional roles. In endothelial cells, eNOS is found in discrete intracellular locations and the capacity to generate NO is heavily influenced by its localtion. Arg1 and Arg2 also reside in different subcellular environments and are thought to differentially influence endothelial function. The plasma membrane solute transporter, CAT-1 and the arginine recycling enzyme, ASL, co-localize with eNOS and facilitate NO release. This review highlights the importance of the subcellular location of eNOS and arginine transporting and metabolizing enzymes to NO release and cardiovascular disease.

  12. Supplementation with apple enriched with L-arginine may improve metabolic control and survival rate in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Moreno, Jorge; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Junod, Julio; Aguayo, Claudio; Acurio, Jesenia; Escudero, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with L-arginine or fresh food with high content of this amino acid is associated with favorable effects in the metabolic control of diabetes. We aimed to determine whether supplementation with apples enriched with L-arginine offer additional benefits compared to L-arginine by itself in a preclinical study of diabetes. This study combines food-engineer technologies with in vivo and in vitro analysis. In vitro experiments show that cells derived from non-diabetic animals and exposed to high glucose (25 mM, 12 H) and cells isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic animals exhibited a reduction (∼50%) in the L-arginine uptake. This effect was reverted by L-arginine pretreatment (12 H) in both the normal and diabetes-derived cells. In preclinical studies, normoglycemic (n = 25) and diabetic groups (n = 50) were divided into subgroups that received either L-arginine (375 mg/kg per 10 days) or apple enriched with L-arginine or vehicle (control). In a preliminary analysis, supplementation with L-arginine by itself (50%) or apple enriched with L-arginine (100%) improve survival rate in the diabetic group compared to control (0%) at the end of the follow up (17 days). This phenomenon was associated with a partial but sustained high plasma level of L-arginine, as well as plasma concentration of nitrites and insulin in the L-arginine or apple + L-arginine groups after supplementation. Apple + L-arginine supplementation in diabetic animals induced the highest and longest effects in the level of these three markers among the studied groups. Therefore, apple enriched by L-arginine offers more benefits than L-arginine by itself in this preclinical study. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Characterization of arginine decarboxylase from Dianthus caryophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Hak; Cho, Ki Joon; Choi, Yu Jin; Park, Ky Young; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2004-04-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC 4.1.1.9) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines in higher plants, whereas ornithine decarboxylase represents the sole pathway of polyamine biosynthesis in animals. Previously, we characterized a genomic clone from Dianthus caryophyllus, in which the deduced polypeptide of ADC was 725 amino acids with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. In the present study, the ADC gene was subcloned into the pGEX4T1 expression vector in combination with glutathione S-transferase (GST). The fusion protein GST-ADC was water-soluble and thus was purified by sequential GSTrap-arginine affinity chromatography. A thrombin-mediated on-column cleavage reaction was employed to release free ADC from GST. Hiload superdex gel filtration FPLC was then used to obtain a highly purified ADC. The identity of the ADC was confirmed by immunoblot analysis, and its specific activity with respect to (14)C-arginine decarboxylation reaction was determined to be 0.9 CO(2) pkat mg(-1) protein. K(m) and V(max) of the reaction between ADC and the substrate were 0.077 +/- 0.001 mM and 6.0 +/- 0.6 pkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. ADC activity was reduced by 70% in the presence of 0.1 mM Cu(2+) or CO(2+), but was only marginally affected by Mg(2+), or Ca(2+) at the same concentration. Moreover, spermine at 1 mM significantly reduced its activity by 30%.

  14. L-arginine prevents xanthoma development and inhibits atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, W; Ravalli, S; Szabolcs, M; Jiang, X C; Sciacca, R R; Michler, R E; Cannon, P J

    1997-01-21

    The potential antiatherosclerotic actions of NO were investigated in four groups of mice (n = 10 per group) lacking functional LDL receptor genes, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Group 1 was fed a regular chow diet. Groups 2 through 4 were fed a 1.25% high-cholesterol diet. In addition, group 3 received supplemental L-arginine and group 4 received L-arginine and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Animals were killed at 6 months; aortas were stained with oil red O for planimetry and with antibodies against constitutive and inducible NOSs. Plasma cholesterol was markedly increased in the animals receiving the high-cholesterol diet. Xanthomas appeared in all mice fed the high-cholesterol diet alone but not in those receiving L-arginine. Aortic atherosclerosis was present in all mice on the high-cholesterol diet. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was reduced significantly (P < .01) in the cholesterol-fed mice given L-arginine compared with those receiving the high-cholesterol diet alone. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly larger (P < .01) in cholesterol-fed mice receiving L-arginine + L-NA than in those on the high-cholesterol diet alone. Within the atherosclerotic plaques, endothelial cells immunoreacted for endothelial cell NOS; macrophages, foam cells, and smooth muscle cells immunostained strongly for inducible NOS and nitrotyrosine residues. The data indicate that L-arginine prevents xanthoma formation and reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The abrogation of the beneficial effects of L-arginine by L-NA suggests that the antiatherosclerotic actions of L-arginine are mediated by NOS. The data suggest that L-arginine may be beneficial in familial hypercholesterolemia.

  15. Evolution of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) levels during treatment in schizo-affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Castelnau, C; Spreux-Varoquaux, O; Bourdel, M C; Olie, J P; Loo, H; Poirier, M F

    2000-11-01

    1. Plasma Homovanillic Acid (p HVA) levels were measured by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) in 5 schizo-affective depressed patients receiving a standardized treatment. (lithium, chlorpromazine and clomipramine) during 4 weeks. 2. Four patients were pretreated, without a washout period. 3. No significant difference was observed between patients and normal controls at baseline. Under treatment, pHVA levels increased (ppHVA levels that increase with clinical improvement, unlike schizophrenic patients whose increased pHVA concentrations decline with neuroleptic treatment.

  16. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author) 68 refs. , 3 tabs. , 2 figs.

  17. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  18. Common studied polymorphisms do not affect plasma cytokine levels upon endotoxin exposure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Sarah; Krabbe, K.S.; Berg, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter regions of genes of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-18, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-6 and IL-10 affect the cytokine response during a controlled......-607, IFN-gamma+874, IL-6-174, IL-10-592 and IL-10-1082) and endotoxin-induced changes in plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10. IL-18 levels were unaffected by endotoxin. In conclusion, the investigated SNPs did not affect endotoxin-induced low-grade cytokine production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-18 or IL......-10 in healthy young men. Previous reports of a major heritability factor in the inflammatory response may be due to other target genes or effects in older age groups or women Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...

  19. Decisive factors affecting plasma resistance and roughness formation in ArF photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Uesugi, Takuji; Koyama, Koji; Samukawa, Seiji [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Maeda, Shinichi [Yokohama Research Laboratories, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd, 10-1 Daikoku-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0053 (Japan); Momose, Hikaru, E-mail: samukawa@ifs.tohoku.ac.j [Corporate Research Laboratories, Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd, 2-1 Miyuki-cho, Otake, Hiroshima 739-0693 (Japan)

    2010-10-06

    Low plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist are serious issues in plasma processes. To resolve these issues, we investigated several factors that affect the roughness formation and plasma resistance in an ArF photoresist. We used our neutral beam process to categorize the effects of species from the plasma on the ArF photoresist into physical bombardment, chemical reactions and ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV) radiation. The UV/VUV radiation drastically increased the etching rates of the ArF photoresist films, and, in contrast, chemical reactions increased the formation of surface roughness. FTIR analysis indicated that the UV/VUV radiation preferentially dissociates C-H bonds in the ArF photoresist, rather than C=O bonds, because of the dissociation energies of the bonds. This indicated that the etching rates of the ArF photoresist are determined by the UV/VUV radiation because this radiation can break C-H bonds, which account for the majority of structures in the ArF photoresist. In contrast, FTIR analysis showed that chemical species such as radicals and ions were likely to react with C=O bonds, in particular C=O bonds in the lactone groups of the ArF photoresist, due to the structural and electronic effects of the lactone groups. As a result, the etching rates of the ArF photoresist can vary in different bond structures, leading to increased surface roughness in the ArF photoresist.

  20. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate enhances mood and prosocial behavior without affecting plasma oxytocin and testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Oliver G; Eisenegger, Christoph; Gertsch, Jürg; von Rotz, Robin; Dornbierer, Dario; Gachet, M Salomé; Heinrichs, Markus; Wetter, Thomas C; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB-/GABAB-receptor agonist. Reports from GHB abusers indicate euphoric, prosocial, and empathogenic effects of the drug. We measured the effects of GHB on mood, prosocial behavior, social and non-social cognition and assessed potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms. GHB (20mg/kg) was tested in 16 healthy males, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Subjective effects on mood were assessed by visual-analogue-scales and the GHB-Specific-Questionnaire. Prosocial behavior was examined by the Charity Donation Task, the Social Value Orientation test, and the Reciprocity Task. Reaction time, memory, empathy, and theory-of-mind were also tested. Blood plasma levels of GHB, oxytocin, testosterone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH) were determined. GHB showed stimulating and sedating effects, and elicited euphoria, disinhibition, and enhanced vitality. In participants with low prosociality, the drug increased donations and prosocial money distributions. In contrast, social cognitive abilities such as emotion recognition, empathy, and theory-of-mind, and basal cognitive functions were not affected. GHB increased plasma progesterone, while oxytocin and testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone, DHEA, and ACTH levels remained unaffected. GHB has mood-enhancing and prosocial effects without affecting social hormones such as oxytocin and testosterone. These data suggest a potential involvement of GHB-/GABAB-receptors and progesterone in mood and prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6 µmol/L compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2 µmol/L, p = 0.003. Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.

  2. Arginine de novo and nitric oxide production in disease states

    OpenAIRE

    Luiking, Yvette C.; Ten Have, Gabriella A. M.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Arginine is derived from dietary protein intake, body protein breakdown, or endogenous de novo arginine production. The latter may be linked to the availability of citrulline, which is the immediate precursor of arginine and limiting factor for de novo arginine production. Arginine metabolism is highly compartmentalized due to the expression of the enzymes involved in arginine metabolism in various organs. A small fraction of arginine enters the NO synthase (NOS) pathway. Tetrahydrobiopterin ...

  3. The Effects of Pretreatment with Various Doses of L-Arginine on Cisplatin-Induced Nephropathy of Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Rasoulian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug, which its application is limited by nephrotoxicity. In this study, the effect of pretreatment with different l-arginine doses on Cisplatin-induced renal functional injury was investigated. Methods: 63 male rats were divided into 7 groups: In groups 3, 4, 5 and 6, 60 min before the Cisplatin injection (5mg/kg; L-Arginine with doses of 50,100,200 or 400mg/kg was injected, respectively. In group7, normal saline was injected before Cisplatin administration. In groups 1 and 2, normal saline was injected instead of Cisplatin. In group 2, 60min before normal saline injection, 400mg/kg L-Arginine was administered and in group1, instead of L-arginine, normal saline was injected too. Injections were intraperitoneal. 72h after Cisplatin injection, blood sampling and plasma separation were done. Urine sample was collected 24 hours before blood sampling by metabolic cage. The mean of plasma urea and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance (ml/day.kg and fractional excretion of Na (FENa, % were compared among different groups as renal functional parameters. Results: In comparison to group 7, L-arginine injection in a dose of 400mg/kg led to significant amelioration of all parameters. 200 mg/kg L-arginine administration led to significant decrease in plasma urea level and FENa. 100mg/kg L-arginine caused significant improvement in fractional excretion of sodium. L-arginine injection with 50mg/kg dose, significantly ameliorate all renal function tests instead of creatinine clearance. Conclusion: Pretreatment with L-arginine administration with 400 or 50 mg/kg doses, respectively, had the highest effect on reducing Cisplatin-induced nephropathy. L-arginine injection with intermediate doses i.e. 200 or 100 mg/kg had less effect in reducing Cisplatin-induced nephropathy and it needs more investigations.

  4. A role for PPARα in the regulation of arginine metabolism and nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelzim, Najoua; Mariotti, François; Martin, Pascal G P; Lasserre, Frédéric; Pineau, Thierry; Hermier, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    The pleiotropic effects of PPARα may include the regulation of amino acid metabolism. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key player in vascular homeostasis. NO synthesis may be jeopardized by a differential channeling of arginine toward urea (via arginase) versus NO (via NO synthase, NOS). This was studied in wild-type (WT) and PPARα-null (KO) mice fed diets containing either saturated fatty acids (COCO diet) or 18:3 n-3 (LIN diet). Metabolic markers of arginine metabolism were assayed in urine and plasma. mRNA levels of arginases and NOS were determined in liver. Whole-body NO synthesis and the conversion of systemic arginine into urea were assessed by using (15)N(2)-guanido-arginine and measuring urinary (15)NO(3) and [(15)N]-urea. PPARα deficiency resulted in a markedly lower whole-body NO synthesis, whereas the conversion of systemic arginine into urea remained unaffected. PPARα deficiency also increased plasma arginine and decreased citrulline concentration in plasma. These changes could not be ascribed to a direct effect on hepatic target genes, since NOS mRNA levels were unaffected, and arginase mRNA levels decreased in KO mice. Despite the low level in the diet, the nature of the fatty acids modulated some effects of PPARα deficiency, including plasma arginine and urea, which increased more in KO mice fed the LIN diet than in those fed the COCO diet. In conclusion, PPARα is largely involved in normal whole-body NO synthesis. This warrants further study on the potential of PPARα activation to maintain NO synthesis in the initiation of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Oral L-Arginine Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion to Improve Glucose Tolerance in Male Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Smajilovic, Sanela; Smith, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and surgical interventions that increase glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) action are effective to improve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In light of this, nutritional strategies to enhance postprandial GLP-1 secretion, particularly in the context of diet......-induced obesity, may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. Importantly, recent evidence suggests the amino acid l-arginine, a well-known insulin secretagogue, can also stimulate release of GLP-1 from isolated rat intestine. Here we tested the hypothesis that oral l-arginine acts as a GLP-1 secretagogue...... in vivo, to augment postprandial insulin secretion and improve glucose tolerance. To test this, we administered l-arginine or vehicle by oral gavage, immediately prior to an oral glucose tolerance test in lean and diet-induced obese mice. In both lean and obese mice oral l-arginine increased plasma GLP-1...

  6. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Williamson, Kaitlin C.; Craigen, William J.; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:25411654

  7. The effect of citrulline and arginine supplementation on lactic acidemia in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Williamson, Kaitlin C; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder in which nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of several complications including stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis. Supplementing the NO precursors arginine and citrulline restores NO production in MELAS syndrome. In this study we evaluated the effect of arginine or citrulline on lactic acidemia in adults with MELAS syndrome. Plasma lactate decreased significantly after citrulline supplementation, whereas the effect of arginine supplementation did not reach statistical significance. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of arginine and citrulline in MELAS syndrome and suggest that citrulline supplementation may be more efficacious. However, therapeutic efficacy of these compounds should be further evaluated in clinical trials.

  8. The Effect of Carbohydrates and Arginine on Arginine Metabolism by Excised Bean Leaves in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Cecil R.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of carbohydrate on arginine utilization by excised bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Tendergreen) leaves in the dark was studied by adding arginine to leaves differing in carbohydrate levels, and measuring the arginine content of the leaves at intervals. In nonstarved leaves, the arginine content decreased steadily after vacuum infiltration of 10 mm arginine and was essentially completely utilized by 36 hours after infiltration. In starved leaves, the arginine content did not decrease except for a brief period of about 4 hours after infiltration. The distribution of 14C after adding 14C-arginine to starved and nonstarved leaves indicated that the presence of carbohydrates in the leaves stimulates the utilization of arginine for protein synthesis and conversion to other amino acids, organic acids, and CO2 (catabolism). Adding sucrose along with arginine to starved leaves stimulated this utilization of arginine for both protein synthesis and catabolism. This effect of sugar on catabolism is different than results of similar studies done previously with proline. Increasing the concentration of added arginine greatly increased arginine catabolism but had a relatively small effect on utilization of arginine for protein synthesis. This result is the same as similar results from adding different concentrations of proline to excised leaves. PMID:16659159

  9. The role of the arginine metabolome in pain: implications for sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakshi N

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitya Bakshi,1–2 Claudia R Morris3–6 1Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 5Emory-Children’s Center for Cystic Fibrosis and Airways Disease Research, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 6Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD is the most common hemoglobinopathy in the US, affecting approximately 100,000 individuals in the US and millions worldwide. Pain is the hallmark of SCD, and a subset of patients experience pain virtually all of the time. Of interest, the arginine metabolome is associated with several pain mechanisms highlighted in this review. Since SCD is an arginine deficiency syndrome, the contribution of the arginine metabolome to acute and chronic pain in SCD is a topic in need of further attention. Normal arginine metabolism is impaired in SCD through various mechanisms that contribute to endothelial dysfunction, vaso-occlusion, pulmonary complications, risk of leg ulcers, and early mortality. Arginine is a semiessential amino acid that serves as a substrate for protein synthesis and is the precursor to nitric oxide (NO, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, and agmatine. Since arginine is involved in multiple metabolic processes, a deficiency of this amino acid has the potential to disrupt many cellular and organ functions. NO is a potent vasodilator that is depleted in SCD and may contribute to vaso-occlusive pain. As the obligate substrate for NO production, arginine also plays a mechanistic role in SCD-related pain, although its

  10. PRE-EXERCISE ARGININE SUPPLEMENTATION INCREASES TIME TO EXHAUSTION IN ELITE MALE WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.U. Yavuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplements containing arginine are among the most popular ergogenics intended to enhance strength, power and muscle recovery associated with both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of pre-exercise acute intake of arginine on performance and exercise metabolism during incremental exhaustive exercise in elite male wrestlers. Nine volunteer elite male wrestlers (24.7±3.8 years participated in this study. The test-retest protocol was used on the same subjects. The study was conducted using a cross-over design. A single dose of arginine (1.5 g · 10 kg-1 body weight or placebo was given to the subjects after 12 hours fasting (during the night for both test and retest. Subjects were allowed to drink water but not allowed to eat anything between arginine or placebo ingestion and the exercise protocol. An incremental exercise protocol was applied and oxygen consumption was measured during the exercise. Heart rate and plasma lactate levels were measured during the exercise and recovery. Results showed that in the same working loads there was no significant difference for the mean lactate levels and no difference in maximum oxygen consumption (arginine 52.47±4.01 mL · kg-1 · min-1, placebo 52.07±5.21 mL · kg-1 · min-1 or in maximum heart rates (arginine 181.09±13.57 bpm, placebo 185.89±7.38 bpm between arginine and placebo trials. Time to exhaustion was longer with arginine supplementation (1386.8±69.8 s compared to placebo (1313±90.8 s (p<0.05. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation can have beneficial effects on exercise performance in elite male wrestlers but cannot explain the metabolic pathways which are responsible from these effects.

  11. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  12. NOS3 is involved in the increased protein and arginine metabolic response in muscle during early endotoxemia in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiking, Yvette C.; Hallemeesch, Marcella M.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.

    2005-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe catabolic condition. The loss of skeletal muscle protein mass is characterized by enhanced release of the amino acids glutamine and arginine, which (in)directly affects interorgan arginine and the related nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. To establish whether changes in muscle amino

  13. Analysis of surface roughness and surface heat affected zone of steel S355J0 after plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatala, Michal; Chep, Robert; Pandilov, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with thermal cutting technology of materials with plasma arc. In the first part of this paper the theoretical knowledge of the principles of plasma arc cutting and current use of this technology in industry are presented. The cut of products with this technology is perpendicular and accurate, but the use of this technology affects micro-structural changes and depth of the heat affected zone (HAZ). This article deals with the experimental evaluation of plasma arc cutting technological process. The influence of technological factors on the roughness parameter Ra of the steel surface EN S355J0 has been evaluated by using planned experiments. By using the factor experiment, the significance of the four process factors such as plasma burner feed speed, plasma gas pressure, nozzle diameter, distance between nozzle mouth and material has been analyzed. Regression models obtained by multiple linear regression indicate the quality level of observed factors function. The heat from plasma arc cutting affects the micro-structural changes of the material, too.

  14. Clinical Outcome And Arginine Serum of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Supplemented by Snakehead Fish Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Retnaningsih; Abidin, Zainal

    2018-02-01

    Background: Levels of arginine associated with clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Arginine is a protein needed to synthesis nitric oxide (NO), a potential vasodilator and antioxidant. Snakehead fish is a source of protein which has antioxidant activity. Snakehead fish contains mineral, vitamin, and amino acids. One of the amino acids that were found quite high in snakehead fish extract is arginine. The aim of this study was done to determine the effect of snakehead fish extracts (SFE) on serum arginin levels and clinical outcome of AIS patients. Methods: It was double-blind randomized pretest-posttest control group design, with. AIS patients were divided into two groups i.e. snakehead fish extracts (SFE) and control. SFE group were administered 15 grams SFE for 7 days . Arginine serum levels and clinical outcome (measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale = NIHSS) were measured before and after treatment, other related factors were also analyzed in Logistic regression. Results: A total of 42 subjects who were performed random allocation as SFE or control group. There was no differences in subject characteristics between the two groups. There was a differences Δ arginine serum levels between SFE and control (33.6±19.95 μmol/L 0.3±2.51 μmol/L pgender factor that affected on improvement of NIHSS (OR=7; p=0,01). Conclusion: There is Clinical outcome improvement and enhancement of arginine serum levels in AIS patient with snakehead fish extract supplementation.

  15. Microwave induced plasma for solid fuels and waste processing: A review on affecting factors and performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Guan Sem; Faizal, Hasan Mohd; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-11-01

    High temperature thermal plasma has a major drawback which consumes high energy. Therefore, non-thermal plasma which uses comparatively lower energy, for instance, microwave plasma is more attractive to be applied in gasification process. Microwave-induced plasma gasification also carries the advantages in terms of simplicity, compactness, lightweight, uniform heating and the ability to operate under atmospheric pressure that gains attention from researchers. The present paper synthesizes the current knowledge available for microwave plasma gasification on solid fuels and waste, specifically on affecting parameters and their performance. The review starts with a brief outline on microwave plasma setup in general, and followed by the effect of various operating parameters on resulting output. Operating parameters including fuel characteristics, fuel injection position, microwave power, addition of steam, oxygen/fuel ratio and plasma working gas flow rate are discussed along with several performance criteria such as resulting syngas composition, efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen production rate. Based on the present review, fuel retention time is found to be the key parameter that influences the gasification performance. Therefore, emphasis on retention time is necessary in order to improve the performance of microwave plasma gasification of solid fuels and wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. L-arginine supplementation enhances exhaled NO, breath condensate VEGF, and headache at 4,342 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Jim K; Morrissey, Brian M; Walby, William F; Yoneda, Ken Y; Juarez, Maya; Kajekar, Radhika; Severinghaus, John W; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schelegle, Edward S

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with L-arginine on breath condensate VEGF, exhaled nitric oxide (NO), plasma erythropoietin, symptoms of acute mountain sickness, and respiratory related sensations at 4,342 m through the course of 24 h in seven healthy male subjects. Serum L-arginine levels increased in treated subjects at time 0, 8, and 24 h compared with placebo, indicating the effectiveness of our treatment. L-arginine had no significant effect on overall Lake Louise scores compared with placebo. However, there was a significant increase in headache within the L-arginine treatment group at 12 h compared with time 0, a change not seen in the placebo condition between these two time points. There was a trend (p = 0.087) toward greater exhaled NO and significant increases in breath condensate VEGF with L-arginine treatment, but no L-arginine effect on serum EPO. These results suggest that L-arginine supplementation increases HIF-1 stabilization in the lung, possibly through a NO-dependent pathway. In total, our observations indicate that L-arginine supplementation is not beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of AMS.

  17. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  18. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. l-Arginine induces antioxidant response to prevent oxidative stress via stimulation of glutathione synthesis and activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mingcai; Wang, Zhengxuan; Li, Hui; Cai, Liang; Pan, Jianghao; He, Hongjuan; Wu, Qiong; Tang, Yinzhao; Ma, Jiapei; Yang, Lin

    2018-05-01

    Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid. To elucidate the influence of l-arginine on the activation of endogenous antioxidant defence, male Wistar rats were orally administered daily with l-arginine at different levels of 25, 50, 100 mg/100 g body weight. After 7 and 14 days feeding, the antioxidative capacities and glutathione (GSH) contents in the plasma and in the liver were uniformly enhanced with the increasing consumption of l-arginine, whereas the oxidative stress was effectively suppressed by l-arginine treatment. After 14 days feeding, the mRNA levels and protein expressions of Keap1 and Cul3 were gradually reduced by increasing l-arginine intake, resulting that the nuclear factor Nrf2 was activated. Upon activation of Nrf2, the expressions of antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-dependent genes and proteins (GCLC, GCLM, GS, GR, GST, GPx, CAT, SOD, NQO1, HO-1) were up-regulated by l-arginine feeding, indicating an upward trend in antioxidant capacity uniformly with the increasing consumption of l-arginine. The present study demonstrates that the supplementation of l-arginine stimulates GSH synthesis and activates Nrf2 pathway, leading to the up-regulation of ARE-driven antioxidant expressions via Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. Results suggest the availability of l-arginine is a critical factor to suppress oxidative stress and induce an endogenous antioxidant response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  1. Infusion of butyrate affects plasma glucose, butyrate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate but not plasma insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen measures when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows (94.2 ± 26.3 days in milk [DIM]; 717 ± 45 kg body w...

  2. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chennupati, Ramesh; Meens, Merlijn J P M T; Marion, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS), to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice. METHODS...... of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting...... responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar...

  3. Arginine metabolism is altered in adults with A-B + ketosis-prone diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-B + ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a subset of type 2 diabetes in which patients have severe but reversible B cell dysfunction of unknown etiology. Plasma metabolomic analysis indicates that abnormal arginine metabolism may be involved. The objective of this study was to determine the relation be...

  4. Treatment of chronic hemodialysis patients with low-dose fenofibrate effectively reduces plasma lipids and affects plasma redox status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makówka Agnieszka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dyslipidemia is common in chronic hemodialysis patients and its underlying mechanism is complex. Hemodialysis causes an imbalance between antioxidants and production of reactive oxygen species, which induces the oxidative stress and thereby may lead to accelerated atherosclerosis. Statins have been found to be little effective in end-stage kidney disease and other lipid-lowering therapies have been only scarcely studied. The study aimed to assess the effect of low-dose fenofibrate therapy on plasma lipids and redox status in long-term hemodialysis patients with mild hypertriglyceridemia. Twenty seven chronic hemodialysis patients without any lipid-lowering therapy were included in a double-blind crossover, placebo-controlled study. The patients were randomized into two groups and were given a sequence of either 100 mg of fenofibrate per each hemodialysis day for 4 weeks or placebo with a week-long wash-out period between treatment periods. Plasma lipids, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP, urea, creatinine, electrolytes, phosphocreatine kinase (CK, GOT, GPT and plasma thiols (total and free glutathione, homocysteine, cysteine and cysteinylglycine were measured at baseline and after each of the study periods. Plasma aminothiols were measured by reversed phase HPLC with thiol derivatization with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate. Fenofibrate therapy caused a significant decrease of total serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and an increase of HDL cholesterol. The treatment was well tolerated with no side-effects but there was a small but significant increase of CK not exceeding the upper limit of normal range. There were no changes of serum CRP, potassium, urea, and creatinine and liver enzymes during the treatment. Neither total nor total free cysteinylglycine and cysteine changed during the study but both total and free glutathione increased during the therapy with fenofibrate and the same was observed

  5. Factors affecting the adhesion of microwave plasma deposited siloxane films on polycarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, B.W.; Thissen, H.; Simon, G.P.; Murphy, P.J.; Griesser, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a radiofrequency oxygen plasma pretreatment and residual water content in the substrate on the adhesion of microwave plasma deposited tetramethyldisiloxane thin films on Bisphenol-A polycarbonate (BPA-PC) were investigated. Samples were characterised using a crosshatch adhesion test, optical and electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the use of a low power (5 W) and low treatment time (0.1 s) oxygen plasma can improve adhesion while greater treatment times (1-30 s) and higher oxygen plasma powers (40 W) resulted in a decreased level of adhesion. In addition, it was shown that a BPA-PC water content greater than 90 ppm resulted in rapid adhesion failure of deposited films at the substrate-plasma polymer interface during outdoor weathering. All films degraded substantially when exposed to environmental weathering, indicating ageing reactions within the plasma polymer films themselves, and at the bulk polymer-coating interface

  6. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. DIVERSE POTENTIAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ARGININE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Meshram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is metabolically flexible amino acid with major role in protein synthesis and detoxification of ammonia. It is involved in several metabolic pathways for the production of biologically active compounds such as creatine, nitric oxide, ornithine, glutamate, agmatine, citrulline and polyamines. Regarding this all, we review the crucial role of arginine in metabolism, diversified prospective uses and pharmacological applications. Arginine plays an important role in the treatment of tumorigenesis, asthama, gastric, erectile dysfunction, apoptosis, melanoma and congestive heart failure. Ability to produce nitric oxide offers various applications as in the prevention of age and hair loss. It serves as a precursor of creatine with ergogenic potential. The ability to increase endogenous growth hormone makes arginine a preferred supplement for the improvement of physical performance. In the present study details about the pharmacological applications of arginine based on modern scientific investigations have been discussed. There are immense properties hidden in arginine that need to be explored using the scientific investigations to make it beneficial for the medicine and human health. More research is needed to evaluate the role of arginine supplementation on exercise performance and training adaptations in healthy and diseased populations before taking any conclusions.

  8. Impaired nitric oxide production in children with MELAS syndrome and the effect of arginine and citrulline supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Hsu, Jean W; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Almannai, Mohammed; Craigen, William J; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is not fully understood and believed to result from several interacting mechanisms including impaired mitochondrial energy production, microvasculature angiopathy, and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. NO deficiency in MELAS syndrome is likely to be multifactorial in origin with the decreased availability of the NO precursors, arginine and citrulline, playing a major role. In this study we used stable isotope infusion techniques to assess NO production in children with MELAS syndrome and healthy pediatric controls. We also assessed the effect of oral arginine and citrulline supplementations on NO production in children with MELAS syndrome. When compared to control subjects, children with MELAS syndrome were found to have lower NO production, arginine flux, plasma arginine, and citrulline flux. In children with MELAS syndrome, arginine supplementation resulted in increased NO production, arginine flux, and arginine concentration. Citrulline supplementation resulted in a greater increase of these parameters. Additionally, citrulline supplementation was associated with a robust increase in citrulline concentration and flux and de novo arginine synthesis rate. The greater effect of citrulline in increasing NO production is due to its greater ability to increase arginine availability particularly in the intracellular compartment in which NO synthesis takes place. This study, which is the first one to assess NO metabolism in children with mitochondrial diseases, adds more evidence to the notion that NO deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome, suggests a better effect for citrulline because of its greater role as NO precursor, and indicates that impaired NO production occurs in children as well as adults with MELAS syndrome. Thus, the initiation of treatment with NO precursors may be

  9. Missense mutation in GRN gene affecting RNA splicing and plasma progranulin level in a family affected by frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Simona; Colleoni, Lara; Corbetta, Paola; Baldinelli, Sara; Fiori, Chiara; Girelli, Francesca; Silvestrini, Mauro; Caroppo, Paola; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Rossi, Giacomina

    2017-06-01

    Gene coding for progranulin, GRN, is a major gene linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration. While most of pathogenic GRN mutations are null mutations leading to haploinsufficiency, GRN missense mutations do not have an obvious pathogenicity, and only a few have been revealed to act through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as cytoplasmic missorting, protein degradation, and abnormal cleavage by elastase. The aim of this study was to disclose the pathogenetic mechanisms of the GRN A199V missense mutation, which was previously reported not to alter physiological progranulin features but was associated with a reduced plasma progranulin level. After investigating the family pedigree, we performed genetic and biochemical analysis on its members and performed RNA expression studies. We found that the mutation segregates with the disease and discovered that its pathogenic feature is the alteration of GRN mRNA splicing, actually leading to haploinsufficiency. Thus, when facing with a missense GRN mutation, its pathogenetic effects should be investigated, especially if associated with low plasma progranulin levels, to determine its nature of either benign polymorphism or pathogenic mutation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arginine metabolism by macrophages promotes cardiac and muscle fibrosis in mdx muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wehling-Henricks

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common, lethal disease of childhood. One of 3500 new-born males suffers from this universally-lethal disease. Other than the use of corticosteroids, little is available to affect the relentless progress of the disease, leading many families to use dietary supplements in hopes of reducing the progression or severity of muscle wasting. Arginine is commonly used as a dietary supplement and its use has been reported to have beneficial effects following short-term administration to mdx mice, a genetic model of DMD. However, the long-term effects of arginine supplementation are unknown. This lack of knowledge about the long-term effects of increased arginine metabolism is important because elevated arginine metabolism can increase tissue fibrosis, and increased fibrosis of skeletal muscles and the heart is an important and potentially life-threatening feature of DMD.We use both genetic and nutritional manipulations to test whether changes in arginase metabolism promote fibrosis and increase pathology in mdx mice. Our findings show that fibrotic lesions in mdx muscle are enriched with arginase-2-expressing macrophages and that muscle macrophages stimulated with cytokines that activate the M2 phenotype show elevated arginase activity and expression. We generated a line of arginase-2-null mutant mdx mice and found that the mutation reduced fibrosis in muscles of 18-month-old mdx mice, and reduced kyphosis that is attributable to muscle fibrosis. We also observed that dietary supplementation with arginine for 17-months increased mdx muscle fibrosis. In contrast, arginine-2 mutation did not reduce cardiac fibrosis or affect cardiac function assessed by echocardiography, although 17-months of dietary supplementation with arginine increased cardiac fibrosis. Long-term arginine treatments did not decrease matrix metalloproteinase-2 or -9 or increase the expression of utrophin, which have been reported as beneficial

  11. Study on factors affecting the droplet temperature in plasma MIG welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Sarizam Bin; Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu; Yusoff, Mahani

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, the mechanism to control droplet temperature in the plasma MIG welding was discussed based on the measurements of the droplet temperature for a wide range of MIG currents with different plasma electrode diameters. The measurements of the droplet temperatures were conducted using a two color temperature measurement method. The droplet temperatures in the plasma MIG welding were then compared with those in the conventional MIG welding. As a result, the droplet temperature in the plasma MIG welding was found to be reduced in comparison with the conventional MIG welding under the same MIG current. Especially when the small plasma electrode diameter was used, the decrease in the droplet temperature reached maximally 500 K. Also, for a particular WFS, the droplet temperatures in the plasma MIG welding were lower than those in the conventional MIG welding. It is suggested that the use of plasma contributes to reducing the local heat input into the base metal by the droplet. The presence of the plasma surrounding the wire is considered to increase the electron density in its vicinity, resulting in the arc attachment expanding upwards along the wire surface to disperse the MIG current. This dispersion of MIG current causes a decrease in current density on the droplet surface, lowering the droplet temperature. Furthermore, dispersed MIG current also weakens the electromagnetic pinch force acting on the neck of the wire above the droplet. This leads to a larger droplet diameter with increased surface area through lower frequency of droplet detachment to decrease the MIG current density on the droplet surface, as compared to the conventional MIG welding at the same MIG current. Thus, the lower droplet temperature is caused by the reduction of heat flux into the droplet. Consequently, the mechanism to control droplet temperature in the plasma MIG welding was clarified.

  12. Ecological Effect of Arginine on Oral Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; He, Jinzhi; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Shuangshuang; Peng, Xian; Huang, Shi; Zheng, Liwei; Cheng, Lei; Hao, Yuqing; Li, Jiyao; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xin; Zhou, Xuedong

    2017-08-03

    Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial dybiosis between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal bacteria colonized in the oral cavity. Our recent studies have shown that arginine may represent a promising anti-caries agent by modulating microbial composition in an in vitro consortium. However, the effect of arginine on the oral microbiota has yet to be comprehensively delineated in either clinical cohort or in vitro biofilm models that better represent the microbial diversity of oral cavity. Here, by employing a clinical cohort and a saliva-derived biofilm model, we demonstrated that arginine treatment could favorably modulate the oral microbiota of caries-active individuals. Specifically, treatment with arginine-containing dentifrice normalized the oral microbiota of caries-active individuals similar to that of caries-free controls in terms of microbial structure, abundance of typical species, enzymatic activities of glycolysis and alkali-generation related enzymes and their corresponding transcripts. Moreover, we found that combinatory use of arginine with fluoride could better enrich alkali-generating Streptococcus sanguinis and suppress acidogenic/aciduric Streptococcus mutans, and thus significantly retard the demineralizing capability of saliva-derived oral biofilm. Hence, we propose that fluoride and arginine have a potential synergistic effect in maintaining an eco-friendly oral microbial equilibrium in favor of better caries management.

  13. THE ARGININE AND PREARGININE GROUPS IN EDESTIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, H S

    1930-09-20

    The author corroborates the data of Schmidt showing that the dissociation index of the third group of arginine is pK(3)' = 12.5. New titration data of edestin have been obtained in very alkaline solutions and show that there is a corresponding group with a titration index of pG' = 12.0, but present in much less quantity than can account for the arginine found on hydrolysis. The data support the theory that the combination of strong base or strong acid with proteins is produced by the formation of salts with the "extra groups" of those trivalent amino acids which can be isolated from the protein, with the exception of arginine. Arginine contributes to the titration curve in much smaller amount than is found on hydrolysis. This deficiency in the arginine group may be accounted for by the basic group in proteins having a titration index of pG' = 3.8 to 4.6 (depending on the protein), which apparently yields arginine on hydrolysis, and may properly be called prearginine.

  14. Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Amino Acid Profiles in Blood and Tissues in Fed and Overnight-Fasted Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Holecek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arginine intake is believed to have favorable effects on the body. However, it might be hypothesized that excessive consumption of an individual amino acid exerts adverse effects on distribution and metabolism of other amino acids. We evaluated the effect of chronic intake of arginine on amino acid concentrations in blood plasma, liver, kidneys, and soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-arginine diet (HAD for two months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state, and the other half after fasting overnight. HAD increased blood plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, arginine, and ornithine and decreased most other amino acids. Arginine and ornithine also increased in muscles and kidneys; an increase of lysine was observed in both muscle types. Methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, asparagine, glycine, serine, and taurine decreased in most tissues of HAD fed animals. Most of the effects of HAD disappeared after overnight fasting. It is concluded that (i enhanced dietary arginine intake alters distribution of almost all amino acids; and (ii to attain a better assessment of the effects of various nutritional interventions, an appropriate number of biochemical measurements must be performed in both postprandial and postabsorptive states.

  15. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Analysis of the Plasma Properties Affected by Magnetic Confinement with Special Emphasis on Helicon Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuguo; Cheng Mousen; Wang Moge; Yang Xiong; Li Xiaokang

    2014-01-01

    A one-dimensional radial non-uniform fluid model is employed to study plasma behaviors with special emphasis laid on helicon discharges. The plasma density n e , electron temperature T e , electron azimuthal and radial drift velocities are investigated in terms of the plasma radius r p , magnetic field intensity B 0 and gas pressure p 0 , by assuming radial ambipolar diffusion and negligible ion cyclotron movement. The results show that the magnetic confinement plays an important role in the discharge equilibrium, especially at low pressure, which significantly reduces T e compared with the case of a negligible magnetic field effect, and higher B 0 leads to a greater average plasma density. T e shows little variations in the plasma density range of 10 11 cm −3 –10 13 cm −3 for p 0 < 3.0 mTorr. Comparison of the simulation results with experiments suggests that the model can make reasonable predictions of T e in low pressure helicon discharges. (low temperature plasma)

  17. Efficacy L-Arginine In Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Associated With Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Fediv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose Recent research in the field of hematology indicate that among the many pathogenic mechanisms of development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH which occurs on the background of the metabolic syndrome an important role is played by endothelial dysfunction and violations of haemocoagulation. The aim of this research was to study the effectiveness of L-arginine as it corrects endothelial dysfunction and disorders of homeostasis haemocoagulation link in patients with NASH associated with the metabolic syndrome. Subjects and Methods 128 patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with metabolic syndrome were examined. Some patients 63 persons received standard treatment according to national guidelines. To another group 65 patients on the background of basic therapy L-arginine hydrochloride followed by transition to oral form of L-arginine aspartate was administered. Blood levels of stable nitrogen monoxide metabolites nitrites nitrates endothelin-1 and plasma recalcification time prothrombin time thrombin time activated partial thromboplastin time fibrinogen plasma level activity of antithrombin III and coagulation factor XIII potential activity of plasminogen plasma fibrinolytic blood activity were studied. Results Originally significantly increased levels of endothelin-1 decreased after the therapy in all studied groups but more noticeable changes in the group with L-arginine appointment were observed p0.05. In the studied groups normalization of stable nitrogen monoxide metabolites after treatment was also noticed. Significant p0.05 increase in all haemocoagulation time characteristics and activities of antithrombin-III and factor XIII was found. The positive effect of L-arginine on blood fibrinolytic activity was noted. Discussion and Conclusion Combined therapy of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with metabolic syndrome with a differentiated degreeal L-arginine assignment by

  18. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  19. Levels of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic interact to affect the risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Su, Chien-Tien; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Jen; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Lin, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Cheng-Shiuan; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether plasma selenium levels modified the risk for prostate cancer (PC) related to arsenic exposure. We conducted a case-control study that included 318 PC patients and 318 age-matched, healthy control subjects. Urinary arsenic profiles were examined using HPLC-HG-AAS and plasma selenium levels were measured by ICP-MS. We found that plasma selenium levels displayed a significant dose-dependent inverse association with PC. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for PC was 0.07 (0.04-0.13) among participants with a plasma selenium level >28.06 μg/dL vs. ≤19.13 μg/dL. A multivariate analysis showed that participants with a urinary total arsenic concentration >29.28 μg/L had a significantly higher OR (1.75, 1.06-2.89) for PC than participants with ≤29.89 μg/L. The combined presence of a low plasma selenium level and a high urinary total arsenic concentration exponentially increased the OR for PC, and additively interacted with PSA at levels ≥20 ng/mL. This is the first epidemiological study to examine the combined effects of plasma selenium and urinary total arsenic levels on the OR for PC. Our data suggest a low plasma selenium level coupled with a high urinary total arsenic concentration creates a significant risk for aggressive PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium Sensing Receptor Mutations Implicated in Pancreatitis and Idiopathic Epilepsy Syndrome Disrupt an Arginine-rich Retention Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; McKenna, Jennifer; McGovern, Olivia; Huang, Ying; Breitwieser, Gerda E.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) mutations implicated in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, pancreatitis and idiopathic epilepsy syndrome map to an extended arginine-rich region in the proximal carboxyl terminus. Arginine-rich motifs mediate endoplasmic reticulum retention and/or retrieval of multisubunit proteins so we asked whether these mutations, R886P, R896H or R898Q, altered CaSR targeting to the plasma membrane. Targeting was enhanced by all three mutations, and Ca2+-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased for R896H and R898Q. To define the role of the extended arginine-rich region in CaSR trafficking, we independently determined the contributions of R890/R891 and/or R896/K897/R898 motifs by mutation to alanine. Disruption of the motif(s) significantly increased surface expression and function relative to wt CaSR. The arginine-rich region is flanked by phosphorylation sites at S892 (protein kinase C) and S899 (protein kinase A). The phosphorylation state of S899 regulated recognition of the arginine-rich region; S899D showed increased surface localization. CaSR assembles in the endoplasmic reticulum as a covalent disulfide-linked dimer and we determined whether retention requires the presence of arginine-rich regions in both subunits. A single arginine-rich region within the dimer was sufficient to confer intracellular retention comparable to wt CaSR. We have identified an extended arginine-rich region in the proximal carboxyl terminus of CaSR (residues R890 - R898) which fosters intracellular retention of CaSR and is regulated by phosphorylation. Mutation(s) identified in chronic pancreatitis and idiopathic epilepsy syndrome therefore increase plasma membrane targeting of CaSR, likely contributing to the altered Ca2+ signaling characteristic of these diseases. PMID:20798521

  1. Ablation of arginase II spares arginine and abolishes the arginine requirement for growth in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine is considered a semi-essential amino acid in many species, including humans, because under certain conditions its demand exceeds endogenous production. Arginine availability, however, is not only determined by its production, but also by its disposal. Manipulation of disposal pathways has t...

  2. IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECTS OF ARGININE DEIMINASE FROM STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Starikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogens use metabolic pathway of arginine for successful dissemination. Bacterial arginine deiminase hydrolyzes arginine to form one molecule of ammonia and two molecules of ATP. The activity of the enzyme contributes to the improvement of survival of pathogenic bacteria in conditions of low pH at the site of infection or in phagolysosome, as well as in anaerobic conditions, and also leads to deficiency of arginine. Metabolism of arginine plays an important role in regulating the functions of immune system cells in mammals. Arginine is a substrate of enzymes NOS and arginase. Arginine depletion, potentially contributs to immunosuppression. The review analyzed the literature data on the effect of streptococcal arginine deiminase on the metabolism of arginine eukaryotic cells, and discusses immunosuppressive action of the enzyme.

  3. Inhibition of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway mediates the antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Fen; Wang, Nan; Shi, Jin-Yun; Xu, Shi-Xia; Li, Xiao-Min; Ji, Mu-Huo; Zuo, Zhi-Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Converging evidence shows that the acute administration of a sub-anaesthetic dose ketamine produces fast-acting and robust antidepressant properties in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the antidepressant effects of ketamine in rats performing the forced swimming test (FST). Ketamine (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility times in the FST and the activities of total nitric oxide synthases (T-NOS), inducible NOS (iNOS), and endothelial NOS (eNOS) in the rat hippocampus. Interestingly, the plasma activities of T-NOS, iNOS, and eNOS increased after administration of ketamine. Furthermore, the activities of neuronal NOS (nNOS) did not change significantly in either the hippocampus or plasma after ketamine administration. The antidepressant effects of ketamine were prevented by pre-treatment with l-arginine (750 mg/kg). Pre-treatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester at a sub-antidepressant dose of 50 mg/kg and ketamine at a sub-antidepressant dose of 3 mg/kg reduced immobility time in the FST compared to treatment with either drug alone. None of the drugs affected crossing and rearing scores in the open field test. These results suggest that the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway is involved in the antidepressant effects of ketamine observed in rats in the FST and this involvement is characterised by the inhibition of brain T-NOS, iNOS, and eNOS activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  5. Iron Supplementation in Suckling Piglets: How to Correct Iron Deficiency Anemia without Affecting Plasma Hepcidin Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starzynski, R.R.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Tjalsma, H.; Swinkels, D.W.; Pieszka, M.; Stys, A.; Mickiewicz, M.; Lipinski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish an optimized protocol of iron dextran administration to pig neonates, which better meets the iron demand for erythropoiesis. Here, we monitored development of red blood cell indices, plasma iron parameters during a 28-day period after birth (till the weaning),

  6. Cold plasma inactivates salmonella on grape tomatoes in a commercial PET plastic container without affecting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The number of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of fresh tomatoes has increased. Little research has been conducted on the effects of direct treatment of cold plasma (CP) on the microbial decontamination and preservation of bulk tomatoes packaged in comme...

  7. Arginine Adjunctive Therapy in Active Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Farazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dietary supplementation has been used as a mechanism to augment the immune system. Adjunctive therapy with L-arginine has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis. Methods. In a randomized clinical trial 63 participants with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Markazi Province of Iran were given arginine or placebo for 4 weeks in addition to conventional chemotherapy. The final treatment success, sputum conversion, weight gain, and clinical symptoms after one and two months were considered as primary outcomes and secondary outcomes were ESR, CRP, and Hg. Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS software (ver. 18. Results. Arginine supplementation reduced constitutional symptoms (P=0.032 in patients with smear-positive TB at the end of the first month of treatment. Arginine treated patients had significantly increased BMI at the end of the first and second months of treatment (P=0.032 and P=0.04 and a reduced CRP at the end of the first month of treatment (P=0.03 versus placebo group. Conclusion. Arginine is useful as an adjunctive therapy in patients with active tuberculosis, in which the effects are more likely mediated by the increased production of nitric oxide and improved constitutional symptoms and weight gain. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials Registry of Iran: IRCT201211179855N2.

  8. Plasma membrane lipid–protein interactions affect signaling processes in sterol-biosynthesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauber, Henrik; Burgos, Asdrubal; Garapati, Prashanth; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma membrane is an important organelle providing structure, signaling and transport as major biological functions. Being composed of lipids and proteins with different physicochemical properties, the biological functions of membranes depend on specific protein–protein and protein–lipid interactions. Interactions of proteins with their specific sterol and lipid environment were shown to be important factors for protein recruitment into sub-compartmental structures of the plasma membrane. System-wide implications of altered endogenous sterol levels for membrane functions in living cells were not studied in higher plant cells. In particular, little is known how alterations in membrane sterol composition affect protein and lipid organization and interaction within membranes. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis of the plasma membrane protein and lipid composition in Arabidopsis sterol-biosynthesis mutants smt1 and ugt80A2;B1. smt1 shows general alterations in sterol composition while ugt80A2;B1 is significantly impaired in sterol glycosylation. By systematically analyzing different cellular fractions and combining proteomic with lipidomic data we were able to reveal contrasting alterations in lipid–protein interactions in both mutants, with resulting differential changes in plasma membrane signaling status. PMID:24672530

  9. Arginine appearance and nitric oxide synthesis in critically ill infants can be increased with a protein-energy–enriched enteral formula12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn TI; Joosten, Koen FM; Deutz, Nicolaas EP; Vreugdenhil, Anita CE; van Waardenburg, Dick A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Arginine is considered an essential amino acid during critical illness in children, and supplementation of arginine has been proposed to improve arginine availability to facilitate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Protein-energy–enriched enteral formulas (PE-formulas) can improve nutrient intake and promote anabolism in critically ill infants. However, the effect of increased protein and energy intake on arginine metabolism is not known. Objective: We investigated the effect of a PE-formula compared with that of a standard infant formula (S-formula) on arginine kinetics in critically ill infants. Design: A 2-h stable-isotope tracer protocol was conducted in 2 groups of critically ill infants with respiratory failure because of viral bronchiolitis, who received either a PE-formula (n = 8) or S-formula (n = 10) in a randomized, blinded, controlled setting. Data were reported as means ± SDs. Results: The intake of a PE-formula in critically ill infants (aged 0.23 ± 0.14 y) resulted in an increased arginine appearance (PE-formula: 248 ± 114 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; S-formula: 130 ± 53 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; P = 0.012) and NO synthesis (PE-formula: 1.92 ± 0.99 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; S-formula: 0.84 ± 0.36 μmol · kg−1 · h−1; P = 0.003), whereas citrulline production and plasma arginine concentrations were unaffected. Conclusion: In critically ill infants with respiratory failure because of viral bronchiolitis, the intake of a PE-formula increases arginine availability by increasing arginine appearance, which leads to increased NO synthesis, independent of plasma arginine concentrations. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR515. PMID:23945723

  10. Does high intensity exercise affects irisin plasma levels in hemodialysis patients? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gormicho Boavida Marques Esgalhado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD. Methods: Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session. Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Results: Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0 ± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL, p=0.02 and non-exercise day (121.5 ± 13.7 to 115.4 ± 17.2 ng/mL, p=0.02 after 60 minutes of dialysis. Conclusion: These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.

  11. Developmental changes of l-arginine transport at the blood-brain barrier in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Masanori; Hirose, Shirou; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Matsuyama, Ryo; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-01

    l-Arginine is required for regulating synapse formation/patterning and angiogenesis in the developing brain. We hypothesized that this requirement would be met by increased transporter-mediated supply across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the purpose of this work was to test the idea that elevation of blood-to-brain l-arginine transport across the BBB in the postnatal period coincides with up-regulation of cationic acid transporter 1 (CAT1) expression in developing brain capillaries. We found that the apparent brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp, app) of l-arginine after intravenous administration during the first and second postnatal weeks was 2-fold greater than that at the adult stage. Kp, app of l-serine was also increased at the first postnatal week. In contrast, Kp, app of d-mannitol, a passively BBB-permeable molecule, did not change, indicating that increased transport of l-arginine and l-serine is not due to BBB immaturity. Double immunohistochemical staining of CAT1 and a marker protein, glucose transporter 1, revealed that CAT1 was localized on both luminal and abluminal membranes of brain capillary endothelial cells during the developmental and adult stages. A dramatic increase in CAT1 expression in the brain was seen at postnatal day 7 (P7) and day 14 (P14) and the expression subsequently decreased as the brain matured. In accordance with this, intense immunostaining of CAT1 was observed in brain capillaries at P7 and P14. These findings strongly support our hypothesis and suggest that the supply of blood-born l-arginine to the brain via CAT1 at the BBB plays a key role in meeting the elevated demand for l-arginine in postnatal brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma metabolomic profiling of dairy cows affected with ketosis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyou; Wu, Ling; Xu, Chuang; Xia, Cheng; Sun, Lingwei; Shu, Shi

    2013-09-26

    Ketosis is an important problem for dairy cows` production performance. However, it is still little known about plasma metabolomics details of dairy ketosis. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to investigate plasma metabolic differences in cows that had clinical ketosis (CK, n=22), subclinical ketosis (SK, n=32), or were clinically normal controls (NC, n=22). The endogenous plasma metabolome was measured by chemical derivatization followed by GC/MS, which led to the detection of 267 variables. A two-sample t-test of 30, 32, and 13 metabolites showed statistically significant differences between SK and NC, CK and NC, and CK and SK, respectively. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) revealed that the metabolic patterns of both CK and SK were mostly similar, with the exception of a few differences. The development of CK and SK involved disturbances in many metabolic pathways, mainly including fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. A diagnostic model arbitrary two groups was constructed using OPLS-DA and receiver-operator characteristic curves (ROC). Multivariate statistical diagnostics yielded the 19 potential biomarkers for SK and NC, 31 for CK and NC, and 8 for CK and SK with area under the curve (AUC) values. Our results showed the potential biomarkers from CK, SK, and NC, including carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, even sitosterol and vitamin E isomers, etc. 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid were closely associated with metabolic perturbations in ketosis as Glc, BHBA and NEFA for dealing with metabolic disturbances of ketosis in clinical practice. However, further research is needed to explain changes of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid, α-aminobutyric acid, methylmalonic acid, sitosterol and α-tocopherol in CK and SK, and to reveal differences between CK and SK. Our

  13. Simultaneous measurement of plasma levels of imipramine and desipramine in patients with primary affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claeys, M.; Muscettola, G.; Goodwin, F.K.; Markey, S.P.

    1975-01-01

    A GC-MS method has been applied for the quantitative determination of nanogram levels of imipramine and its N-demethylated metabolite, desipramine, in plasma samples. The method involves a mild trifluoroacetylating method, using trifluoroacetylimidazole as derivatizing reagent. Specific detection is performed by selected ion recording of the [MH] + ions, formed upon chemical ionization with methane as reagent gas. Quantitative analysis is achieved by stable isotope dilution techniques, using 2 H-labeled analogs as internal standards. Results on patient samples are included

  14. The do's and don'ts of arginine supplementation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to meet the body's nutritional needs for energy, protein and micronutrients. ... inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and therefore the use of arginine in this ... smooth muscle cell proliferation12 and controlling vascular oxidative stress and the ... reduced arginine levels in sepsis that reflect the specific changes in arginine ...

  15. Radial thermal diffusivity of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao

    2012-04-01

    We investigate how the radial thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift kinetic simulation code for calculating the thermal diffusivity in the perturbed region. The perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and around the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. It has been found that the radial thermal diffusivity χ r in the perturbed region is represented as χ r = χ r (0) {1 + c r parallel 2 >}. Here r parallel 2 > 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, means the flux surface average defined by the unperturbed (i.e., original) magnetic field, χ r (0) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and c is a positive coefficient. In this paper, dependence of the coefficient c on parameters of the toroidal plasma is studied in results given by the δ f simulation code solving the drift kinetic equation under an assumption of zero electric field. We find that the dependence of c is given as c ∝ ω b /ν eff m in the low collisionality regime ν eff b , where ν eff is the effective collision frequency, ω b is the bounce frequency and m is the particle mass. In case of ν eff > ω b , the thermal diffusivity χ r evaluated by the simulations becomes close to the neoclassical thermal diffusivity χ r (0) . (author)

  16. Glycosaminoglycans affect the interaction of human plasma kallikrein with plasminogen, factor XII and inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozzo A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma kallikrein, a serine proteinase, plays a key role in intrinsic blood clotting, in the kallikrein-kinin system, and in fibrinolysis. The proteolytic enzymes involved in these processes are usually controlled by specific inhibitors and may be influenced by several factors including glycosaminoglycans, as recently demonstrated by our group. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of glycosaminoglycans (30 to 250 µg/ml on kallikrein activity on plasminogen and factor XII and on the inhibition of kallikrein by the plasma proteins C1-inhibitor and antithrombin. Almost all available glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate, chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced (1.2 to 3.0 times the catalytic efficiency of kallikrein (in a nanomolar range on the hydrolysis of plasminogen (0.3 to 1.8 µM and increased (1.9 to 7.7 times the enzyme efficiency in factor XII (0.1 to 10 µM activation. On the other hand, heparin, heparan sulfate, and bovine and tuna dermatan sulfate improved (1.2 to 3.4 times kallikrein inhibition by antithrombin (1.4 µM, while chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates reduced it (1.3 times. Heparin and heparan sulfate increased (1.4 times the enzyme inhibition by the C1-inhibitor (150 nM.

  17. N-carbamylglutamate and L-arginine improved maternal and placental development in underfed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Sun, Lingwei; Wang, Ziyu; Deng, Mingtian; Nie, Haitao; Zhang, Guomin; Ma, Tiewei; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected L-arginine (RP-Arg) in nutrient-restricted pregnant Hu sheep would affect (1) maternal endocrine status; (2) maternal, fetal, and placental antioxidation capability; and (3) placental development. From day 35 to day 110 of gestation, 32 Hu ewes carrying twin fetuses were allocated randomly into four groups: 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations, 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20g/day RP-Arg, and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5g/day NCG product. The results showed that in maternal and fetal plasma and placentomes, the activities of total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase were increased (Pewes. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 was increased (Pewes than in 100% NRC ewes, and had no effect (P>0.05) in both NCG- and RP-Arg-treated underfed ewes. A supplement of RP-Arg and NCG reduced (Pewes. These results indicate that dietary supplementation of NCG and RP-Arg in underfed ewes could influence maternal endocrine status, improve the maternal-fetal-placental antioxidation capability, and promote fetal and placental development during early-to-late gestation. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  18. Modulators of arginine metabolism support cancer immunosurveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freschi Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated accrual of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC in the blood, lymphoid organs and tumor tissues may lead to perturbation of the arginine metabolism and impairment of the endogenous antitumor immunity. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether accumulation of MDSC occurred in Th2 prone BALB/c and Th1 biased C57BL/6 mice bearing the C26GM colon carcinoma and RMA T lymphoma, respectively, and to investigate whether N(G nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and sildenafil, both modulators of the arginine metabolism, restored antitumor immunity. Results We report here that MDSC accumulate in the spleen and blood of mice irrespective of the mouse and tumor model used. Treatment of tumor-bearing mice with either the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil or the nitric-oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME significantly restrained tumor growth and expanded the tumor-specific immune response. Conclusion Our data emphasize the role of MDSC in modulating the endogenous tumor-specific immune response and underline the anti-neoplastic therapeutic potential of arginine metabolism modulators.

  19. Altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Jing, Y; Collie, N D; Dean, B; Bilkey, D K; Zhang, H

    2016-08-16

    Previous research implicates altered metabolism of l-arginine, a versatile amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites, in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The present study, for we believe the first time, systematically compared the metabolic profile of l-arginine in the frontal cortex (Brodmann's area 8) obtained post-mortem from schizophrenic individuals and age- and gender-matched non-psychiatric controls (n=20 per group). The enzyme assays revealed no change in total nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, but significantly increased arginase activity in the schizophrenia group. Western blot showed reduced endothelial NOS protein expression and increased arginase II protein level in the disease group. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assays confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and glutamate/GABA ratio in the schizophrenia cases. Regression analysis indicated positive correlations between arginase activity and the age of disease onset and between l-ornithine level and the duration of illness. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that l-arginine and its main metabolites l-citrulline, l-ornithine and agmatine formed distinct groups, which were altered in the schizophrenia group. The present study provides further evidence of altered brain arginine metabolism in schizophrenia, which enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and may lead to the future development of novel preventions and/or therapeutics for the disease.

  20. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin, is associated with declining glomerular filtration in patients with diabetes mellitus (ZODIAC-33)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertien, W. E.; Riphagen, I. J.; Drion, I.; Alkhalaf, A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Groenier, K. H.; Struck, J.; de Jong, P. E.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Kleefstra, N.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), the hormone important for maintaining fluid balance, has been shown to cause kidney damage in rodent models of diabetes. We investigated the potential role of AVP in the natural course of kidney function decline in diabetes in an epidemiological study. Plasma copeptin, a

  1. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...

  2. Feed supplementation with arginine and zinc on antioxidant status and inflammatory response in challenged weanling piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bergeron

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although supplementing the diet with zinc oxide and arginine is known to improve growth in weanling piglets, the mechanism of action is not well understood. We measured the antioxidant status and inflammatory response in 48 weanling castrated male piglets fed diets supplemented with or without zinc oxide (2,500 mg Zn oxide per kg and arginine (1% starting at the age of 20 days. The animals were injected with lipopolysaccharide (100 μg/kg on day 5. Half of them received another injection on day 12. Blood samples were taken just before and 6, 24 and 48 h after injection and the mucosa lining the ileum was recovered following euthanizing on days 7 and 14. Zinc supplementation increased reduced and total glutathione (GSH (reduced and total during days 5 to 7 and arginine decreased oxidized GSH measured on days 5 and 12 and the ratio of total antioxidant capacity to total oxidative status during days 12 to 14. Zinc decreased plasma malondialdehyde measured on days 5 and 12 and serum haptoglobin measured on day 12 and increased both metallothionein-1 expression and total antioxidant capacity measured in the ileal mucosa on day 14. Tumour necrosis factor α concentration decreased from days 5 to 12 (all effects were significant at P < 0.05. This study shows that the zinc supplement reduced lipid oxidation and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation during the post-weaning period, while the arginine supplementation had only a limited effect.

  3. Chemical modification of arginine residues in the lactose repressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, P.A.; Matthews, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The lactose repressor protein was chemically modified with 2,3-butanedione and phenylglyoxal. Arginine reaction was quantitated by either amino aced analysis or incorporation of 14 C-labeled phenylglyoxal. Inducer binding activity was unaffected by the modification of arginine residues, while both operator and nonspecific DNA binding activities were diminished, although to differing degrees. The correlation of the decrease in DNA binding activities with the modification of ∼ 1-2 equiv of arginine per monomer suggests increased reactivity of a functionally essential residue(s). For both reagents, operator DNA binding activity was protected by the presence of calf thymus DNA, and the extent of reaction with phenylglyoxal was simultaneously diminished. This protection presumably results from steric restriction of reagent access to an arginine(s) that is (are) essential for DNA binding interactions. These experiments suggest that there is (are) an essential reactive arginine(s) critical for repressor binding to DNA

  4. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  5. The Metabolic Conversion of Arginine in the Rumen Wall and its Importance in Ruminant Nitrogen Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmeyer, J.; Kurelec, B.; Hill, H. [Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-07-01

    The functions of arginase and urease of the rumen wall were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Surviving ruminal mucosae of cattle were incubated for four hours. {sup 14}C-arginine-HCl, uniformly labelled, was added to the serosal side at a concentration of 10 pmol/mi. About 25% of the added arginine was used during the incubation by the ruminal tissue. In comparison with controls an increased amount of {sup 14}C-omithine, urea, and ammonia were formed in the mucosa and appeared on both sides. The increase was due to arginase and urease functions. It was estimated that about 50% of the urea formed by arginine breakdown were present at the mucosa side, mainly in the form of ammonia. Of the omithine simultaneously formed, 85% remained on the serosa side. Remarkable individual variations of omithine and urea formation were found from animal to animal. The in-vivo experiments were performed using goats with catheters placed in the right ruminal artery and vein. We injected 90 {mu}Ci of {sup 14}C-arginine into the ruminal artery. When 80 g of soluble starch were added to the rumen the activity and concentration of ornithine increased in the ruminal venous blood showing an arterial-venous difference. The radioactivity of urea in blood taken from the ruminal vein and the carotid artery did not show any difference. When starch was omitted from the rumen a comparable difference of omithine concentration was not found. It is assumed that the enzymes arginase and urease of the rumen wall are involved in nitrogen recycling processes. Blood arginine may be hydrolysed in the rumen wall forming urea and ornithine. Urea formed by arginine breakdown may be split to CO{sub 2} and ammonia. The experiments produced evidence that the ammonia formed preferably enters the rumen content. The nitrogen transfer through the rumen wall may be affected by varying activities of arginase. (author)

  6. Pre-analytical and analytical aspects affecting clinical reliability of plasma glucose results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, Sara; Braga, Federica; Panteghini, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    The measurement of plasma glucose (PG) plays a central role in recognizing disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism, with established decision limits that are globally accepted. This requires that PG results are reliable and unequivocally valid no matter where they are obtained. To control the pre-analytical variability of PG and prevent in vitro glycolysis, the use of citrate as rapidly effective glycolysis inhibitor has been proposed. However, the commercial availability of several tubes with studies showing different performance has created confusion among users. Moreover, and more importantly, studies have shown that tubes promptly inhibiting glycolysis give PG results that are significantly higher than tubes containing sodium fluoride only, used in the majority of studies generating the current PG cut-points, with a different clinical classification of subjects. From the analytical point of view, to be equivalent among different measuring systems, PG results should be traceable to a recognized higher-order reference via the implementation of an unbroken metrological hierarchy. In doing this, it is important that manufacturers of measuring systems consider the uncertainty accumulated through the different steps of the selected traceability chain. In particular, PG results should fulfil analytical performance specifications defined to fit the intended clinical application. Since PG has tight homeostatic control, its biological variability may be used to define these limits. Alternatively, given the central diagnostic role of the analyte, an outcome model showing the impact of analytical performance of test on clinical classifications of subjects can be used. Using these specifications, performance assessment studies employing commutable control materials with values assigned by reference procedure have shown that the quality of PG measurements is often far from desirable and that problems are exacerbated using point-of-care devices. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian

  7. Evidence for arginine as the endogenous precursor of necines in heliotropium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, H; Birecki, M; Frohlich, M W

    1987-05-01

    In pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium angiospermum and H. indicum shoots exposed, in the light, to (14)C-labeled CO(2) for 44 hours, the incorporation of (14)C into 1,2-epoxy-1-hydroxymethylpyrrolizidine and retronecine amounted to 0.23 and 0.15%, respectively, of the total carbon assimilated. Treatment of the shoots with alpha-dl-difluoromethylornithine, the specific ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, at 1 to 2 millimolar had no effect on (14)C incorporation into the necines. In contrast, alpha-dl-difluoromethylarginine, the specific arginine decarboxylase inhibitor, prevented the incorporation of (14)C into the necines of both species; the inhibitor did not affect the absolute incorporation of (14)C from exogenous [1,4-(14)C] putrescine in either species. Thus, arginine is the only apparent endogenous precursor of the putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, at least in these two Heliotropium species that exhibited a relatively much higher in vitro activity of arginine decarboxylase than of ornithine decarboxylase. However, within 28 hours after administration, not only exogenous l-[5-(14)C]arginine, but also exogenous l-[5-(14)C]ornithine exhibited significant incorporation of their label into the necines, incorporation that could be partially prevented by both inhibitors. Neither inhibitor affected the rates of (14)C-labeled CO(2) assimilation, transformation of labeled assimilates into ethanol-insoluble compounds, or the very high degree of conversion of the introduced amino acids into other compounds. Methodology related to alkaloid biosynthetic studies is discussed.

  8. Evidence for Arginine as the Endogenous Precursor of Necines in Heliotropium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, Helena; Birecki, Mieczyslaw; Frohlich, M. W.

    1987-01-01

    In pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium angiospermum and H. indicum shoots exposed, in the light, to 14C-labeled CO2 for 44 hours, the incorporation of 14C into 1,2-epoxy-1-hydroxymethylpyrrolizidine and retronecine amounted to 0.23 and 0.15%, respectively, of the total carbon assimilated. Treatment of the shoots with α-dl-difluoromethylornithine, the specific ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, at 1 to 2 millimolar had no effect on 14C incorporation into the necines. In contrast, α-dl-difluoromethylarginine, the specific arginine decarboxylase inhibitor, prevented the incorporation of 14C into the necines of both species; the inhibitor did not affect the absolute incorporation of 14C from exogenous [1,4-14C] putrescine in either species. Thus, arginine is the only apparent endogenous precursor of the putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, at least in these two Heliotropium species that exhibited a relatively much higher in vitro activity of arginine decarboxylase than of ornithine decarboxylase. However, within 28 hours after administration, not only exogenous l-[5-14C]arginine, but also exogenous l-[5-14C]ornithine exhibited significant incorporation of their label into the necines, incorporation that could be partially prevented by both inhibitors. Neither inhibitor affected the rates of 14C-labeled CO2 assimilation, transformation of labeled assimilates into ethanol-insoluble compounds, or the very high degree of conversion of the introduced amino acids into other compounds. Methodology related to alkaloid biosynthetic studies is discussed. PMID:16665402

  9. Preparation of arginine (guanide 14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Baret, C.

    1960-01-01

    Reaction of anhydrous ammoniac at 800 deg. C on 14 CO 3 Ba gives rise to barium cyanamide 14 C with a yield of about 98 per cent. Addition on H 2 S on cyanamide 14 C leads to thiourea 14 C with a 85 per cent yield, which is quantitatively transformed into S-ethyl-isothiouronium iodide by treatment with methyl iodide. This 14 C-isothiouronium salt is used to introduce 14 C guanide group in α-N-tosyl-ornithine; tosyl group in α-N-tosyl-arginine thus obtained is then removed by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid. Arginine is separated as flavianic acid salt and is purified on exchange resin Dowex-50. The overall yield based on 14 CO 3 Ba is 25 per cent. (author) [fr

  10. Effects of arginine on multimodal anion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Atsushi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Kameda, Tomoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of arginine on binding and elution properties of a multimodal anion exchanger, Capto adhere, were examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a monoclonal antibody against interleukin-8 (mAb-IL8). Negatively charged BSA was bound to the positively charged Capto adhere and was readily eluted from the column with a stepwise or gradient elution using 1M NaCl at pH 7.0. For heat-treated BSA, small oligomers and remaining monomers were also eluted using a NaCl gradient, whereas larger oligomers required arginine for effective elution. The positively charged mAb-IL8 was bound to Capto adhere at pH 7.0. Arginine was also more effective for elution of the bound mAb-IL8 than was NaCl. The results imply that arginine interacts with the positively charged Capto adhere. The mechanism underlying the interactions of arginine with Capto adhere was examined by calculating the binding free energy between an arginine molecule and a Capto adhere ligand in water through molecular dynamics simulations. The overall affinity of arginine for Capto adhere is attributed to the hydrophobic and π-π interactions between an arginine side chain and the aromatic moiety of the ligand as well as hydrogen bonding between arginine and the ligand hydroxyl group, which may account for the characteristics of protein elution using arginine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  12. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  13. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  14. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  15. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS measurement of ibuprofen in 10-μL aliquots of human plasma and mice serum using [α-methylo-2H3]ibuprofen after ethyl acetate extraction and pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: Discovery of a collision energy-dependent H/D isotope effect and pharmacokinetic application to inhaled ibuprofen-arginine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Hanff, Erik; Mitschke, Anja; Beckmann, Bibiana; Tillmann, Hanns-Christian; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Müller, Meike; Bernasconi, Corrado

    2017-02-01

    GC-MS and GC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of ibuprofen (d 0 -ibuprofen), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in human plasma using α-methyl- 2 H 3 -4-(isobutyl)phenylacetic acid (d 3 -ibuprofen) as internal standard. Plasma (10μL) was diluted with acetate buffer (80μL, 1M, pH 4.9) and d 0 - and d 3 -ibuprofen were extracted with ethyl acetate (2×500μL). After solvent evaporation d 0 - and d 3 -ibuprofen were derivatized in anhydrous acetonitrile by using pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide and N,N-diisopropylethylamine as the base catalyst. Under electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI), the PFB esters of d 0 - and d 3 -ibuprofen readily ionize to form their carboxylate anions [M-PFB] - at m/z 205 and m/z 208, respectively. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of m/z 205 and m/z 208 resulted in the formation of the anions at m/z 161 and m/z 164, respectively, due to neutral loss of CO 2 (44 Da). A collision energy-dependent H/D isotope effect was observed, which involves abstraction/elimination of H - from d 0 -ibuprofen and D - from d 3 -ibuprofen and is minimum at a CE value of 5eV. Quantitative GC-MS determination was performed by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 205 and m/z 208. Quantitative GC-MS/MS determination was performed by selected-reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 205 to m/z 161 for d 0 -ibuprofen and m/z 208 to m/z 164 for d 3 -ibuprofen. In a therapeutically relevant concentration range (0-1000μM) d 0 -ibuprofen added to human plasma was determined with accuracy (recovery, %) and imprecision (relative standard deviation, %) ranging between 93.7 and 110%, and between 0.8 and 4.9%, respectively. GC-MS (y) and GC-MS/MS (x) yielded almost identical results (y=4.00+0.988x, r 2 =0.9991). In incubation mixtures of arachidonic acid (10μM), d 3 -ibuprofen (10μM) or d 0 -ibuprofen (10μM) with ovine cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms 1 and 2, the concentration of d 3

  16. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  17. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abdussalam Ali A. Hmaid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C or cold (4 ± 1 °C and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis. Keywords: Cardiomyocyte, Cardiac hypertrophy, l-Arginine, l-NAME, Myocardium

  18. Weissella halotolerans W22 combines arginine deiminase and ornithine decarboxylation pathways and converts arginine to putrescine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, C. I.; San Romao, M. V.; Lolkema, J. S.; Barreto Crespo, M. T.; Baretto Crespo, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To demonstrate that the meat food strain Weissella halotolerans combines an ornithine decarboxylation pathway and an arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway and is able to produce putrescine, a biogenic amine. Evidence is shown that these two pathways produce a proton motive force (PMF). Methods and

  19. The Microbiome, Intestinal Function, and Arginine Metabolism of Healthy Indian Women Are Different from Those of American and Jamaican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Cope, Julia L; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Luna, Ruth A; Hollister, Emily B; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-09

    Indian women have slower arginine flux during pregnancy compared with American and Jamaican women. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that becomes essential during periods of rapid lean tissue deposition. It is synthesized only from citrulline, a nondietary amino acid produced mainly in the gut. The gut is therefore a key site of arginine and citrulline metabolism, and gut microbiota may affect their metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiota of nonpregnant American, Indian, and Jamaican women and characterize the relations between the gut microbiota, gut function, and citrulline and arginine metabolism. Thirty healthy American, Indian, and Jamaican women (n = 10/group), aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y, were infused intravenously with [guanidino- 15 N 2 ]arginine, [5,5- 2 H 2 ]citrulline, and [ 15 N 2 ]ornithine and given oral [U- 13 C 6 ]arginine in the fasting and postprandial states. Fecal bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In the fasting state, Indian women had lower citrulline flux than did American and Jamaican women [7.0 ± 0.4 compared with 9.1 ± 0.4 and 8.9 ± 0.2 μmol ⋅ kg fat-free mass (FFM) -1  ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.01] and greater enteral arginine conversion to ornithine than did American women (1.4 ± 0.11 compared with 1.0 ± 0.08 μmol ⋅ kg FFM -1  ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.04). They also had lower mannitol excretion than American and Jamaican women (154 ± 37.1 compared with 372 ± 51.8 and 410 ± 39.6 mg/6 h, P Indian women had increased mean relative abundances of Prevotella (42%) compared to American and Jamaican women (7% and Indian women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Embryo Development and Post-Hatch Performances of Kampung Chicken by in Ovo Feeding of L-Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azhar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate embryo development, post-hatch performances, and growth rate of kampung chicken treated in-ovo feeding of L-Arginine. A total of 135 kampung chicken fertile eggs (weight 42-43 g were used and divided into 5 treatment groups of three replications. They were placed in the semi-automatic incubator. The first group was without in-ovo feeding (negative control; the second group was in-ovo feeding of saline 0.9% (positive control; the 3, 4, and 5 groups were in-ovo feeding of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% L-Arginine, respectively. In-ovo feeding of L-Arginine were injected into albumen on day 10 of incubation period using automatic syringe in the narrow end side of egg by inserting needle through a small hole at 10 mm depth. After hatching, all day old chicks were placed in floor pens (1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m accordance with the previous egg groups. The results showed that in-ovo feeding of L-Arginine increased weight and circumference of the embryo, but did not affect the length of embryo. In-ovo feeding of L-Arginine resulted in a higher body weight gain and a lower feed conversion even though feed intake was not significantly different compared to the control groups. The growth rate performance up to 6 weeks rearing increased significantly by increasing L-Arginine administration to 1.0%. It can be concluded that embryo development and post-hatch performances of kampung chicken were markedly increased by in-ovo feeding of L-arginine.

  1. EFFECTS OF ARGININE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTED DIETS ON THE IMMUNOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILERS CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jesús Chan Diaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets on the immune response during post-vaccine stress, a trial was conducted with 700 chicks (1 day-old which were distributed into 28 floor-pens and fed one of four dietary treatments (with 7 replicates randomly assigned: T1 = control diet (1.31 % of arginine and 10 IU of vitamin E/kg of feed; T2 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine; T3 = T1 + 70 IU of vitamin E; T4 = T1 + 0.3 % of arginine + 70 IU of vitamin E. At 12 days of age, all birds were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (ND, infectious bronchitis, avian influenza (AI and fowl pox. The traits evaluated were: post-vaccine reaction at days 14, 16, 18, 21 and 23; antibody titers against ND and AI, and relative lymphoid organs weight at days 11, 19 and 26; and the performance were recorded weekly. Chickens fed T2, T4 (at day 16, and T3 (at day 21 had lesser (p≤0.05 post-vaccine reaction than birds fed T1. The antibody titers against ND (at day 11 was higher (p≤0.05 in chickens fed T4 (3.1, T3 (2.7 and T2 (2.7 compared to T1 (1.6; meanwhile, for AI titers no differences were found. There were no differences, neither for immune organs weight, nor for performance. In conclusion, arginine and vitamin E supplementation in broiler chicken diets reduced the post-vaccine stress and improved the immune response without affecting the performance.

  2. Endothelial arginine resynthesis contributes to the maintenance of vasomotor function in male diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chennupati

    Full Text Available Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS is essential for recycling L-citrulline, the by-product of NO synthase (NOS, to the NOS substrate L-arginine. Here, we assessed whether disturbed arginine resynthesis modulates endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in normal and diabetic male mice.Endothelium-selective Ass-deficient mice (Assfl/fl/Tie2Cretg/- = Ass-KOTie2 were generated by crossing Assfl/fl mice ( = control with Tie2Cre mice. Gene ablation in endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Blood pressure (MAP was recorded in 34-week-old male mice. Vasomotor responses were studied in isolated saphenous arteries of 12- and 34-week-old Ass-KOTie2 and control animals. At the age of 10 weeks, diabetes was induced in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice by streptozotocin injections. Vasomotor responses of diabetic animals were studied 10 weeks later. MAP was similar in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Depletion of circulating L-arginine by arginase 1 infusion or inhibition of NOS activity with L-NAME resulted in an increased MAP (10 and 30 mmHg, respectively in control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. Optimal arterial diameter, contractile responses to phenylephrine, and relaxing responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were similar in healthy control and Ass-KOTie2 mice. However, in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 mice, relaxation responses to acetylcholine and endothelium-derived NO (EDNO were significantly reduced when compared to diabetic control mice.Absence of endothelial citrulline recycling to arginine did not affect blood pressure and systemic arterial vasomotor responses in healthy mice. EDNO-mediated vasodilatation was significantly more impaired in diabetic Ass-KOTie2 than in control mice demonstrating that endothelial arginine recycling becomes a limiting endothelial function in diabetes.

  3. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  4. No evidence for involvement of plasma proteins or blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. An immunohistoperoxidase study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Scott, J. R.; McBride, P. A.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Bruce, M. E.; Fraser, H.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate blood-brain permeability and the possible involvement of plasma proteins and blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. No abnormal extravasation of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was found and with

  5. On the mechanism of arginine requirement for adenovirus synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaat, D.; Weber, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of arginine deprivation on the synthesis and processing of viral proteins and the assembly of incomplete and complete virions were studied during infection with human adenovirus type 2. Arginine deprivation greatly reduced the synthesis of all viral proteins, particularly the precursor to core protein VII. The inhibition was completely reversible by the addition of arginine to the medium. Arginine deprivation between 7 and 20 hours post-infection inhibited the processing of PVII to VII, suggesting that PVII is not cleaved autocatalytically. The assembly of incomplete virions was sensitive to arginine deprivation only prior to 20 hours, while the assembly of complete virions was dependent on the continuous presence of arginine. This observation supports the hypothesis that incomplete virions are precursors of complete virions. The experiments on the PVII-specific endoprotease activity showed that arginine deprivation caused only slight reduction in the in vitro activity, although no activity was observed in vivo. The present results lead to the hypothesis that arginine deficiency inhibits the synthesis of a functional protein essential for virion maturation, other than the synthesis of processing of PVII. (author)

  6. Chemical mechanisms of histone lysine and arginine modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Brian C.; Denu, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone lysine and arginine residues are subject to a wide array of post-translational modifications including methylation, citrullination, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The combinatorial action of these modifications regulates critical DNA processes including replication, repair, and transcription. In addition, enzymes that modify histone lysine and arginine residues have been correlated with a variety of human diseases including arthritis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, an...

  7. Effect of rare-earth dopants on the growth and structural, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of L-arginine phosphate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjunan, S.; Bhaskaran, A.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Mohan, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thorium, Lanthanum and Cerium rare-earth ions were doped with L-arginine phosphate material and the crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. → The transparency of the rare-earth doped LAP crystals has enhanced compared to pure LAP. → The powder SHG measurements revealed that the SHG output of rare-earth doped LAP crystals increases considerably compared to that of LAP. → Vicker's hardness number of as-grown crystal of LAP is higher than that of rare-earth doped LAP crystals. - Abstract: Effect of Thorium, Lanthanum and Cerium rare-earth ions on the growth and properties of L-arginine phosphate single crystals has been reported. The incorporation of rare-earth dopants into the L-arginine phosphate crystals is confirmed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy analysis. The unit cell parameters for pure and rare-earth doped L-arginine phosphate crystals have been estimated by powder X-ray diffraction studies. UV-visible studies revealed the transmittance percentage and cut-off wavelengths of the grown crystals. Powder second harmonic generation measurement has been carried out for pure and doped L-arginine phosphate crystals. The dielectric behavior of the grown crystals was analyzed for different frequencies at room temperature. The mechanical properties have been determined for pure and the doped L-arginine phosphate crystals.

  8. Effect of rare-earth dopants on the growth and structural, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of L-arginine phosphate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, S., E-mail: arjunan_hce@yahoo.co.i [Department of Physics, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai (India); Bhaskaran, A. [Department of Physics, Dr. Ambedkar Government College, Chennai (India); Kumar, R. Mohan; Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai (India); Jayavel, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Thorium, Lanthanum and Cerium rare-earth ions were doped with L-arginine phosphate material and the crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. {yields} The transparency of the rare-earth doped LAP crystals has enhanced compared to pure LAP. {yields} The powder SHG measurements revealed that the SHG output of rare-earth doped LAP crystals increases considerably compared to that of LAP. {yields} Vicker's hardness number of as-grown crystal of LAP is higher than that of rare-earth doped LAP crystals. - Abstract: Effect of Thorium, Lanthanum and Cerium rare-earth ions on the growth and properties of L-arginine phosphate single crystals has been reported. The incorporation of rare-earth dopants into the L-arginine phosphate crystals is confirmed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy analysis. The unit cell parameters for pure and rare-earth doped L-arginine phosphate crystals have been estimated by powder X-ray diffraction studies. UV-visible studies revealed the transmittance percentage and cut-off wavelengths of the grown crystals. Powder second harmonic generation measurement has been carried out for pure and doped L-arginine phosphate crystals. The dielectric behavior of the grown crystals was analyzed for different frequencies at room temperature. The mechanical properties have been determined for pure and the doped L-arginine phosphate crystals.

  9. Functional and neurochemical profile of place learning after L-nitro-arginine in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Wörtwein, Gitta; Hasman, Andreas

    1995-01-01

    Neurobiology, nitrogenoxid (NO), place learning, rotte, L-Nitro-Arginin, funktionel genopretning......Neurobiology, nitrogenoxid (NO), place learning, rotte, L-Nitro-Arginin, funktionel genopretning...

  10. Anti-aging effects of l-arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Gad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available l-Arginine is one of the most metabolically versatile amino acids. In addition to its role in the synthesis of nitric oxide, l-arginine serves as a precursor for the synthesis of polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine, agmatine and urea. Several human and experimental animal studies have indicated that exogenous l-arginine intake has multiple beneficial pharmacological effects when taken in doses larger than normal dietary consumption. Such effects include reduction in the risk of vascular and heart diseases, reduction in erectile dysfunction, improvement in immune response and inhibition of gastric hyperacidity. This review summarises several positive studies and personal experiences of l-arginine. The demonstrated anti-aging benefits of l-arginine show greater potential than any pharmaceutical or nutraceutical agent ever previously discovered.

  11. Purification of free arginine from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Megías, Cristina; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Chickpea is a grain legume widely consumed in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world. Chickpea seeds are rich in proteins but they also contain a substantial amount of free amino acids, especially arginine. Hence chickpea may represent a useful source of free amino acids for nutritional or pharmaceutical purposes. Arginine is receiving great attention in recent years because it is the substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in mammals. In this work we describe a simple procedure for the purification of arginine from chickpea seeds, using nanofiltration technology and an ion-exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120. Arginine was finally purified by precipitation or crystallization, yielding preparations with purities of 91% and 100%, respectively. Chickpea may represent an affordable green source of arginine, and a useful alternative to production by fermentation or protein hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early obesity leads to increases in hepatic arginase I and related systemic changes in nitric oxide and L-arginine metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kubo, Masayuki; Nagaoka, Kenjiro; Funakubo, Narumi; Setiawan, Heri; Takemoto, Kei; Eguchi, Eri; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Ogino, Keiki

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for vascular endothelial cell dysfunction characterized by low-grade, chronic inflammation. Increased levels of arginase I and concomitant decreases in L-arginine bioavailability are known to play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. In the present study, we focused on changes in the systemic expression of arginase I as well as L-arginine metabolism in the pre-disease state of early obesity prior to the onset of atherosclerosis. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (CD; 10% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat) for 8 weeks. The mRNA expression of arginase I in the liver, adipose tissue, aorta, and muscle; protein expression of arginase I in the liver and plasma; and systemic levels of L-arginine bioavailability and NO 2 - were assessed. HFD-fed mice showed early obesity without severe disease symptoms. Arginase I mRNA and protein expression levels in the liver were significantly higher in HFD-fed obese mice than in CD-fed mice. Arginase I levels were slightly increased, whereas L-arginine levels were significantly reduced, and these changes were followed by reductions in NO 2 - levels. Furthermore, hepatic arginase I levels positively correlated with plasma arginase I levels and negatively correlated with L-arginine bioavailability in plasma. These results suggested that increases in the expression of hepatic arginase I and reductions in plasma L-arginine and NO 2 - levels might lead to vascular endothelial dysfunction in the pre-disease state of early obesity.

  13. Effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and semen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eskiocak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that mental stress causes abnormality of spermiogram parameters. We investigated the effect of psychological stress on the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO pathway. Semen samples were collected from 29 healthy fourth semester medical students just before (stress and 3 months after (non-stress the final examinations. Psychological stress was measured by the State Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. After standard semen analysis, arginase activity and NO concentration were measured spectrophotometrically in the seminal plasma. Measurements were made in duplicate. During the stress period, sperm concentration (41.28 ± 3.70 vs 77.62 ± 7.13 x 10(6/mL, rapid progressive motility of spermatozoa (8.79 ± 1.66 vs 20.86 ± 1.63% and seminal plasma arginase activity (0.12 ± 0.01 vs 0.22 ± 0.01 U/mL were significantly lower than in the non-stress situation, whereas seminal plasma NO (17.28 ± 0.56 vs 10.02 ± 0.49 µmol/L was higher compared to the non-stress period (P < 0.001 for all. During stress there was a negative correlation between NO concentration and sperm concentration, the percentage of rapid progressive motility and arginase activity (r = -0.622, P < 0.01; r = -0.425, P < 0.05 and r = -0.445, P < 0.05, respectively. These results indicate that psychological stress causes an increase of NO level and a decrease of arginase activity in the L-arginine-NO pathway. Furthermore, poor sperm quality may be due to excessive production of NO under psychological stress. In the light of these results, we suggest that the arginine-NO pathway, together with arginase and NO synthase, are involved in semen quality under stress conditions.

  14. Arginine-rich intracellular delivery peptides noncovalently transport protein into living cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-H.; Chen, C.-P.; Chan, M.-H.; Chang, M.; Hou, Y.-W.; Chen, H.-H.; Hsu, H.-R.; Liu, Kevin; Lee, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membranes of plant or animal cells are generally impermeable to peptides or proteins. Many basic peptides have previously been investigated and covalently cross-linked with cargoes for cellular internalization. In the current study, we demonstrate that arginine-rich intracellular delivery (AID) peptides are able to deliver fluorescent proteins or β-galactosidase enzyme into animal and plant cells, as well as animal tissue. Cellular internalization and transdermal delivery of protein could be mediated by effective and nontoxic AID peptides in a neither fusion protein nor conjugation fashion. Therefore, noncovalent AID peptides may provide a useful strategy to have active proteins function in living cells and tissues in vivo

  15. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  16. Roles of conserved arginines in ATP-binding domains of AAA+ chaperone ClpB from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takashi; Nakazaki, Yosuke; Yoshida, Masasuke; Watanabe, Yo-hei

    2011-07-01

    ClpB, a member of the expanded superfamily of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+), forms a ring-shaped hexamer and cooperates with the DnaK chaperone system to reactivate aggregated proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The ClpB protomer consists of an N-terminal domain, an AAA+ module (AAA-1), a middle domain, and a second AAA+ module (AAA-2). Each AAA+ module contains highly conserved WalkerA and WalkerB motifs, and two arginines (AAA-1) or one arginine (AAA-2). Here, we investigated the roles of these arginines (Arg322, Arg323, and Arg747) of ClpB from Thermus thermophilus in the ATPase cycle and chaperone function by alanine substitution. These mutations did not affect nucleotide binding, but did inhibit the hydrolysis of the bound ATP and slow the threading of the denatured protein through the central pore of the T. thermophilus ClpB ring, which severely impaired the chaperone functions. Previously, it was demonstrated that ATP binding to the AAA-1 module induced motion of the middle domain and stabilized the ClpB hexamer. However, the arginine mutations of the AAA-1 module destabilized the ClpB hexamer, even though ATP-induced motion of the middle domain was not affected. These results indicated that the three arginines are crucial for ATP hydrolysis and chaperone activity, but not for ATP binding. In addition, the two arginines in AAA-1 and the ATP-induced motion of the middle domain independently contribute to the stabilization of the hexamer. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  17. Effect of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage on L-arginine production in recombinant Corynebacterium crenatum using coenzyme regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meijuan; Qin, Jingru; Rao, Zhiming; You, Hengyi; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Taowei; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-01-19

    Corynebacterium crenatum SYPA 5 is the industrial strain for L-arginine production. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a kind of biopolymer stored as bacterial reserve materials for carbon and energy. The introduction of the PHB synthesis pathway into several strains can regulate the global metabolic pathway. In addition, both the pathways of PHB and L-arginine biosynthesis in the cells are NADPH-dependent. NAD kinase could upregulate the NADPH concentration in the bacteria. Thus, it is interesting to investigate how both PHB and NAD kinase affect the L-arginine biosynthesis in C. crenatum SYPA 5. C. crenatum P1 containing PHB synthesis pathway was constructed and cultivated in batch fermentation for 96 h. The enzyme activities of the key enzymes were enhanced comparing to the control strain C. crenatum SYPA 5. More PHB was found in C. crenatum P1, up to 12.7 % of the dry cell weight. Higher growth level and enhanced glucose consumptions were also observed in C. crenatum P1. With respect to the yield of L-arginine, it was 38.54 ± 0.81 g/L, increasing by 20.6 %, comparing to the control under the influence of PHB accumulation. For more NADPH supply, C. crenatum P2 was constructed with overexpression of NAD kinase based on C. crenatum P1. The NADPH concentration was increased in C. crenatum P2 comparing to the control. PHB content reached 15.7 % and 41.11 ± 1.21 g/L L-arginine was obtained in C. crenatum P2, increased by 28.6 %. The transcription levels of key L-arginine synthesis genes, argB, argC, argD and argJ in recombinant C. crenatum increased 1.9-3.0 times compared with the parent strain. Accumulation of PHB by introducing PHB synthesis pathway, together with up-regulation of coenzyme level by overexpressing NAD kinase, enables the recombinant C. crenatum to serve as high-efficiency cell factories in the long-time L-arginine fermentation. Furthermore, batch cultivation of the engineered C. crenatum revealed that it could accumulate both extracellular L-arginine

  18. Comparative analysis of twin-arginine (Tat)-dependent protein secretion of a heterologous model protein (GFP) in three different Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Daniel; Vollstedt, Angela; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Freudl, Roland

    In contrast to the general protein secretion (Sec) system, the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) export pathway allows the translocation of proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane in a fully folded conformation. Due to this feature, the Tat pathway provides an attractive alternative to the

  19. Colostrum and milk production in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Purup, Stig

    2016-01-01

    ) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation (in 2 blocks). Piglets were weighed 0, 12, 24, and 36 h after birth of the first piglet and on d 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in lactation for estimation of colostrum and milk intake. Colostrum samples obtained at 0......, 12, 24, and 36 h after parturition and milk from sows on d 3, 10, 17, and 24 of lactation were analyzed for macrochemical composition. Also, the content of IGF-I was determined in colostrum. Arginine supplementation decreased lactose and increased DM content of colostrum (P ... on colostrum or milk yield, piglet weight, piglet ADG, or fat content of colostrum and milk was observed (P > 0.10). Concentration of protein and IGF-I tended to be increased in ARG-fed sows. In conclusion, arginine supplementation of sows during gestation and lactation affected macrochemical composition...

  20. Arginine and Polyamines Fate in Leishmania Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muxel, Sandra M.; Aoki, Juliana I.; Fernandes, Juliane C. R.; Laranjeira-Silva, Maria F.; Zampieri, Ricardo A.; Acuña, Stephanie M.; Müller, Karl E.; Vanderlinde, Rubia H.; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M.

    2018-01-01

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite that alternates its life cycle between the sand fly and the mammalian host macrophages, involving several environmental changes. The parasite responds to these changes by promoting a rapid metabolic adaptation through cellular signaling modifications that lead to transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression regulation and morphological modifications. Molecular approaches such as gene expression regulation, next-generation sequencing (NGS), microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling, in cell Western blot analyses and enzymatic activity profiling, have been used to characterize the infection of murine BALB/c and C57BL/6 macrophages, as well as the human monocytic cell-lineage THP-1, with Leishmania amazonensis wild type (La-WT) or arginase knockout (La-arg-). These models are being used to elucidate physiological roles of arginine and polyamines pathways and the importance of arginase for the establishment of the infection. In this review, we will describe the main aspects of Leishmania-host interaction, focusing on the arginine and polyamines pathways and pointing to possible targets to be used for prognosis and/or in the control of the infection. The parasite enzymes, arginase and nitric oxide synthase-like, have essential roles in the parasite survival and in the maintenance of infection. On the other hand, in mammalian macrophages, defense mechanisms are activated inducing alterations in the mRNA, miRNA and enzymatic profiles that lead to the control of infection. Furthermore, the genetic background of both parasite and host are also important to define the fate of infection. PMID:29379478

  1. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T 4 were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T 4 as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r 2 = 0.84) and free T 4 (r 2 = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r 2 = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females

  2. Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine in Hypothyroid Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Messeih, P. L. [Health Radiation Research Department, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid diseases may lead to endothelial dysfunction, however, the mechanism underlying the endothelial dysfunction in thyroid disease is still not clear. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), a novel inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), was reported to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from L-arginine. The present study was carried out to investigate ADMA levels together with effects of dislipidemia in sub-clinical and overt hypothyroid females. There were significant increase in the levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and ADMA in hypothyroid females as compared to controls while the levels of NO and free T{sub 4} were significantly decreased than controls. Sub-clinical hypothyroid females had significant high TSH, LDL-c and non-significantly high ADMA levels and total cholesterol as compared to controls while they had significant decrease in NO, HDL-c and non-significant decrease in free T{sub 4} as compared to controls. There were significant negative correlations between NO and both ADMA (r{sup 2} = 0.84) and free T{sub 4} (r{sup 2} = 0.95) in overt hypothyroid group while significant positive correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.85) was detected between TSH and HDL-c in the same group. These results are highly suggestive that the decrease of nitric oxide secondary to accumulation of ADMA represent an important pathogenic factor together with dyslipidemia in endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk especially in hypothyroid females.

  3. Combinatorial effects of arginine and fluoride on oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Cheng, X; Wang, L; Qiu, W; Wang, S; Zhou, Y; Li, M; Li, Y; Cheng, L; Li, J; Zhou, X; Xu, X

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial disequilibrium between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal residents within the dental plaque. Fluoride is a widely used anticaries agent, which promotes tooth hard-tissue remineralization and suppresses bacterial activities. Recent clinical trials have shown that oral hygiene products containing both fluoride and arginine possess a greater anticaries effect compared with those containing fluoride alone, indicating synergy between fluoride and arginine in caries management. Here, we hypothesize that arginine may augment the ecological benefit of fluoride by enriching alkali-generating bacteria in the plaque biofilm and thus synergizes with fluoride in controlling dental caries. Specifically, we assessed the combinatory effects of NaF/arginine on planktonic and biofilm cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Porphyromonas gingivalis with checkerboard microdilution assays. The optimal NaF/arginine combinations were selected, and their combinatory effects on microbial composition were further examined in single-, dual-, and 3-species biofilm using bacterial species-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that arginine synergized with fluoride in suppressing acidogenic S. mutans in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. In addition, the NaF/arginine combination synergistically reduced S. mutans but enriched S. sanguinis within the multispecies biofilms. More importantly, the optimal combination of NaF/arginine maintained a "streptococcal pressure" against the potential growth of oral anaerobe P. gingivalis within the alkalized biofilm. Taken together, we conclude that the combinatory application of fluoride and arginine has a potential synergistic effect in maintaining a healthy oral microbial equilibrium and thus represents a promising ecological approach to caries management. © International & American

  4. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  5. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  6. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  7. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Binding of the human "electron transferring flavoprotein" (ETF) to the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) involves an arginine and histidine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony R

    2003-10-01

    The interaction between the "electron transferring flavoprotein" (ETF) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) enables successful flavin to flavin electron transfer, crucial for the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The exact biochemical determinants for ETF binding to MCAD are unknown. Here we show that binding of human ETF, to MCAD, was inhibited by 2,3-butanedione and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and reversed by incubation with free arginine and hydroxylamine respectively. Spectral analyses of native ETF vs modified ETF suggested that flavin binding was not affected and that the loss of ETF activity with MCAD involved modification of one ETF arginine residue and one ETF histidine residue respectively. MCAD and octanoyl-CoA protected ETF against inactivation by both 2,3-butanedione and DEPC indicating that the arginine and histidine residues are present in or around the MCAD binding site. Comparison of exposed arginine and histidine residues among different ETF species, however, indicates that arginine residues are highly conserved but that histidine residues are not. These results lead us to conclude that this single arginine residue is essential for the binding of ETF to MCAD, but that the single histidine residue, although involved, is not.

  9. Facilitation of peptide fibre formation by arginine-phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Peptide; self-assembly; arginine; microscopy. ... The latter property, in particular, observed in .... this process repeated till the gummy compound be- ..... micrograph of Congo red-stained image of individual peptide fibre from aged solution of 4.

  10. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmaid, Amal Abdussalam Ali A; Markelic, Milica; Otasevic, Vesna; Masovic, Sava; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato; Korac, Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C) or cold (4 ± 1 °C) and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester)·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis.

  11. Increased Erythrocytes By-Products of Arginine Catabolism Are Associated with Hyperglycemia and Could Be Involved in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Zamora, Serafín; Méndez-Rodríguez, Miguel L.; Olguín-Martínez, Marisela; Sánchez-Sevilla, Lourdes; Quintana-Quintana, Miguel; García-García, Norberto; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a worldwide disease characterized by metabolic disturbances, frequently associated with high risk of atherosclerosis and renal and nervous system damage. Here, we assessed whether metabolites reflecting oxidative redox state, arginine and nitric oxide metabolism, are differentially distributed between serum and red blood cells (RBC), and whether significant metabolism of arginine exists in RBC. In 90 patients with type 2 DM without regular treatment for diabetes and 90 healthy controls, paired by age and gender, we measured serum and RBC levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrites, ornithine, citrulline, and urea. In isolated RBC, metabolism of L-[14C]-arginine was also determined. In both groups, nitrites were equally distributed in serum and RBC; citrulline predominated in serum, whereas urea, arginine, and ornithine were found mainly in RBC. DM patients showed hyperglycemia and increased blood HbA1C, and increased levels of these metabolites, except for arginine, significantly correlating with blood glucose levels. RBC were observed to be capable of catabolizing arginine to ornithine, citrulline and urea, which was increased in RBC from DM patients, and correlated with an increased affinity for arginine in the activities of putative RBC arginase (Km = 0.23±0.06 vs. 0.50±0.13 mM, in controls) and nitric oxide synthase (Km = 0.28±0.06 vs. 0.43±0.09 mM, in controls). In conclusion, our results suggest that DM alters metabolite distribution between serum and RBC, demonstrating that RBC regulate serum levels of metabolites which affect nitrogen metabolism, not only by transporting them but also by metabolizing amino acids such as arginine. Moreover, we confirmed that urea can be produced also by human RBC besides hepatocytes, being much more evident in RBC from patients with type 2 DM. These events are probably involved in the specific physiopathology of this disease, i.e., endothelial damage and dysfunction. PMID:23826148

  12. Plasma nesfatin-1 is not affected by long-term food restriction and does not predict rematuration among iteroparous female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lucius K; Pierce, Andrew L; Riley, Larry G; Duncan, Christine A; Nagler, James J

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic peptide hormone nesfatin-1 has been linked to the reproductive axis in fishes. The purpose of this study was to determine how energy availability after spawning affects plasma levels of nesfatin-1, the metabolic peptide hormone ghrelin, and sex steroid hormones in rematuring female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To limit reproductive maturation, a group of female trout was food-restricted after spawning and compared with a control group that was fed a standard broodstock ration. The experiment was conducted twice, once using two-year-old trout (second-time spawners) and once using three-year-old trout (third-time spawners). During monthly sampling, blood was collected from all fish, and a subset of fish from each treatment was sacrificed for pituitaries. Pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone-beta (fsh-β) mRNA expression was analyzed with q-RT-PCR; plasma hormone levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay (17β-estradiol and ghrelin) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (11-keto-testosterone and nesfatin-1). Although plasma nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly in the months immediately after spawning within both feeding treatments, plasma nesfatin-1 did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Similarly, plasma ghrelin levels did not differ significantly between the two treatments at any point. Food restriction arrested ovarian development by 15-20 weeks after spawning, shown by significantly lower plasma E2 levels among restricted-ration fish. Pituitary fsh-β mRNA levels were higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish starting at 20 weeks, but did not differ significantly between treatment groups until 30 weeks after spawning. Within both treatment groups, plasma 11-KT was elevated immediately after spawning and rapidly decreased to and persisted at low levels; starting between 20 and 25 weeks after spawning, plasma 11-KT was higher among control-ration fish than restricted-ration fish. The

  13. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  14. 24-Hour protein, arginine and citrulline metabolism in fed critically ill children – a stable isotope tracer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Betue, Carlijn T.I.; Garcia Casal, Xiomara C.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Schexnayder, Stephen M.; Joosten, Koen F.M.; Deutz, Nicolaas E.P.; Engelen, Marielle P.K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims The reference method to study protein and arginine metabolism in critically ill children is measuring plasma amino acid appearances with stable isotopes during a short (4–8h) time period and extrapolate results to 24-hour. However, 24-hour measurements may be variable due to critical illness related factors and a circadian rhythm could be present. Since only short duration stable isotope studies in critically ill children have been conducted before, the aim of this study was to investigate 24-hour appearance of specific amino acids representing protein and arginine metabolism, with stable isotope techniques in continuously fed critically ill children. Methods In eight critically ill children, admitted to the pediatric (n=4) or cardiovascular (n=4) intensive care unit, aged 0–10 years, receiving continuous (par)enteral nutrition with protein intake 1.0–3.7 g/kg/day, a 24-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was carried out. L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, L-[3,3-2H2]-tyrosine, L-[5,5,5-2H3]-leucine, L-[guanido-15N2]-arginine and L-[5-13C-3,3,4,4-2H4]-citrulline were infused intravenously and L-[15N]-phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine enterally. Arterial blood was sampled every hour. Results Coefficients of variation, representing intra-individual variability, of the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline were high, on average 14–19% for intravenous tracers and 23–26% for enteral tracers. No evident circadian rhythm was present. The pattern and overall 24-hour level of whole body protein balance differed per individual. Conclusions In continuously fed stable critically ill children, the amino acid appearances of phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and citrulline show high variability. This should be kept in mind when performing stable isotope studies in this population. There was no apparent circadian rhythm. PMID:28089618

  15. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Joo; Bae, Jin Woo; Kim, Chun Ho; Lee, Jin Woo; Shin, Jung Woog; Park, Ki Dong

    2007-01-01

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses

  16. Acellular matrix of bovine pericardium bound with L-arginine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jin Woo [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun Ho [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Woo [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jung Woog [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Dong [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules onto natural tissues has been interestingly studied for the development of new functional matrices for the replacement of lost or malfunctioning tissues. In this study, an acellular matrix of bovine pericardium (ABP) was chemically modified by the direct coupling of L-arginine after glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The effects of L-arginine coupling on durability and calcification were investigated and the biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A four-step detergent and enzymatic extraction process has been utilized to remove cellular components from fresh bovine pericardium (BP). Microscopic observation confirmed that nearly all cellular constituents are removed. Thermal and mechanical properties showed that the durability of L-arginine-treated matrices increased as compared with control ABP and GA-treated ABP. Resistance to collagenase digestion revealed that modified matrices have greater resistance to enzyme digestion than control ABP and GA-treated ABP. The in vivo calcification study demonstrated much less calcium deposition on L-arginine-treated ABP than GA-treated one. In vitro cell viability results showed that ABP modified with L-arginine leads to a significant increase in attachment of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results attest to the usefulness of L-arginine-treated ABP matrices for cardiovascular bioprostheses.

  17. Supplementation with RRR- or all-rac-α-Tocopherol Differentially Affects the α-Tocopherol Stereoisomer Profile in the Milk and Plasma of Lactating Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Shashank; Kuchan, Matthew J; Lai, Chron-Si; Jensen, Soren K; Sherry, Christina L

    2017-07-01

    Background: The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR- α-tocopherol is known to be more bioactive than synthetic α-tocopherol ( all-rac -α-tocopherol). However, the influence of this difference on the α-tocopherol stereoisomer profile of human milk is not understood. Objective: We investigated whether supplemental RRR- α-tocopherol or all-rac -α-tocopherol differentially affected the distribution of α-tocopherol stereoisomers in milk and plasma from lactating women. Methods: Eighty-nine lactating women aged 19-40 y and with a body mass index (in kg/m 2 ) ≤30 were randomly assigned at 4-6 wk postpartum to receive a daily supplement containing 45.5 mg all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate (ARAC), 22.8 mg all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate + 20.1 mg RRR -α-tocopherol (MIX), or 40.2 mg RRR- α-tocopherol (RRR). Milk and plasma were analyzed for α-tocopherol structural isomers and α-tocopherol stereoisomers at baseline and after 6 wk supplementation with the use of chiral HPLC. Results: There were no significant treatment group or time-dependent changes in milk or plasma α, γ, or δ-tocopherol. RRR- α-tocopherol was the most abundant stereoisomer in both milk and plasma in each group. Supplementation changed both milk and plasma percentage RRR- α-tocopherol (RRR > MIX > ARAC) ( P tocopherol (ARAC > MIX > RRR) ( P tocopherol increased in milk (mean ± SEM: 78% ± 2.3% compared with 82% ± 1.7%) ( P tocopherol decreased in the MIX and ARAC groups (MIX, P tocopherol stereoisomers increased (MIX, P tocopherol stereoisomers ( P tocopherol was positively correlated at baseline ( r = 0.67; P tocopherol supplementation strategy differentially affected the α-tocopherol milk and plasma stereoisomer profile in lactating women. RRR- α-tocopherol increased milk and plasma percentage RRR- α-tocopherol, whereas all-rac -α-tocopherol acetate reduced these percentages. Because RRR- α-tocopherol is the most bioactive stereoisomer, investigating the impact of

  18. Compared with Powdered Lutein, a Lutein Nanoemulsion Increases Plasma and Liver Lutein, Protects against Hepatic Steatosis, and Affects Lipoprotein Metabolism in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Aguilar, David; Norris, Gregory H; DiMarco, Diana M; Missimer, Amanda; Hu, Siqi; Smyth, Joan A; Gannon, Sarah; Blesso, Christopher N; Luo, Yangchao; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2016-10-01

    It is not clear how oil-in-water nanoemulsions of lutein may affect bioavailability and consequently alter lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The bioavailability as well as effects of a powdered lutein (PL) and an oil-in-water lutein nanoemulsion (NANO; particle size: 254.2 nm; polydispersity index: 0.29; and ζ-potential: -65 mV) on metabolic variables in liver, plasma, and adipose tissue in a guinea pig model of hepatic steatosis were evaluated. Twenty-four 2-mo-old male Hartley guinea pigs, weighing 200-300 g (n = 8/group), were fed diets containing 0.25 g cholesterol/100 g to induce liver injury for the duration of the study. They were allocated to control (0 mg lutein), PL (3.5 mg/d), or NANO (3.5 mg/d) groups. After 6 wk, plasma, liver, and adipose tissue were collected for determination of lutein, plasma lipids, tissue cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines. The NANO group had 2-fold higher concentrations of lutein in plasma (P guinea pigs. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Plasma amine oxidase activities in Norrie disease patients with an X-chromosomal deletion affecting monoamine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D L; Sims, K B; Karoum, F; Garrick, N A; de la Chapelle, A; Sankila, E M; Norio, R; Breakefield, X O

    1991-01-01

    Two individuals with an X-chromosomal deletion were recently found to lack the genes encoding monoamine oxidase type A (MAO-A) and MAO-B. This abnormality was associated with almost total (90%) reductions in the oxidatively deaminated urinary metabolites of the MAO-A substrate, norepinephrine, and with marked (100-fold) increases in an MAO-B substrate, phenylethylamine, confirming systemic functional consequences of the genetic enzyme deficiency. However, urinary concentrations of the deaminated metabolites of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) were essentially normal. To investigate other deaminating systems besides MAO-A and MAO-B that might produce these metabolites of dopamine and 5-HT, we examined plasma amine oxidase (AO) activity in these two patients and two additional patients with the same X-chromosomal deletion. Normal plasma AO activity was found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, in four patients with classic Norrie disease without a chromosomal deletion, and in family members of patients from both groups. Marked plasma amine metabolite abnormalities and essentially absent platelet MAO-B activity were found in all four Norrie disease-deletion patients, but in none of the other subjects in the two comparison groups. These results indicate that plasma AO is encoded by gene(s) independent of those for MAO-A and MAO-B, and raise the possibility that plasma AO, and perhaps the closely related tissue AO, benzylamine oxidase, as well as other atypical AOs or MAOs encoded independently from MAO-A and MAO-B may contribute to the oxidative deamination of dopamine and 5-HT in humans.

  20. N-linked glycans do not affect plasma membrane localization of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) but selectively alter its prostaglandin E2 transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Fahad; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C

    2016-01-22

    Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of subfamily C of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transport proteins. MRP4 mediates the ATP-dependent efflux of many endogenous and exogenous solutes across the plasma membrane, and in polarized cells, it localizes to the apical or basolateral plasma membrane depending on the tissue type. MRP4 is a 170 kDa glycoprotein and here we show that MRP4 is simultaneously N-glycosylated at Asn746 and Asn754. Furthermore, confocal immunofluorescence studies showed that N-glycans do not affect MRP4's apical membrane localization in polarized LLC-PK1 cells or basolateral membrane localization in polarized MDCKI cells. However, vesicular transport assays showed that N-glycans differentially affect MRP4's ability to transport prostaglandin E2, but not estradiol glucuronide. Together these data indicate that N-glycosylation at Asn746 and Asn754 is not essential for plasma membrane localization of MRP4 but cause substrate-selective effects on its transport activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Decreased ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in patients affected by pharmacoresistant epilepsy and maintained on the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiò, Maddalena; Roli, Laura; Giordano, Carmela; Trenti, Tommaso; Guerra, Azzurra; Biagini, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    The gastric hormones ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin have been found to be altered in patients treated with antiepileptic drugs. However, it is unknown if these hormones could be modified by other antiepileptic treatments, such as the ketogenic diet. Especially, a reduction in ghrelin levels could be relevant in view of the growth retardation observed under ketogenic diet treatment. For this reason we aimed to determine the changes in ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin plasma levels in children affected by refractory epilepsy and treated with the ketogenic diet up to 90 days. Both peptides were measured by immunoassays in plasma obtained from 16 children. Ghrelin plasma levels were progressively reduced by the ketogenic diet, reaching a minimum corresponding to 42% of basal levels after 90 days of ketogenic diet (P ketogenic diet (P ketogenic diet administration. Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin are downregulated by the ketogenic diet in children affected by refractory epilepsy. Although no significant changes in growth were observed during the short time period of our investigation, the reduction in ghrelin availability may explain the reported growth retardation found in children treated with the ketogenic diet in the long-term. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Arginine side chain interactions and the role of arginine as a gating charge carrier in voltage sensitive ion channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig T.; Mason, Philip E.; Anderson, J. L. Ross; Dempsey, Christopher E.

    2016-02-01

    Gating charges in voltage-sensing domains (VSD) of voltage-sensitive ion channels and enzymes are carried on arginine side chains rather than lysine. This arginine preference may result from the unique hydration properties of the side chain guanidinium group which facilitates its movement through a hydrophobic plug that seals the center of the VSD, as suggested by molecular dynamics simulations. To test for side chain interactions implicit in this model we inspected interactions of the side chains of arginine and lysine with each of the 19 non-glycine amino acids in proteins in the protein data bank. The arginine guanidinium interacts with non-polar aromatic and aliphatic side chains above and below the guanidinium plane while hydrogen bonding with polar side chains is restricted to in-plane positions. In contrast, non-polar side chains interact largely with the aliphatic part of the lysine side chain. The hydration properties of arginine and lysine are strongly reflected in their respective interactions with non-polar and polar side chains as observed in protein structures and in molecular dynamics simulations, and likely underlie the preference for arginine as a mobile charge carrier in VSD.

  3. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: In order to perform euglycaemic clamp studies in Type 2 diabetic patients, plasma glucose must be reduced to normal levels. This can be done either (i) acutely during the clamp study using high-dose insulin infusion, or (ii) slowly overnight preceding the clamp study using a low-dose insulin...... infusion. We assessed whether the choice of either of these methods to obtain euglycaemia biases subsequent assessment of glucose metabolism and insulin action. METHODS: We studied seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients twice: once with (+ ON) and once without (- ON) prior overnight insulin infusion. Glucose...... turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...

  4. The effect of arginine on oral biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Browngardt, C; Xiaohui, X; Klepac-Ceraj, V; Paster, B J; Burne, R A

    2014-02-01

    Alkali production by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the pH of oral biofilms and reduces the risk for development of carious lesions. This study tested the hypothesis that increased availability of arginine in the oral environment through an exogenous source enhances the ADS activity levels in saliva and dental plaque. Saliva and supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 19 caries-free (CF) individuals (DMFT = 0) and 19 caries-active (CA) individuals (DMFT ≥ 2) before and after treatment, which comprised the use of a fluoride-free toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, or a regular fluoride-containing toothpaste twice daily for 4 weeks. ADS activity was measured by quantification of ammonia produced from arginine by oral samples at baseline, after washout period, 4 weeks of treatment, and 2 weeks post-treatment. Higher ADS activity levels were observed in plaque samples from CF compared to those of CA individuals (P = 0.048) at baseline. The use of the arginine toothpaste significantly increased ADS activity in plaque of CA individuals (P = 0.026). The plaque microbial profiles of CA treated with the arginine toothpaste showed a shift in bacterial composition to a healthier community, more similar to that of CF individuals. Thus, an anti-caries effect may be expected from arginine-containing formulations due in large part to the enhancement of ADS activity levels and potential favorable modification to the composition of the oral microbiome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modelling of plasma-based dry reforming: how do uncertainties in the input data affect the calculation results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Zhang, Quanzhi; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    One of the main issues in plasma chemistry modeling is that the cross sections and rate coefficients are subject to uncertainties, which yields uncertainties in the modeling results and hence hinders the predictive capabilities. In this paper, we reveal the impact of these uncertainties on the model predictions of plasma-based dry reforming in a dielectric barrier discharge. For this purpose, we performed a detailed uncertainty analysis and sensitivity study. 2000 different combinations of rate coefficients, based on the uncertainty from a log-normal distribution, are used to predict the uncertainties in the model output. The uncertainties in the electron density and electron temperature are around 11% and 8% at the maximum of the power deposition for a 70% confidence level. Still, this can have a major effect on the electron impact rates and hence on the calculated conversions of CO2 and CH4, as well as on the selectivities of CO and H2. For the CO2 and CH4 conversion, we obtain uncertainties of 24% and 33%, respectively. For the CO and H2 selectivity, the corresponding uncertainties are 28% and 14%, respectively. We also identify which reactions contribute most to the uncertainty in the model predictions. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of plasma chemistry models, we recommend using only verified rate coefficients, and we point out the need for dedicated verification experiments.

  6. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis : Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Esmee M.; Kuipers, Johanna; Assa, Solmaz; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Groen, Henk; Westerhuis, Ralf; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP), are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli

  7. Activities of arginine and ornithine decarboxylases in various plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, H; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1985-10-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to V(max), ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine and alpha-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species.No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed.In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum.

  8. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  9. Cell surface binding and uptake of arginine- and lysine-rich penetratin peptides in absence and presence of proteoglycans

    KAUST Repository

    Åmand, Helene L.

    2012-11-01

    Cell surface proteoglycans (PGs) appear to promote uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), but their exact functions are unclear. To address if there is specificity in the interactions of arginines and PGs leading to improved internalization, we used flow cytometry to examine uptake in relation to cell surface binding for penetratin and two arginine/lysine substituted variants (PenArg and PenLys) in wildtype CHO-K1 and PG-deficient A745 cells. All peptides were more efficiently internalized into CHO-K1 than into A745, but their cell surface binding was independent of cell type. Thus, PGs promote internalization of cationic peptides, irrespective of the chemical nature of their positive charges. Uptake of each peptide was linearly dependent on its cell surface binding, and affinity is thus important for efficiency. However, the gradients of these linear dependencies varied significantly. Thus each peptide\\'s ability to stimulate uptake once bound to the cell surface is reliant on formation of specific uptake-promoting interactions. Heparin affinity chromatography and clustering experiments showed that penetratin and PenArg binding to sulfated sugars is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions and result in clustering, whereas PenLys only interacts through electrostatic attraction. This may have implications for the molecular mechanisms behind arginine-specific uptake stimulation as penetratin and PenArg are more efficiently internalized than PenLys upon interaction with PGs. However, PenArg is also least affected by removal of PGs. This indicates that an increased arginine content not only improve PG-dependent uptake but also that PenArg is more adaptable as it can use several portals of entry into the cell. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Characterisation of neuroprotective efficacy of modified poly-arginine-9 (R9) peptides using a neuronal glutamic acid excitotoxicity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Adam B; Anderton, Ryan S; Knuckey, Neville W; Meloni, Bruno P

    2017-02-01

    In a recent study, we highlighted the importance of cationic charge and arginine residues for the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine and arginine-rich peptides. In this study, using cortical neuronal cultures and an in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity model, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of different modifications to the poly-arginine-9 peptide (R9). We compared an unmodified R9 peptide with R9 peptides containing the following modifications: (i) C-terminal amidation (R9-NH2); (ii) N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9); (iii) C-terminal amidation with N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9-NH2); and (iv) C-terminal amidation with D-amino acids (R9D-NH2). The three C-terminal amidated peptides (R9-NH2, Ac-R9-NH2, and R9D-NH2) displayed neuroprotective effects greater than the unmodified R9 peptide, while the N-terminal acetylated peptide (Ac-R9) had reduced efficacy. Using the R9-NH2 peptide, neuroprotection could be induced with a 10 min peptide pre-treatment, 1-6 h before glutamic acid insult, or when added to neuronal cultures up to 45 min post-insult. In addition, all peptides were capable of reducing glutamic acid-mediated neuronal intracellular calcium influx, in a manner that reflected their neuroprotective efficacy. This study further highlights the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides and provides insight into peptide modifications that affect efficacy.

  11. Gliclazide directly inhibits arginine-induced glucagon release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejvan, Kenan; Coy, David H; Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Arginine-stimulated insulin and somatostatin release is enhanced by the sulfonylurea gliclazide. In contrast, gliclazide inhibits the glucagon response. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this inhibition of glucagon release was mediated by a direct suppressive effect of glicl......Arginine-stimulated insulin and somatostatin release is enhanced by the sulfonylurea gliclazide. In contrast, gliclazide inhibits the glucagon response. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this inhibition of glucagon release was mediated by a direct suppressive effect....... In islet perifusions with DC-41-33, arginine-induced glucagon release was inhibited by 66%. We therefore concluded that gliclazide inhibits glucagon release by a direct action on the pancreatic A cell....

  12. Mitochondria: role of citrulline and arginine supplementation in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W; Emrick, Lisa T; Chanprasert, Sirisak; Craigen, William J; Scaglia, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Mitochondria are found in all nucleated human cells and generate most of the cellular energy. Mitochondrial disorders result from dysfunctional mitochondria that are unable to generate sufficient ATP to meet the energy needs of various organs. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a frequent maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder. There is growing evidence that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency occurs in MELAS syndrome and results in impaired blood perfusion that contributes significantly to several complications including stroke-like episodes, myopathy, and lactic acidosis. Both arginine and citrulline act as NO precursors and their administration results in increased NO production and hence can potentially have therapeutic utility in MELAS syndrome. Citrulline raises NO production to a greater extent than arginine, therefore, citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect. Controlled studies assessing the effects of arginine or citrulline supplementation on different clinical aspects of MELAS syndrome are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal; Li, Jianguo; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2011-01-01

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP's indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine's preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine's interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  14. Effects of Arginine Vasopressin on musical short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Y. Granot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP and musical working memory (WM. The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP – placebo design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo in a second session, one week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's Musical Aptitude Profile, the interval subtest from the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA, and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP (p < .05 with no main Session effect nor Group * Session interaction. In the Gordon test there was a main Session effect (p < .05 with scores higher in the second as compared to the first session, a marginal main Group effect (p = .093 and a marginal Group X Session interaction (p = 0.88. In addition we found that the group that received AVP in the first session scored higher on scales indicative of happiness, and alertness on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, (PANAS. Only in this group and only in the music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  15. Effect of naftopidil on brain noradrenaline-induced decrease in arginine-vasopressin secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Naftopidil, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to inhibit nocturnal polyuria in patients with lower urinary tract symptom. However, it remains unclear how naftopidil decreases nocturnal urine production. Here, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on arginine-vasopressin (AVP plasma level and urine production and osmolality in rats centrally administered with noradrenaline (NA. NA (3 or 30 μg/kg was administered into the left ventricle (i.c.v. of male Wistar rats 3 h after naftopidil pretreatment (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.. Blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava 1 h after NA administration or 4 h after peritoneal administration of naftopidil; plasma levels of AVP were assessed by ELISA. Voiding behaviors of naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.-administered male Wistar rats were observed during separate light- and dark cycles. Administration of NA decreased plasma AVP levels and elevated urine volume, which were suppressed by systemic pretreatment with naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.. Urine osmolality decreased 1 h after NA administration. However, naftopidil by itself had no effect on plasma AVP levels or urodynamic parameters during light- and dark cycles. Our findings suggest that systemic administration of naftopidil could prevent central noradrenergic nervous system-mediated decline in AVP secretion and increase in urine production in rats.

  16. Arginine intake and risk of coronary heart disease mortality in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, C.M.; Erk, van M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2000-01-01

    From experimental studies, the hypothesis is derived that the amino acid arginine, the precursor of NO, could restore the impaired endothelial function and increased platelet activation observed in atherosclerosis. We investigated whether dietary intake of arginine is associated with reduced

  17. Effects of dietary L-arginine on orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... arginine in drinking water six days before the insertion of springs to ... Key words: L-Arginine, dietary, orthodontic tooth movement, nitric oxide, root resorption, osteoclast, .... cAMP, interleukin 1-beta and neurotransmitters are.

  18. Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Vergeer, M.; de Vries, R.; Kappelle, P. J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dullaart RPF, Vergeer M, de Vries R, Kappelle PJWH, Dallinga-Thie GM (University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen; and Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam; The Netherlands). Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect

  19. The role of arginine and the modified arginine deiminase enzyme ADI-PEG 20 in cancer therapy with special emphasis on Phase I/II clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synakiewicz, Anna; Stachowicz-Stencel, Teresa; Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Elzbieta

    2014-11-01

    The metabolic differences between normal, healthy cells and neoplastic cells have been exploited by anticancer therapies targeting metabolic pathways. Various studies of malignant processes have demonstrated disturbances in both arginine synthesis and metabolism that enhance or inhibit tumor cell growth. Consequently, there has been an increased interest in the arginine-depleting enzyme arginine deiminase (ADI) as a potential antineoplastic therapy. This review summarizes the literature on the potential anti-cancer therapeutics arginine and ADI, an arginine-catabolizing enzyme. The authors searched the MEDLINE database PubMed using the key words: 'arginine, 'ADI', 'arginine in cancer' and 'ADI and cancer'. The authors evaluate prospective randomized studies on cancer patients between 2004 and 2013 as well as ongoing research found through the US National Institutes of Health trial database. The results of current studies are promising but do not give unequivocal answers and so it is impossible to recommend arginine or its enzyme ADI as a therapeutic. In the opinion of the authors, further identification of arginine-dependent malignant tumors and their metabolism should be investigated. Furthermore, the use of these chemicals, in combination with other chemotherapeutics drugs, should be investigated and indeed may improve the success of arginine-depleting enzymes such as pegylated ADI (ADI-PEG20).

  20. Functional role of proteolytic cleavage at arginine-275 of human tissue plasminogen activator as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, K.M.; Higgins, D.L.; Holmes, W.E.; Winkler, M.E.; Heyneker, H.L.; Vehar, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Activation of the zymogen form of a serine protease is associated with a conformational change that follows proteolysis at a specific site. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is homologous to mammalian serine proteases and contains an apparent activation cleavage site at arginine-275. To clarify the functional consequences of cleavage at arginine-275 of t-PA, site-specific mutagenesis was performed to convert arginine-275 to a glutamic acid. The mutant enzyme (designated Arg-275 → Glu t-PA) could be converted to the two-chain form by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease but not by plasmin. The one-chain form was 8 times less active against the tripeptide substrate H-D-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine-rho-nitroanilide (S-2288), and the ability of the enzyme to activate plasminogen in the absence of fibrinogen was reduced 20-50 times compared to the two-chain form. In contrast, one-chain Arg-275 → Glu t-PA has equal activity to the two-chain form when assayed in the presence of physiological levels of fibrinogen and plasminogen. Fibrin bound significantly more of the one-chain form of t-PA than the two-chain form for both the wild-type and mutated enzymes. One- and two-chain forms of the wild-type and mutated plasminogen activators slowly formed complexes with plasma protease inhibitors, although the one-chain forms showed decreased complex formation with → 2 -macroglobulin. The one-chain form of t-PA therefore is fully functional under physiologic conditions and has a increased fibrin binding compared to the two-chain form

  1. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Crystal structure of arginine methyltransferase 6 from Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongyuan Wang

    Full Text Available Arginine methylation plays vital roles in the cellular functions of the protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. The T. brucei arginine methyltransferase 6 (TbPRMT6 is a type I arginine methyltransferase homologous to human PRMT6. In this study, we report the crystal structures of apo-TbPRMT6 and its complex with the reaction product S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH. The structure of apo-TbPRMT6 displays several features that are different from those of type I PRMTs that were structurally characterized previously, including four stretches of insertion, the absence of strand β15, and a distinct dimerization arm. The comparison of the apo-TbPRMT6 and SAH-TbPRMT6 structures revealed the fine rearrangements in the active site upon SAH binding. The isothermal titration calorimetry results demonstrated that SAH binding greatly increases the affinity of TbPRMT6 to a substrate peptide derived from bovine histone H4. The western blotting and mass spectrometry results revealed that TbPRMT6 methylates bovine histone H4 tail at arginine 3 but cannot methylate several T. brucei histone tails. In summary, our results highlight the structural differences between TbPRMT6 and other type I PRMTs and reveal that the active site rearrangement upon SAH binding is important for the substrate binding of TbPRMT6.

  3. Arginine-dependent acid resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieboom, J.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium does not survive a pH 2.5 acid challenge under conditions similar to those used for Escherichia coli (J. W. Foster, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:898-907, 2004). Here, we provide evidence that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium can display arginine-dependent acid

  4. Soil CO2 evolution: Response from arginine additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-term response of soil C mineralization following drying/rewetting has been proposed as an indicator of soil microbial activity. Houston Black clay was amended with four rates of arginine to vary microbial response and keep other soil properties constant. The evolution of CO2 during one and thr...

  5. Glutamine-enriched enteral diet increases renal arginine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, A. P.; van Leeuwen, P. A.; Teerlink, T.; FLINKERBUSCH, E. L.; Boermeester, M. A.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Wesdorp, R. I.

    1994-01-01

    Arginine (Arg) is generated in the kidney by the conversion of circulating citrulline. The most important source for circulating citrulline is the metabolism of glutamine (Gln) by the gut. In this study, we investigated the influence of an enteral diet enriched with Gln on renal Arg synthesis in the

  6. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  7. Plasma vitamin D and osteo-cartilaginous markers in Italian males affected by intervertebral disc degeneration: Focus on seasonal and pathological trend of type II collagen degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Viganò, Marco; Cauci, Sabina; Vitale, Jacopo A; de Girolamo, Laura; De Luca, Paola; Lombardi, Giovanni; Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate plasma vitamin D and cross-linked C-telopeptides of type I (CTx-I) and type II (CTx-II) collagen concentrations in males with lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) compared to healthy controls. Improved knowledge might suggest to optimize the vitamin D status of IVD patients and contribute to clarify mechanisms of cartilage degradation. 79 Italian males with lumbar IVD assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 79 age, sex and BMI-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Plasma 25hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), CTx-I and CTx-II were measured by immunoassays. Circannual seasonality, correlation between biomarkers concentrations and clinical variables were assessed. Overall subjects 25(OH)D and CTx-II showed month rhythmicity with acrophase in August/September and October/November, and nadir in February/March and April/May, respectively. An inverse correlation between 25(OH)D and CTx-I, and a direct correlation between CTx-II and CTx-I were observed. IVD patients, particularly with osteochondrosis, showed higher CTx-II than healthy controls. Month of sampling may affect plasma 25(OH)D and CTx-II concentrations. The correlation between CTx-I and CTx-II suggests an interplay between the osteo-cartilaginous endplate and the fibro-cartilaginous disc. The results of this study highlighted that osteochondrosis associates with increased cartilaginous catabolism. Vitamin D supplementation seems more necessary in winter for lumbar IVD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Timed feeding of mice modulates light-entrained circadian rhythms of reticulated platelet abundance and plasma thrombopoietin and affects gene expression in megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Paul S; Sheward, John; Scholefield, Emma; French, Karen; Horn, Jacqueline M; Holmes, Megan C; Harmar, Anthony J

    2009-07-01

    Circadian (c. 24 h) rhythms of physiology are entrained to either the environmental light-dark cycle or the timing of food intake. In the current work the hypothesis that rhythms of platelet turnover in mammals are circadian and entrained by food intake was explored in mice. Mice were entrained to 12 h light-dark cycles and given either ad libitum (AL) or restricted access (RF) to food during the light phase. Blood and megakaryocytes were then collected from mice every 4 h for 24 h. It was found that total and reticulated platelet numbers, plasma thrombopoietin (TPO) concentration and the mean size of mature megakaryocytes were circadian but not entrained by food intake. In contrast, a circadian rhythm in the expression of Arnt1 in megakaryocytes was entrained by food. Although not circadian, the expression in megakaryocytes of Nfe2, Gata1, Itga2b and Tubb1 expression was downregulated by RF, whereas Ccnd1 was not significantly affected by the feeding protocol. It is concluded that circadian rhythms of total platelet number, reticulated platelet number and plasma TPO concentration are entrained by the light-dark cycle rather than the timing of food intake. These findings imply that circadian clock gene expression regulates platelet turnover in mammals.

  9. Kidney Function and Plasma Copeptin Levels in Healthy Kidney Donors and Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittema, Debbie; van den Berg, Else; Meijer, Esther; Boertien, Wendy E.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Franssen, Casper F. M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    Background and objectives Plasma copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin, is elevated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and predicts disease progression. It is unknown whether elevated copeptin levels result from decreased kidney clearance or as compensation for

  10. Analysis of an Alanine/Arginine Mixture by Using TLC/FTIR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied TLC/FTIR coupled with mapping technique to analyze an alanine/arginine mixture. Narrow band TLC plates prepared by using AgI as a stationary phase were used to separate alanine and arginine. The distribution of alanine and arginine spots was manifested by a 3D chromatogram. Alanine and arginine can be successfully separated by the narrow band TLC plate. In addition, the FTIR spectra of the separated alanine and arginine spots on the narrow band TLC plate are roughly the same as the corresponding reference IR spectra.

  11. MMSET deregulation affects cell cycle progression and adhesion regulons in t(4;14) myeloma plasma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Jose L.R.; Walker, Brian; Jenner, Matthew; Dickens, Nicholas J.; Brown, Nicola J.M.; Ross, Fiona M.; Avramidou, Athanasia; Irving, Julie A.E.; Gonzalez, David; Davies, Faith E.; Morgan, Gareth J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The recurrent immunoglobulin translocation, t(4;14)(p16;q32) occurs in 15% of multiple myeloma patients and is associated with poor prognosis, through an unknown mechanism. The t(4;14) up-regulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET) genes. The involvement of MMSET in the pathogenesis of t(4;14) multiple myeloma and the mechanism or genes deregulated by MMSET upregulation are still unclear. Design and Methods The expression of MMSET was analyzed using a novel antibody. The involvement of MMSET in t(4;14) myelomagenesis was assessed by small interfering RNA mediated knockdown combined with several biological assays. In addition, the differential gene expression of MMSET-induced knockdown was analyzed with expression microarrays. MMSET gene targets in primary patient material was analyzed by expression microarrays. Results We found that MMSET isoforms are expressed in multiple myeloma cell lines, being exclusively up-regulated in t(4;14)-positive cells. Suppression of MMSET expression affected cell proliferation by both decreasing cell viability and cell cycle progression of cells with the t(4;14) translocation. These findings were associated with reduced expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression (e.g. CCND2, CCNG1, BRCA1, AURKA and CHEK1), apoptosis (CASP1, CASP4 and FOXO3A) and cell adhesion (ADAM9 and DSG2). Furthermore, we identified genes involved in the latter processes that were differentially expressed in t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient samples. Conclusions In conclusion, dysregulation of MMSET affects the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, cell adhesion and survival. PMID:19059936

  12. Short-Term Vitamin B-6 Restriction Does Not Affect Plasma Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biomarkers Lanthionine and Homolanthionine in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRatt, Barbara N; Ralat, Maria A; Gregory, Jesse F

    2016-03-09

    Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the mechanism is unknown. The synthesis of the vasodilator hydrogen sulfide occurs through side reactions of the transsulfuration enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. Two proposed hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, lanthionine and homolanthionine, are produced concurrently. To determine whether hydrogen sulfide production is reduced by vitamin B-6 deficiency, we examined the relations between plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine, along with other components of the transsulfuration pathway (homocysteine, cystathionine, and Cys), in a secondary analysis of samples from 2 vitamin B-6 restriction studies in healthy men and women. Metabolite concentrations were measured in plasma from 23 healthy adults (12 men and 11 women) before and after 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (0.37 ± 0.04 mg/d). Vitamin B-6 restriction effects on lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were assessed. Associations between hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, transsulfuration metabolites, and functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency were analyzed by linear regression. Preprandial plasma lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations ranged from 89.0 to 372 nmol/L and 5.75 to 32.3 nmol/L, respectively, in healthy adults. Mean lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were not affected by vitamin B-6 restriction (P restriction, homolanthionine was positively associated with functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency, which differed from hypothesized negative associations. Plasma lanthionine was positively correlated with the concentration of its precursor, Cys, before (R 2 = 0.36; P = 0.002) and after (R 2 = 0.37; P = 0.002) restriction. Likewise, homolanthionine concentration was positively correlated with its precursor homocysteine, but only in vitamin B-6 adequacy (R 2 = 0.41; P

  13. Short-Term Vitamin B-6 Restriction Does Not Affect Plasma Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biomarkers Lanthionine and Homolanthionine in Healthy Men and Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRatt, Barbara N; Ralat, Maria A; Gregory, Jesse F

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, although the mechanism is unknown. The synthesis of the vasodilator hydrogen sulfide occurs through side reactions of the transsulfuration enzymes cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, with pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a coenzyme. Two proposed hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, lanthionine and homolanthionine, are produced concurrently. Objective: To determine whether hydrogen sulfide production is reduced by vitamin B-6 deficiency, we examined the relations between plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine, along with other components of the transsulfuration pathway (homocysteine, cystathionine, and Cys), in a secondary analysis of samples from 2 vitamin B-6 restriction studies in healthy men and women. Methods: Metabolite concentrations were measured in plasma from 23 healthy adults (12 men and 11 women) before and after 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (0.37 ± 0.04 mg/d). Vitamin B-6 restriction effects on lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were assessed. Associations between hydrogen sulfide biomarkers, transsulfuration metabolites, and functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency were analyzed by linear regression. Results: Preprandial plasma lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations ranged from 89.0 to 372 nmol/L and 5.75 to 32.3 nmol/L, respectively, in healthy adults. Mean lanthionine and homolanthionine concentrations were not affected by vitamin B-6 restriction (P restriction, homolanthionine was positively associated with functional indicators of vitamin B-6 deficiency, which differed from hypothesized negative associations. Plasma lanthionine was positively correlated with the concentration of its precursor, Cys, before (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.002) and after (R2 = 0.37; P = 0.002) restriction. Likewise, homolanthionine concentration was positively correlated with its precursor homocysteine, but only in

  14. Long-Term Intake of a High-Protein Diet Affects Body Phenotype, Metabolism, and Plasma Hormones in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, John P; Luong, Leon; Parsons, William F; Oh, Suwan; Sanford, Daniel; Gabalski, Arielle; Lighton, John Rb; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2017-12-01

    Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake. Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points. Results: HPD mice had significantly lower body weight (in means ± SEMs; 25.73 ± 1.49 compared with 32.5 ± 1.31 g; P = 0.003) and fat mass (9.55% ± 1.24% compared with 15.78% ± 2.07%; P = 0.05) during the first 6 wk compared with CD mice, and higher lean mass throughout the study starting at week 2 (85.45% ± 2.25% compared with 75.29% ± 1.90%; P = 0.0001). Energy intake, total energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were significantly lower in HPD compared with CD mice as shown by cumulative energy intake and eating rate. Water vapor was significantly higher in HPD mice during both dark and light phases. In HPD mice, concentrations of leptin [feed-deprived: 41.31 ± 11.60 compared with 3041 ± 683 pg/mL ( P = 0.0004); postprandial: 112.5 ± 102.0 compared with 8273 ± 1415 pg/mL ( P < 0.0001)] and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) [feed-deprived: 5.664 ± 1.44 compared with 21.31 ± 1.26 pg/mL ( P = <0.0001); postprandial: 6.54 ± 2.13 compared with 50.62 ± 11.93 pg/mL ( P = 0.0037)] were significantly lower, whereas postprandial glucagon concentrations were higher than in CD-fed mice. Conclusions: In male mice, the 12-wk HPD resulted in short-term body weight and fat mass loss, but throughout the study preserved body lean mass and significantly reduced energy intake and expenditure as well as

  15. In vivo whole body and organ arginine metabolism during endotoxemia (sepsis) is dependent on mouse strain and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiking, Y. C.; Hallemeesch, M. M.; Vissers, Y. L. J.; Lamers, W. H.; Deutz, N. E. P.

    2004-01-01

    Arginine metabolism involves various organs such as the kidney, the intestines, and the liver, which act together in an interorgan axis. Major pathways for arginine production are protein breakdown and de novo arginine production from citrulline; disposal of arginine is mainly used for protein

  16. Theoretical study about L-arginine complexes formation with thiotriazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain vascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality and disability of population in the industrialized countries of the world. An important element of this problem’s solution is the creation of new highly effective and safe drugs, which would lead to mortality reduction, to increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Therefore it is interesting to create a new combined drug based on L-arginine and thiotriazolin. Purpose of the study: to consider the possible structure and energy characteristics of complexes formed by L-arginine, 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-5-thioacetate (MTTA and morpholine. Calculation method. The initial approximation to the complex geometry was obtained using molecular docking with the help of AutoDock Vina program. The obtained ternary complexes were pre-optimized by semi-empirical PM7 method with modeling the impact of the environment by COSMO method. The calculations were carried out using MOPAC2012 program. Then they were optimized by B97-D3/SVP + COSMO (Water dispersion-corrected DFT-D with geometrical spreading correction on insufficiency of gCP basis set. A more accurate calculation of the solvation energy was conducted by SMD. The calculations by density functional method were carried out using the ORCA 3.0.3 software. Energy complex formation in solution was calculated as the difference of the Gibbs free energy of the solvated complex and its individual components. Results. Quantum chemical calculations show, that thiotriazolin and L-arginine are able to form ternary complexes, where molecules are linked by multiple hydrogen bonds. The calculation data suggest, that studied complexes are thermodynamically unstable in solution. The energies of them are positive, but rather low despite charge gain of a number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Finding. Based on the results of the conducted quantum-chemical study of a three components system (MTTA, morpholine, and L-arginine it is possible

  17. Meal Pattern of Male Rats Maintained on Amino Acid Supplemented Diets: The Effect of Tryptophan, Lysine, Arginine, Proline and Threonine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Ayaso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient composition of the diet has been shown to affect food intake, with proteins having distinct effects. The present study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with individual amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, arginine, proline and threonine on meal pattern among male rats. Meal pattern and body weight were monitored for two weeks. Proline and threonine had minimal effects on meal pattern, while the most pronounced changes were observed in the tryptophan group. Both tryptophan and lysine decreased overall food intake, which was translated into a reduction in body weight. The reduced food intake of the tryptophan group was associated with an increase in meal size, intermeal intervals (IMI and meal time and a decrease in meal number. The decrease in the food intake of the lysine group was associated with a reduction in both IMI and meal number, and this was accompanied by an increase in meal time. Arginine increased meal number, while decreasing IMI. Proline and threonine had a minimal effect on meal pattern. Lysine seems to increase satiety, and arginine seems to decrease it, while tryptophan seems to increase satiety and decrease satiation. Accordingly, changes in meal patterns are associated with the type of amino acid added to the diet.

  18. Dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid modifies growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C J; Jiang, Q Y; Zhang, T; Yin, Y L; Li, F N; Deng, J P; Wu, G Y; Kong, X F

    2017-06-01

    Sixty Duroc × Large White × Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 77.1 ± 1.3 kg were used to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with arginine and glutamic acid on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups (12 pigs/group, male:female ratio 1:1). The pigs in the control group were fed a basal diet (basal diet group), and those in the experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 2.05% -alanine (isonitrogenous group), 1.0% -arginine (Arg group), 1% glutamic acid + 1.44% -alanine (Glu group), or 1.0% -arginine + 1.0% glutamic acid (Arg+Glu group). After a 60-d period of supplementation, growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences ( > 0.05) in growth performance and carcass traits of the pigs in the Arg group relative to the basal diet group; however, the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and back fat showed a decrease ( 0.05) on the final BW, phase 2 ADFI, and average daily weight gain in pigs but decreased ( acid composition without affecting growth performance and s.c. fat in pigs, providing a novel strategy to enhance meat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

  19. Combinatorial Effects of Arginine and Fluoride on Oral Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X.; Cheng, X.; Wang, L.; Qiu, W.; Wang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Li, M.; Li, Y.; Cheng, L.; Li, J.; Zhou, X.; Xu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is closely associated with the microbial disequilibrium between acidogenic/aciduric pathogens and alkali-generating commensal residents within the dental plaque. Fluoride is a widely used anticaries agent, which promotes tooth hard-tissue remineralization and suppresses bacterial activities. Recent clinical trials have shown that oral hygiene products containing both fluoride and arginine possess a greater anticaries effect compared with those containing fluoride alone, indicati...

  20. Primary assimilation process of triply (/sup 15/N, /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H) labeled arginine in the roots of arginine-fed barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Satoshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1981-03-01

    To clarify the mechanism of arginine utilization in barley roots, triply labeled (ureido-/sup 15/N, ureido-/sup 14/C and 5-/sup 3/H) arginine was applied to plants precultured with arginine (Arg-plants). (5-/sup 3/H) Arginine was incorporated mainly into ornithine, suggesting that arginase contributes in the first step of arginine metabolism. The arginase activity in the tissues was greatly enhanced by continuous supply of arginine, whereas urease activity was not by the same treatment. The amount of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolved from (ureido-/sup 14/C) arginine in the Arg-plants was several times higher than that in plants treated with NO/sub 3//sup -/(NO/sub 3/-plants), and most /sup 14/C-urea exogenously supplied to detached roots of Arg-plants was immediately decomposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The urea released from arginine by arginase was cleaved to /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/ + /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by urease. Most of the /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was then lost from the root system. On the other hand, the released /sup 15/NH/sub 4//sup +/ was reassimilated into amino acids probably through the pathway of ammonia assimilation. Released (5-/sup 3/H) ornithine was metabolized dominantly to proline.

  1. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia, E-mail: krobitsc@molgen.mpg.de

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  2. Spray drying of poorly soluble drugs from aqueous arginine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojarinta, Rami; Lerminiaux, Louise; Laitinen, Riikka

    2017-10-30

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid mixtures have shown potential for improving the solid-state stability and dissolution behavior of amorphous drugs. In previous studies, however these mixtures have been produced mainly with small-scale preparation methods, or with methods that have required the use of organic solvents or other dissolution enhancers. In the present study, co-amorphous ibuprofen-arginine and indomethacin-arginine mixtures were spray dried from water. The mixtures were prepared at two drug-arginine molar ratios (1:1 and 1:2). The properties of the prepared mixtures were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and a 24h, non-sink, dissolution study. All mixtures exhibited a single glass transition temperature (T g ), evidence of the formation of homogenous single-phase systems. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed strong interactions (mainly salt formation) that account for the positive deviation between measured and estimated T g values. No crystallization was observed during a 1-year stability study in either 1:1 or 1:2 mixtures, but in the presence of moisture, handling difficulties were encountered. The formation of co-amorphous salts led to improved dissolution characteristics when compared to the corresponding physical mixtures or to pure crystalline drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [l-arginine efficiency in MELAS syndrome. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutaouakil, F; El Otmani, H; Fadel, H; Sefrioui, F; Slassi, I

    2009-05-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy lactic acidosis and stoke-like episodes (MELAS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations of mitochondrial DNA. We report the case of a 12-year-old child with MELAS syndrome who presented with recurrent migraine-like headache and sudden blindness suggesting stroke-like episodes. Furthermore, he developed progressive muscular impairment with bilateral hearing loss. Serum lactate and pyruvate levels were elevated and the muscle biopsy showed an aspect of red-ragged fibers with Gomori trichrome. Brain imaging showed calcifications of basal ganglia on the CT scan and a parieto-occipital high signal on diffusion-weighted MRI. A genetic analysis was not performed but the presence of hearing loss in the patient's mother was suggestive of maternal transmission. Stroke-like episodes in the form of migraine-like headache and blindness were the patient's major complaint and did not improve despite analgesic drugs. After oral administration of l-arginine at the dose of 0.4mg/kg per day, stroke-like symptoms totally and rapidly disappeared. The efficiency of l-arginine in stroke-like episodes was initially reported then confirmed in a controlled study. The pathophysiology of stoke-like episodes and the mechanisms underlying the action of l-arginine are discussed.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human urine and its use in physiological and pathological states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, A.M.; Ramaga, C.M.; Slater, J.D.H.

    1978-01-01

    A highly specific radioimmunoassay for arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in human urine has been developed with a detection limit of 2.2 fmol/ml. The mean recovery of added AVP was 99.5 +- 3.1 (S.D.) % when correction was made for the fact that an inverse relationship was observed between the recovery of AVP and the osmolarity of the urine. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 3.5 - 7 and 2.5 - 10% respectively. Arginine-vasopressin remains stable in urine after repeated freezing and thawing after storage at 4 or 20 0 C for up to 7 days and at 20 0 C for more than 3 months. During unrestricted fluid intake in normal people, the mean rate of renal excretion of AVP was 95 +- 68 (SD) fmol/min. An osmotic reduction of 9% in the plasma volume increased the excretion of AVP to 259 +- 147 (SD) fmol/min. Fluid deprivation for 18 h produced a moderate but significant increase in mean excretion of AVP, to a value of 116 +- 67 (SD) fmol/min. Patients with compulsive water drinking showed a normal relationship between urine osmolarity and the rate of excretion of AVP. In pituitary diabetes insipidus, AVP was undetectable, whereas in hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus a progressive increase in the rate of excretion was observed in response to dehydration. There was a wide variation in the rate of excretion of AVP (range 126 - 8704 fmol/min) in patients with unexplained hyponatraemia, presumed to be due to an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Despite this variation, the relationship between urine osmolarity and the rate of excretion of AVP differed from that observed in normal people. (author)

  5. Dietary arginine depletion reduces depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Weber, Michael D; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-09-30

    Previous behavioral studies have manipulated nitric oxide (NO) production either by pharmacological inhibition of its synthetic enzyme, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or by deletion of the genes that code for NOS. However manipulation of dietary intake of the NO precursor, L-arginine, has been understudied in regard to behavioral regulation. L-Arginine is a common amino acid present in many mammalian diets and is essential during development. In the brain L-arginine is converted into NO and citrulline by the enzyme, neuronal NOS (nNOS). In Experiment 1, paired mice were fed a diet comprised either of an L-arginine-depleted, L-arginine-supplemented, or standard level of L-arginine during pregnancy. Offspring were continuously fed the same diets and were tested in adulthood in elevated plus maze, forced swim, and resident-intruder aggression tests. L-Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in male, but not female, mice and failed to significantly alter anxiety-like or aggressive behaviors. Arginine depletion throughout life reduced body mass overall and eliminated the sex difference in body mass. Additionally, arginine depletion significantly increased corticosterone concentrations, which negatively correlated with time spent floating. In Experiment 2, adult mice were fed arginine-defined diets two weeks prior to and during behavioral testing, and again tested in the aforementioned tests. Arginine depletion reduced depressive-like responses in the forced swim test, but did not alter behavior in the elevated plus maze or the resident intruder aggression test. Corticosterone concentrations were not altered by arginine diet manipulation in adulthood. These results indicate that arginine depletion throughout development, as well as during a discrete period during adulthood ameliorates depressive-like responses. These results may yield new insights into the etiology and sex differences of depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of sodium excretion in patients with cranial diabetes insipidus maintained on desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutters, M; Brace, C; Hatfield, E; Whitehurst, A; Lightman, S L; Peart, W S

    1993-11-01

    1. We have studied the response of six patients with cranial diabetes insipidus and six age-matched control subjects to dietary sodium restriction during constant administration of the synthetic vasopressin analogue desamino-[8-D-arginine]vasopressin. 2. Urine flow increased on the first low salt day in the normal control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. Body weight fell 1.35 kg in the control subjects but was constant in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 3. Urinary sodium excretion fell at the same rate in both groups. Diurnal variation of urinary sodium excretion and creatinine clearance was present in the control subjects but not in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 4. Changes in plasma sodium concentration and osmolality were similar. Plasma protein concentration increased more in the control subjects (from 69.1 +/- 1.5 to 73 +/- 1.2 versus from 71.7 +/- 1 to 73.2 +/- 1.1 milligrams). The responses of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, plasma renin activity and salivary aldosterone concentration were similar between the two groups. Salivary aldosterone concentration levels were consistently higher in the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus. 5. We confirm that the low salt diuresis is triggered by release from the antidiuretic activity of arginine vasopressin. In the patients with cranial diabetes insipidus extracellular fluid osmoregulation appeared to be achieved by the movement of water out of and sodium into the extracellular fluid. 6. Absent posterior pituitary function and hypothalamic disturbances did not alter renal sodium conservation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides: putting the puzzle together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Roland

    2014-05-21

    Over the past 20 years, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have captured the attention of biomedical researchers, biophysicists, and (bio)organic chemists. These molecules efficiently enter cells and mediate entry of (macro)molecules that by themselves do not cross the plasma membrane. Since their discovery, models on the mechanism by which uptake occurs have seen major revisions. Starting from direct penetration across the plasma membrane, it later became apparent that for large molecular weight cargos in particular, endocytosis plays a role in uptake and furthermore that the route of uptake is a function of CPP, cell-type, cargo, and concentration. For the class of arginine-rich CPPs, this dependence on conditions has been elucidated in particular. As I will discuss here for this class of CPPs, a downside of this multitude of possibilities has been a lack of attention for commonalities in the observation of apparently distinct phenomena. At the same time, differences of apparently similar observations were not appreciated sufficiently. In addition, there has been insufficient acknowledgment of observations that are incompatible with the proposed models. Nevertheless, a considerable amount of data can be assembled into a quite coherent picture and the data that is left creates the basis for concrete future lines of research to resolve the questions that remain. Moreover, any uptake mechanism has its distinct structure-activity relationship for uptake giving room for the molecular design of molecules to preferentially direct uptake to either of them.

  8. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially...... kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified...... as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human...

  9. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1) is an ecdysone receptor co-repressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shuhei; Sawatsubashi, Shun; Ito, Saya; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Suzuki, Eriko; Zhao, Yue; Yamagata, Kaoru; Tanabe, Masahiko; Ueda, Takashi; Fujiyama, Sari; Murata, Takuya; Matsukawa, Hiroyuki; Takeyama, Ken-ichi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Histone arginine methylation is an epigenetic marker that regulates gene expression by defining the chromatin state. Arginine methyltransferases, therefore, serve as transcriptional co-regulators. However, unlike other transcriptional co-regulators, the physiological roles of arginine methyltransferases are poorly understood. Drosophila arginine methyltransferase 1 (DART1), the mammalian PRMT1 homologue, methylates the arginine residue of histone H4 (H4R3me2). Disruption of DART1 in Drosophila by imprecise P-element excision resulted in low viability during metamorphosis in the pupal stages. In the pupal stage, an ecdysone hormone signal is critical for developmental progression. DART1 interacted with the nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR) in a ligand-dependent manner, and co-repressed EcR in intact flies. These findings suggest that DART1, a histone arginine methyltransferase, is a co-repressor of EcR that is indispensable for normal pupal development in the intact fly

  10. The ataxia related G1107D mutation of the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 3 affects its interplay with calmodulin and the autoinhibition process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Tito; Frizzarin, Martina; Luoni, Laura; Zonta, Francesco; Pantano, Sergio; Cruz, Carlos; Bonza, Maria Cristina; Bertipaglia, Ilenia; Ruzzene, Maria; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Damiano, Nunzio; Marin, Oriano; Zanni, Ginevra; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Brini, Marisa; Lopreiato, Raffaele; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The plasma membrane Ca 2+ ATPases (PMCA pumps) have a long, cytosolic C-terminal regulatory region where a calmodulin-binding domain (CaM-BD) is located. Under basal conditions (low Ca 2+ ), the C-terminal tail of the pump interacts with autoinhibitory sites proximal to the active center of the enzyme. In activating conditions (i.e., high Ca 2+ ), Ca 2+ -bound CaM displaces the C-terminal tail from the autoinhibitory sites, restoring activity. We have recently identified a G1107D replacement within the CaM-BD of isoform 3 of the PMCA pump in a family affected by X-linked congenital cerebellar ataxia. Here, we investigate the effects of the G1107D replacement on the interplay of the mutated CaM-BD with both CaM and the pump core, by combining computational, biochemical and functional approaches. We provide evidence that the affinity of the isolated mutated CaM-BD for CaM is significantly reduced with respect to the wild type (wt) counterpart, and that the ability of CaM to activate the pump in vitro is thus decreased. Multiscale simulations support the conclusions on the detrimental effect of the mutation, indicating reduced stability of the CaM binding. We further show that the G1107D replacement impairs the autoinhibition mechanism of the PMCA3 pump as well, as the introduction of a negative charge perturbs the contacts between the CaM-BD and the pump core. Thus, the mutation affects both the ability of the pump to optimally transport Ca 2+ in the activated state, and the autoinhibition mechanism in its resting state. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Plasma Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Chloride and Chloride Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Requirements of dietary chloride (dCl and chloride salts were determined by using 4×2 factorial arrangement under four phase feeding program. Four levels (0.31, 0.45, 0.59 and 0.73% and two sources (NH4Cl and CaCl2 of the dCl were allocated to 1,472 chicks in eight dietary treatments in which each treatment was replicated four times with 46 birds per replicate. The four phase feeding program was comprised of four dietary phases: Prestarter (d 1 to 10, Starter (d 11 to 20, Grower (d 21 to 33 and Finisher (d 34 to 42; and diets were separately prepared for each phase. The cations, anions, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS and salinity were analyzed in drinking water and were not affected by dietary treatments. BW gain (BWG; p≤0.009 and feed:gain (FG; p≤0.03 were improved in CaCl2 supplemented diets during d 1 to 10. The maximum response of BWG and FG was observed at 0.38% and 0.42% dCl, respectively, for d 34 to 42. However, the level of dCl for BWG during d 21 to 33 (p≤0.04 and d 34 to 42 (p≤0.009 was optimized at 0.60% and 0.42%, respectively. The level of dCl for optimized feed intake (FI; p≤0.006, FG (p≤0.007 and litter moisture (LM; p≤0.001 was observed at 0.60%, 0.38% and 0.73%, respectively, for d 1 to 42. Water intake (DWI was not affected by increasing dCl supplementation (p>0.05; however, the ratio between DWI and FI (DWI:FI was found highest at 0.73% dCl during d 1 to 10 (p≤0.05 and d 21 to 33 (p≤0.009. Except for d 34 to 42 (p≤0.006, the increasing level of dCl did not result in a significant difference in mortality during any phase. Blood pH and glucose, and breast and thigh weights (percentage of dressed weight were improved while dressing percentage (DP and gastrointestinal health were exacerbated with NH4Cl as compared to CaCl2 supplemented diets (p≤0.001. Higher plasma Na+ and HCO3− and lower Cl− and Ca++ were observed in NH4Cl supplemented

  12. Inhibition of protein aggregation: supramolecular assemblies of arginine hold the key.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggregation of unfolded proteins occurs mainly through the exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Any mechanism of inhibition of this aggregation should explain the prevention of these hydrophobic interactions. Though arginine is prevalently used as an aggregation suppressor, its mechanism of action is not clearly understood. We propose a mechanism based on the hydrophobic interactions of arginine. METHODOLOGY: We have analyzed arginine solution for its hydrotropic effect by pyrene solubility and the presence of hydrophobic environment by 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid fluorescence. Mass spectroscopic analyses show that arginine forms molecular clusters in the gas phase and the cluster composition is dependent on the solution conditions. Light scattering studies indicate that arginine exists as clusters in solution. In the presence of arginine, the reverse phase chromatographic elution profile of Alzheimer's amyloid beta 1-42 (Abeta(1-42 peptide is modified. Changes in the hydrodynamic volume of Abeta(1-42 in the presence of arginine measured by size exclusion chromatography show that arginine binds to Abeta(1-42. Arginine increases the solubility of Abeta(1-42 peptide in aqueous medium. It decreases the aggregation of Abeta(1-42 as observed by atomic force microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our experimental results we propose that molecular clusters of arginine in aqueous solutions display a hydrophobic surface by the alignment of its three methylene groups. The hydrophobic surfaces present on the proteins interact with the hydrophobic surface presented by the arginine clusters. The masking of hydrophobic surface inhibits protein-protein aggregation. This mechanism is also responsible for the hydrotropic effect of arginine on various compounds. It is also explained why other amino acids fail to inhibit the protein aggregation.

  13. Arginine Improves pH Homeostasis via Metabolism and Microbiome Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, M; Cen, L; Tran, N C; Shi, W; McLean, J S; He, X

    2017-07-01

    Dental caries can be described as a dysbiosis of the oral microbial community, in which acidogenic, aciduric, and acid-adapted bacterial species promote a pathogenic environment, leading to demineralization. Alkali generation by oral microbes, specifically via arginine catabolic pathways, is an essential factor in maintaining plaque pH homeostasis. There is evidence that the use of arginine in dentifrices helps protect against caries. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanistic and ecological effect of arginine treatment on the oral microbiome and its regulation of pH dynamics, using an in vitro multispecies oral biofilm model that was previously shown to be highly reflective of the in vivo oral microbiome. Pooled saliva from 6 healthy subjects was used to generate overnight biofilms, reflecting early stages of biofilm maturation. First, we investigated the uptake of arginine by the cells of the biofilm as well as the metabolites generated. We next explored the effect of arginine on pH dynamics by pretreating biofilms with 75 mM arginine, followed by the addition of sucrose (15 mM) after 0, 6, 20, or 48 h. pH was measured at each time point and biofilms were collected for 16S sequencing and targeted arginine quantification, and supernatants were prepared for metabolomic analysis. Treatment with only sucrose led to a sustained pH drop from 7 to 4.5, while biofilms treated with sucrose after 6, 20, or 48 h of preincubation with arginine exhibited a recovery to higher pH. Arginine was detected within the cells of the biofilms, indicating active uptake, and arginine catabolites citrulline, ornithine, and putrescine were detected in supernatants, indicating active metabolism. Sequencing analysis revealed a shift in the microbial community structure in arginine-treated biofilms as well as increased species diversity. Overall, we show that arginine improved pH homeostasis through a remodeling of the oral microbial community.

  14. Remission of diabetes mellitus in cats cannot be predicted by the arginine stimulation test

    OpenAIRE

    Tschuor, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Responsiveness of β-cells to arginine persists the longest during diabetes progression, making the intravenous arginine stimulation test (IVAST) a useful tool to assess residual insulin and glucagon secretion. Hypothesis: Diabetic cats with and without remission will have different arginine-induced insulin or glucagon response. Animals: 17 cats with diabetes, 7 healthy cats. Methods: Response to IVAST was assessed by calculating insulin and glucagon area under the c...

  15. Inhibition of mammalian nitric oxide synthases by agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine.

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, E; Regunathan, S; Eliopoulos, V; Feinstein, D L; Reis, D J

    1996-01-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is a metabolic product of mammalian cells. Considering the close structural similarity between L-arginine and agmatine, we investigated the interaction of agmatine and nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), which use L-arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline. Brain, macrophages and endothelial cells were respectively used as sources for NOS isoforms I, II and III. Enzyme activity was measured by the production of nitrites or L-citrulline. Agmatine was ...

  16. The arginine-ornithine antiporter ArcD contributes to biological fitness of Streptococcus suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eFulde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-ornithine antiporter (ArcD is part of the Arginine Deiminase System (ADS, a catabolic, energy-providing pathway found in a variety of different bacterial species, including the porcine zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis. The ADS has recently been shown to play a role in the pathogenicity of S. suis, in particular in its survival in host cells. The contribution of arginine and arginine transport mediated by ArcD, however, has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we showed by experiments using [U-13C6]arginine as a tracer molecule that S. suis is auxotrophic for arginine and that bacterial growth depends on the uptake of extracellular arginine. To further study the role of ArcD in arginine metabolism, we generated an arcD-specific mutant strain and characterized its growth compared to the wild-type (WT strain, a virulent serotype 2 strain. The mutant strain showed a markedly reduced growth rate in chemically defined media supplemented with arginine when compared to the WT strain, indicating that ArcD promotes arginine uptake. To further evaluate the in vivo relevance of ArcD, we studied the intracellular bacterial survival of the arcD mutant strain in an epithelial cell culture infection model. The mutant strain was substantially attenuated, and its reduced intracellular survival rate correlated with a lower ability to neutralize the acidified environment. Based on these results, we propose that ArcD, by its function as an arginine-ornithine antiporter, is important for supplying arginine as substrate of the ADS and, thereby, contributes to biological fitness and virulence of S. suis in the host.

  17. Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pistorius Elfriede K

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far very limited knowledge exists on L-arginine catabolism in cyanobacteria, although six major L-arginine-degrading pathways have been described for prokaryotes. Thus, we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of possible L-arginine-degrading pathways in cyanobacteria. Further, we chose Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for a more detailed bioinformatic analysis and for validation of the bioinformatic predictions on L-arginine catabolism with a transcript analysis. Results We have evaluated 24 cyanobacterial genomes of freshwater or marine strains for the presence of putative L-arginine-degrading enzymes. We identified an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway in all 24 strains. In addition, cyanobacteria have one or two further pathways representing either an arginase pathway or L-arginine deiminase pathway or an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. An L-arginine amidinotransferase pathway as a major L-arginine-degrading pathway is not likely but can not be entirely excluded. A rather unusual finding was that the cyanobacterial L-arginine deiminases are substantially larger than the enzymes in non-photosynthetic bacteria and that they are membrane-bound. A more detailed bioinformatic analysis of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 revealed that three different L-arginine-degrading pathways may in principle be functional in this cyanobacterium. These are (i an L-arginine decarboxylase pathway, (ii an L-arginine deiminase pathway, and (iii an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway. A transcript analysis of cells grown either with nitrate or L-arginine as sole N-source and with an illumination of 50 μmol photons m-2 s-1 showed that the transcripts for the first enzyme(s of all three pathways were present, but that the transcript levels for the L-arginine deiminase and the L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase were substantially higher than that of the three isoenzymes of L-arginine decarboxylase. Conclusion The evaluation of 24

  18. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 regulates herpes simplex virus replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jungeun; Shin, Bongjin; Park, Eui-Soon; Yang, Sujeong; Choi, Seunga [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Misun [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Jaerang, E-mail: jrrho@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Bio Brain Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); GRAST, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    Protein arginine methylation is involved in viral infection and replication through the modulation of diverse cellular processes including RNA metabolism, cytokine signaling, and subcellular localization. It has been suggested previously that the protein arginine methylation of the RGG-box of ICP27 is required for herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) viral replication and gene expression in vivo. However, a cellular mediator for this process has not yet been identified. In our current study, we show that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is a cellular mediator of the arginine methylation of ICP27 RGG-box. We generated arginine substitution mutants in this domain and examined which arginine residues are required for methylation by PRMT1. R138, R148 and R150 were found to be the major sites of this methylation but additional arginine residues serving as minor methylation sites are still required to sustain the fully methylated form of ICP27 RGG. We also demonstrate that the nuclear foci-like structure formation, SRPK interactions, and RNA-binding activity of ICP27 are modulated by the arginine methylation of the ICP27 RGG-box. Furthermore, HSV-1 replication is inhibited by hypomethylation of this domain resulting from the use of general PRMT inhibitors or arginine mutations. Our data thus suggest that the PRMT1 plays a key role as a cellular regulator of HSV-1 replication through ICP27 RGG-box methylation.

  19. Synthesis of the arginine labelled by {sup 15}N on the amidine group; Synthese de l'arginine marquee par {sup 15}N dans le groupe amidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, L; Clement, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    For some biologic studies, it was necessarily to have (+) arginine marked by nitrogen 15 in the amidine group. This report describes the synthesis of the labelled arginine. The first step is the synthesis of the methyl-isourated hydro-chlorate, the intermediate reactive, from the ClNH{sub 4} isotope. The arginine is obtained from the ornithine which we previously blocked the amino group as cupric complex. The mean yield in arginine reaches 30%, based on the ammonium chloride uses. (M.B.) [French] Pour certaines etudes biologiques, il etait indispensable de disposer de (+) arginine marquee par l'azote 15 dans le groupement amidine. Ce rapport decrit la synthese de l'ariginine marquee. La premiere etape est la synthese du chlorhydrate de methylisouree, intermediaire reactif, a partir du ClNH{sub 4} isotopique. L'obtention de l'arginine est obtenue a partir de l'ornithine dont on a prealablement bloque le groupe amino sous forme de complexe cuivrique. Le rendement global moyen en arginine atteint 30 %, base sur le chlorure d'ammonium utilise. (M.B.)

  20. The role of arginine vasopressin in electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Qi-Shun; Yang, Jun; Sun, Fang-Jie; Wang, Da-Xin; Wang, Chang-Hong; He, Wei-Ya

    2015-08-01

    It has been implicated that electroacupuncture can relieve the symptoms of sciatica with the increase of pain threshold in human, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the brain rather than the spinal cord and blood circulation participates in antinociception. Our previous study has proven that AVP in the brain played a role in the process of electroacupuncture analgesia in rat. The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of AVP in electroacupuncture in treating primary sciatica in human. The results showed that (1) AVP concentration of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (7.5 ± 2.5 pg/ml), not plasma (13.2 ± 4.2 pg/ml) in primary sciatica patients was lower than that in health volunteers (16.1 ± 3.8 pg/ml and 12.3 ± 3.4 pg/ml), although the osmotic pressure in CSF and plasma did not change; (2) electroacupuncture of the bilateral "Zusanli" points (St. 36) for 60 min relieved the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients; (3) electroacupuncture increased the AVP level of CSF, not plasma in primary sciatica patients; and (4) there was the positive correlation between the effect of electroacupuncture relieving the pain and the AVP level of CSF in the primary sciatica patients. The data suggested that central AVP, not peripheral AVP might improve the effect of electroacupuncture treatment of primary sciatica in human, i.e., central AVP might take part in the electroacupuncture relieving the pain sensation in primary sciatica patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. L-Arginine Pathway in COPD Patients with Acute Exacerbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzsics, Istvan; Nagy, Lajos; Keki, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    -performance liquid chromatography in venous blood samples and partial capillary oxygen pressure were prospectively investigated in 32 patients with COPD, 12 with AECOPD and 30 healthy subjects. RESULTS: Both ADMA and SDMA were significantly higher in AECOPD compared to stable COPD (p = 0.004 and p ....001, respectively). Oxygen content in capillaries correlated with serum ADMA concentration. However, the concentration of L-arginine was not different between AECOPD and stable COPD. Both ADMA and SDMA separated AECOPD with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC: 0.81, p = 0.001; AUC: 0.91, p

  2. Effects of arginine and phytogenic additive supplementation on performance and health of brown-egg layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Barbosa Fascina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was performed to evaluate the effects of the association of different digestible arginine and phytogenic additive dietary levels on performance and health status of brown-egg layers. In this study, a total of 504 33-week-old Hisex Brown layers were distributed into a completely randomized experimental design to a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (dietary digestible arginine levels: 880, 968, 1056, or 1144 mg/kg of feed × phytogenic additive levels: 0, 100, and 200 mg/kg of feed with six replicate cages of seven birds per cage. The phytogenic additive was composed of extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia (40%, Astragalus membranaceus lipopolysaccharides (20%, cinnamon, and grape seed (20%. Feed intake was reduced when diets containing 1056 mg of arginine were supplemented with 100 or 200 mg phytogenic additive per kg. Feed conversion ratio was improved when diets were supplemented with 100 mg of phytogenic additive or with 1056 mg of arginine per kg of feed. Egg mass was increased when diets were supplemented with 1056 mg arginine per kg of feed. Arginine supplementation quadratically increased albumen percentage and reduced yolk percentage. Higher arginine and phytogenic additive levels reduced heterophyl:lymphocyte ratio and blood uric acid, total cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels. Dietary supplementation of 100 mg of phytogenic additive associated with high arginine levels increased nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages and 1056 mg of arginine increased antibodies titers against Newcastle disease virus. Blood and intestinal malonaldehyde levels were reduced when 200 mg of the phytogenic additive was added. Dietary supplementation of 968 mg of arginine or 100 mg of a phytogenic additive (40% Baccharis dracunculifolia, 20% Astragalus membranaceus, 20% cinnamon, and 20% grape seed extracts per kilogram of diet improves the feed conversion ratio and associated inclusion of 1144 mg of

  3. Speciation of arsenic in human nail and hair from arsenic-affected area by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Badal Kumar; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.

    2003-01-01

    Nail and hair are rich in fibrous proteins, i.e., α-keratins that contain abundant cysteine residues (up to 22% in nail and 10-14% in hair). Although they are metabolically dead materials in the epidermis, the roots are highly influenced by the health status of the living beings and their analyses are used as a tool to monitor occupational and environmental exposure to toxic elements. The aims of the present study are to speciate arsenicals in human nail and hair and also to judge whether they should be used as a biomarker to arsenic (As) exposure and/or toxicity. All human fingernail and hair samples (n = 47) were collected from the As-affected area of West Bengal, India. Speciation of arsenicals in water extracts of fingernails and hair at 90 degree sign C was carried out by HPLC-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP MS). Fingernails contained iAs III (58.6%), iAs V (21.5), MMA V (7.7), DMA III (9.2), and DMA V (3.0), and hair contained iAs III (60.9%), iAs V (33.2), MMA V (2.2), and DMA V (3.6). Fingernails contained DMA III , but hair did not. The higher percentage of iAs III both in fingernails and hair than that of iAs V suggests more affinity of iAs III to keratin. Although all arsenicals in fingernails and hair correlate to As exposure positively, As speciation in fingernails seems to be more correlated with arsenism than that in hair. Exogenous contamination is a confounding factor for hair to consider it as a biomarker, whereas this is mostly absent in fingernails, which recommends it to be a better biomarker to arsenic exposure. DMA III content in fingernails and DMA V contents in both fingernails and hair could be the biomarker to As exposure

  4. Efficacy of plasma-rich growth factor in the healing of postextraction sockets in patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzati, Marco; Gallesio, Giorgia; di Romana, Sara; Bergamasco, Laura; Pol, Renato

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of plasma-rich growth factor (PRGF) in improving socket healing after tooth extraction in diabetic patients. This was a split-mouth study in which each patient also served as the control: the study socket was treated with PRGF, whereas the control socket underwent natural healing. The outcome variables were the Healing Index, residual socket volume, visual analog scale score, postsurgical complications, and outcome of a patient questionnaire. The investigation considered the impact of hyperglycemia, glycated hemoglobin, End Organ Disease Score, and smoking habits. Follow-up included 4 postextraction checkups over a 21-day period. Pairs of correlated continuous variables were analyzed with the Wilcoxon test, independent continuous variables with the Mann-Whitney test, and categorical variables with the χ(2) test or Fisher test. From January 2012 to December 2012, 34 patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus underwent contemporary bilateral extractions of homologous teeth. The treatment-versus-control postoperative comparison showed that PRGF resulted in significantly smaller residual socket volumes and better Healing Indices from days 3 to 14. The patients' questionnaire outcomes were unanimously in favor of PRGF treatment. The small sample of patients with glycemia values of at least 240 mg/dL showed worse Healing Index and minor socket decreases. PRGF application after extraction improved the healing process in diabetic patients by accelerating socket closure (epithelialization) and tissue maturation, proving the association between PRGF use and improved wound healing in diabetic patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yun; Yang Yun; Wu Feng

    2010-01-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine (L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  6. THE EFFECT OF L- ARGININE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND MICROALBUMINURIA IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Martynyuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the severest complications of diabetes is diabetic kidney disease (DKD. Microalbuminuria (MAU is one of the first signals of DKD and an important pathogenetic mechanism of disease progression. With diabetes dramatically antioxidant properties worsen. Objective. The aim was to investigate the effect of L-arginine on oxidative stress parameters and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease patients. Methods. Total of 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease and 30 healthy subjects (control group were included in the study. The patients were divided into 2 congruent groups. The 1-st group of patients (n=33, in addition to standard therapy, received L-arginine 4.2 g intravenously for 5 days, after that they took it 1,0 g orally three times a day during meals for 1 month. The second group of patients (n=24 received a standard therapy. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was measured by a spectrophotometric method. The determination of MAU was carried out in morning portion of urine immunological semiquantitative using test strips. Results. Significant improvement in indexes of lipid peroxidation was observed in both groups after therapy (p˂0.01, but in patients treated with L-arginine it was more expressed (p˂0,01. The standard therapy did not significantly affect the level of MAU (p˃0,05. The patients treated with L-Arginine, showed a significant reduction in MAU (p˂0.01. Conclusions. The usage of L-arginine facilitates the correction of lipid peroxidation processes and reduces the severity of microalbuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease that slowing its progression.

  7. Orally administered L-arginine and glycine are highly effective against acid reflux esophagitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Kenji; Nishio, Hikaru; Yamato, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Reflux esophagitis is caused mainly by excessive exposure of the mucosa to gastric contents. In the present study, we examined the effect of several amino acids on acid reflux esophagitis in rats. Material/Methods After 18 h of fasting, acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating both the pylorus and the transitional region between the forestomach and the corpus under ether anesthesia, and the animals were killed 4 h later. The severity of esophagitis was reduced by the oral administration of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, or pepstatin, a specific pepsin inhibitor. Results The development of esophageal lesions was dose-dependently prevented by L-arginine and glycine, given intragastrically (i.g.) after the ligation, with complete inhibition obtained at 250 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg, respectively, and these effects were not influenced by the prior s.c. administration of indomethacin or L-NAME. By contrast, both L-alanine and L-glutamine given i.g. after the ligation aggravated these lesions in a dose-dependent manner. These amino acids had no effect on acid secretion but increased the pH of the gastric contents to 1.8~2.3 due to their buffering action. Conclusions The results confirmed an essential role for acid and pepsin in the pathogenesis of acid reflux esophagitis in the rat model and further suggested that various amino acids affect the severity of esophagitis in different ways, due to yet unidentified mechanisms; L-alanine and L-glutamine exert a deleterious effect on the esophagitis, while L-arginine and glycine are highly protective, independent of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide. PMID:22207112

  8. The Role of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs mediate the methylation of a number of protein substrates of arginine residues and serve critical functions in many cellular responses, including cancer development, progression, and aggressiveness, T-lymphocyte activation, and hepatic gluconeogenesis. There are nine members of the PRMT family, which are divided into 4 types (types I–IV. Although most PRMTs do not require posttranslational modification (PTM to be activated, fine-tuning modifications, such as interactions between cofactor proteins, subcellular compartmentalization, and regulation of RNA, via micro-RNAs, seem to be required. Inflammation is an essential defense reaction of the body to eliminate harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens. However, chronic inflammation can eventually cause several types of diseases, including some cancers, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Therefore, inflammation responses should be well modulated. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of PRMTs in the control of inflammation. More specifically, we review the roles of four PRMTs (CARM1, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT6 in modulating inflammation responses, particularly in terms of modulating the transcriptional factors or cofactors related to inflammation. Based on the regulatory roles known so far, we propose that PRMTs should be considered one of the target molecule groups that modulate inflammatory responses.

  9. Agmatine: multifunctional arginine metabolite and magic bullet in clinical neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Gregor; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2017-07-26

    Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of arginine, was largely neglected as an important player in mammalian metabolism until the mid-1990s, when it was re-discovered as an endogenous ligand of imidazoline and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Since then, a wide variety of agmatine-mediated effects have been observed, and consequently agmatine has moved from a wallflower existence into the limelight of clinical neuroscience research. Despite this quantum jump in scientific interest, the understanding of the anabolism and catabolism of this amine is still vague. The purification and biochemical characterization of natural mammalian arginine decarboxylase and agmatinase still are open issues. Nevertheless, the agmatinergic system is currently one of the most promising candidates in order to pharmacologically interfere with some major diseases of the central nervous system, which are summarized in the present review. Particularly with respect to major depression, agmatine, its derivatives, and metabolizing enzymes show great promise for the development of an improved treatment of this common disease. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Arginine Vasotocin, the Social Neuropeptide of Amphibians and Reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Quispe, Maricel; Muñoz, Matías I; Penna, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is the non-mammalian homolog of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and, like vasopressin, serves as an important modulator of social behavior in addition to its peripheral functions related to osmoregulation, reproductive physiology, and stress hormone release. In amphibians and reptiles, the neuroanatomical organization of brain AVT cells and fibers broadly resembles that seen in mammals and other taxa. Both parvocellular and magnocellular AVT-containing neurons are present in multiple populations located mainly in the basal forebrain from the accumbens-amygdala area to the preoptic area and hypothalamus, from which originate widespread fiber connections spanning the brain with a particularly heavy innervation of areas associated with social behavior and decision-making. As for mammalian AVP, AVT is present in greater amounts in males in many brain areas, and its presence varies seasonally, with hormonal state, and in males with differing social status. AVT's social influence is also conserved across herpetological taxa, with significant effects on social signaling and aggression, and, based on the very small number of studies investigating more complex social behaviors in amphibians and reptiles, AVT may also modulate parental care and social bonding when it is present in these vertebrates. Within this conserved pattern, however, both AVT anatomy and social behavior effects vary significantly across species. Accounting for this diversity represents a challenge to understanding the mechanisms by which AVT exerts its behavioral effects, as well are a potential tool for discerning the structure-function relationships underlying AVT's many effects on behavior.

  11. PRmePRed: A protein arginine methylation prediction tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    Full Text Available Protein methylation is an important Post-Translational Modification (PTMs of proteins. Arginine methylation carries out and regulates several important biological functions, including gene regulation and signal transduction. Experimental identification of arginine methylation site is a daunting task as it is costly as well as time and labour intensive. Hence reliable prediction tools play an important task in rapid screening and identification of possible methylation sites in proteomes. Our preliminary assessment using the available prediction methods on collected data yielded unimpressive results. This motivated us to perform a comprehensive data analysis and appraisal of features relevant in the context of biological significance, that led to the development of a prediction tool PRmePRed with better performance. The PRmePRed perform reasonably well with an accuracy of 84.10%, 82.38% sensitivity, 83.77% specificity, and Matthew's correlation coefficient of 66.20% in 10-fold cross-validation. PRmePRed is freely available at http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/PRmePRed/.

  12. The do's and don'ts of arginine supplementation | Chetty | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last three decades the nutritional and pharmacologic effects of arginine have been the subject of intense investigation. Taking into consideration the many benefits that have been demonstrated from arginine supplementation, the question remains: “Can we afford not to supplement with this immuno-nutrient”.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of [8-D-arginine] deamino-vasopressin (dDAVP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaninova, J.; Barth, T.

    1978-01-01

    Specific antibodies to [8-D-arginine] deamino-vasopressin (dDAVP) were prepared by immunizing pigs with the conjugate of [8-D-arginine] vasopressin (DVAP) and rabbit immunoglobulin. The specificity of the antibodies was studied by comparing their cross-reactivity with 20 analogues of neurohypophysial hormones. The sensitivity of the developed radioimmunoassay was 30 pg/ml. (authors)

  14. Multiple Arginine Residues Are Methylated in Drosophila Mre11 and Required for Survival Following Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Tian, Ran; Zhao, Haiying; Li, Lijuan; Bi, Xiaolin

    2018-05-31

    Mre11 is a key player for DNA double strand break repair. Previous studies have shown that mammalian Mre11 is methylated at multiple arginines in its C-terminal Glycine-Arginine-Rich motif (GAR) by protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1. Here, we found that the Drosophila Mre11 is methylated at arginines 559, 563, 565, and 569 in the GAR motif by DART1, the Drosophila homolog of PRMT1. Mre11 interacts with DART1 in S2 cells, and this interaction does not require the GAR motif. Arginines methylated Mre11 localizes exclusively in the nucleus as soluble nuclear protein or chromatin-binding protein. To study the in vivo functions of methylation, we generated the single Arg-Ala and all Arginines mutated flies. We found these mutants were sensitive to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, Arg-Ala mutated flies had no irradiation induced G2/M checkpoint defect in wing disc and eye disc. Thus, we provided evidence that arginines in Drosophila Mre11 are methylated by DART1 methytransferase and flies loss of arginine methylation are sensitive to irradiation. Copyright © 2018 Yuan et al.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and behaviour of trans-bis (argininate) copper (II) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis, the characterization and the behaviour to gamma radiation of trans-bis (argininate) copper (II) are presented. The synthesis is made from copper sulfate, sodium hydroxide and hydrochloride of L (+) arginine, in aqueous medium, and the characterization by infrared spectroscopy, visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy and elementary analysis. (C.G.C.)

  16. The ArcD1 and ArcD2 arginine/ornithine exchangers encoded in the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway gene cluster of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noens, Elke E E; Kaczmarek, Michał B; Żygo, Monika; Lolkema, Juke S

    2015-01-01

    The arginine deiminase pathway (ADI) gene cluster in Lactococcus lactis contains two copies of a gene encoding an L-arginine/L-ornithine exchanger, the arcD1 and arcD2 genes. The physiological function of ArcD1 and ArcD2 was studied by deleting the two genes. Deletion of arcD1 resulted in loss of

  17. Cell surface binding and uptake of arginine- and lysine-rich penetratin peptides in absence and presence of proteoglycans

    KAUST Repository

    Å mand, Helene L.; Rydberg, Hanna A.; Fornander, Louise H.; Lincoln, Per; Nordé n, Bengt; Esbjö rner, Elin K.

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface proteoglycans (PGs) appear to promote uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), but their exact functions are unclear. To address if there is specificity in the interactions of arginines and PGs leading to improved

  18. Accumulation of Citrulline by Microbial Arginine Metabolism during Alcoholic Fermentation of Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Jiran; Zhou, Jingwen; Zhou, Zhaohui; Li, Tieqiao; Lu, Liling; Zeng, Weizhu; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2018-03-07

    Citrulline, the major precursor of ethyl carbamate in soy sauce, is an intermediate catabolite of arginine produced by bacteria present in soy sauce moromi mash. Pediococcus acidilactici is responsible for the formation of citrulline during the lactic acid fermentation process of soy sauce. However, citrulline accumulation during the alcoholic fermentation process and the corresponding bacteria involved have not been identified. Salt-tolerant, arginine-utilizing bacteria were isolated from moromi mash during the alcoholic fermentation process. Under normal cultivation conditions, arginine utilization by these strains did not contribute to citrulline accumulation. However, the conversion of arginine to citrulline by these bacteria increased when cultivated during the alcoholic fermentation process. Additionally, the ethanol-enhanced solubility of free fatty acids in moromi mash stimulated the accumulation of citrulline. Staphylococcus exhibited the highest capability in the conversion of arginine to citrulline.

  19. The second case of a young man with L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, Quentin; Dufour, Inès; Agneessens, Emmanuel; Debongnie, Jean-Claude; Aouattah, Tarik; Covas, Angélique; Coche, Jean-Charles; De Koninck, Xavier

    2018-04-21

    Dietary supplementation of arginine has been used by numerous world-class athletes and professional bodybuilders over the past 30 years. L-Arginine indeed enhances muscular power and general performance via maintaining ATP level. However, L-arginine is also known to induce acute pancreatitis in murine models. We report the case of young man presenting with upper abdominal pain and increased serum lipase levels. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography confirms a mild acute pancreatitis. Common etiologies have been ruled out and toxicological anamnestic screening reveals the intake of protein powder. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the second case in human of arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. This case report suggests that every patient presenting with acute pancreatitis without obvious etiology should be evaluated for the intake of toxics other than alcohol, including L-arginine.

  20. Potentiality of application of the conductometric L-arginine biosensors for the real sample analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffrezic-Renault N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine an influence of serum components on the L-arginine biosensor sensitivity and to formulate practical recommendations for its reliable analysis. Methods. The L-arginine biosensor comprised arginase and urease co-immobilized by cross-linking. Results. The biosensor specificity was investigated based on a series of representative studies (namely, through urea determination in the serum; inhibitory effect studies of mercury ions; high temperature treatment of sensors; studying the biosensor sensitivity to the serum treated by enzymes, and selectivity studies. It was found that the response of the biosensor to the serum injections was determined by high sensitivity of the L-arginine biosensor toward not only to L-arginine but also toward two other basic amino acids (L-lysine and L-histidine. Conclusions. A detailed procedure of optimization of the conductometric biosensor for L-arginine determination in blood serum has been proposed.

  1. Effects of Aging and Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Supplementation on Brain Arginine Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalmah Mazlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that altered arginine metabolism is involved in the aging and neurodegenerative processes. This study sought to determine the effects of age and vitamin E supplementation in the form of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on brain arginine metabolism. Male Wistar rats at ages of 3 and 21 months were supplemented with TRF orally for 3 months prior to the dissection of tissue from five brain regions. The tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its nine downstream metabolites were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found age-related alterations in L-arginine metabolites in the chemical- and region-specific manners. Moreover, TRF supplementation reversed age-associated changes in arginine metabolites in the entorhinal cortex and cerebellum. Multiple regression analysis revealed a number of significant neurochemical-behavioral correlations, indicating the beneficial effects of TRF supplementation on memory and motor function.

  2. Stationary phase expression of the arginine biosynthetic operon argCBH in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is elevated in response to nutrient limitation, stress or arginine restriction. Though control of the pathway in response to arginine limitation is largely modulated by the ArgR repressor, other factors may be involved in increased stationary phase and stress expression. Results In this study, we report that expression of the argCBH operon is induced in stationary phase cultures and is reduced in strains possessing a mutation in rpoS, which encodes an alternative sigma factor. Using strains carrying defined argR, and rpoS mutations, we evaluated the relative contributions of these two regulators to the expression of argH using operon-lacZ fusions. While ArgR was the main factor responsible for modulating expression of argCBH, RpoS was also required for full expression of this biosynthetic operon at low arginine concentrations (below 60 μM L-arginine, a level at which growth of an arginine auxotroph was limited by arginine. When the argCBH operon was fully de-repressed (arginine limited, levels of expression were only one third of those observed in ΔargR mutants, indicating that the argCBH operon is partially repressed by ArgR even in the absence of arginine. In addition, argCBH expression was 30-fold higher in ΔargR mutants relative to levels found in wild type, fully-repressed strains, and this expression was independent of RpoS. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that both derepression and positive control by RpoS are required for full control of arginine biosynthesis in stationary phase cultures of E. coli.

  3. Poly-L-arginine: Enhancing Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake of Doxorubicin and Necrotic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movafegh, Bahareh; Jalal, Razieh; Mohammadi, Zobeideh; Aldaghi, Seyyede Araste

    2018-04-11

    Cell resistance to doxorubicin and its toxicity to healthy tissue reduce its efficiency. The use of cell penetrating peptides as drug delivery system along with doxorubicin is a strategy to reduce its side effects. In this study, the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, its cellular uptake and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis on human prostate cancer DU145 cells are assessed. The cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and poly-L-arginine, alone and in combination, in DU145 cells was evaluated at different exposure times using MTT assay. The influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin delivery into cells was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and ultraviolet spectroscopy. DAPI and ethidium bromide-acridine orange stainings, flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide, western blot analysis with anti-p21 antibody and caspase-3 activity were used to examine the influence of poly-L-arginine on doxorubicin-induced cell death. Poly-L-arginine had no cytotoxicity at low concentrations and short exposure times. Poly-L-arginine increased the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in DU145 cells in a time-dependent manner. But no significant reduction was found in HFF cell viability. Poly-L-arginine seems to facilitate doxorubicin uptake and increase its intracellular concentration. 24 h combined treatment of cells with doxorubicin (0.5 μM) and poly-L-arginine (1 μg ml-1) caused a small increase in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and significant elevated necrosis in DU145 cells as compared to each agent alone. Conlusion: Our results indicate that poly-L-arginine at lowest and highest concentrations act as proliferation-inducing and antiproliferative agents, respectively. Between these concentrations, poly-L-arginine increases the cellular uptake of doxorubicin and its cytotoxicity through induction of necrosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Effects of a diabetes-specific enteral nutrition on nutritional and immune status of diabetic, obese, and endotoxemic rats: interest of a graded arginine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuillard, Charlotte; Darquy, Sylviane; Curis, Emmanuel; Neveux, Nathalie; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Cynober, Luc; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Obese and type 2 diabetic patients present metabolic disturbance-related alterations in nonspecific immunity, to which the decrease in their plasma arginine contributes. Although diabetes-specific formulas have been developed, they have never been tested in the context of an acute infectious situation as can be seen in intensive care unit patients. Our aim was to investigate the effects of a diabetes-specific diet enriched or not with arginine in a model of infectious stress in a diabetes and obesity situation. As a large intake of arginine may be deleterious, this amino acid was given in graded fashion. Randomized, controlled experimental study. University research laboratory. Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Gastrostomized Zucker diabetic fatty rats were submitted to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide administration and fed for 7 days with either a diabetes-specific enteral nutrition without (G group, n=7) or with graded arginine supply (1-5 g/kg/day) (GA group, n=7) or a standard enteral nutrition (HP group, n=10). Survival rate was better in G and GA groups than in the HP group. On day 7, plasma insulin to glucose ratio tended to be lower in the same G and GA groups. Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-α (G: 5.0±1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 3.7±0.8 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.7±0.6 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; p1.1 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; GA: 5.1±1.0 ng/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; and HP: 1.0±0.5 nmol/2×10⁶ cells·hr⁻¹; pdiabetic obese and endotoxemic rats, a diabetes-specific formula leads to a lower mortality, a decreased insulin resistance, and an improvement in peritoneal macrophage function. Arginine supplementation has no additional effect. These data support the use of such disease-specific diets in critically ill diabetic and obese patients.

  5. Altered Nitrogen Balance and Decreased Urea Excretion in Male Rats Fed Cafeteria Diet Are Related to Arginine Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sabater

    2014-01-01

    rats, but low arginine levels point to a block in the urea cycle between ornithine and arginine, thereby preventing the elimination of excess nitrogen as urea. The ultimate consequence of this paradoxical block in the urea cycle seems to be the limitation of arginine production and/or availability.

  6. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-04-09

    The present study was performed to determine how basal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions affect fluid-electrolyte balance and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism supplemented with melatonin. The rats were divided into four groups of twenty-four subjects each kept under the following treatments during one month: (1) Controls; (2) treated with L-thyroxine; (3) treated with L-thyroxine and sham melatonin and (4) treated with L-thyroxine and melatonin. After this each group was further subdivided into subgroups that were subject to normal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions. The plasma AVP, total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), total thyroxine (TT(4)) and melatonin levels were measured in plasma by means of a Phoenix Pharmaceutical RIA test kit. Hematocrit and osmolality levels were also determined. There were significant increases of total T3 and T4 levels in the L-thyroxine treated groups, p<0.001. The AVP levels were also increased in groups 2 and 3, but not so in the rats treated with melatonin (p<0.001), which also showed increased plasma melatonin levels (p<0.001). These results indicate that treatment with L-thyroxine increases stimulated and non-stimulated AVP release that are inhibited by melatonin supplementation. It was also shown that AVP response to hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions was not affected by L-thyroxine treatment and/or L-thyroxine+melatonin treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA): a possible link between homocyst(e)ine and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stühlinger, Markus C; Stanger, Olaf

    2005-02-01

    Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic disease and venous thromboembolism. The impact of elevated plasma homocysteine levels seems to be clinically relevant, since the total cardiovascular risk of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is comparable to the risk associated with hyperlipidemia or smoking. There is substantial evidence for impairment of endothelial function in human and animal models of atherosclerosis, occurring even before development of overt plaques. Interestingly endothelial dysfunction appears to be a sensitive indicator of the process of atherosclerotic lesion development and predicts future vascular events. NO is the most potent endogenous vasodilator known. It is released by the endothelium, and reduced NO bioavailability is responsible for impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and other metabolic disorders associated with vascular disease. Substances leading to impaired endothelial function as a consequence of reduced NO generation are endogenous NO synthase inhibitors such as ADMA. Indeed there is accumulating evidence from animal and human studies that ADMA, endothelial function and homocyst(e)ine might be closely interrelated. Specifically elevations of ADMA associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation were found in chronic hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, as well as after acute elevation of plasma homocyst(e)ine following oral methionine intake. The postulated mechanisms for ADMA accumulation are increased methylation of arginine residues within proteins, as well as reduced metabolism of ADMA by the enzyme DDAH, but they still need to be confirmed to be operative in vivo. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, as well as subsequent endothelial dysfunction can be successfully treated by application of folate and B vitamins. Since ADMA seems to play a central role in homocyst(e)ine-induced endothelial dysfunction, another way of preventing vascular disease in patients with elevated homocyst

  8. l-Arginine grafted alginate hydrogel beads: A novel pH-sensitive system for specific protein delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mohy Eldin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Novel pH-sensitive hydrogels based on l-arginine grafted alginate (Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads were synthesized and utilized as a new carrier for protein delivery (BSA in specific pH media. l-arginine was grafted onto the polysaccharide backbone of virgin alginate via amine functions. Evidences of grafting of alginate were extracted from FT-IR and thermal analysis, while the morphological structure of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads was investigated by SEM photographs. Factors affecting on the grafting process e.g. l-arginine concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, reaction pH, and crosslinking conditions, have been studied. Whereas, grafting efficiency of each factor was evaluated. Grafting of alginate has improved both thermal and morphological properties of Arg-g-Alg hydrogel beads. The swelling behavior of Arg-g-Alg beads was determined as a function of pH and compared with virgin calcium alginate beads. The cumulative in vitro release profiles of BSA loaded beads were studied at different pHs for simulating the physiological environments of the gastrointestinal tract. The amount of BSA released from neat alginate beads at pH 2 was almost 15% after 5 h, while the Arg-g-Alg beads at the same conditions were clearly higher than 45%, then it increased to 90% at pH 7.2. Accordingly, grafting of alginate has improved its release profile behavior particularly in acidic media. The preliminary results clearly suggested that the Arg-g-Alg hydrogel may be a potential candidate for polymeric carrier for oral delivery of protein or drugs.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.; Haeberle, M.; Franz, H.E.; Maier, V.

    1977-01-01

    The low circulating levels of vasopressin required an initial extraction procedure. The extraction method itself presented problems with the specificity and the reproducibility of the extracted hormone from serum. The presented paper describes the developement of a radioimmunoassay without an extraction procedure. The AVP was coupled with rabbit-albumin by gluteraldehyde condensation for the immunization of rabbits. Synthetic AVP was iodinated by the method of GREENWOOD and HUNTER (1963) and purified by the addition of Dowex. The antibody cannot differentiate between lysine- and arginine-, ornithine-, glycerine - vasopressin and oxytocin. 1 - 24 ACTH and gastrin did not crosscreact. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4/uU/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels, however, different forms of stress yielded higher levels in normal subjects. In patients suffering from liver cirrhosis the values normalized when ascites was under control. (orig.) [de

  10. Characterization of casein and poly-l-arginine multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyk-Warszyńska, Lilianna; Kilan, Katarzyna; Socha, Robert P.

    2014-06-01

    Thin films containing casein appear to be a promising material for coatings used in the medical area to promote biomineralization. alfa- and beta-casein and poly-L-arginine multilayer films were formed by the layer-by layer technique and their thickness and mass were analyzed by ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). We investigated the effect of the type of casein used for the film formation and of the polyethyleneimine anchoring layer on the thickness and mass of adsorbed films. The analysis of the mass of films during their post-treatment with the solutions of various ionic strength and pH provided the information concerning films stability, while the XPS elemental analysis confirmed binding of calcium ions by the casein embedded in the multilayers.

  11. Microwave heating of arginine yields highly fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippidis, Aggelos; Stefanakis, Dimitrios; Anglos, Demetrios; Ghanotakis, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    Brightly fluorescent nanoparticles were produced via a single-step, single-precursor procedure based on microwave heating of an aqueous solution of the amino acid arginine. Key structural and optical properties of the resulting Arg nanoparticles, Arg-dots, are reported and discussed with emphasis on the pH dependence of their fluorescence emission. The surface of the Arg-dots was functionalised through coupling to folic acid, opening up ways for connecting fluorescent nanoparticles to cancer cells. The generality and versatility of the microwave heating procedure was further demonstrated by the synthesis of different types of carbon nanoparticles, such as CE-dots, that were produced by use of citric acid and ethanolamine as precursors and compared to the Arg-dots.

  12. Arginine Vasotocin, the Social Neuropeptide of Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Quispe, Maricel; Muñoz, Matías I.; Penna, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is the non-mammalian homolog of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and, like vasopressin, serves as an important modulator of social behavior in addition to its peripheral functions related to osmoregulation, reproductive physiology, and stress hormone release. In amphibians and reptiles, the neuroanatomical organization of brain AVT cells and fibers broadly resembles that seen in mammals and other taxa. Both parvocellular and magnocellular AVT-containing neurons are present in multiple populations located mainly in the basal forebrain from the accumbens–amygdala area to the preoptic area and hypothalamus, from which originate widespread fiber connections spanning the brain with a particularly heavy innervation of areas associated with social behavior and decision-making. As for mammalian AVP, AVT is present in greater amounts in males in many brain areas, and its presence varies seasonally, with hormonal state, and in males with differing social status. AVT’s social influence is also conserved across herpetological taxa, with significant effects on social signaling and aggression, and, based on the very small number of studies investigating more complex social behaviors in amphibians and reptiles, AVT may also modulate parental care and social bonding when it is present in these vertebrates. Within this conserved pattern, however, both AVT anatomy and social behavior effects vary significantly across species. Accounting for this diversity represents a challenge to understanding the mechanisms by which AVT exerts its behavioral effects, as well are a potential tool for discerning the structure-function relationships underlying AVT’s many effects on behavior. PMID:28824546

  13. Arginine Vasotocin, the Social Neuropeptide of Amphibians and Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wilczynski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Arginine vasotocin (AVT is the non-mammalian homolog of arginine vasopressin (AVP and, like vasopressin, serves as an important modulator of social behavior in addition to its peripheral functions related to osmoregulation, reproductive physiology, and stress hormone release. In amphibians and reptiles, the neuroanatomical organization of brain AVT cells and fibers broadly resembles that seen in mammals and other taxa. Both parvocellular and magnocellular AVT-containing neurons are present in multiple populations located mainly in the basal forebrain from the accumbens–amygdala area to the preoptic area and hypothalamus, from which originate widespread fiber connections spanning the brain with a particularly heavy innervation of areas associated with social behavior and decision-making. As for mammalian AVP, AVT is present in greater amounts in males in many brain areas, and its presence varies seasonally, with hormonal state, and in males with differing social status. AVT’s social influence is also conserved across herpetological taxa, with significant effects on social signaling and aggression, and, based on the very small number of studies investigating more complex social behaviors in amphibians and reptiles, AVT may also modulate parental care and social bonding when it is present in these vertebrates. Within this conserved pattern, however, both AVT anatomy and social behavior effects vary significantly across species. Accounting for this diversity represents a challenge to understanding the mechanisms by which AVT exerts its behavioral effects, as well are a potential tool for discerning the structure-function relationships underlying AVT’s many effects on behavior.

  14. Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Elias, D; Moges, F

    2003-01-01

    , and clinical symptoms after week 8. Secondary outcomes were sedimentation rate and levels of NO metabolites, arginine, citrulline, and tumour necrosis factor-a. Compared with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-/TB+ placebo group, the HIV-/TB+ patients in the arginine group showed significant improvement......, defined as increased weight gain, higher sputum conversion rate and faster reduction of symptoms, such as cough. The arginine level increased after week 2 in the HIV-/TB+ arginine group (100.2 microM (range 90.5-109.9) versus 142.1 microM (range 114.1-170.1)) compared with the HIV-/TB+ placebo group (105.......5 microM (range 93.7-117.3) versus 95.7 microM (range 82.4-108.9)). HIV seroprevalence was 52.5%. No clinical improvement or increase in serum arginine was detected in arginine supplemented HIV+/TB+ patients compared with placebo. Arginine is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment in human immunodeficiency...

  15. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of protein arginine phosphorylation in the bacterial stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response.

  16. Regulation of Botulinum Neurotoxin Synthesis and Toxin Complex Formation by Arginine and Glucose in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Chase M; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A

    2017-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia, is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation is not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation were affected by arginine and glucose in Clostridium botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine and glucose and of three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline, and ornithine. Cultures were analyzed for growth (optical density at 600 nm [OD 600 ]), spore formation, and BoNT and TC formation by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation and for BoNT activity by mouse bioassay. A high level of arginine (20 g/liter) repressed BoNT production approximately 1,000-fold, enhanced growth, slowed lysis, and reduced endospore production by greater than 1,000-fold. Similar effects on toxin production were seen with equivalent levels of citrulline but not ornithine or proline. In TPM lacking glucose, levels of formation of BoNT/A1 and TC were significantly decreased, and extracellular BoNT and TC proteins were partially inactivated after the first day of culture. An understanding of the regulation of C. botulinum growth and BoNT and TC formation should be valuable in defining requirements for BoNT formation in foods and clinical samples, improving the quality of BoNT for pharmaceutical preparations, and elucidating the biological functions of BoNTs for the bacterium. IMPORTANCE Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a major food safety and bioterrorism concern and is also an important pharmaceutical, and yet the regulation of its synthesis, activation, and stability in culture media, foods, and clinical samples is not well understood. This paper provides insights into the effects of critical

  17. Hepatic adaptation compensates inactivation of intestinal arginine biosynthesis in suckling mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Marion

    Full Text Available Suckling mammals, including mice, differ from adults in the abundant expression of enzymes that synthesize arginine from citrulline in their enterocytes. To investigate the importance of the small-intestinal arginine synthesis for whole-body arginine production in suckling mice, we floxed exon 13 of the argininosuccinate synthetase (Ass gene, which codes for a key enzyme in arginine biosynthesis, and specifically and completely ablated Ass in enterocytes by crossing Ass (fl and Villin-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice showed no developmental impairments. Amino-acid fluxes across the intestine, liver, and kidneys were calculated after determining the blood flow in the portal vein, and hepatic and renal arteries (86%, 14%, and 33%, respectively, of the transhepatic blood flow in 14-day-old mice. Relative to control mice, citrulline production in the splanchnic region of Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice doubled, while arginine production was abolished. Furthermore, the net production of arginine and most other amino acids in the liver of suckling control mice declined to naught or even changed to consumption in Ass (fl/fl /VilCre (tg/- mice, and had, thus, become remarkably similar to that of post-weaning wild-type mice, which no longer express arginine-biosynthesizing enzymes in their small intestine. The adaptive changes in liver function were accompanied by an increased expression of genes involved in arginine metabolism (Asl, Got1, Gpt2, Glud1, Arg1, and Arg2 and transport (Slc25a13, Slc25a15, and Slc3a2, whereas no such changes were found in the intestine. Our findings suggest that the genetic premature deletion of arginine synthesis in enterocytes causes a premature induction of the post-weaning pattern of amino-acid metabolism in the liver.

  18. Atropine and ODQ antagonize tetanic fade induced by L-arginine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Cruciol-Souza

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO released from sodium nitrite induces tetanic fade in the cat neuromuscular preparations, the effect of L-arginine on tetanic fade and its origin induced by NO have not been studied in these preparations. Furthermore, atropine reduces tetanic fade induced by several cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs in these preparations, whose mechanism is suggested to be mediated by the interaction of acetylcholine with inhibitory presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present study was conducted in cats to determine the effects of L-arginine alone or after pretreatment with atropine or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ on neuromuscular preparations indirectly stimulated at high frequency. Drugs were injected into the middle genicular artery. L-arginine (2 mg/kg and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 16 µg/kg induced tetanic fade. The Nw-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG; 2 mg/kg alone did not produce any effect, but reduced the tetanic fade induced by L-arginine. D-arginine (2 mg/kg did not induce changes in tetanic fade. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine or SNAP was reduced by previous injection of atropine (1.0 µg/kg or ODQ (15 µg/kg. ODQ alone did not change tetanic fade. The data suggest that the NO-synthase-GC pathway participates in the L-arginine-induced tetanic fade in cat neuromuscular preparations. The tetanic fade induced by L-arginine probably depends on the action of NO at the presynaptic level. NO may stimulate guanylate cyclase increasing acetylcholine release and thereby stimulating presynaptic muscarinic receptors.

  19. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2015-05-01

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an

  20. Negative argininosuccinate synthetase expression in melanoma tumours may predict clinical benefit from arginine-depleting therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feun, L G; Marini, A; Walker, G; Elgart, G; Moffat, F; Rodgers, S E; Wu, C J; You, M; Wangpaichitr, M; Kuo, M T; Sisson, W; Jungbluth, A A; Bomalaski, J; Savaraj, N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Arginine-depleting therapy with pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) was reported to have activity in advanced melanoma in early phase I–II trial, and clinical trials are currently underway in other cancers. However, the optimal patient population who benefit from this treatment is unknown. Methods: Advanced melanoma patients with accessible tumours had biopsy performed before the start of treatment with ADI-PEG20 and at the time of progression or relapse when amenable to determine whether argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) expression in tumour was predictive of response to ADI-PEG20. Results: Twenty-seven of thirty-eight patients treated had melanoma tumours assessable for ASS staining before treatment. Clinical benefit rate (CBR) and longer time to progression were associated with negative expression of tumour ASS. Only 1 of 10 patients with ASS-positive tumours (ASS+) had stable disease, whereas 4 of 17 (24%) had partial response and 5 had stable disease, when ASS expression was negative (ASS−), giving CBR rates of 52.9 vs 10%, P=0.041. Two responding patients with negative ASS expression before therapy had rebiopsy after tumour progression and the ASS expression became positive. The survival of ASS− patients receiving at least four doses at 320 IU m−2 was significantly better than the ASS+ group at 26.5 vs 8.5 months, P=0.024. Conclusion: ADI-PEG20 is safe and the drug is only efficacious in melanoma patients whose tumour has negative ASS expression. Argininosuccinate synthetase tumour positivity is associated with drug resistance and tumour progression. PMID:22472884

  1. Plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-IV activity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus correlates positively with HbAlc levels, but is not acutely affected by food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryskjaer, Jakob; Deacon, Carolyn F; Carr, Richard D

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are incretin hormones, secreted in response to meal ingestion. The incretin hormones stimulate insulin secretion and are essential for the maintenance of normal plasma glucose concentrations. Both incretin...

  2. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  3. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 Inhibition Upregulates Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Frequency and Function during the Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxia Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC pathogenesis is related to imbalance of immune responses, and the equilibrium between inflammatory T cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs plays an important role in the intestinal homeostasis. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs regulate chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of PRMTs affects colitis pathogenesis in mice and inflammatory bowel disease patients and further explored the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we found that protein arginine N-methyltransferase inhibitor 1 (AMI-1 treatments increased Tregs frequency, function, and reduced colitis incidence. Adoptive transfer of AMI-1-treated Tregs could reduce the colitis incidence. Colitis was associated with increased local PRMT5 expression, which was inhibited by AMI-1 treatment. Additionally, PRMT5 knockdown T cells produced a better response to TGFβ and promoted Tregs differentiation through decreased DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 expression. PRMT5 also enhanced H3K27me3 and DNMT1 binding to Foxp3 promoter, which restricted Tregs differentiation. Furthermore, PRMT5 knockdown led to decreased Foxp3 promoter methylation during Tregs induction. PRMT5 expression had a negative relationship with Tregs in UC patients, knockdown of PRMT5 expression increased Tregs frequency and decreased TNFα, IL-6, and IL-13 levels. Our study outlines a novel regulation of PRMT5 on Tregs development and function. Strategies to decrease PRMT5 expression might have therapeutic potential to control UC.

  4. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Pilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC. Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa. The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns.

  5. Class side effects: decreased pressure in the lower oesophageal and the pyloric sphincters after the administration of dopamine antagonists, neuroleptics, anti-emetics, L-NAME, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and L-arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosic Halle, Zeljka; Vlainic, Josipa; Drmic, Domagoj; Strinic, Dean; Luetic, Kresimir; Sucic, Mario; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Pavelic Turudic, Tatjana; Petrovic, Igor; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-05-17

    The ulcerogenic potential of dopamine antagonists and L-NAME in rats provides unresolved issues of anti-emetic neuroleptic application in both patients and experimental studies. Therefore, in a 1-week study, we examined the pressures within the lower oesophageal and the pyloric sphincters in rats [assessed manometrically (cm H 2 O)] after dopamine neuroleptics/prokinetics, L-NAME, L-arginine and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were administered alone and/or in combination. Medication (/kg) was given once daily intraperitoneally throughout the 7 days, with the last dose at 24 h before pressure assessment. Given as individual agents to healthy rats, all dopamine antagonists (central [haloperidol (6.25 mg, 16 mg, 25 mg), fluphenazine (5 mg), levomepromazine (50 mg), chlorpromazine (10 mg), quetiapine (10 mg), olanzapine (5 mg), clozapine (100 mg), sulpiride (160 mg), metoclopramide (25 mg)) and peripheral(domperidone (10 mg)], L-NAME (5 mg) and L-arginine (100 mg) decreased the pressure within both sphincters. As a common effect, this decreased pressure was rescued, dose-dependently, by BPC 157 (10 µg, 10 ng) (also note that L-arginine and L-NAME given together antagonized each other's responses). With haloperidol, L-NAME worsened both the lower oesophageal and the pyloric sphincter pressure, while L-arginine ameliorated lower oesophageal sphincter but not pyloric sphincter pressure, and antagonized L-NAME effect. With domperidone, L-arginine originally had no effect, while L-NAME worsened pyloric sphincter pressure. This effect was opposed by L-arginine. All these effects were further reversed towards a stronger beneficial effect, close to normal pressure values, by the addition of BPC 157. In addition, NO level was determined in plasma, sphincters and brain tissue. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also assessed. Haloperidol increased NO levels (in both sphincters, the plasma and brain), consistently producing increased

  6. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimzey, Michael J.; Kinsky, Owen R.; Yassine, Hussein N.; Tsaprailis, George; Stump, Craig S.; Monks, Terrence J.; Lau, Serrine S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC–MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R + 72) and hydroimidazolone (R + 54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan–HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients. - Highlights: • Methylglyoxal (MG) selectively modifies arginine sites in human plasma proteome. • Dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone adducts on serum albumin identified • MG modification on albumin R257 associated with loss of drug site I binding capacity • MRM-tandem mass spectrometry enables sensitive detection of albumin MG-R257. • Site-specific MG modification may

  7. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimzey, Michael J.; Kinsky, Owen R. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yassine, Hussein N. [Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tsaprailis, George [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stump, Craig S. [Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Tucson, AZ 85723 (United States); Monks, Terrence J. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lau, Serrine S., E-mail: lau@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC–MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R + 72) and hydroimidazolone (R + 54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan–HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients. - Highlights: • Methylglyoxal (MG) selectively modifies arginine sites in human plasma proteome. • Dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone adducts on serum albumin identified • MG modification on albumin R257 associated with loss of drug site I binding capacity • MRM-tandem mass spectrometry enables sensitive detection of albumin MG-R257. • Site-specific MG modification may

  8. Tyrosine411 and Arginine410 of Human Serum Albumin Play an Important Role in the Binding of Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate to Site II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokida, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Keishi; Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Takako; Maruyama, Toru; Seo, Hakaru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has many pharmacological activities; therefore extending its clinical use to the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. However, our knowledge of the binding of PB to plasma proteins is not extensive. To address this issue in more detail, we characterized the protein binding of PB. Binding experiments showed that PB mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma. PB was also found to bind to a single site on HSA, which was identified as site II by fluorescent probe displacement experiment. Furthermore, an appropriate alkyl chain length and a carboxylic group in the PB structure were required for PB binding to HSA, suggesting that hydrophobic (and van der Waals) and electrostatic interactions are involved as binding modes. The contributions of hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions were also indicated by thermodynamic analyses. Tyrosine411 and arginine410 were identified as being involved in the binding of PB to site II, based on binding experiments using chemically modified- and mutant-HSA preparations. In conclusion, the available evidence indicates that PB binds to site II of HSA with assistance by multiple forces and that tyrosine411 and arginine410 both play important roles in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved method and its clinical application of a radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.; Maier, V.; Franz, H.W.; Ulm Univ.; Ulm Univ.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring circulating levels of arginine vasopressin in human serum is described. It is possible to detect arginine vasopressin levels of 1 μU/ml serum without extraction procedure. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4 μU/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Water loading diminished arginine vasopressin concentrations while dehydration incrased it. Application of furosemide over a period of 14 days brought forth constant but not significant decreases. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels in spite of drinking 8-12 liters of water per day. Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with ascites showed significantly higher arginine vasopressin levels, approaching normal values when ascites was under control. (orig.) [de

  10. Synthesis, characterization and properties of L-arginine-passivated silver nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunatkari, A. L.; Talwatkar, S. S.; Tamgadge, Y. S.; Muley, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of L-arginine-surface passivation on localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), size and stability of colloidal Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by chemical reduction method. The surface Plasmon resonance absorption peak of AgNPs shows blue shift with the increase in L-arginine concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that the average size of AgNPs reduces from 10 nm to 6 nm as the concentration of L-Arginine increased from 1 to 5 mM. The X-ray diffraction study (XRD) confirmed the formation face-centred cubic (fcc) structured AgNPs. FT-IR studies revealed strong bonding between L-arginine functional groups and AgNPs.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and properties of L-arginine-passivated silver nanocolloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunatkari, A. L., E-mail: ashok.sunatkari@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Siddhartha College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai-400001, India. Email: ashok.sunatkari@rediffmail.com (India); Talwatkar, S. S. [Department of Physics, N.G. Aacharya and D.K. Maratha College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Chembur, Mumbai-400071, India. Email: swarna-81@rediffmail.com (India); Tamgadge, Y. S. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Phule Arts, Commerce & S.R.C. Science College, Warud-444906, India. Email: ystamgadge@gmail.com (India); Muley, G. G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati-444602 India. Email: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in (India)

    2016-05-06

    We investigate the effect of L-arginine-surface passivation on localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), size and stability of colloidal Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by chemical reduction method. The surface Plasmon resonance absorption peak of AgNPs shows blue shift with the increase in L-arginine concentration. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed that the average size of AgNPs reduces from 10 nm to 6 nm as the concentration of L-Arginine increased from 1 to 5 mM. The X-ray diffraction study (XRD) confirmed the formation face-centred cubic (fcc) structured AgNPs. FT-IR studies revealed strong bonding between L-arginine functional groups and AgNPs.

  12. Improved method and its clinical application of a radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H; Maier, V; Franz, H W [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel; Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin und Kinderheilkunde; Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Sektion Nephrologie)

    1977-05-01

    A sensitive and specific double-antibody radioimmunoassay for measuring circulating levels of arginine vasopressin in human serum is described. It is possible to detect arginine vasopressin levels of 1 ..mu..U/ml serum without extraction procedure. Normal subjects were found to have 5.7 +- 4.4 ..mu..U/ml after a dehydration period of 12 hours. Water loading diminished arginine vasopressin concentrations while dehydration incrased it. Application of furosemide over a period of 14 days brought forth constant but not significant decreases. Subjects suffering from psychogenic polydipsia showed normal levels in spite of drinking 8-12 liters of water per day. Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis with ascites showed significantly higher arginine vasopressin levels, approaching normal values when ascites was under control.

  13. The effects of L-arginine, D-arginine, L-name and methylene blue on channa striatus-induced peripheral antinociception in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Sulaiman, Mohd Rosian; Somchit, Muhammad Nazrul; Jais, Abdul Manan Mat; Ali, Daud Israf

    2005-08-03

    To determine the involvement of nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) pathway in aqueous supernatant of haruan (Channa striatus) fillet (ASH) antinociception using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test. The ASH was prepared by soaking fresh haruan fillet in chloroform:methanol (CM) (2/1 (v/v)) for 72 h followed by evaporation of the upper layer supernatant to remove any solvent residues. The supernatant was then subjected to a freeze-drying process (48 h) followed by doses preparation. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of ASH alone (0.170, 0.426 and 1.704 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent antinociception. On the other hand, 20 mg/kg (SC) of L-arginine and MB exhibited a significant nociception and antinociception, while D-arginine and L-NAME did not produce any effect at all. Pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to significantly reverse the three respective doses of ASH antinociception; pre-treatment with D-arginine did not produce any significant change in the ASH activity; pre-treatment with L-NAME only significantly increased the 0.170 and 0.426 mg/kg ASH antinociception; and pre-treatment with MB significantly enhanced the respective doses of ASH antinociception, respectively. Furthermore, co-treatment with L-NAME significantly enhanced the L-arginine reversal effect on 0.426 mg/kg ASH antinociception. In addition, MB significantly reversed the L-arginine nociception on 0.426 mg/kg ASH. These finding suggest ASH antinociception involves the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. The presence of NO was found to reverse ASH antinociceptive activity while blocking of cGMP system enhanced it.

  14. Respiratory mechanics and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 are affected by gas humidification during mechanical ventilation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Olmos-Zúñiga, J Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel O; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Gutiérrez-González, Luis H

    2014-01-01

    The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5), mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77). This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05). Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02). Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation.

  15. Respiratory mechanics and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6 are affected by gas humidification during mechanical ventilation in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hernández-Jiménez

    Full Text Available The use of dry gases during mechanical ventilation has been associated with the risk of serious airway complications. The goal of the present study was to quantify the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and to determine the radiological, hemodynamic, gasometric, and microscopic changes in lung mechanics in dogs subjected to short-term mechanical ventilation with and without humidification of the inhaled gas. The experiment was conducted for 24 hours in 10 dogs divided into two groups: Group I (n = 5, mechanical ventilation with dry oxygen dispensation, and Group II (n = 5, mechanical ventilation with oxygen dispensation using a moisture chamber. Variance analysis was used. No changes in physiological, hemodynamic, or gasometric, and radiographic constants were observed. Plasma TNF-alpha levels increased in group I, reaching a maximum 24 hours after mechanical ventilation was initiated (ANOVA p = 0.77. This increase was correlated to changes in mechanical ventilation. Plasma IL-6 levels decreased at 12 hours and increased again towards the end of the study (ANOVA p>0.05. Both groups exhibited a decrease in lung compliance and functional residual capacity values, but this was more pronounced in group I. Pplat increased in group I (ANOVA p = 0.02. Inhalation of dry gas caused histological lesions in the entire respiratory tract, including pulmonary parenchyma, to a greater extent than humidified gas. Humidification of inspired gases can attenuate damage associated with mechanical ventilation.

  16. L-ARGININE PREVENTS METABOLIC EFFECTS OF HIGH GLUCOSE IN DIABETIC MICE

    OpenAIRE

    West, Matthew B.; Ramana, Kota V.; Kaiserova, Karin; Srivastava, Satish K.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that activation of the polyol pathway and protein kinase C (PKC) during diabetes is due to loss of NO. Our results show that after 4 weeks of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, treatment with L-arginine restored NO levels and prevented tissue accumulation of sorbitol in mice, which was accompanied by an increase in glutathiolation of aldose reductase. L-arginine treatment decreased superoxide generation in the aorta, total PKC activity and PKC-βII phosphorylation in the...

  17. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jasmine; Anders-Maurer, Marie; Müller, Tanja; Hau, Ann-Christin; Grebbin, Britta Moyo; Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Wiebke; Behrends, Christian; Schulte, Dorothea

    2018-04-10

    Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases in the Control of Glucose Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Han

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is tightly controlled by the regulation of glucose production in the liver and glucose uptake into peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Under prolonged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is mainly responsible for glucose production in the liver, which is essential for tissues, organs, and cells, such as skeletal muscle, the brain, and red blood cells. Hepatic gluconeogenesis is controlled in part by the concerted actions of transcriptional regulators. Fasting signals are relayed by various intracellular enzymes, such as kinases, phosphatases, acetyltransferases, and deacetylases, which affect the transcriptional activity of transcription factors and transcriptional coactivators for gluconeogenic genes. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs were recently added to the list of enzymes that are critical for regulating transcription in hepatic gluconeogenesis. In this review, we briefly discuss general aspects of PRMTs in the control of transcription. More specifically, we summarize the roles of four PRMTs: PRMT1, PRMT 4, PRMT 5, and PRMT 6, in the control of hepatic gluconeogenesis through specific regulation of FoxO1- and CREB-dependent transcriptional events.

  19. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  20. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Oscar A; Núñez-Villena, Felipe; Soto, Sarita E; Ugalde, José Manuel; López-Solís, Remigio; Toledo, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  1. The role of arginine metabolic pathway during embryogenesis and germination in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llebrés, María-Teresa; Pascual, María-Belén; Debille, Sandrine; Trontin, Jean-François; Harvengt, Luc; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2018-03-01

    Vegetative propagation through somatic embryogenesis is critical in conifer biotechnology towards multivarietal forestry that uses elite varieties to cope with environmental and socio-economic issues. An important and still sub-optimal process during in vitro maturation of somatic embryos (SE) is the biosynthesis and deposition of storage proteins, which are rich in amino acids with high nitrogen (N) content, such as arginine. Mobilization of these N-rich proteins is essential for the germination and production of vigorous somatic seedlings. Somatic embryos accumulate lower levels of N reserves than zygotic embryos (ZE) at a similar stage of development. To understand the molecular basis for this difference, the arginine metabolic pathway has been characterized in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). The genes involved in arginine metabolism have been identified and GFP-fusion constructs were used to locate the enzymes in different cellular compartments and clarify their metabolic roles during embryogenesis and germination. Analysis of gene expression during somatic embryo maturation revealed high levels of transcripts for genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolic utilization of arginine. By contrast, enhanced expression levels were only observed during the last stages of maturation and germination of ZE, consistent with the adequate accumulation and mobilization of protein reserves. These results suggest that arginine metabolism is unbalanced in SE (simultaneous biosynthesis and degradation of arginine) and could explain the lower accumulation of storage proteins observed during the late stages of somatic embryogenesis.

  2. Arginine- and Polyamine-Induced Lactic Acid Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Microbe-derived lactic acid protects women from pathogens in their genital tract. The purpose of this study was to determine lactic acid susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and identify potential acid resistance mechanisms present in this pathogen. Tested in vitro, lactic acid killed all 10 gonococcal strains analyzed in a low pH-dependent manner. Full inactivation occurred at pH 4.5. At low pH, lactic acid treatment resulted in the entry of the DNA-binding fluorochrome propidium iodide into the microbial cells, suggesting that hydrogen ions from lactic acid compromise the integrity of the bacterial cell wall/membrane. Most likely, hydrogen ions also inactivate intracellular proteins since arginine rendered significant protection against lactic acid presumably through action of the gonococcal arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme located in the bacterial cytoplasm. Surprisingly, arginine also lessened lactic acid-mediated cell wall/membrane disruption. This effect is probably mediated by agmatine, a triamine product of arginine decarboxylase, since agmatine demonstrated a stronger protective effect on GC than arginine at equal molar concentration. In addition to agmatine, diamines cadaverine and putrescine, which are generated by bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes, also induced significant resistance to lactic acid-mediated GC killing and cell wall/membrane disruption. These findings suggest that the arginine-rich semen protects gonococci through both neutralization-dependent and independent mechanisms, whereas polyamine-induced acid resistance contributes to the increased risk of gonorrhea in women with bacterial vaginosis.

  3. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  4. Thirteen-week oral toxicity study of L-arginine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubuku, Shoji; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Mawatari, Kazunori; Smriga, Miro; Kimura, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The amino acid L-arginine (Arg) has been used extensively in dietary and pharmacological products. This study evaluated toxicological and behavioral effects of Arg produced by Ajinomoto Co. (Tokyo, Japan) during a dosing study with male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The amino acid was incorporated into a standard diet at doses equal to 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (w/w). A control group of rats received only a standard diet. All diets were administered ad libitum for 13 continuous weeks. To examine recoverability of any potential effects, the administration period was followed by a 5-week-long recovery, during which only a standard diet was provided. In male and female rats in each concentration group, treatment-related changes were not observed for clinical signs, body weights, diet consumption, ophthalmology, gross pathology, organ weight, or histopathology. An elevated level of plasma glucose was detected in some male rats (5.0%, w/w) during the analysis conducted in the fifth week of administration; however, the degree of the change was within the physiological range, and no changes were observed at the end of the administration period. In the same group, an increase in hemoglobin, together with a tendency toward an increase in the red blood cell counts, was found, but the change was considered toxicologically insignificant. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for Arg was estimated at 5.0% (w/w) for both genders (males, 3.3 +/- 0.1 g/kg/day; females, 3.9 +/- 0.2 g/kg/day).

  5. A Volumetric and Functional Connectivity MRI Study of Brain Arginine-Vasopressin Pathways in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Xiang-Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Hui-Shu; Xing, Yan; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Wei, Qing-Yun; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Dysfunction of brain-derived arginine-vasopressin (AVP) systems may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Certain regions such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus are known to contain either AVP neurons or terminals and may play an important role in regulating complex social behaviors. The present study was designed to investigate the concomitant changes in autistic behaviors, circulating AVP levels, and the structure and functional connectivity (FC) of specific brain regions in autistic children compared with typically developing children (TDC) aged from 3 to 5 years. The results showed: (1) children with ASD had a significantly increased volume in the left amygdala and left hippocampus, and a significantly decreased volume in the bilateral hypothalamus compared to TDC, and these were positively correlated with plasma AVP level. (2) Autistic children had a negative FC between the left amygdala and the bilateral supramarginal gyri compared to TDC. The degree of the negative FC between amygdala and supramarginal gyrus was associated with a higher score on the clinical autism behavior checklist. (3) The degree of negative FC between left amygdala and left supramarginal gyrus was associated with a lowering of the circulating AVP concentration in boys with ASD. (4) Autistic children showed a higher FC between left hippocampus and right subcortical area compared to TDC. (5) The circulating AVP was negatively correlated with the visual and listening response score of the childhood autism rating scale. These results strongly suggest that changes in structure and FC in brain regions containing AVP may be involved in the etiology of autism.

  6. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on immune responsiveness in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavella, Arnette; Leiva, Lily; Monjure, Hanh; Zea, Arnold H; Gardner, Renee V

    2010-08-01

    L-arginine (L-Arg) is deficient in sickle cell disease (SSD) during vasoocclusion. We investigated possible causal relationship between L-Arg deficiency and immune dysfunction in SSD in steady-state. Fifteen patients with SSD in steady-state and 13 controls were studied. Plasma L-Arg levels were measured using liquid chromatography. T cell subsets and CD3zeta (CD3zeta) chain expression were analyzed using flow cytometry. Lymphocyte proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and production of IL-6 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were evaluated with and without L-Arg. SSD patients had significantly lower L-Arg levels than controls. CD3 and CD19 cell populations were comparable for both groups, but SSD patients had above normal numbers of natural killer cells (P = 0.06). Patients and controls exhibited significantly increased lymphocyte blastogenesis to PHA after introduction of L-Arg to cultures; response of patients was significantly greater than values for control individuals. Proliferative response to candida in SSD patients was significantly lower than in controls; L-Arg supplementation did not increase this response. L-Arg had no effect on blastogenic response to PPD and candida albicans. No effect was likewise seen in production of IL-6 and IFN-gamma after addition of L-Arg. CD3zeta chain expression increased after addition of L-Arg in both groups; differences were insignificant. L-Arg levels in steady-state SSD are significantly lower than in controls. L-Arg supplementation enhanced lymphocyte blastogenesis to PHA for both controls and patients, but not in response to antigen. There were no significant differences in CD3zeta chain expression although upregulation of expression occurred after L-Arg supplementation for both groups. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency protects from metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Chi-un; Nabuurs, Christine; Stockebrand, Malte C; Neu, Axel; Nunes, Patricia; Morellini, Fabio; Sauter, Kathrin; Schillemeit, Stefan; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marescau, Bart; Heerschap, Arend; Isbrandt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated creatine (Cr) serves as an energy buffer for ATP replenishment in organs with highly fluctuating energy demand. The central role of Cr in the brain and muscle is emphasized by severe neurometabolic disorders caused by Cr deficiency. Common symptoms of inborn errors of creatine synthesis or distribution include mental retardation and muscular weakness. Human mutations in l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), the first enzyme of Cr synthesis, lead to severely reduced Cr and guanidinoacetate (GuA) levels. Here, we report the generation and metabolic characterization of AGAT-deficient mice that are devoid of Cr and its precursor GuA. AGAT-deficient mice exhibited decreased fat deposition, attenuated gluconeogenesis, reduced cholesterol levels and enhanced glucose tolerance. Furthermore, Cr deficiency completely protected from the development of metabolic syndrome caused by diet-induced obesity. Biochemical analyses revealed the chronic Cr-dependent activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which stimulates catabolic pathways in metabolically relevant tissues such as the brain, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver, suggesting a mechanism underlying the metabolic phenotype. In summary, our results show marked metabolic effects of Cr deficiency via the chronic activation of AMPK in a first animal model of AGAT deficiency. In addition to insights into metabolic changes in Cr deficiency syndromes, our genetic model reveals a novel mechanism as a potential treatment option for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Deceleration of arginine kinase refolding by induced helical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Long; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Park, Daeui; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Hu, Wei-Jiang

    2012-04-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a key metabolic enzyme for keeping energy balance in invertebrates. Therefore, regulation of the enzymatic activity and the folding studies of AK from the various invertebrates have been the focus of investigation. We studied the effects of helical structures by using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) on AK folding. Folding kinetic studies showed that the folding rates of the urea-denatured AKs were significantly decelerated after being induced in various concentrations of HFIP. AK lost its activity completely at concentrations greater than 60%. The results indicated that the HFIP-induced helical structures in the denatured state play a negative role in protein folding, and the helical structures induced in 5% (v/v) HFIP act as the most effective barrier against AK taking its native structure. The computational docking simulations (binding energies for -2.19 kcal/mol for AutoDock4.2 and -20.47 kcal/mol for Dock6.3) suggested that HFIP interacts with the several important residues that are predicted by both programs. The excessively pre-organized helical structures not only hampered the folding process, but also ultimately brought about changes in the three-dimensional conformation and biological function of AK.

  9. Effects of arginine vasopressin on musical working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Uzefovsky, Florina; Bogopolsky, Helena; Ebstein, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous genetic studies showed an association between variations in the gene coding for the 1a receptor of the neuro-hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) and musical working memory (WM). The current study set out to test the influence of intranasal administration (INA) of AVP on musical as compared to verbal WM using a double blind crossover (AVP-placebo) design. Two groups of 25 males were exposed to 20 IU of AVP in one session, and 20 IU of saline water (placebo) in a second session, 1 week apart. In each session subjects completed the tonal subtest from Gordon's "Musical Aptitude Profile," the interval subtest from the "Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA)," and the forward and backward digit span tests. Scores in the digit span tests were not influenced by AVP. In contrast, in the music tests there was an AVP effect. In the MBEA test, scores for the group receiving placebo in the first session (PV) were higher than for the group receiving vasopressin in the first session (VP) (p music test these scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Together the results reflect a complex interaction between AVP, musical memory, arousal, and contextual effects such as session, and base levels of memory. The results are interpreted in light of music's universal use as a means to modulate arousal on the one hand, and AVP's influence on mood, arousal, and social interactions on the other.

  10. Are Plasma Oxytocin and Vasopressin Levels Reflective of Amygdala Activation during the Processing of Negative Emotions? A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Kosuke; Sugiura, Motoaki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Plasma oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects) and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with trait plasma OT (anxiolytic effects) and AVP (anxiogenic effects) levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female) using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects) in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  11. Are plasma oxytocin and vasopressin levels reflective of amygdala activation during the processing of negative emotions? A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eMotoki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP are associated with individual differences in emotional responses and behaviors. The amygdala is considered to be an important brain region for regulating emotion-based behavior, with OT and AVP modulating activity in the amygdala during the processing of negative emotions. In particular, increased OT levels may diminish amygdala activation (anxiolytic effects and enhanced AVP levels may augment amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects when negative emotions are processed. A growing body of research has shown that the effects of OT and AVP are modulated by sex: the aforementioned anxiolytic effects of OT and the anxiogenic effects of AVP occur in men, but not in women. However, we have little knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms underlying OT and AVP plasma levels or their respective anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects; similarly, little is known about the causes and nature of sex differences related to these neuropeptides and their effects on emotional processing. In the current study, we focused on the neural functions associated with the biological mechanisms underlying such effects. We hypothesized that amygdala activation would correlate with plasma OT (anxiolytic effects and AVP (anxiogenic effects levels because the amygdala is thought to affect the coordinated release of these neuropeptides following affective experiences. We further hypothesized that the effects would be modulated by sex. We assessed 51 participants (male and female using a paradigm involving negative emotion in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of plasma OT and AVP levels. We determined that increased plasma AVP levels were positively associated with amygdala activation (anxiogenic effects in men, but not in women. These findings highlight the potential underlying neural mechanisms of plasma AVP levels in men.

  12. Do perfluoroalkyl substances affect metabolic function and plasma lipids?--Analysis of the 2007-2009, Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mandy; Arbuckle, Tye E; Wade, Mike; Haines, Douglas A

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made chemicals that are heat stable, non-flammable and able to repel both water and oils. Biomonitoring research shows global distribution in human, animal and aquatic environments of these chemicals. PFCs have been shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors which play a large role in metabolism and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Previous epidemiological research has also suggested a potential role of PFCs on lipid and glucose metabolism. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between the levels of perfluorinated compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) in plasma and metabolic function and plasma lipid levels. Using cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (Cycle 1 2007-2009) we examined the association in adults between plasma levels of PFOA, PFOS and PFHxS (n=2700) on cholesterol outcomes, metabolic syndrome and glucose homeostasis using multivariate linear and logistic regression models. We found some evidence of a significant association between perfluoroalkyl substances, notably PFHxS, with total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol as well as an elevated odds of high cholesterol. We found some associations with PFOA and PFOS in our unweighted models but these results did not remain significant after weighting for sampling strategy. We found no association with metabolic syndrome, or glucose homeostasis parameters. This study showed lower levels of PFOA and PFOS and slightly higher levels of PFHxS than other published population studies. Our results did not give significant evidence to support the association with cholesterol outcomes with PFOS and PFOA. However, we did observe several significant associations with the PFHxS and cholesterol outcomes (LDL, TC, NON

  13. Radioimmunoassay of 1-Deamino-8-D-Arginine Vasopressin and related peptides with special condsideration to their gastrointestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, S.

    1986-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimminoassy for 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was developed. Measurements of the analogue in extracted and non-extracted plasma yielded indentical results, the sensitivity was reduced with non-extracted samples. The assay was validated by correlating DDAVP blood levels to a biologic response (antidiuretic). Dilutions of plasma extracts containing DDAVP were parallel with the standard curve. Fractionations of extracted plasma DDAVP samples on HPLC revealed that immunoreactivity eluted as standard DDAVP. Prolonged infusion of DDAVP in rats did not alter pituitary secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin and urine osmolatity and volume changes were modest. DDAVP was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of humans, rats, rabbits and dogs in quantities sufficient to induce a biological response. Peak plasma concentrations were reached between 30-90 min after peptide administration. By the use of an in vitro model, the everted rat intestine, the transmucosal passage of a number of vasopressin analogues were tested. There was no clear-cut correlation between hydrophobicity and intestinal transport rates. Metabolic inhibitors and N/sub2/ did not decrease DDAVP transport. No transport maximum could be demonstrated over a 10/sup4/ fold concentration range. The distribution volume of /sup3/H-polyethyleneglycol was greater. then that of DDAVP in mucosal flakes. There was a close correlation between immunoassayable DDAVP levels and those found after HPLC analyses. It is proposed that DDAVP absorption occurs mainly by passive diffusion. The bioavailability of perorally ingested DDAVP in humans was about 1 percent. Minor amounts were excreted in urine

  14. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  15. L-arginine and Arginase Products Potentiate Dexmedetomidine-induced Contractions in the Rat Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emily S W; Man, Ricky Y K; Ng, Kwok F J; Leung, Susan W S; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2018-03-01

    The α2-adrenergic sedative/anesthetic agent dexmedetomidine exerts biphasic effects on isolated arteries, causing endothelium-dependent relaxations at concentrations at or below 30 nM, followed by contractions at higher concentrations. L-arginine is a common substrate of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and arginases. This study was designed to investigate the role of L-arginine in modulating the overall vascular response to dexmedetomidine. Isometric tension was measured in isolated aortic rings of Sprague Dawley rats. Cumulative concentrations of dexmedetomidine (10 nM to 10 μM) were added to quiescent rings (with and without endothelium) after previous incubation with vehicle, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), prazosin (α1-adrenergic antagonist), rauwolscine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), L-arginine, (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (arginase inhibitor), N-hydroxy-L-arginine (arginase inhibitor), urea and/or ornithine. In some preparations, immunofluorescent staining, immunoblotting, or measurement of urea content were performed. Dexmedetomidine did not contract control rings with endothelium but evoked concentration-dependent increases in tension in such rings treated with L-NAME (Emax 50 ± 4%) or after endothelium-removal (Emax 74 ± 5%; N = 7 to 12). Exogenous L-arginine augmented the dexmedetomidine-induced contractions in the presence of L-NAME (Emax 75 ± 3%). This potentiation was abolished by (S)-(2-boronethyl)-L-cysteine hydrochloride (Emax 16 ± 4%) and N-hydroxy-L-arginine (Emax 18 ± 4%). Either urea or ornithine, the downstream arginase products, had a similar potentiating effect as L-arginine. Immunoassay measurements demonstrated an upregulation of arginase I by L-arginine treatment in the presence of L-NAME (N = 4). These results suggest that when vascular nitric oxide homeostasis is impaired, the potentiation of the vasoconstrictor effect of

  16. Growth and dielectric, mechanical, thermal and etching studies of an organic nonlinear optical L-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjunan, S.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Mohan, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-01-01

    L-arginine trifluoroacetate, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been synthesized from aqueous solution. Bulk single crystal of dimension 57 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm has been grown by temperature lowering technique. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the monoclinic structure of the grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Linear optical property of the grown crystal has been studied by UV-vis spectrum. Dielectric response of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal was analysed for different frequencies and temperatures in detail. Microhardness study on the sample reveals that the crystal possesses relatively higher hardness compared to many organic crystals. Thermal analyses confirmed that the L-arginine trifluoroacetate material is thermally stable upto 212 deg. C. The etching studies have been performed to assess the perfection of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test confirms the nonlinear optical properties of the as-grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal

  17. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the 'L-arginine paradox'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Fung, Ho-Leung, E-mail: hlfung@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our findings provide a possible solution to the 'L-arginine paradox'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K{sub m} of NOS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC-MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by{sup 15}N-nitrite or estimated {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline concentrations when {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced {sup 15}N{sub 4}-ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by {sup 15}N-nitrite, total nitrite and {sup 15}N{sub 3}-citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside

  18. Intracellular L-arginine concentration does not determine NO production in endothelial cells: Implications on the “L-arginine paradox”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Soyoung; Mohan, Srinidi; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Our findings provide a possible solution to the “L-arginine paradox”. ► Extracellular L-arginine concentration is the major determinant of NO production. ► Cellular L-arginine action is limited by cellular ARG transport, not the K m of NOS. ► We explain how L-arginine supplementation can work to increase endothelial function. -- Abstract: We examined the relative contributory roles of extracellular vs. intracellular L-arginine (ARG) toward cellular activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were incubated with different concentrations of 15 N 4 -ARG, ARG, or L-arginine ethyl ester (ARG-EE) for 2 h. To modulate ARG transport, siRNA for ARG transporter (CAT-1) vs. sham siRNA were transfected into cells. ARG transport activity was assessed by cellular fluxes of ARG, 15 N 4 -ARG, dimethylarginines, and L-citrulline by an LC–MS/MS assay. eNOS activity was determined by nitrite/nitrate accumulation, either via a fluorometric assay or by 15 N-nitrite or estimated 15 N 3 -citrulline concentrations when 15 N 4 -ARG was used to challenge the cells. We found that ARG-EE incubation increased cellular ARG concentration but no increase in nitrite/nitrate was observed, while ARG incubation increased both cellular ARG concentration and nitrite accumulation. Cellular nitrite/nitrate production did not correlate with cellular total ARG concentration. Reduced 15 N 4 -ARG cellular uptake in CAT-1 siRNA transfected cells vs. control was accompanied by reduced eNOS activity, as determined by 15 N-nitrite, total nitrite and 15 N 3 -citrulline formation. Our data suggest that extracellular ARG, not intracellular ARG, is the major determinant of NO production in endothelial cells. It is likely that once transported inside the cell, ARG can no longer gain access to the membrane-bound eNOS. These observations indicate that the “L-arginine paradox” should not consider intracellular ARG

  19. [Evaluation of leptin levels in plasma and their reliance on other hormonal factors affecting tissue fat levels in people with various levels of endogenous cotisol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaczyk, Maciej G

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of leptin (LEP) shed new light on mechanisms regulating body fat mass (BFM). In this aspect, interactions between LEP and glucocorticoids at hypothalamic level may be of great importance. Factors that influence plasma LEP levels have not been fully recognized and available data on LEP levels are often inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate absolute and BFM-corrected plasma LEP levels and their diurnal variation, as well as to assess the relationship between LEP levels, body fat distribution, and hormones influencing body fat in subjects with various levels of endogenous cortisol and different nutritional status. Group I was composed of 14 women aged 14-58 yrs, BMI of 23.9-37.1 kg/m2, with hypercortisolism due to ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CUS). 17 women with visceral obesity (OTY) and normal or disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, i.e. impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM), aged 24 do 50 yrs, BMI 30.0-46.1 kg/m2, were included in group II. Group III consisted of 14 women with Addison's disease (AD), aged 18 do 63 yrs, BMI 15.4-31.6 kg/m2. The control group IV (KON) included 17 healthy women with normal BMI. BMI, WHR, body composition, and body fat distribution (DEXA method) were assessed in all subjects. Basal plasma levels of LEP, beta-endorphin (B-EP), cortisol (F), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured with RIA test kits. Plasma adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) levels, serum levels of insulin (IRI) and growth hormone (GH) were measured with IRMA test kits. Blood glucose (G) concentration was determined with an enzymatic method. Adiposity-corrected LEP levels were expressed as LEP/BFM and LEP/%BF indices. Fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI) was also calculated. Higher BFM and %BF values were found in the OTY group as compared with CUS KON and AD groups. BFM distribution did not differ in KON and AD groups whereas CUS subjects exhibited a higher accumulation of fat in the trunk

  20. Luteal function during the estrous cycle in arginine-treated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Casie S; Redmer, Dale A; Kaminski, Samantha L; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2017-03-01

    Functions of corpus luteum (CL) are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition influences: (1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, (2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression and (3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle. Ewes (n = 111) were categorized by weight and randomly assigned to one of three nutritional planes: maintenance control (C), overfed (2× C) and underfed (0.6× C) beginning 60 days prior to onset of estrus. After estrus synchronization, ewes from each nutritional plane were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: Arg or saline. Serum and CL were collected at the early, mid and late luteal phases. The results demonstrated that: (1) nutritional plane affected ovulation rates, luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA expression, (2) Arg affected luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA expression and (3) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and the VEGF and NO systems depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. These data indicate that plane of nutrition and/or Arg supplementation can alter vascularization and expression of selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue during the estrous cycle in sheep. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Effects of acute and chronic stress on the L-arginine nitric oxide pathway in black and white South Africans: the sympathetic activity and ambulatory blood pressure in Africans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Manja; Hamer, Mark; Malan, Nicolaas T; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Boeger, Rainer H; Malan, Leoné

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of stress on effectors of the L-arginine/nitric oxide (NO) system including the endogenous inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Black (n = 168) and white (n = 206) South African teachers were exposed to a mental and a physical stressor for 1 minute, respectively. Serum samples for determination of l-arginine, NO metabolites, ADMA, and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were obtained at rest and during stress exposure. Perception of task stressfulness was assessed on a 7-point Likert scale, and psychological distress was estimated by the General Health Questionnaire. Black South Africans exhibited higher resting levels of NO metabolites (adjusted mean [standard error of the mean] = 11.3 [1.3] versus 3.9 [1.1] μmol/l, p stress were evident for NO metabolites (blacks versus whites: 5.94 [1.55] versus -0.74 [1.25] μmol/l, p = .004) and SDMA (blacks versus whites: -0.02 [0.01] versus 0.02 [0.01] μmol/l, p = .004). Ethnicity-by-psychological distress interaction for stress responses was found for l-arginine/ADMA ratio (p = .027). The l-arginine/NO system is affected by psychosocial distress with higher susceptibility in black South Africans. This interaction may contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease risk in black South Africans.

  2. Expression pattern of a nuclear encoded mitochondrial arginine-ornithine translocator gene from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Anja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine and citrulline serve as nitrogen storage forms, but are also involved in biosynthetic and catabolic pathways. Metabolism of arginine, citrulline and ornithine is distributed between mitochondria and cytosol. For the shuttle of intermediates between cytosol and mitochondria transporters present on the inner mitochondrial membrane are required. Yeast contains a mitochondrial translocator for ornithine and arginine, Ort1p/Arg11p. Ort1p/Arg11p is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF essential for ornithine export from mitochondria. The yeast arg11 mutant, which is deficient in Ort1p/Arg11p grows poorly on media lacking arginine. Results High-level expression of a nuclear encoded Arabidopsis thaliana homolog (AtmBAC2 of Ort1p/Arg11p was able to suppress the growth deficiency of arg11. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated expression of AtmBAC2 in all tissues with highest levels in flowers. Promoter-GUS fusions showed preferential expression in flowers, i.e. pollen, in the vasculature of siliques and in aborted seeds. Variable expression was observed in leaf vasculature. Induction of the promoter was not observed during the first two weeks in seedlings grown on media containing NH4NO3, arginine or ornithine as sole nitrogen sources. Conclusion AtmBAC2 was isolated as a mitochondrial transporter for arginine in Arabidopsis. The absence of expression in developing seeds and in cotyledons of seedlings indicates that other transporters are responsible for storage and mobilization of arginine in seeds.

  3. Transsulfuration pathway thiols and methylated arginines: the Hunter Community Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arduino A Mangoni

    Full Text Available Serum homocysteine, when studied singly, has been reported to be positively associated both with the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA, via inhibition of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH activity] and with symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA. We investigated combined associations between transsulfuration pathway thiols, including homocysteine, and serum ADMA and SDMA concentrations at population level.Data on clinical and demographic characteristics, medication exposure, C-reactive protein, serum ADMA and SDMA (LC-MS/MS, and thiols (homocysteine, cysteine, taurine, glutamylcysteine, total glutathione, and cysteinylglycine; capillary electrophoresis were collected from a sample of the Hunter Community Study on human ageing [n = 498, median age (IQR = 64 (60-70 years].REGRESSION ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT: a age (P = 0.001, gender (P = 0.03, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = 0.08, body mass index (P = 0.008, treatment with beta-blockers (P = 0.03, homocysteine (P = 0.02, and glutamylcysteine (P = 0.003 were independently associated with higher ADMA concentrations; and b age (P = 0.001, absence of diabetes (P = 0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.01, lower eGFR (P<0.001, cysteine (P = 0.007, and glutamylcysteine (P < 0.001 were independently associated with higher SDMA concentrations. No significant associations were observed between methylated arginines and either glutathione or taurine concentrations.After adjusting for clinical, demographic, biochemical, and pharmacological confounders the combined assessment of transsulfuration pathway thiols shows that glutamylcysteine has the strongest and positive independent associations with ADMA and SDMA. Whether this reflects a direct effect of glutamylcysteine on DDAH activity (for ADMA and/or cationic amino acid transport requires further investigations.

  4. Dietary contaminant exposure affects plasma testosterone, but not thyroid hormones, vitamin A, and vitamin E, in male juvenile arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Jørgensen, Even H; Fuglei, Eva; Ahlstrøm, Øystein; Muir, Derek C G; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2012-01-01

    Levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are high in many Arctic top predators, including the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The aim of this study was to examine possible endocrine-disruptive effects of dietary POP exposure in male juvenile Arctic foxes in a controlled exposure experiment. The study was conducted using domesticated farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) as a model species. Two groups of newly weaned male foxes received a diet supplemented with either minke whale (Baleneoptera acutorostrata) blubber that was naturally contaminated with POP (exposed group, n = 5 or 21), or pork (Sus scrofa) fat (control group, n = 5 or 21). When the foxes were 6 mo old and had received the 2 diets for approximately 4 mo (147 d), effects of the dietary exposure to POP on plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), thyroid hormones (TH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), retinol (vitamin A), and tocopherol (viramin E) were examined. At sampling, the total body concentrations of 104 PCB congeners were 0.1 ± 0.03 μg/g lipid weight (l.w.; n = 5 [mean ± standard deviation]) and 1.5 ± 0.17 μg/g l.w. (n = 5) in the control and exposed groups, respectively. Plasma testosterone concentrations in the exposed male foxes were significantly lower than in the control males, being approximately 25% of that in the exposed foxes. There were no between-treatment differences for TH, TSH, retinol, or tocopherol. The results suggest that the high POP levels experienced by costal populations of Arctic foxes, such as in Svalbard and Iceland, may result in delayed masculine maturation during adolescence. Sex hormone disruption during puberty may thus have lifetime consequences on all aspects of reproductive function in adult male foxes.

  5. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  6. Deprivation of L-Arginine Induces Oxidative Stress Mediated Apoptosis in Leishmania donovani Promastigotes: Contribution of the Polyamine Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Das, Sushmita; Roy, Saptarshi; Ghosh, Ayan Kumar; Sardar, Abul Hasan; Verma, Sudha; Saini, Savita; Singh, Ruby; Abhishek, Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Mandal, Chitra; Das, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    The growth and survival of intracellular parasites depends on the availability of extracellular nutrients. Deprivation of nutrients viz glucose or amino acid alters redox balance in mammalian cells as well as some lower organisms. To further understand the relationship, the mechanistic role of L-arginine in regulation of redox mediated survival of Leishmania donovani promastigotes was investigated. L-arginine deprivation from the culture medium was found to inhibit cell growth, reduce proliferation and increase L-arginine uptake. Relative expression of enzymes, involved in L-arginine metabolism, which leads to polyamine and trypanothione biosynthesis, were downregulated causing decreased production of polyamines in L-arginine deprived parasites and cell death. The resultant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), due to L-arginine deprivation, correlated with increased NADP+/NADPH ratio, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, increased lipid peroxidation and reduced thiol content. A deficiency of L-arginine triggered phosphatidyl serine externalization, a change in mitochondrial membrane potential, release of intracellular calcium and cytochrome-c. This finally led to DNA damage in Leishmania promastigotes. In summary, the growth and survival of Leishmania depends on the availability of extracellular L-arginine. In its absence the parasite undergoes ROS mediated, caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death. Therefore, L-arginine metabolism pathway could be a probable target for controlling the growth of Leishmania parasites and disease pathogenesis. PMID:26808657

  7. Plasma free amino acid profiles of Boer goat bucks as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The RG group had higher concentrations of valine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, methionine, lysine, taurine, ornithine, hydroxyproline and tri-methyl-histidine, while glycine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, histidine and proline levels were similar in both groups. From the results it can be concluded that plasma ...

  8. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME IMINES DERIVATIVES OF L-ARGININE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Andreea-Teodora; Drăgan, Maria; Constantin, Sandra; Lupaşcu, Florentina; Confederat, Luminiţa; Buron, F; Routier, S; Profire, Lenuţa

    2016-01-01

    L-Arginine is an a-amino acid which plays important roles in different diseases or processes, such as Alzheimer disease, inflammatory process, healing and tissue regeneration and it also could be useful as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Considering the large amount of studies on the beneficial effects of different antioxidants, this paper is focused on the evaluation of the antioxidant potential of some imine derivatives, synthesized by the authors and described in a previous article. The evaluation of the antioxidant power was performed using phosphomolydenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, tests described in the literature and which are used with some minor modifications. It was found that most of the imine derivatives are more active than the L-Arginine in the PPAP and FRAP assays. The most active derivative was the compound obtained by condensation of L-arginine with 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2k) and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (2g). Following the described protocol, some imine derivatives of L-arginine were evaluated in terms of antioxidant potential using in vitro methods. The most favorable influence was obtained by the aromatic substitution with nitro and hydroxyl, the corresponding derivatives being the most active derivatives compared to L-arginine.

  9. The impact of arginine-modified chitosan-DNA nanoparticles on the function of macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lanxia; Bai Yuanyuan; Song Chunni; Zhu Dunwan; Song Liping; Zhang Hailing; Dong Xia; Leng Xigang, E-mail: lengxg@bme.org.c [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Laboratory of Bioengineering (China)

    2010-06-15

    It has been demonstrated that incorporation of arginine moieties into chitosan significantly elevates the transgenic efficacy of the chitosan. However, little is known about the impact of arginine-modified chitosan on the function of macrophages, which play a vitally important role in the inflammatory response of the body to foreign substances, especially particulate substances. This study was designed to investigate the impact of arginine-modified chitosan/DNA nanoparticles on the function of the murine macrophage through observation of phagocytic activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta}, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-{alpha}). Results showed that both chitosan/DNA nanoparticles and arginine-modified chitosan/DNA nanoparticles, containing 20 {mu}g/mL DNA, were internalized by almost all the macrophages in contact. This led to no significant changes, compared to the non-exposure group, in production of cytokines and phagocytic activity of the macrophages 24 h post co-incubation, whereas exposure to LPS induced obviously elevated cytokine production and phagocytic activity, suggesting that incorporation of arginine moieties into chitosan does not have a negative impact on the function of the macrophages.

  10. Activities of Arginine and Ornithine Decarboxylases in Various Plant Species 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, Helena; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1985-01-01

    In extracts from the youngest leaves of Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Zea Mays, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Lactuca sativa, and four pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing species of Heliotropium, the activities of ornithine decarboxylase, close to Vmax, ranged between traces and 1.5 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight when based on putrescine formed during incubation with labeled ornithine. The arginine decarboxylase activities in the same extracts ranged between 8 and 8000 nanomoles per hour per gram fresh weight being lowest in the borages and highest in oat and barley. α-Difluoromethylornithine and α-difluoromethylarginine inhibited ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, respectively, in all species. Agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were found in all, diaminopropane in eight, and cadaverine in three species. No correlation was observed between arginine or ornithine decarboxylase level and the levels of total polyamines. The in vitro decarboxylase activities found in the borages cannot explain the high accumulation of putrescine-derived pyrrolizidines in their youngest leaves if the pyrrolizidines are produced in situ from arginine and/or ornithine as precursors; other possibilities are discussed. In assays of ornithine decarboxylase, an interference of decarboxylation not due to this enzyme was observed in extracts from all species. In arginine decarboxylase assays, the interfering decarboxylation as well as the interference of arginase were apparent in two species. Addition of aminoguanidine was needed to suppress oxidative degradation of putrescine and agmatine during incubation of extracts from pea, bean, lettuce, Heliotropium angiospermum, and Heliotropium indicum. PMID:16664442

  11. Short Arginine Motifs Drive Protein Stickiness in the Escherichia coli Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Ciara; Crowley, Peter B

    2017-09-19

    Although essential to numerous biotech applications, knowledge of molecular recognition by arginine-rich motifs in live cells remains limited. 1 H, 15 N HSQC and 19 F NMR spectroscopies were used to investigate the effects of C-terminal -GR n (n = 1-5) motifs on GB1 interactions in Escherichia coli cells and cell extracts. While the "biologically inert" GB1 yields high-quality in-cell spectra, the -GR n fusions with n = 4 or 5 were undetectable. This result suggests that a tetra-arginine motif is sufficient to drive interactions between a test protein and macromolecules in the E. coli cytoplasm. The inclusion of a 12 residue flexible linker between GB1 and the -GR 5 motif did not improve detection of the "inert" domain. In contrast, all of the constructs were detectable in cell lysates and extracts, suggesting that the arginine-mediated complexes were weak. Together these data reveal the significance of weak interactions between short arginine-rich motifs and the E. coli cytoplasm and demonstrate the potential of such motifs to modify protein interactions in living cells. These interactions must be considered in the design of (in vivo) nanoscale assemblies that rely on arginine-rich sequences.

  12. Apple snack enriched with L-arginine using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge; Echeverria, Julian; Silva, Andrea; Escudero, Andrea; Petzold, Guillermo; Mella, Karla; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Modern life has created a high demand for functional food, and in this context, emerging technologies such as vacuum impregnation and ohmic heating have been applied to generate functional foods. The aim of this research was to enrich the content of the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine in apple cubes using vacuum impregnation, conventional heating, and ohmic heating. Additionally, combined vacuum impregnation/conventional heating and vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatments were evaluated. The above treatments were applied at 30, 40 and 50  ℃ and combined with air-drying at 40 ℃ in order to obtain an apple snack rich in L-arginine. Both the impregnation kinetics of L-arginine and sample color were evaluated. The impregnated samples created using vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating at 50 ℃ presented a high content of L-arginine, an effect attributed primarily to electropermeabilization. Overall, vacuum impregnation/ohmic heating treatment at 50 ℃, followed by drying at 40 ℃, was the best process for obtaining an apple snack rich in L-arginine.

  13. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might contribute to the changes in cardiac and renal mass observed in thyroid disorders. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. Dynamic Changes of Endothelium Derived Factors and Cyclic Nucleotides in Ascites Broilers and Control of L-arginine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bo; WANG Xiao-long

    2003-01-01

    A flock of AA breed chickens were reared in peterstme brood-vait chamber using high energypelleted feed, at 14 days of age, 400 birds were separated into 3 groups randomly as follows: 100 birds wereexposed to normal ambient temperature (20℃) as control group, 150 birds were exposed to low ambient tem-perature (11℃) in order to induce ascites as treatment Ⅰ group, another 100 birds were also exposed to lowambient temperature (11℃) and fed the diets containing 1% L-arginine for ascitic prophylactic treatment astreatment Ⅱ group. The blood samples were collected on 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 wk, respectively, to measure the con-tents of plasma endothelin (ET-1), angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) andcyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The results indicated that the contents of cAMP, cGMP, Ang Ⅱand the ratio of cAMP/cGMP in treatment Ⅰ and ascitic broilers were higher than that of correspondent con-trol group(P<0.01, P<0.05), ET-1 of preascitic broilers were higher than that of control group(P<0.05),while there were insignificant differences with later ascitic broilers, the contents of cAMP and cGMP in treat-ment Ⅱ were higher than treatment Ⅰ and control group(P<0.01, P<0.05), whereas, the ratio of cAMP/cGMP and the contents of Ang Ⅱ were gradually decreased than that of control group(P<0.05), the contentsof ET-1 were not changed. By further analysis, the increased plasma Ang Ⅱ at low ambient temperature condi-tion in broilers made endothelium cell secretion of increased ET-1, cAMP, cGMP and decreased NO. So lowtemperature accelarated ascites syndrome in broilers. Supplemented L-arginine can decrease ET-1, cAMP andcAMP/cGMP. It is concluded that cAMP mediated pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers.

  15. Laying performance, digestibility and plasma hormones in laying hens exposed to chronic heat stress as affected by betaine, vitamin C, and/or vitamin E supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Youssef A; Abd El-Hamid, Abd El-Hamid E; Abedalla, Ahmed A; Berika, Marfat A; Al-Harthi, Mohammed A; Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Kazim; Abou-Shehema, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress had a negative effect on laying hens' performance, thus this research was to study the influences of betaine (Bet, 1000 mg/kg betaine), vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (VE, 150 mg/kg α-Tocopherol acetate) and their possible combinations on egg production, digestibility of nutrients, plasma hormones and reproductive organs of dual-purpose hens exposed to chronic heat stress. Two hundred and eighty eight hens and thirty-six cocks from 32 to 48 weeks of age were divided into nine treatment groups of four replicates, each containing eight hens and one cock. One group was kept under thermo-natural condition and the eight others were kept under chronic heat stress (CHS). One of these eight was used as a negative control, while the others were supplemented with VC, VE and/or betaine and their possible combinations. Body weights, laying rate, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio in hens reared under CHS rooster without any supplementation during 32 to 48 weeks of impairment (P = 0.0052) were recorded. Hens reared under heat stress and fed a diet supplemented with either Bet, VC, VE or combination of the supplements increased production traits. However, hens supplemented with VC showed the greatest production traits. Plasma glucose, estradiol-17 (E2), progesterone (P4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) decreased in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation compared to the other treatments (P = 0.001). Liver weights, spleen weights, thyroid gland weights, ovary weights, oviduct weights and oviduct lengths were lowest in hens reared under CHS and fed a diet with no supplementation (P = 0.0480). In conclusion, dual purpose hens reared under CHS and supplemented with VC at 200 mg/kg diet and Bet at 1000 mg/kg enhanced the laying performance and combated CHS.

  16. Dust in flowing magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Birendra P.; Samarian, Alex A.; Vladimirov, Sergey V.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma flows occur in almost every laboratory device and interactions of flowing plasmas with near-wall impurities and/or dust significantly affects the efficiency and lifetime of such devices. The charged dust inside the magnetized flowing plasma moves primarily under the influence of the plasma drag and electric forces. Here, the charge on the dust, plasma potential, and plasma density are calculated self-consistently. The electrons are assumed non-Boltzmannian and the effect of electron magnetization and electron-atom collisions on the dust charge is calculated in a self-consistent fashion. For various plasma magnetization parameters viz. the ratio of the electron and ion cyclotron frequencies to their respective collision frequencies, plasma-atom and ionization frequencies, the evolution of the plasma potential and density in the flow region is investigated. The variation of the dust charge profile is shown to be a sensitive function of plasma parameters. (author)

  17. L-Arginine Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy In Streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... On the other hand, no significant change was detected in body weight, kidney weight and relative kidney weight, levels of plasma fructosamine, MDA and NOx, renal activities of glutathione peroxidase(GPx),superoxide dismutase(SOD), LDH, aldose reductase(AR) ...

  18. Haplotypes in the APOA1-C3-A4-A5 gene cluster affect plasma lipids in both humans and baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Liu, Xin; O' Connell, Jeff; Peng, Ze; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rainwater, David L.; VandeBerg, John L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-15

    Genetic studies in non-human primates serve as a potential strategy for identifying genomic intervals where polymorphisms impact upon human disease-related phenotypes. It remains unclear, however, whether independently arising polymorphisms in orthologous regions of non-human primates leads to similar variation in a quantitative trait found in both species. To explore this paradigm, we studied a baboon apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOA1/C3/A4/A5) for which the human gene orthologs have well established roles in influencing plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Our extensive polymorphism analysis of this 68 kb gene cluster in 96 pedigreed baboons identified several haplotype blocks each with limited diversity, consistent with haplotype findings in humans. To determine whether baboons, like humans, also have particular haplotypes associated with lipid phenotypes, we genotyped 634 well characterized baboons using 16 haplotype tagging SNPs. Genetic analysis of single SNPs, as well as haplotypes, revealed an association of APOA5 and APOC3 variants with HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, respectively. Thus, independent variation in orthologous genomic intervals does associate with similar quantitative lipid traits in both species, supporting the possibility of uncovering human QTL genes in a highly controlled non-human primate model.

  19. Increasing levels of dietary crystalline methionine affect plasma methionine profiles, ammonia excretion, and the expression of genes related to the hepatic intermediary metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works as a signa......Strictly carnivorous fish with high requirements for dietary protein, such as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are interesting models for studying the role of amino acids as key regulators of intermediary metabolism. Methionine is an essential amino acid for rainbow trout, and works...... as a signalling factor in different metabolic pathways. The study investigated the effect of increasing dietary methionine intake on the intermediary metabolism in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout. For this purpose, five diets were formulated with increasing methionine levels from 0.60 to 1.29% dry matter....... The diets were fed in excess for six weeks before three sampling campaigns carried out successively to elucidate (i) the hepatic expression of selected genes involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism; (ii) the postprandial ammonia excretion; and (iii) the postprandial plasma methionine...

  20. Effect of L-arginine on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and immune modulation of host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vikky; Chauhan, Rubika; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Das, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. The life-cycle of Plasmodium species involves several stages both in mosquito and the vertebrate host. In the erythrocytic stage, Plasmodium resides inside the red blood cells (RBCs), where it meets most of its nutritional requirement by degrad- ing host's haemoglobin. L-arginine is required for growth and division of cells. The present study was aimed to demonstrate the effect of supplementation of different concentrations of L-arginine and L-citrulline on the growth of parasite, and effect of the culture supernatant on the host's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To examine the effect of supplementation of L-arginine and L-citrulline, Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) was cultured in RPMI 1640, L-arginine deficient RPMI 1640, and in different concentrations of L-arginine, and L-citrulline supplemented in arginine deficient RPMI 1640 medium. To have a holistic view of in vivo cell activation, the PBMCs isolated from healthy human host were cultured in the supernatant collected from P. falciparum culture. Growth of the parasite was greatly enhanced in L-arginine supplemented media and was found to be concentration dependent. However, parasite growth was compromised in L-citrulline supplemented and L-arginine deficient media. The supernatant collected from L-arginine supplemented parasite media (sArg) showed increased FOXP3 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression as compared to the supernatant collected from L-citrulline supple- mented parasite media (sCit). The in vitro culture results showed, decreased parasite growth, and decreased expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) (a coinhibitory molecule) and IL-10 in the L-citrulline supplemented media as compared to L-arginine supplemented media. Hence, it was concluded that L-citrulline supplementation would be a better alternative than L-arginine to inhibit the parasite growth.

  1. Competitive metabolism of L-arginine: arginase as a therapeutic target in asthma☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Zeki, Amir A.; Last, Jerold A.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Exhaled breath nitric oxide (NO) is an accepted asthma biomarker. Lung concentrations of NO and its amino acid precursor, L-arginine, are regulated by the relative expressions of the NO synthase (NOS) and arginase isoforms. Increased expression of arginase I and NOS2 occurs in murine models of allergic asthma and in biopsies of asthmatic airways. Although clinical trials involving the inhibition of NO-producing enzymes have shown mixed results, small molecule arginase inhibitors have shown potential as a therapeutic intervention in animal and cell culture models. Their transition to clinical trials is hampered by concerns regarding their safety and potential toxicity. In this review, we discuss the paradigm of arginase and NOS competition for their substrate L-arginine in the asthmatic airway. We address the functional role of L-arginine in inflammation and the potential role of arginase inhibitors as therapeutics. PMID:23554705

  2. l-arginine and l-NMMA for assessing cerebral endothelial dysfunction in ischaemic cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, William K; Sørensen, Caspar G; Kruuse, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of l-arginine and NG -monomethyl-l-arginine (l......-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to l-arginine or l-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischaemic cerebrovascular disease. Seven studies (315 subjects) were eligible...... cerebrovascular disease. Inconsistencies in results were most likely due to variations in methods and included subject populations. In order to use cerebral ED as a prognostic marker, further studies are required to evaluate the association to cerebrovascular disease....

  3. Action of arginine for protection of ulcerative colitis by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Maria Emilia Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of immunomodulators, such as arginine, in the regulation of inflammatory responses and trophism of the intestinal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible mechanisms action of arginine (pretreatment or treatment) in experimental model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 5 groups: Control group (C): standard diet and water; Arginine group (ARG): diet supplementation with arginine and water; Colitis group (COL): standard diet and DSS solution; Pretreated group (PT): diet supplementation with arginine before and during colitis induction; Treated group (T): diet supplementation with arginine during colitis induction. Colitis was induced by administration of 1.5% DSS for 5 days. After this, all the mice were euthanized and blood, organs and intestinal fluid were collected for carrying out analyzes. Parameters such as intestinal permeability (IP), bacterial translocation (BT), histological analysis (histological score, morphometric analysis, collagen and mucins stain), nitrate and nitrite, cytokines and chemokines, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), inflammatory infiltrate and oxidative stress were performed. The ARG group did not show difference compared to group C in the investigated parameters (C vs ARG: p> 0.05). The COL group showed increased IP (C vs COL: p < 0.05) and BT (C vs COL: p <0.05). In the histological analysis, the COL group showed severe inflammation and reduction the crypts length. In addition, in the group COL observed increase infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages in the colon, increase cytokine IL-17 and chemokine KC in serum and oxidative stress in the colon (COL vs C: p <0.05). In the arginine-supplemented groups (PT and T) was observed decrease IP and BT to blood, liver and lung (PT and T vs Col: p <0.05). Histological analysis showed that the arginine (PT and T) preserved the intestinal mucosa and crypts

  4. Temporal Lob Epilepsi'sinde L-Arginine ve CaEDTA'nın Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    NOYAN, Behzat

    2005-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, bir nitrik oksit (NO-) prekürsörü olan L-Arginine ve bir ekstrasellüler çinko şelatörü olan CaEDTA'nın pilokarpine HCl ile oluşturulan kısa süreli epileptik nöbet üzerine etkileri araştırıldı. Deney, nöbet kontrol (serum fizyolojik 10 µl, i.c.v., ve sonra 380 mg/kg pilokarpine HCl i.p.), L-Arginine (150 µg/10 µl, i.c.v.), CaEDTA (100 mM, 10 µl, i.c.v.), L-Arginine+CaEDTA olmak üzere 4 gruptan oluştu. Enjeksiyonlardan sonra iki saat boyunca nöbet davranışları gözlemlenen ...

  5. Arginine Vasopressin Is a Blood-Based Biomarker of Social Functioning in Children with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean S Carson

    Full Text Available Brain arginine vasopressin (AVP critically regulates normative social behavior in mammals, and experimental disruption of the AVP signaling pathway produces social impairments in rodent models. We therefore hypothesized that AVP signaling deficits may contribute to social impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Since blood measures (which are far easier to obtain than brain measures of AVP are most meaningful if they are related to brain AVP activity, Study 1 tested the relationship between AVP concentrations in concomitantly collected blood and CSF samples from children and adults (N = 28 undergoing clinical procedures. Study 2 tested whether blood AVP concentrations: 1 differed between children with ASD (N = 57, their ASD discordant siblings (N = 47, and neurotypical controls (N = 55; and 2 predicted social functioning (using the NEPSY-II Theory of Mind and Affect Recognition tasks and the Social Responsiveness Scale in this large, well-characterized child cohort. Blood AVP concentrations significantly and positively predicted CSF AVP concentrations (F1,26 = 7.17, r = 0.46, p = 0.0127 in Study 1. In Study 2, blood AVP concentrations did not differ between groups or by sex, but significantly and positively predicted Theory of Mind performance, specifically in children with ASD, but not in non-ASD children (F1,144 = 5.83, p = 0.017. Blood AVP concentrations can be used: 1 as a surrogate for brain AVP activity in humans; and 2 as a robust biomarker of theory of mind ability in children with ASD. These findings also suggest that AVP biology may be a promising therapeutic target by which to improve social cognition in individuals with ASD.

  6. Involvement of arginine-vasopressin in the diuretic and hypotensive effects of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Caroline Calixto; Uchida, Denise Thiemi; Canzi, Karina Natally; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; Gasparotto, Arquimedes; Laverde, Antonio

    2012-10-31

    Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), popularly known as "ora-pro-nobis" is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as a diuretic agent, although no scientific data have been published to support this effect. The aim of this work is to evaluate the diuretic and hypotensive activities of the infusion (INFPG) and the ethanol extract (HEPG) of Pereskia grandifolia and possible mechanism of action. The infusions (2.5-10%) and the HEPG (3-100 mg/kg) were orally administered in a single dose or daily (for seven days) to rats. The urine excretion rate, pH, density, conductivity and content of Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. In collected serum samples the concentration of electrolytes, urea, creatinine, aldosterone, vasopressin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity were evaluated. The involvement of V(2) vasopressin receptor in the diuretic activity and the hypotensive effect of HEPG were also determined. Water excretion rate was significantly increased by HEPG, while the urinary K(+) and Cl(-) excretion was significantly reduced in acute and prolonged treatment. The oral administration of the HEPG (30mg/kg) significantly reduced serum levels of vasopressin and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive rats. All other evaluated parameters have not been affected by any treatment. The results showed that HEPG could present compound(s) responsible for aquaretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and this effect could involve a reduction in the arginine-vasopressin release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Arginine Methylation Regulates MEIS2 Nuclear Localization to Promote Neuronal Differentiation of Adult SVZ Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Kolb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adult neurogenesis is regulated by stem cell niche-derived extrinsic factors and cell-intrinsic regulators, yet the mechanisms by which niche signals impinge on the activity of intrinsic neurogenic transcription factors remain poorly defined. Here, we report that MEIS2, an essential regulator of adult SVZ neurogenesis, is subject to posttranslational regulation in the SVZ olfactory bulb neurogenic system. Nuclear accumulation of MEIS2 in adult SVZ-derived progenitor cells follows downregulation of EGFR signaling and is modulated by methylation of MEIS2 on a conserved arginine, which lies in close proximity to nested binding sites for the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the MEIS dimerization partner PBX1. Methylation impairs interaction with CRM1 without affecting PBX1 dimerization and thereby allows MEIS2 nuclear accumulation, a prerequisite for neuronal differentiation. Our results describe a form of posttranscriptional modulation of adult SVZ neurogenesis whereby an extrinsic signal fine-tunes neurogenesis through posttranslational modification of a transcriptional regulator of cell fate. : A hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its strong dependence on physiological stimuli and environmental signals. Schulte and colleagues show that the nuclear localization and activity of a transcriptional regulator of adult neurogenesis is controlled by posttranslational modification. Their results link intrinsic control over neuron production to external signals and help to explain how adult neurogenesis can occur “on demand.” Keywords: subventricular zone, stem cell niche, posttranslational modification, controlled nuclear import, TALE-homdomain protein, MEIS2, PBX1, CRM1, neurogenesis, stem cell niche

  8. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  9. Sided functions of an arginine-agmatine antiporter oriented in liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Fang, Yiling; Miller, Christopher

    2012-02-28

    The arginine-dependent extreme acid resistance system helps enteric bacteria survive the harsh gastric environment. At the center of this multiprotein system is an arginine-agmatine antiporter, AdiC. To maintain cytoplasmic pH, AdiC imports arginine and exports its decarboxylated product, agmatine, resulting in a net extrusion of one "virtual proton" in each turnover. The random orientation of AdiC in reconstituted liposomes throws up an obstacle to quantifying its transport mechanism. To overcome this problem, we introduced a mutation, S26C, near the substrate-binding site. This mutant exhibits substrate recognition and pH-dependent activity similar to those of the wild-type protein but loses function completely upon reaction with thiol reagents. The membrane-impermeant MTSES reagent can then be used as a cleanly sided inhibitor to silence those S26C-AdiC proteins whose extracellular portion projects from the external side of the liposome. Alternatively, the membrane-permeant MTSEA and membrane-impermeant reducing reagent, TCEP, can be used together to inhibit proteins in the opposite orientation. This approach allows steady-state kinetic analysis of AdiC in a sided fashion. Arginine and agmatine have similar Michaelis-Menten parameters for both sides of the protein, while the extracellular side selects arginine over argininamide, a mimic of the carboxylate-protonated form of arginine, more effectively than does the cytoplasmic side. Moreover, the two sides of AdiC have different pH sensitivities. AdiC activity increases to a plateau at pH 4 as the extracellular side is acidified, while the cytoplasmic side shows an optimal pH of 5.5, with further acidification inhibiting transport. This oriented system allows more precise analysis of AdiC-mediated substrate transport than has been previously available and permits comparison to the situation experienced by the bacterial membrane under acid stress.

  10. Supplementation with rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chávez, Julio Agustín Ruiz; Guzmán, Adrian; Zamora-Gutiérrez, Diana; Mendoza, Germán David; Melgoza, Luz María; Montes, Sergio; Rosales-Torres, Ana María

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of L-arginine-HCl supplementation on ovulation rate, fertility, prolificacy, and serum VEGF concentrations in ewes with synchronized oestrus. Thirty Suffolk ewes with a mean body weight of 45 ± 3 kg and a mean body condition score (BCS) of 2.4 ± 0.28 were synchronized for estrus presentation with a progestin-containing sponge (20 mg Chronogest® CR) for 9 days plus PGF2-α (Lutalyse; Pfizer, USA) on day 7 after the insertion of the sponge. The ewes were divided into two groups; i.e., a control group (n = 15) that was fed on the native pasture (basal diet) and an L-arginine-HCl group (n = 15) that received 7.8 g of rumen-protected L-arginine-HCl from day 5 of the sponge insertion until day 25 after mating plus the basal diet. The L-arginine-HCl was administered daily via an esophageal probe between days 5 and 9 of the synchronization protocol and every third day subsequently. Blood samples were drawn from the jugular vein every 6 days throughout the entire experimental period. The results revealed that the L-arginine-HCl supplementation increased fertility during the synchronized estrus (P = 0.05). However, no effects were observed on the final BCS (P = 0.78), estrus presentation (P = 0.33), multiple ovulations (P = 0.24), prolificacy (P = 0.63), or serum VEGF concentration. In conclusion, L-arginine-HCl supplementation during the period used in this study increased fertility in sheep with synchronized estrus possibly due to improved embryo-fetal survival during early pregnancy.

  11. L-arginine fails to prevent ventricular remodeling and heart failure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley W; Conrad, Chester H; Robinson, Kathleen G; Colucci, Wilson S; Bing, Oscar H L

    2009-02-01

    The effects of long-term oral administration of L-arginine, a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) production, on left ventricular (LV) remodeling, myocardial function and the prevention of heart failure (HF) was compared to the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril in a rat model of hypertensive HF (aged spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)). SHRs and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were assigned to either no treatment, treatment with L-arginine (7.5 g/l in drinking water) or captopril (1 g/l in drinking water) beginning at 14 months of age, a time when SHRs exhibit stable compensated hypertrophy with no hemodynamic impairment; animals were studied at 23 months of age or at the time of HF. In untreated SHR, relative to WKY, there was significant LV hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and isolated LV muscle performance and response to isoproterenol (ISO) were depressed; and, 7 of 10 SHRs developed HF. Captopril administration to six SHRs attenuated hypertrophy and prevented impaired inotropic responsiveness to ISO, contractile dysfunction, fibrosis, increased passive stiffness, and HF. In contrast, L-arginine administration to SHR increased LV hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis while cardiac performance was depressed; and 7 of 9 SHRs developed HF. In WKY, L-arginine treatment but not captopril resulted in increased LV weight and the contractile response to ISO was blunted. Neither L-arginine nor captopril treatment of WKY changed fibrosis and HF did not occur. These data demonstrate that in contrast to captopril, long-term treatment with L-arginine exacerbates age-related cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and did not prevent contractile dysfunction or the development of HF in aging SHR.

  12. Excess L-arginine restores endothelium-dependent relaxation impaired by monocrotaline pyrrole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Oike, Masahiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ohnaka, Keizo; Koyama, Tetsuya; Ito, Yushi

    2005-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid plant toxin monocrotaline pyrrole (MCTP) causes pulmonary hypertension in experimental animals. The present study aimed to examine the effects of MCTP on the endothelium-dependent relaxation. We constructed an in vitro disease model of pulmonary hypertension by overlaying MCTP-treated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPAEs) onto pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell-embedded collagen gel lattice. Acetylcholine (Ach) induced a relaxation of the control CPAEs-overlaid gels that were pre-contracted with noradrenaline, and the relaxation was inhibited by L-NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). In contrast, when MCTP-treated CPAEs were overlaid, the pre-contracted gels did not show a relaxation in response to Ach in the presence of 0.5 mM L-arginine. Expression of endothelial NOS protein, Ach-induced Ca 2+ transients and cellular uptake of L-[ 3 H]arginine were significantly smaller in MCTP-treated CPAEs than in control cells, indicating that these changes were responsible for the impaired NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. Since cellular uptake of L-[ 3 H]arginine linearly increased according to its extracellular concentration, we hypothesized that the excess concentration of extracellular L-arginine might restore NO production in MCTP-treated CPAEs. As expected, in the presence of 10 mM L-arginine, Ach showed a relaxation of the MCTP-treated CPAEs-overlaid gels. These results indicate that the impaired NO production in damaged endothelial cells can be reversed by supplying excess L-arginine

  13. Ubiquitination of the bacterial inositol phosphatase, SopB, regulates its biological activity at the plasma membrane.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knodler, Leigh A

    2009-11-01

    The Salmonella type III effector, SopB, is an inositol polyphosphate phosphatase that modulates host cell phospholipids at the plasma membrane and the nascent Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). Translocated SopB persists for many hours after infection and is ubiquitinated but the significance of this covalent modification has not been investigated. Here we identify by mass spectrometry six lysine residues of SopB that are mono-ubiquitinated. Substitution of these six lysine residues with arginine, SopB-K(6)R, almost completely eliminated SopB ubiquitination. We found that ubiquitination does not affect SopB stability or membrane association, or SopB-dependent events in SCV biogenesis. However, two spatially and temporally distinct events are dependent on ubiquitination, downregulation of SopB activity at the plasma membrane and prolonged retention of SopB on the SCV. Activation of the mammalian pro-survival kinase Akt\\/PKB, a downstream target of SopB, was intensified and prolonged after infection with the SopB-K(6)R mutant. At later times, fewer SCV were decorated with SopB-K(6)R compared with SopB. Instead SopB-K(6)R was present as discrete vesicles spread diffusely throughout the cell. Altogether, our data show that ubiquitination of SopB is not related to its intracellular stability but rather regulates its enzymatic activity at the plasma membrane and intracellular localization.

  14. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  15. Arginine vasopressin stimulates phosphoinositide turnover in an enriched rat Leydig cell preparation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl......An enriched rat Leydig cell preparation was preincubated with [C]arachidonic acid. Stimulation of the cells with arginine vasopressin (AVP) (1 µM) for 2 min caused a significant increase in labelled phosphatidic acid and a significant fall in radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol...

  16. Arginine as an adjuvant to chemotherapy improves clinical outcome in active tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schön, T; Elias, D; Moges, F

    2003-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB). Patients with TB exhibit increased catabolism and reduced energy intake. Thus the hypothesis for this study was that restoring a relative deficiency in the amino acid arginine, the substrate for mycobactericidal NO produ......Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB). Patients with TB exhibit increased catabolism and reduced energy intake. Thus the hypothesis for this study was that restoring a relative deficiency in the amino acid arginine, the substrate for mycobactericidal...... virus-negative patients with active tuberculosis, most likely mediated by increased production of nitric oxide....

  17. L-arginine enhances cell proliferation and reduces apoptosis in human endometrial RL95-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-arginine is considered to be one of the most versatile amino acids due to the fact that it serves as a precursor for many important molecules in cellular physiology. When supplemented in the diet, L-arginine can increase the number of implantation sites in mice and rats, suggesting an effect at th...

  18. Heritability and genetic variance for citrulline, arginine and lycopene content in a diverse set of watermelon cultigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrulline, arginine, and lycopene are naturally occurring compounds found in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thumb) Matsum & Nakai, with beneficial effects on plant growth and human health. This study evaluated seven commercial cultivars and one breeding line for citrulline, arginine, and lycopene c...

  19. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-10-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1-20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (ΔpH) and proton motive force (μH(+) ) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ΔpH (and therefore μH(+) ) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ΔpH and μH(+) for motility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The human neonatal small intestine has the potential for arginine synthesis; developmental changes in the expression of arginine-synthesizing and -catabolizing enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijter Jan M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk contains too little arginine for normal growth, but its precursors proline and glutamine are abundant; the small intestine of rodents and piglets produces arginine from proline during the suckling period; and parenterally fed premature human neonates frequently suffer from hypoargininemia. These findings raise the question whether the neonatal human small intestine also expresses the enzymes that enable the synthesis of arginine from proline and/or glutamine. Carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS, arginase-1 (ARG1, arginase-2 (ARG2, and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS were visualized by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry in 89 small-intestinal specimens. Results Between 23 weeks of gestation and 3 years after birth, CPS- and ASS-protein content in enterocytes was high and then declined to reach adult levels at 5 years. OAT levels declined more gradually, whereas ARG-1 was not expressed. ARG-2 expression increased neonatally to adult levels. Neurons in the enteric plexus strongly expressed ASS, OAT, NOS1 and ARG2, while varicose nerve fibers in the circular layer of the muscularis propria stained for ASS and NOS1 only. The endothelium of small arterioles expressed ASS and NOS3, while their smooth-muscle layer expressed OAT and ARG2. Conclusion The human small intestine acquires the potential to produce arginine well before fetuses become viable outside the uterus. The perinatal human intestine therefore resembles that of rodents and pigs. Enteral ASS behaves as a typical suckling enzyme because its expression all but disappears in the putative weaning period of human infants.

  1. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A

    2014-04-18

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  2. Peptide-membrane interactions of arginine-tryptophan peptides probed using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A; Kunze, Angelika; Carlsson, Nils; Altgä rde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Nordé n, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-active peptides include peptides that can cross cellular membranes and deliver macromolecular cargo as well as peptides that inhibit bacterial growth. Some of these peptides can act as both transporters and antibacterial agents. It is desirable to combine the knowledge from these two different fields of membrane-active peptides into design of new peptides with tailored actions, as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances, targeting specific membranes. We have previously shown that the position of the amino acid tryptophan in the peptide sequence of three arginine-tryptophan peptides affects their uptake and intracellular localization in live mammalian cells, as well as their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we use quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring to assess the induced changes caused by binding of the three peptides to supported model membranes composed of POPC, POPC/POPG, POPC/POPG/cholesterol or POPC/lactosyl PE. Our results indicate that the tryptophan position in the peptide sequence affects the way these peptides interact with the different model membranes and that the presence of cholesterol in particular seems to affect the membrane interaction of the peptide with an even distribution of tryptophans in the peptide sequence. These results give mechanistic insight into the function of these peptides and may aid in the design of membrane-active peptides with specified cellular targets and actions.

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  4. Renal excretion of prostaglandin metabolites, arginine vasopressin, and sodium during endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen induced fever in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasson, H; Basu, S; Andersson, B; Kindahl, H

    1984-04-01

    Responses to intravenous injections of an endotoxin (E. coli-lipopolysaccharide, 1 microgram/kg b.wt.) and endogenous pyrogen were studied in euhydrated and hyperhydrated goats. The biphasic febrile response to the endotoxin was associated with a pronounced increase in the renal excretion of measured prostaglandin (PG) metabolites (11-ketotetranor PGF metabolites). This increase was time-correlated with the elevation of the rectal temperature, and (in hyperhydrated animals) with an inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in renal excretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Other effects of the endotoxin were an immediate depression of renal Na and K excretion followed by the development of pronounced natriuresis, and a reduction of plasma Fe and Zn concentrations. The appearance of the febrile reactions (peripheral vasoconstriction and shivering) was accompanied by miosis. The maximum elevation of the rectal temperature was significantly greater during euhydration than during hyperhydration. Also endogenous pyrogen elicited miosis concomitant with febrile reactions, and an elevation of the renal excretion of PG metabolites which was closely correlated in time with the monophasic febrile response, and (during hyperhydration) with temporary inhibition of the water diuresis and an increase in the renal AVP excretion. However, the responses were much weaker than the corresponding endotoxin effects. No appreciable changes in renal excretion of Na and K were observed in response to the endogenous pyrogen. It is concluded that the observed effects on renal cation excretion were manifestations of direct endotoxin influences on kidney function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  6. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  7. Role of the L-citrulline/L-arginine cycle in iNANC nerve-mediated nitric oxide production and airway smooth muscle relaxation in allergic asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, Ham; Leusink, John; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) converts L-arginine into nitric oxide (NO) and L-Citrulline. In NO-producing cells, L-citrulline can be recycled to L-arginine in a two-step reaction involving argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and -lyase (ASL). In guinea pig trachea, L-arginine is a limiting factor in

  8. Metabolically induced heteroplasmy shifting and L-arginine treatment reduce the energetic defect in a neuronal-like model of MELAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desquiret-Dumas, Valerie; Gueguen, Naig; Barth, Magalie; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Hancock, Saege; Wallace, Douglas C; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Henrion, Daniel; Bonneau, Dominique; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The m.3243A>G variant in the mitochondrial tRNALeu (UUR) gene is a common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. Phenotypic manifestations depend mainly on the heteroplasmy, i.e. the ratio of mutant to normal mtDNA copies. A high percentage of mutant mtDNA is associated with a severe, life-threatening neurological syndrome known as MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes). MELAS is described as a neurovascular disorder primarily affecting the brain and blood vessels, but the pathophysiology of the disease is poorly understood. We developed a series of cybrid cell lines at two different mutant loads: 70% and 100% in the nuclear background of a neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). We investigated the impact of the mutation on the metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity of the cybrids. The m.3243A>G mitochondrial mutation induced a metabolic switch towards glycolysis in the neuronal cells and produced severe defects in respiratory chain assembly and activity. We used two strategies to compensate for the biochemical defects in the mutant cells: one consisted of lowering the glucose content in the culture medium, and the other involved the addition of L-arginine. The reduction of glucose significantly shifted the 100% mutant cells towards the wild-type, reaching a 90% mutant level and restoring respiratory chain complex assembly. The addition of L-arginine, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, improved complex I activity in the mutant cells in which the defective NO metabolism had led to a relative shortage of NO. Thus, metabolically induced heteroplasmy shifting and L-arginine therapy may constitute promising therapeutic strategies against MELAS. PMID:22306605

  9. Effects of diet and arginine treatment during the luteal phase on ovarian NO/PGC-1α signaling in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Xuan; Nie, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ling-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Min; Deng, Kai-Ping; Fan, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether arginine (Arg) supplementation of malnourished ewes affects the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary. On Day 6-15 of the estrous cycle, 24 multiparous Hu sheep (BW = 43.56 ± 1.53 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (CG; n = 6), restriction group (RG; n = 9) and l-arginine group (AG; n = 9), and administered Arg treatment (or vehicle) three times per day. The ewes were slaughtered at the end of treatment, and blood samples and ovaries were collected for analysis. The results of our analyses showed that both short-term feed-restriction and/or supplementation with L-Arg-HCl affected the number of different size follicles observed in the ovary, and the relative day of estrus behavior initiation of ewes. Specifically, the relative day of estrus behavior initiation was significantly advanced in AG compared with that in RG ewes (P ewes. RG ewes exhibited a higher proportion of ≤2 mm (P 5 mm follicles than did CG ewes (P ewes. Furthermore, the expression of eNOS, nNOS, iNOS, PDE5A, PDE9A, PRKG2, and PPARGC1A varied significantly among the treatment groups (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that feed-restriction negatively affects follicular development, and that Arg-supplementation may modulate the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary and thereby accelerate ovulatory processes and the estrous rate. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying these effects of Arg on gene expression in the ewe ovary requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  11. Arginine and vitamin E improve the immune response after a Salmonella challenge in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of arginine (ARG), vitamin E (VE), and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the immune response and clearance of Salmonella in broiler chickens. In each experiment, chicks were randomly distributed into 4 groups: antibiotic-free diet (negative contro...

  12. Thermal, FT–IR and SHG efficiency studies of L-arginine doped KDP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    popular due to their applications in frequency converters, electro-optic switching and .... parameters of dehydration process of pure and L-arginine doped KDP crystals were ... action, R a gas constant, and a the heating rate in deg.C.min. –1.

  13. Serum Stabilities of Short Tryptophan-and Arginine-Rich Antimicrobial Peptide Analogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.T.; Chau, J.K.; Perry, N.A.; de Boer, L.; Zaat, S.A.J.; Vogel, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several short antimicrobial peptides that are rich in tryptophan and arginine residues were designed with a series of simple modifications such as end capping and cyclization. The two sets of hexapeptides are based on the Trp- and Arg-rich primary sequences from the "antimicrobial

  14. Effect of in ovo injection with L-arginine on productive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Significant decreases were recorded in blood serum cholesterol, total lipids ... 2% and 3% arginine, resulted in a significant improvement in the productive ... Various factors play important roles in birds in influencing hatchability efficiency and growth ... in the yolk sac may not be sufficient to supply in the maintenance energy.

  15. Friend of Prmt1, a novel chromatin target of protein arginine methyltransferases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); N. Gillemans (Nynke); C. Stein (Claudia); P. Fanis (Pavlos); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); M.P.C. van de Corput (Mariëtte); J. Essers (Jeroen); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); U.M. Bauer (Uta-Maria); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe describe the isolation and characterization of Friend of Prmt1 (Fop), a novel chromatin target of protein arginine methyltransferases. Human Fop is encoded by C1orf77, a gene of previously unknown function. We show that Fop is tightly associated with chromatin, and that it is modified

  16. Allevation of Oxidative Damages Induced by Salinity in Cress (Lepidium sativum by Pretreating with Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Asadi karam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the main stresses that have negative effectcs on seedling growth, and plant production. It inhibits growth of plants through disturbance of the balance between production of ROS and antioxidant defense mechanism which results in oxidative stress. Because, arginine is a vital regulator of physiological and developmental processes the effect of different concentrations of arginine pretreatment of the plant on alleviation of oxidative stress induced by salt 50 and 100Mm NaCl was investigated. Arginine pretreatment increased chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid and seedling growth under salinity condition. Results also showed that salt stress increased proline, protein, H2O2, soluble sugar and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase. Pretreatment of plants with Arg reduced proline, soluble sugar, H2O2 and antioxidant enzymes activity content significantly. The conclusion is that in garden cress plants, pretreatment with concentration of 5 µM and 10 μM arginine may protect cress under salinity stress, probably through the contracting with ROS and or induction of anti-oxidative enzymes

  17. Conformationally Constrained Peptidomimetics as Inhibitors of the Protein Arginine Methyl Transferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuhtsen, Astrid; Legrand, Baptiste; Van der Poorten, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Protein arginine N-methyl transferases (PRMTs) belong to a family of enzymes that modulate the epigenetic code through modifications of histones. In the present study, peptides emerging from a phage display screening were modified in the search for PRMT inhibitors through substitution with non-pr...

  18. Gas-phase salt bridge interactions between glutamic acid and arginine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeqx, S.; Oomens, J.; Rijs, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase side chain-side chain (SC-SC) interaction and possible proton transfer between glutamic acid (Glu) and arginine (Arg) residues are studied under low-temperature conditions in an overall neutral peptide. Conformation-specific IR spectra, obtained with the free electron laser FELIX, in

  19. Arginine-vasopressin stimulates the formation of phosphatidic acid in rat Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.R.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) stimulated the formation of labelled phosphatidic acid (PA) in [C]arachidonic acid-prelabelled rat Leydig cells. After addition of 10 M AVP [C]arachidonoylphosphatidic acid reached a maximum within 2 min. The increase was dose-dependent (10-10 M). No change in labelling...

  20. Diurnal changes in polyamine content, arginine and ornithine decarboxylase, and diamine oxidase in tobacco leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gemperlová, Lenka; Nováková, Marie; Vaňková, Radomíra; Eder, Josef; Cvikrová, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 6 (2006), s. 1413-1421 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0369 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Arginine decarboxylase * diamine oxidase * ornithine decarboxylase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2006

  1. Erythrocytes L-arginine y+ transporter inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide in ice-bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira Ercília; de Almeida, Priscilla Barcellos; Conceição, Ioná Rosine; Antonello, Ivan Carlos Ferreira; d'Avila, Domingos O; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Erythrocytes L: -arginine uptake is conveyed by y+ and y+L membrane transport systems. Pre-incubation with N-ethylmaleimide for 10 min at 37°C inhibits the y+ system. The aim of this study was to determine the ideal pre-incubation temperature in evaluating y+ and y+L systems. Cells were pre-incubated with or without N-ethylmaleimide for 10 min at 4°C and 37°C. L: -Arginine uptake was quantified by radioisotope and standard erythrocytes membrane flux methodology. Results demonstrate that erythrocytes L: -arginine content is depleted by pre-incubation at 37°C for 10 min, thus changing the V (max) measurement. The inhibitory effect of N-ethylmaleimide pre-incubation was temperature independent and already complete after 1 min of incubation. No significant difference in kinetic parameters was detected between cells pre-incubated at 37°C or 4°C, under zero-trans conditions. In conclusion, we suggest that measurement of erythrocytes L: -arginine uptake by y+ and y+L systems could be carried out without N-ethylmaleimide pre-incubation at 37°C.

  2. Mutations in protein N-arginine methyltransferases are not the cause of FTLD-FUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenscroft, T.A.; Baker, M.C.; Rutherford, N.J.; Neumann, M.; Mackenzie, I.R.; Josephs, K.A.; Boeve, B.F.; Petersen, R.; Halliday, G.M.; Kril, J.; van Swieten, J.C.; Seeley, W.W.; Dickson, D.W.; Rademakers, R.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear protein fused in sarcoma (FUS) is found in cytoplasmic inclusions in a subset of patients with the neurodegenerative disorder frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-FUS). FUS contains a methylated arginine-glycine-glycine domain that is required for transport into the nucleus. Recent

  3. The Effect of Pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo L) Seeds and L-Arginine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds supplementation on androgenic diet-induced atherosclerosis. Rat were divided into two main groups , normal control and atherogenic control rats , each group composed of three subgroups one of them supplemented with 2% arginine in ...

  4. Preparation of Simvastatin Hydrogel through Arginine Addition for Drug Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyida Niswati Fathmah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simvastatin is a lipid lowering agent which has been used recently as drug delivery system for stimulating bone regeneration. Because of low therapeutic efficacy and bioavailability, it is necessary to deliver simvastatin by local administration e.g. by hydrogel system. However, simvastatin has very poor solubility which restricts to prepare hydrogel formulation. The aim of this study is to improve solubility of simvastatin with arginine as co-solvent for developing a controlled released drug delivery system by loading simvastatin into gelatin hydrogel. The solubility study was performed by addition of an excess mass of simvastatin into the specified molar solutions of the arginine. All conical flasks were placed in a mechanical water bath shaker at the temperature of 25, 40, and 50 °C and shaken for a maximum period of 72 hours. The drug concentration was analyzed by UV/Visible spectroscopy at 238 nm. The hydrogel was prepared by a dehydrothermal method. The results showed that simvastatin solubility increases with increasing arginine concentrations and temperature. Characterizations showed a successful preparation of simvastatin-loaded gelatin hydrogel. The arginine simvastatin hydrogel and the gelatin hydrogel (as a blank exhibited a comparable swelling index (ca. 6.5. Furthermore, microparticles of the material show a narrow particle size distribution in the range between 150-250 μm.

  5. L-Arginine deficiency causes airway hyperresponsiveness after the late asthmatic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, H.; Bossenga, B. E.; Bos, I. S. T.; Volders, H. H.; Zaagsma, J.; Meurs, H.

    Peroxynitrite has been shown to be crucially involved in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after the late asthmatic reaction (LAR). Peroxynitrite production may result from simultaneous synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide by inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) at low L-arginine concentrations.

  6. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  7. Nutritional supplementation with arginine protects radiation-induced effects: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Flavia Cristina Morone, E-mail: fcmorone@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Campos-Silva, Pamella; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Sampaio, Francisco Jose Barcellos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of L-arginine on the prostate (nonneoplasic) of rats with radiation-induced injury. Methods: Twenty-nine Wistar rats, male adult, allocated into three groups: Control group (C) was not exposed to irradiation (n=10); Radiated group (R) had undergone pelvic irradiation (n=10); Supplemented and radiated group (R+S) had undergone pelvic irradiation plus L-arginine supplementation (n=9). The animals were observed for signs of toxicity. After euthanization, the prostate was dissected under magnification and stained by hematoxylin and eosin to study acinar structures and stained with Picrosirius red for collagen analysis. Results: After radiation exposure, all animals presented diarrhea, but supplementation with L-arginine reduced this effect. The weight gain in the R+S group was significantly higher than in the C and R groups. In the R+S group the collagen density and the prostate acinar area was similar to the R and C groups. Epithelial height was significantly reduced in group R compared with group C (p<0.0001). When comparing the group R+S with R, a statistical difference was observed to be present (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation promotes systemic effects and some structural modifications in the ventral prostate of rats. These modifications can be prevented by oral supplementation with L-arginine. (author)

  8. l-Arginine Pathway Metabolites Predict Need for Intra-operative Shunt During Carotid Endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, P; Lantos, J; Nagy, L

    2016-01-01

    lactate levels were increased during reperfusion (p = .02). The median pre-operative concentration of l-arginine was lower in patients requiring an intra-operative shunt than in patients without need of shunt (median: 30.3 μmol/L [interquartile range 24.4-34.4 μmol/L] vs. 57.6 μmol/L [interquartile range...

  9. Growth and characterization of pure and doped NLO L-arginine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    NLO; SHG; solution growth; LAA. 1. Introduction. L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) was first repor- ted by Xu et al (1983) as a promising nonlinear optical. (NLO) material. LAP is nearly three times more nonlinear than KDP. Monaco et al (1987) reported the formation of. LAP and its chemical analogs from the strongly ...

  10. Effect of arginine:lysine and glycine:methionine intake ratios on dyslipidemia and selected biomarkers implicated in cardiovascular disease: A study with hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Ravula; Srinivasan, Krishnapura; Singh, Sridevi Annapurna

    2017-07-01

    The effect of intake ratios of arginine (Arg): lysine (Lys) and glycine (Gly): methionine (Met) on lipid profile and selected cardiovascular disease markers, was studied, in rats maintained on a hypercholesterolemic diet. The rise in blood cholesterol was countered by 32%, 24%, and 49%, respectively, through increased oral supplementation of Arg, Gly, and Arg+Gly; a corresponding increase in plasma phospholipids at the end of the 8-week study was observed. The elevated plasma cholesterol to phospholipids ratio was countered by 27, 40, and 57%, respectively, through oral supplementation of Arg, Gly, and Arg+Gly. The elevation in hepatic cholesterol was lowered by 18, 29, and 51%, respectively, while phospholipids concentration was concomitantly increased by these amino acids. The elevated cholesterol to phospholipids ratio was, thus, significantly countered in the hypercholesterolemic situation by orally supplemented Arg, Gly, and Arg+Gly. Increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels, under hypercholesterolemic conditions, were lowered by 12, 15 and 34%, respectively, while plasma symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) levels were lowered by 14, 10 and 17%, respectively, with orally supplemented Arg, Gly and Arg+Gly. Only Gly and Arg+Gly decreased plasma homocysteine levels. Total nitric oxide (NO) concentration was considerably increased by Gly supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thus, altered ratios of Arg:Lys or Gly:Met offered beneficial influence on the lipid profile and plasma levels of ADMA, SDMA and homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic rats. Optimal beneficial effects, among ratios tested, was observed when Arg:Lys and Gly:Met ratios were maintained in ratios of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. L-arginine and glycine supplementation in the repair of the irradiated colonic wall of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Picanço, Etiene; Lopes-Paulo, Francisco; Marques, Ruy G; Diestel, Cristina F; Caetano, Carlos Eduardo R; de Souza, Mônica Vieira Mano; Moscoso, Gabriela Mendes; Pazos, Helena Maria F

    2011-05-01

    Radiotherapy is widely used for cancer treatment but has harmful effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of L-arginine and glycine supplementation on the colon wall of rats submitted to abdominal irradiation. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: I-healthy, II-irradiated with no amino acid supplementation, III-irradiated and supplemented with L-arginine, and IV-irradiated and supplemented with glycine. The animals received supplementation for 14 days, with irradiation being applied on the eighth day of the experiment. All animals underwent laparotomy on the 15th day for resection of a colonic segment for stereologic analysis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p ≤0.05. Stereologic analysis showed that irradiation induced a reduction of the total volume of the colon wall of group II and III animals compared to healthy controls, but not of group IV animals supplemented with glycine. The mucosal layer of the irradiated animals of all groups was reduced compared to healthy group I animals, but supplementation with L-arginine and glycine was effective in maintaining the epithelial surface of the mucosal layer. The present results suggest that glycine supplementation had a superior effect on the irradiated colon wall compared to L-arginine supplementation since it was able to maintain the thickness of the wall and the epithelial surface of the mucosa, whereas L-arginine maintained the partial volume of the epithelium and the epithelial surface, but not the total volume of the intestinal wall.

  12. The effect of L-Arginine on the brain tissue of stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Ebadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was conducted to determine the possible beneficial results of L-arginine on prefrontal cortex of rats which impressed by immobilization stress to define the synchronous impression of stress and nitric oxide (NO on evolution of prefrontal cortex of rats after birth. Methods: Forty-eight one month, male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: stressed and non-stressed. L-Arginine (200 mg/kg as a NO synthase (NOS inducer and L-NAME (2O mg/kg were injected intraperitonealy (IP and 7- nitroindazde (25 mg/kg as non-specific was injected subcutaneously (S.C. for 4 weeks. The kind of stress was immobilization for 4 weeks, every other day. The brain was removed after this period and each brain divided into two parts in a coronal section manner. Anterior part used for histological studies with H&E staining and posterior part used for measurement of NO production using spectrophotometer at 540 nm wavelengh. Results: Statistical analysis of microscopic and light microscopic finding showed that thickness of prefrontal cortex and NO production were significantly decreased in stressed rats and especially in groups which received 7- nitroindazole and L-NAME and L-arginine could reverse these results. Discussion: According to this research, we could say that L-arginine decreases the cortical damages in stressed rats and 7-nitroindazole and L-NAME increase this damage in non-stressed group. Although in non stressed groups, L-arginine, L-NAME and 7- nitroindazole were all non-protective and damaging.

  13. The effect of L-Arginine on the brain tissue of stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Ebadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: This study was conducted to determine the possible beneficial results of L-arginine on prefrontal cortex of rats which impressed by immobilization stress to define the synchronous impression of stress and nitric oxide (NO on evolution of prefrontal cortex of rats after birth. Methods: Forty-eight one month, male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: stressed and non-stressed. L-Arginine (200 mg/kg as a NO synthase (NOS inducer and L-NAME (2O mg/kg were injected intraperitonealy (IP and 7- nitroindazde (25 mg/kg as non-specific was injected subcutaneously (S.C. for 4 weeks. The kind of stress was immobilization for 4 weeks, every other day. The brain was removed after this period and each brain divided into two parts in a coronal section manner. Anterior part used for histological studies with H&E staining and posterior part used for measurement of NO production using spectrophotometer at 540 nm wavelengh. Results: Statistical analysis of microscopic and light microscopic finding showed that thickness of prefrontal cortex and NO production were significantly decreased in stressed rats and especially in groups which received 7- nitroindazole and L-NAME and L-arginine could reverse these results. Discussion: According to this research, we could say that L-arginine decreases the cortical damages in stressed rats and 7-nitroindazole and L-NAME increase this damage in non-stressed group. Although in non stressed groups, L-arginine, L-NAME and 7- nitroindazole were all non-protective and damaging.

  14. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  15. Plasma sheath criterion in thermal electronegative plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomi, Hamid; Khoramabadi, Mansour; Ghorannevis, Mahmod; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2010-01-01

    The sheath formation criterion in electronegative plasma is examined. By using a multifluid model, it is shown that in a collisional sheath there will be upper as well as lower limits for the sheath velocity criterion. However, the parameters of the negative ions only affect the lower limit.

  16. PRMT5: A novel regulator of Hepatitis B virus replication and an arginine methylase of HBV core.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Lubyova

    Full Text Available In mammals, protein arginine methyltransferase 5, PRMT5, is the main type II enzyme responsible for the majority of symmetric dimethylarginine formation in polypeptides. Recent study reported that PRMT5 restricts Hepatitis B virus (HBV replication through epigenetic repression of HBV DNA transcription and interference with encapsidation of pregenomic RNA. Here we demonstrate that PRMT5 interacts with the HBV core (HBc protein and dimethylates arginine residues within the arginine-rich domain (ARD of the carboxyl-terminus. ARD consists of four arginine rich subdomains, ARDI, ARDII, ARDIII and ARDIV. Mutation analysis of ARDs revealed that arginine methylation of HBc required the wild-type status of both ARDI and ARDII. Mass spectrometry analysis of HBc identified multiple potential ubiquitination, methylation and phosphorylation sites, out of which lysine K7 and arginines R150 (within ARDI and R156 (outside ARDs were shown to be modified by ubiquitination and methylation, respectively. The HBc symmetric dimethylation appeared to be linked to serine phosphorylation and nuclear import of HBc protein. Conversely, the monomethylated HBc retained in the cytoplasm. Thus, overexpression of PRMT5 led to increased nuclear accumulation of HBc, and vice versa, down-regulation of PRMT5 resulted in reduced levels of HBc in nuclei of transfected cells. In summary, we identified PRMT5 as a potent controller of HBc cell trafficking and function and described two novel types of HBc post-translational modifications (PTMs, arginine methylation and ubiquitination.

  17. Transcriptome analysis shows activation of the arginine deiminase pathway in Lactococcus lactis as a response to ethanol stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Lorena; Solopova, Ana; Fernández-Pérez, Rocío; González, Miriam; Tenorio, Carmen; Kuipers, Oscar P; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2017-09-18

    This paper describes the molecular response of Lactococcus lactis NZ9700 to ethanol. This strain is a well-known nisin producer and a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) model strain. Global transcriptome profiling using DNA microarrays demonstrated a bacterial adaptive response to the presence of 2% ethanol in the culture broth and differential expression of 67 genes. The highest up-regulation was detected for those genes involved in arginine degradation through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway (20-40 fold up-regulation). The metabolic responses to ethanol of wild type L. lactis strains were studied and compared to those of regulator-deletion mutants MG∆argR and MG∆ahrC. The results showed that in the presence of 2% ethanol those strains with an active ADI pathway reached higher growth rates when arginine was available in the culture broth than in absence of arginine. In a chemically defined medium strains with an active ADI pathway consumed arginine and produced ornithine in the presence of 2% ethanol, hence corroborating that arginine catabolism is involved in the bacterial response to ethanol. This is the first study of the L. lactis response to ethanol stress to demonstrate the relevance of arginine catabolism for bacterial adaptation and survival in an ethanol containing medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  19. Milk protein responses to balanced amino acid and removal of Leucine and Arginine supplied from jugular-infused amino acid mixture in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W; Wang, H R; Wu, T Y; Ding, L Y; Zhao, R; Khas, E; Wang, C F; Zhang, F Q; Mi, F Y; Wang, L; Ning, L T

    2017-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the milk protein response when cows were supplied a balanced AA profile and to determine whether a deficiency of Leucine (Leu) or Arginine (Arg) had a negative effect on milk protein. Eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 5-day continuous jugular infusions of saline (CTL), EAA mixture prepared on the profile of casein and supplied (in % of lysine (Lys)) 100% of Lys, 33.3% of methionine (Met), 110.2% of Leu, 43.6% of Arg, 50.8% of threonine (Thr), 81.6% of valine (Val), 69.7% of isoleucine (Ile), 61.4% of phenylalanine (Phe) and 34.2% of histidine (His) (Casein, 160 g/d), EAA mixture excluding Leu (-Leu, 163 g/d) or EAA mixture excluding Arg (-Arg, 158 g/d) in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four infusion periods separated by 7-day interval period. The basal diet supplied 1.6 Mcal NE L and 94.4 g MP per 1 kg DM to meet requirements for lactation. The Casein treatment provided a balanced supply (in % of MP) of 10.3% Leu and 5.3% Arg, whereas in the two subsequent -Leu and -Arg treatments, the concentration of Leu and Arg was reduced to 8.4 and 4.6% respectively. Dry matter intake (15.4 kg/day) was not affected by treatments. The Casein treatment increased milk yield (14.9%, p < 0.001), milk protein yield (120 g, p < 0.001) and milk protein efficiency (0.03, p = 0.099) than CTL treatment. However, the -Leu treatment decreased the responses of above-measured parameters by 6.25%, 70 g, 0.05 (p < 0.06) (compared with Casein). These effects of Leu were related to decreased Leu concentration and improved concentration of Ile and Val in plasma. The -Arg treatment decreased the plasma Arg concentration than the Casein treatment, whereby resulted in the decrease of milk yield (5.7%, p = 0.073), milk protein yield (60 g, p = 0.011) and milk protein efficiency (0.04, p = 0.037). In conclusion, supply of EAA profile of casein can increase the lactation production in dairy cows, and 8

  20. The effects of bupivacaine, L-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, and phenylephrine on cardiovascular adaptations to asphyxia in the preterm fetal lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Yun, E M; Bobby, P D; Noble, G; Arthur, G R; Finster, M

    1997-12-01

    The preterm fetal lamb that is exposed to clinically relevant plasma concentrations of lidocaine loses its cardiovascular adaptations to asphyxia, and its condition deteriorates further. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vascular tone, and local anesthetics are known to inhibit endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the adverse effects of lidocaine noted in the preterm fetal lamb also occur with bupivacaine and whether the inhibition of NO results in effects similar to those of bupivacaine. Thirty-two chronically prepared pregnant sheep were studied at 117-119 days' gestation. Maternal and fetal blood pressure, heart rate, and acid-base state were evaluated. Fetal organ blood flows were determined using 15-microM diameter dye-labeled microspheres. After a control period, mild to moderate asphyxia (fetal PaO2 15 mm Hg) was induced by partial umbilical cord occlusion and maintained throughout the experiment. Ewes in Group I (n = 13) were given a two-step intravenous infusion of bupivacaine for 180 min. Fetuses in Group II (n = 12) received an intravenous injection of L-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (25 mg/kg), and measurements were taken 10 and 30 min after the injection. A third group (Group III) of fetuses (n = 7) were given an intravenous infusion of phenylephrine to mimic the blood pressure increases noted in L-NAME-treated fetuses. At 90 min of stable asphyxia, there was a significant decrease in fetal PaO2 and pHa and an increase in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure. There was also an increase in blood flow to the adrenals, myocardium, and cerebral cortex, whereas blood flow to the placenta decreased. Administration of bupivacaine during asphyxia did not affect the changes in mean arterial blood pressure and acid-base state but did abolish the increases in blood flows to the myocardium and cerebral cortex. Injection of L-NAME to the asphyxiated fetus resulted in an increase in

  1. Tuning interionic interaction by rationally controlling solution pH for highly selective colorimetric sensing of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qin; Hao, Jie; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-04-01

    Direct selective sensing of arginine in central nervous systems remains very essential to understanding of the molecular basis of some physiological events. This study presents the first demonstration on a simple yet effective method for arginine sensing with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. The rationale for the method is based on the pH-dependent feature of the interionic interaction between cysteine and arginine. At pH 6.0, cysteine can only interact with arginine through the ion-pair interaction and such interaction can lead to the changes in both the solution color and UV-vis spectrum of the cysteine-protected Au-NPs upon the addition of arginine. These changes are further developed into an analytical strategy for effective sensing of arginine by rationally controlling the pH values of Au-NP dispersions with the ratio of the absorbance at 650 nm (A 650) to that at 520 nm (A 520) (A 650/A 520) as a parameter for analysis. The method is responsive to arginine without the interference from other species in the cerebral system; under the optimized conditions, the A 650/A 520 values are linear with the concentration of arginine within a concentration range from 0.80 to 64 μM, yet remain unchanged with the addition of other kinds of amino acids or the species in the central nervous system into the Au-NPs dispersion containing cysteine. The method demonstrated here is reliable and robust and could thus be used for detection of the increase of arginine in central nervous systems.

  2. Application of a new procedure for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of plasma amino acid-related metabolites and untargeted shotgun proteomics to identify mechanisms and biomarkers of calcific aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Mariola; Debski, Janusz; Jablonska, Patrycja; Dadlez, Michal; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2017-09-29

    Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAS) increasingly affects our ageing population, but the mechanisms of the disease and its biomarkers are not well established. Recently, plasma amino acid-related metabolite (AA) profiling has attracted attention in studies on pathology and development of biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases, but has not been studied in CAS. To evaluate the potential relationship between CAS and AA metabolome, a new ion-pairing reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IP-RPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 43 AAs in plasma of stenotic patients and age-matched control subjects. Furthermore, untargeted mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and confirmatory ELISA assays were performed. The method developed offered high accuracy (intra-assay imprecision averaged 4.4% for all compounds) and sensitivity (LOQ within 0.01-0.5μM). We found that 22 AAs and three AA ratios significantly changed in the CAS group as compared to control. The most pronounced differences were observed in urea cycle-related AAs and branched-chain AA (BCAA)-related AAs. The contents of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and its monomethylated derivative (NMMA) were increased by 30-64% with CAS. The arginine/ADMA and Fischer's ratios as well as arginine, homoarginine, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, hydroxyproline, betaine and 3-methylhistidine correlated with cardiac function-related parameters and concomitant systemic factors in the CAS patients. The results of proteomic analysis were consistent with involvement of inflammation, lipid abnormalities, hemostasis and extracellular matrix remodeling in CAS. In conclusion, changes in plasma AA profile and protein pattern that we identified in CAS provide information relevant to pathomechanisms and may deliver new biomarkers of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inversion of allosteric effect of arginine on N-acetylglutamate synthase, a molecular marker for evolution of tetrapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera-Luque Juan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficient conversion of ammonia, a potent neurotoxin, into non-toxic metabolites was an essential adaptation that allowed animals to move from the aquatic to terrestrial biosphere. The urea cycle converts ammonia into urea in mammals, amphibians, turtles, snails, worms and many aquatic animals and requires N-acetylglutamate (NAG, an essential allosteric activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I (CPSI in mammals and amphibians, and carbamylphosphate synthetase III (CPSIII in fish and invertebrates. NAG-dependent CPSI and CPSIII catalyze the formation of carbamylphosphate in the first and rate limiting step of ureagenesis. NAG is produced enzymatically by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, which is also found in bacteria and plants as the first enzyme of arginine biosynthesis. Arginine is an allosteric inhibitor of microbial and plant NAGS, and allosteric activator of mammalian NAGS. Results Information from mutagenesis studies of E. coli and P. aeruginosa NAGS was combined with structural information from the related bacterial N-acetylglutamate kinases to identify four residues in mammalian NAGS that interact with arginine. Substitutions of these four residues were engineered in mouse NAGS and into the vertebrate-like N-acetylglutamate synthase-kinase (NAGS-K of Xanthomonas campestris, which is inhibited by arginine. All mutations resulted in arginine losing the ability to activate mouse NAGS, and inhibit X. campestris NAGS-K. To examine at what point in evolution inversion of arginine effect on NAGS occur, we cloned NAGS from fish and frogs and examined the arginine response of their corresponding proteins. Fish NAGS were partially inhibited by arginine and frog NAGS were activated by arginine. Conclusion Difference in arginine effect on bacterial and mammalian NAGS most likely stems from the difference in the type of conformational change triggered by arginine binding to these proteins. The change from arginine

  4. The Hydrophobic Region of the DmsA Twin-Arginine Leader Peptide Determines Specificity with Chaperone DmsD

    OpenAIRE

    Winstone, Tara M. L.; Tran, Vy A.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The system specific chaperone DmsD plays a role in the maturation of the catalytic subunit of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, DmsA. Pre-DmsA contains a 45-amino acid twin-arginine leader peptide that is important for targeting and translocation of folded and cofactor-loaded DmsA by the twin-arginine translocase. DmsD has previously been shown to interact with the complete twin-arginine leader peptide of DmsA. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the the...

  5. Inhibition of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B by 1,2-cyclohexanedione modification of an arginine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, J; Rautenberg, P

    1989-12-29

    Toxin A (enterotoxin) and toxin B (cytotoxin) of Clostridium difficile were both inactivated by the arginine specific reagent 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Molecular stability during the inactivation process was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE analysis showing the same migration rates for modified and unmodified forms of the 230 kDa toxin A and of the 250 kDa toxin B. Cytotoxicity of both toxins as well as mouse lethality of the enterotoxin were drastically decreased as a result of the arginine modification. The reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Analysis of the data suggested that modification of a single arginine residue was sufficient to abolish the activity of both toxins.

  6. Arginine-rich cross-linking peptides with different SV40 nuclear localization signal content as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton

    2017-11-01

    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Revisiting the plasma sheath—dust in plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G. C. [Mathematical Science Division, IASST, Guwahati 781014 (India); Deka, R.; Bora, M. P., E-mail: mpbora@gauhati.ac.in [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of plasma sheath formed around surfaces of various solid bodies in space, though the results obtained in this work can be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. It is important to note that our calculations are valid only when the amount of dust particles is not sufficient so as to affect the plasma dynamics in the dust-acoustic time scale, but enough to affect the plasma sheath. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisson equation.

  8. Neuropsychological profile and clinical effects of arginine treatment in children with creatine transport deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background SLC6A8, an X-linked gene, encodes the creatine transporter (CRTR) and its mutations lead to cerebral creatine (Cr) deficiency which results in mental retardation, speech and language delay, autistic-like behaviour and epilepsy (CRTR-D, OMIM 300352). CRTR-D represents the most frequent Cr metabolism disorder but, differently from Cr synthesis defects, that are partially reversible by oral Cr supplementation, does not respond to Cr treatment even if precociously administrated. The precursors of Cr are the non-essential amino acids Glycine (Gly) and Arginine (Arg), which have their own transporters at the brain–blood barrier level and, therefore, their supplementation appears an attractive and feasible therapeutic option aimed at stimulating Cr endogenous synthesis and, in this way, at overcoming the block of Cr transport within the brain. However, until now the effects of Arg and/or Gly supplementation on Cr brain levels and behaviour have been controversial. Methods In this study five Italian male patients affected by CRTR-D were supplemented with oral L-Arg at a dosage of 300 mg/kg/day divided into 3 doses, for 24–36 months. Biochemical and plasmatic amino acids examinations and thyroid hormone dosages were periodically performed. Moreover, Proton and Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) was monitored during follow-up in concurrence with neuropsychological evaluations. Results During L-Arg treatment a clinical improvement in motor skills and to a lesser extent in communication and attention was observed. In addition, all patients had a reduction in the number and frequency of epileptic seizures. Daily living skills appeared also to be positively influenced by L-Arg treatment. Moreover, Total Cr and especially PhosphoCr, evaluated by proton and phosphorus spectroscopy, showed a mild increase, although well below the normal range. Conclusion This study provides information to support the effectiveness of L-Arg supplement treatment in

  9. The Histological Effects of L-arginine on Ventricular Myocardium in Iron Treated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sofiabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Iron overload is detrimental for the body and can create damage to different body tissues, such as myocardium by producing oxidative stress. Therefore, the antioxidant factors can neutralize iron induced damages. According to available reports, L-arginine as a precursor nitric oxide production has antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the histological effects of iron overload on ventricular muscle and preventive role of L-arginine in male rats.
    Methods: In this experiment, 40 male rats with weight range of 300-250g were divided at random into five equal groups including:1- Control, 2- Iron (10mg/kg, ip, 3- Iron(10mg/kg, ip+L-arginine (1mg/ml, po, 4- Iron (50mg/kg, ip and 5- Iron (50mg/kg,ip+L-arginine(1mg/ml,po. After treatment (6 weeks, the animals were anesthetized and the samples of left apical ventricular myocardium were taken out and morphological studies were done following fixation with 10% formalin and H&E staining. Microscopic parameters under study were cell swelling, vessel dilatation and hypercongestion, cell necrosis and tissue deformity. The type and severity of damage to the tissue were also noted. Data were analyzed using chi-square statistical procedure, and Pvalue≤0.05 were considered to be significant. 
    Results: The data showed moderate changes in the ventricular myocardium of group 2 that was significant in comparison to the control group (P<0.05. The ventricular myocardium of group 3 showed low changes and wasn't significant in comparison to control group (P=0.84. The ventricular myocardium of the group 4 showed severe changes in comparison to the control group (P<0.01. The low change showed in the ventricular myocardium of group 5 that wasn't significant in comparison to the control group.

    Conclusion: This study showed

  10. Insight on an arginine synthesis metabolon from the tetrameric structure of yeast acetylglutamate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cima, Sergio; Gil-Ortiz, Fernando; Crabeel, Marjolaine; Fita, Ignacio; Rubio, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the second, generally controlling, step of arginine biosynthesis. In yeasts, NAGK exists either alone or forming a metabolon with N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase (NAGS), which catalyzes the first step and exists only within the metabolon. Yeast NAGK (yNAGK) has, in addition to the amino acid kinase (AAK) domain found in other NAGKs, a ~150-residue C-terminal domain of unclear significance belonging to the DUF619 domain family. We deleted this domain, proving that it stabilizes yNAGK, slows catalysis and modulates feed-back inhibition by arginine. We determined the crystal structures of both the DUF619 domain-lacking yNAGK, ligand-free as well as complexed with acetylglutamate or acetylglutamate and arginine, and of complete mature yNAGK. While all other known arginine-inhibitable NAGKs are doughnut-like hexameric trimers of dimers of AAK domains, yNAGK has as central structure a flat tetramer formed by two dimers of AAK domains. These dimers differ from canonical AAK dimers in the -110° rotation of one subunit with respect to the other. In the hexameric enzymes, an N-terminal extension, found in all arginine-inhibitable NAGKs, forms a protruding helix that interlaces the dimers. In yNAGK, however, it conforms a two-helix platform that mediates interdimeric interactions. Arginine appears to freeze an open inactive AAK domain conformation. In the complete yNAGK structure, two pairs of DUF619 domains flank the AAK domain tetramer, providing a mechanism for the DUF619 domain modulatory functions. The DUF619 domain exhibits the histone acetyltransferase fold, resembling the catalytic domain of bacterial NAGS. However, the putative acetyl CoA site is blocked, explaining the lack of NAGS activity of yNAGK. We conclude that the tetrameric architecture is an adaptation to metabolon formation and propose an organization for this metabolon, suggesting that yNAGK may be a good model also for yeast and human NAGSs.

  11. Insight on an arginine synthesis metabolon from the tetrameric structure of yeast acetylglutamate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Cima

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK catalyzes the second, generally controlling, step of arginine biosynthesis. In yeasts, NAGK exists either alone or forming a metabolon with N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase (NAGS, which catalyzes the first step and exists only within the metabolon. Yeast NAGK (yNAGK has, in addition to the amino acid kinase (AAK domain found in other NAGKs, a ~150-residue C-terminal domain of unclear significance belonging to the DUF619 domain family. We deleted this domain, proving that it stabilizes yNAGK, slows catalysis and modulates feed-back inhibition by arginine. We determined the crystal structures of both the DUF619 domain-lacking yNAGK, ligand-free as well as complexed with acetylglutamate or acetylglutamate and arginine, and of complete mature yNAGK. While all other known arginine-inhibitable NAGKs are doughnut-like hexameric trimers of dimers of AAK domains, yNAGK has as central structure a flat tetramer formed by two dimers of AAK domains. These dimers differ from canonical AAK dimers in the -110° rotation of one subunit with respect to the other. In the hexameric enzymes, an N-terminal extension, found in all arginine-inhibitable NAGKs, forms a protruding helix that interlaces the dimers. In yNAGK, however, it conforms a two-helix platform that mediates interdimeric interactions. Arginine appears to freeze an open inactive AAK domain conformation. In the complete yNAGK structure, two pairs of DUF619 domains flank the AAK domain tetramer, providing a mechanism for the DUF619 domain modulatory functions. The DUF619 domain exhibits the histone acetyltransferase fold, resembling the catalytic domain of bacterial NAGS. However, the putative acetyl CoA site is blocked, explaining the lack of NAGS activity of yNAGK. We conclude that the tetrameric architecture is an adaptation to metabolon formation and propose an organization for this metabolon, suggesting that yNAGK may be a good model also for yeast and human NAGSs.

  12. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  13. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  14. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  15. Intravenous maternal -arginine administration to twin-bearing ewes during late pregnancy enhances placental growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, D S; Sciascia, Q; Sales, F; Wards, N J; Oliver, M H; McCoard, S A

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate if intravenous maternal Arg administration to well-fed twin-bearing ewes, from 100 to 140 d of gestation or birth, could enhance placental development and placental nutrient transport. Ewes received intravenous infusions of saline (control) or 345 μmol Arg HCl/kg of BW 3 times daily from d 100 of pregnancy (P100) to d 140 of pregnancy (P140; cohort 1) or from P100 to birth (cohort 2). At P140, ewes in cohort 1 were euthanized and individual placentae per fetus were dissected and placentomes were classed per type (A to D) and size (light to heavy). Placentome number and individual weight were recorded. As an indicator of placental nutrient transport, blood plasma was collected from the uterine ovarian vein (UOV), uterine artery (UA), and umbilical vein and artery at the time of euthanasia and analyzed for metabolites and free AA concentrations. The ewes in cohort 2 were allowed to lamb and lambs were weighed at birth. The expelled placenta was dissected and number of cotyledons and weights of total cotyledons, remaining fetal membranes, and total placenta were recorded. At P140, Arg-infused ewes had a 63% ( = 0.03) greater number of unoccupied caruncles than control ewes. No differences were observed for placental weight at P140. At birth, lambs from Arg-infused ewes tended to have 11% ( = 0.09) greater placental weight and 34% ( = 0.03) greater total cotyledon weight compared with control lambs. Arginine-infused ewes (Arg-infused) had increased concentrations of Arg ( = 0.0001) and ornithine (Orn; = 0.004) but decreased concentrations of Met ( = 0.01) and His ( = 0.02 and = 0.09, respectively) compared with control ewes in plasma UOV and UA. Fetuses from Arg-infused ewes had increased concentrations of Orn ( = 0.005) and decreased concentrations of His ( = 0.006), Met ( = 0.003), and Lys ( = 0.01) but no differences in Arg ( > 0.10) concentrations were found compared with control fetuses in umbilical artery and vein plasma. This

  16. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500 on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    Full Text Available For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (p<0.05, and the correlation between psychological and biochemical data was identified (p<0.05. Overall, we concluded that the confined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  17. During the long way to Mars: effects of 520 days of confinement (Mars500) on the assessment of affective stimuli and stage alteration in mood and plasma hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Jing, Xiaolu; Lv, Ke; Wu, Bin; Bai, Yanqiang; Luo, Yuejia; Chen, Shanguang; Li, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    For future interplanetary manned spaceflight, mental issues, as well as physiological problems, must inevitably be considered and solved. Mars500 is a high-fidelity ground simulation experiment that involved 520 days of confined isolation for six multinational crewmembers. This experiment provided a good opportunity to perform psycho-physiological and psycho-social researches on such missions. To investigate emotional responses and psychological adaptation over long-term confinement, the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS) was selected as the visual emotional stimuli in this study. Additional data collected and analyzed included the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire and the levels of four types of plasma hormones: cortisol, 5-hydroxy tryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The results demonstrated an obvious bias on valence rating for unpleasant stimuli with time (pconfined crew tended to assign positive ratings to negative pictures with time, which might be driven by a defensive system. There was a stage-changing pattern of psychological adaptation of the Mars500 crew, which is similar to the third-quarter phenomenon.

  18. Exogenous L-arginine reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and oxidative stress in patients with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Vinicius P; Rocha, Helena N M; Silva, Gustavo M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Increased matrix metalloproteinases activity and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability contributes to development of hypertension and this may be associated with a defective L-arginine-NO pathway. Exogenous L-arginine improves endothelial function to prevent the onset of cardiovascular...... disease, but the mechanism by which this is accomplished remains unclear. We determined the effects of exogenous L-arginine infusion on vascular biomarkers in patients with hypertension. Main methods Venous blood samples were obtained from seven patients with hypertension (45 ± 5 yrs., HT group...... biomarkers between groups during the saline infusion (P > 0.05). Significance Exogenous L-arginine diminished metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio along with restoring the oxidative stress balance in patients with hypertension....

  19. Correlation of the L-Arginine Pathway with Thrombo-Inflammation May Contribute to the Outcome of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Tihamer; Pusch, Gabriella; Nagy, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immune responses contribute to secondary injury after acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and metabolites of the L-arginine pathway are associated with stroke outcome. Here, we analyzed the relationship of the L-arginine pathway with thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in AIS and their additive...... and independent associations to outcome. METHODS: Serial changes in P-selectin, tPA, MCP-1, sCD40L, IL-6, IL-8, L-arginine, and asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, SDMA) were investigated in 55 patients with AIS and without infection within 6 and 72 hours after stroke onset. Outcomes were assessed...... as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) worsening by 24 hours, poststroke infection, and death by 1 month. RESULTS: Serum levels of L-arginine showed negative correlation, whereas ADMA and SDMA showed positive correlation with thrombo-inflammatory biomarkers in the hyperacute phase. Most...

  20. Selective small-chemical inhibitors of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 with anti-lung cancer activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Mei Kong

    Full Text Available Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5 plays critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes, including tumorigenesis. By screening a library of small chemical compounds, we identified eight compounds that selectively inhibit the PRMT5 enzymatic activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 6 μM. Molecular docking simulation and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that identified compounds target the substrate-binding site in PRMT5. Treatment of lung cancer cells with identified inhibitors led to inhibition of the symmetrical arginine methylation of SmD3 and histones and the cellular proliferation. Oral administration of the inhibitor demonstrated antitumor activity in a lung tumor xenograft model. Thus, identified PRMT5-specific small-molecule inhibitors would help elucidate the biological roles of PRMT5 and serve as lead compounds for future drug development.

  1. A cyanase is transcriptionally regulated by arginine and involved in cyanate decomposition in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2008-11-01

    Cyanase degrades toxic cyanate to NH3 and CO2 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. High concentrations of cyanate are fairly toxic to organisms. Here, we characterize a eukaryotic cyanase for the first time. We have isolated the cyn1 gene encoding a cyanase from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora and functionally characterized the cyn1 product after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed a predicted catalytic centre of three conserved amino-acids. A Deltacyn1 knockout in S. macrospora was totally devoid of cyanase activity and showed an increased sensitivity to exogenously supplied cyanate in an arginine-depleted medium, defects in ascospore germination, but no other obvious morphological phenotype. By means of real-time PCR we have demonstrated that the transcriptional level of cyn1 is markedly elevated in the presence of cyanate and down-regulated by addition of arginine. The putative functions of cyanase in fungi are discussed.

  2. Solid-state properties and dissolution behaviour of tablets containing co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev

    2015-01-01

    arginine in a larger production scale. In this work, a tablet formulation was developed for a co-amorphous salt, namely spray dried indomethacin–arginine (SD IND–ARG). The effects of compaction pressure on tablet properties, physical stability and dissolution profiles under non-sink conditions were examined....... Dissolution profiles of tablets with SD IND–ARG (TAB SD IND–ARG) were compared to those of tablets containing a physical mixture of crystalline IND and ARG (TAB PM IND–ARG) and to the dissolution of pure spray dried powder. Concerning tableting, the developed formulation allowed for the preparation of tablets...... with a broad range of compaction pressures resulting in different porosities and tensile strengths. XRPD results showed that, overall, no crystallization occurred neither during tableting nor during long-term storage. Dissolution profiles of TAB SD IND–ARG showed an immediate release of IND by erosion...

  3. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying......, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties...... to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine....

  4. The L-arginine Pathway in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Severe Carotid Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Tihamer; Pusch, Gabriella; Papp, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) resulting in a decreased production of nitric oxide, which regulates the vascular tone. METHODS: Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS, n = 55......) and asymptomatic significant carotid stenosis (AsCS, n = 44) were prospectively investigated. L-arginine, ADMA, SDMA, S100 B, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were serially measured within 6 hours after the onset of stroke, at 24 and 72 poststroke hours. All markers were compared with healthy...... subjects (n = 45). The severity of AIS was daily assessed by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scoring. RESULTS: Even within 6 hours after the onset of stroke, L-arginine, ADMA, and SDMA were significantly higher in patients with AIS compared with both AsCS and healthy subjects. S100 B reflecting...

  5. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  6. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats: effect of l-Arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M Del Carmen; Lores-Arnaiz, Silvia; Albertoni Borghese, M Florencia; Balonga, Sabrina; Lavagna, Agustina; Filipuzzi, Ana Laura; Cicerchia, Daniela; Majowicz, Monica; Bustamante, Juanita

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in many diseases, including diabetes. It is well known that oxygen free radical species are produced endogenously by mitochondria, and also nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) associated to mitochondrial membranes, in consequence these organelles constitute main targets for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to analyze mitochondrial physiology and NO production in brain cortex mitochondria of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats in an early stage of diabetes and the potential effect of L-arginine administration. The diabetic condition was characterized by a clear hyperglycaemic state with loose of body weight after 4 days of STZ injection. This hyperglycaemic state was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction that was evident by an impairment of the respiratory activity, increased production of superoxide anion and a clear mitochondrial depolarization. In addition, the alteration in mitochondrial physiology was associated with a significant decrease in both NO production and nitric oxide synthase type I (NOS I) expression associated to the mitochondrial membranes. An increased level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in brain cortex homogenates from STZ-diabetic rats indicated the presence of lipid peroxidation. L-arginine treatment to diabetic rats did not change blood glucose levels but significantly ameliorated the oxidative stress evidenced by lower TBARS and a lower level of superoxide anion. This effect was paralleled by improvement of mitochondrial respiratory function and a partial mitochondrial repolarization.In addition, the administration of L-arginine to diabetic rats prevented the decrease in NO production and NOSI expression. These results could indicate that exogenously administered L-arginine may have beneficial effects on mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and NO production in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats.

  8. Low dose vitamin C, vitamin E or L-arginine supplementation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of chronic low-dose supplementation with vitamin C (300mg/day for 6 weeks in adults or 100mg/day for 6 weeks in children) or vitamin E (100 IU/day for 6 weeks in adults) or L-Arginine (1g/day for 6 weeks in adults) in ameliorating the pathophysiology and combating the deleterious effects of sickle cell disease in ...

  9. Evaluation of novel arginine based inhibitors of DDAH and investigations into radical hydroacylation of vinyl sulfonates

    OpenAIRE

    Khanom, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is in two main sections. In the first section, studies on methylarginine processing enzymes are presented. Dimethyalrginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is a class of enzymes involved in the metabolism of methylarginines ADMA and L-NMMA, which indirectly regulate physiological nitric oxide levels. It is desirable to inhibit excess NO in pathological situations, and the arginine mimetic L-257 is a DDAH inhibitor which reduces levels of NO. Synthesis of ester analo...

  10. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  11. Arginine and proline applied as food additives stimulate high freeze tolerance in larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koštál, Vladimír; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Moos, Martin; Šimek, Petr

    2016-08-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an insect of tropical origin. Its larval stage is evolutionarily adapted for rapid growth and development under warm conditions and shows high sensitivity to cold. In this study, we further developed an optimal acclimation and freezing protocol that significantly improves larval freeze tolerance (an ability to survive at -5°C when most of the freezable fraction of water is converted to ice). Using the optimal protocol, freeze survival to adult stage increased from 0.7% to 12.6% in the larvae fed standard diet (agar, sugar, yeast, cornmeal). Next, we fed the larvae diets augmented with 31 different amino compounds, administered in different concentrations, and observed their effects on larval metabolomic composition, viability, rate of development and freeze tolerance. While some diet additives were toxic, others showed positive effects on freeze tolerance. Statistical correlation revealed tight association between high freeze tolerance and high levels of amino compounds involved in arginine and proline metabolism. Proline- and arginine-augmented diets showed the highest potential, improving freeze survival to 42.1% and 50.6%, respectively. Two plausible mechanisms by which high concentrations of proline and arginine might stimulate high freeze tolerance are discussed: (i) proline, probably in combination with trehalose, could reduce partial unfolding of proteins and prevent membrane fusions in the larvae exposed to thermal stress (prior to freezing) or during freeze dehydration; (ii) both arginine and proline are exceptional among amino compounds in their ability to form supramolecular aggregates which probably bind partially unfolded proteins and inhibit their aggregation under increasing freeze dehydration. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Association of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene polymorphisms with hepatorenal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Luo, X.; Ye, J.; Liu, S.; Miu, L.; Bao, J.; Wang, F.; Yu, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with type I hepatorenal syndrome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the Hangzhou City Xixi Hospital, Hangzhou, China, from January 2012 to June 2014, and comprised patients with type I hepatorenal syndrome and individuals with cirrhosis who acted as the control group. Arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene rs113481894 locus single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by high-resolution melting methods. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17. Results: Of the 60 participants, 28(46.7%) were in the hepatorenal syndrome group and 32(53.3%) were controls. The mean age was 42.21+-11.30years in the hepatorenal syndrome group and 43.69+-12.60 in the control group (p=0.64). Mean total bilirubin, albumin and prothrombin activity levels were 154.76+-51.58, 49.30+-24.67 and 33.42+-3.69 in the hepatorenal syndrome group compared to 181.26+-64.46, 41.78+-17.52 and 32.98+-4.81 among controls (p=0.09, p=0.18 and p=0.70). Statistically significant differences were found in the distributions of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a gene rs113481894 locus T allele between type I hepatorenal syndrome patients and the control group (odds ratio= 2.230; p= 0.040). Conclusion: T allele located at arginine vasopressin receptor 1a receptor promoter rs113481894 locus may be associated with the pathogenesis of type I hepatorenal syndrome. (author)

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of arginine kinase gene of Toxocara canis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Shivani; Samanta, S.; Harish, D. R.; Sudhakar, N. R.; Raina, O. K.; Shantaveer, S. B.; Madhu, D. N.; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara canis is an important gastrointestinal nematode of dogs and also a causative agent of visceral larva migrans in humans. Arginine kinase (AK) gene is one of the important biomolecule of phosphagen kinase of T. canis which is emerging as an exciting novel diagnostic target in toxocarosis. The present study was carried out to clone and characterize AK gene of T. canis for future utilization as a diagnostic molecule. Total RNA was extracted from intact adult worms and reverse transcripti...

  14. Mutation of exposed hydrophobic amino acids to arginine to increase protein stability

    OpenAIRE

    Strub, Caroline; Alies, Carole; Lougarre, Andrée; Ladurantie, Caroline; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Fournier, Didier

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background One strategy to increase the stability of proteins is to reduce the area of water-accessible hydrophobic surface. Results In order to test it, we replaced 14 solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues of acetylcholinesterase by arginine. The stabilities of the resulting proteins were tested using denaturation by high temperature, organic solvents, urea and by proteolytic digestion. Conclusion Altough the mutational effects were rather small, this strategy proved to be successful...

  15. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  16. Membrane interaction and secondary structure of de novo designed arginine-and tryptophan peptides with dual function

    KAUST Repository

    Rydberg, Hanna A.

    2012-10-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides are two classes of positively charged membrane active peptides with several properties in common. The challenge is to combine knowledge about the membrane interaction mechanisms and structural properties of the two classes to design peptides with membrane-specific actions, useful either as transporters of cargo or as antibacterial substances. Membrane active peptides are commonly rich in arginine and tryptophan. We have previously designed a series of arg/trp peptides and investigated how the position and number of tryptophans affect cellular uptake. Here we explore the antimicrobial properties and the interaction with lipid model membranes of these peptides, using minimal inhibitory concentrations assay (MIC), circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD). The results show that the arg/trp peptides inhibit the growth of the two gram positive strains Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pyogenes, with some individual variations depending on the position of the tryptophans. No inhibition of the gram negative strains Proteus mirabilis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was noticed. CD indicated that when bound to lipid vesicles one of the peptides forms an α-helical like structure, whereas the other five exhibited rather random coiled structures. LD indicated that all six peptides were somehow aligned parallel with the membrane surface. Our results do not reveal any obvious connection between membrane interaction and antimicrobial effect for the studied peptides. By contrast cell-penetrating properties can be coupled to both the secondary structure and the degree of order of the peptides. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Effects Of L-Arginine And L-Name On Coronary Flow And Oxidative Stress In Isolated Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobot Tanja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental study was to assess the effects of the acute administration of L-arginine alone and in combination with L-NAME (a non-selective NO synthase inhibitor on the coronary flow and oxidative stress markers in isolated rat hearts. The experimental study was performed on hearts isolated from Wistar albino rats (n=12, male, 8 weeks old, body mass of 180-200 g. Retrograde perfusion of the isolated preparations was performed using a modified method according to the Langendorff technique with a gradual increase in the perfusion pressure (40–120 cmH2O. The following values were measured in the collected coronary effluents: coronary flow, released nitrites (NO production marker, superoxide anion radical and the index of lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbiturate reactive substances. The experimental protocol was performed under controlled conditions, followed by the administration of L-arginine alone (1 mmol and L-arginine (1 mmol + L-NAME (30 μmol. The results indicated that L-arginine did not significantly increase the coronary flow or the release of NO, TBARS and the superoxide anion radical. These effects were partially blocked by the joint administration of L-arginine + L-NAME, which indicated their competitive effect. Hence, the results of our study do not demonstrate significant effects of L-arginine administration on the coronary flow and oxidative stress markers in isolated rat hearts.

  18. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.J.; Lassila, J.K.; Fenn, T.D.; Zalatan, J.G.; Herschlag, D.

    2008-01-01

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by ∼3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 (angstrom) X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state

  19. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC, found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively. ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  20. Reverse Transcriptase-Containing Particles Induced in Rous Sarcoma Virus-Transformed Rat Cells by Arginine Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Weinberg, Eynat; Haspel, Osnat; Becker, Yechiel

    1972-01-01

    Incubation of rat cells transformed by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) in an arginine-deficient medium resulted in accumulation of particles in the culture medium. Such particles did not appear when the transformed rat cells were incubated in a complete medium nor in the medium of primary rat cells which were incubated either in arginine-deficient or complete media. The particles which were released from the arginine-deprived transformed rat cells resemble C-type particles in their properties. These particles band in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.16 g/ml and contain 35S ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules and a reverse transcriptase activity. Analysis of the cytoplasm of transformed and primary rat cells, deprived and undeprived of arginine, revealed the presence of reverse transcriptase-containing particles which banded in sucrose gradients at a density of 1.14 g/ml. These particles differed from the particles released into the medium by the arginine-deprived RSV-transformed rat cells. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules synthesized in vitro by the reverse transcriptase present in the particles isolated from the medium of arginine-deprived cells hybridized to RSV RNA, whereas the DNA synthesized by the cell-bound enzyme had no homology to RSV RNA. PMID:4116137

  1. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. Methods This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks®, Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. Results There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 ± 0.18 L/min, p 2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. Conclusion An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in improving exercise performance in elderly.

  2. Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn REYES

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between urease and arginine deiminase system (ADS activities and dental caries through a cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: Urease and ADS activities were measured in saliva and plaque samples from 10 caries-free subjects and 13 caries-active. Urease activity was obtained from the ammonia produced by incubation of plaque and saliva samples in urea. ADS activity was obtained from the ammonia generated by the arginine-HCl and Tris-maleate buffer. Specific activity was defined as micromoles of ammonia per minute per milligram of protein. Shapiro-Wilk statistical test was used to analyze the distribution of the data, and Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of the data. Results: The specific urease activity in saliva and plaque was significantly higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. ADS activity in saliva (6.050 vs 1.350, p=0.0154 and plaque (8.830 vs 1.210, p=0.025 was also higher in individuals with low DMFT scores. Conclusions: Caries-free subjects had a higher ammonia generation activity by urease and arginine deiminase system for both saliva and plaque samples than low caries-active subjects. High levels of alkali production in oral environment were related to caries-free subjects.

  3. Characterization of four arginine kinases in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia: Investigation on the substrate inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Daichi; Suzuki, Takaya; Hirokawa, Saki; Fuke, Kyoko; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2017-08-01

    The ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia contains four arginine kinase genes (AK1-4). We detected cDNA for only three of the AKs (AK1-3) via PCR. Recombinant AK1-4 were expressed in Escherichia coli and their kinetics parameters determined. AK3 showed typical substrate inhibition toward arginine, and enzymatic activity markedly decreased when arginine concentration increased. This is the first example of substrate inhibition in wild-type phosphagen kinases. To explore the substrate inhibition mechanism, site-directed mutations were generated, targeting the amino acid sequence D-D-S-Q-V at positions 77-81 in P. tetraurelia AK3. Among the mutants, substrate inhibition was lost remarkably in the S79A mutant. In spite of high amino acid sequence identity (91%) between P. tetraurelia AK3 and AK4, the enzymatic activity of AK4 was less by 3% than that of AK3. We noticed that the conservative G298 was unusually replaced by R in P. tetraurelia AK4, and we constructed two mutants, R298G/AK4 and G298R/AK3. Enzymatic activity of the former mutant was comparable with that of the wild-type AK3, whereas that of the latter mutant was dramatically reduced. Thus, we concluded that the significantly low activity of P. tetraurelia AK4 is due to the residue R298. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and characterization of an arginine kinase as a major allergen from silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Xia, Lixin; Wu, Yulan; Xia, Qingyou; Chen, Jiajie; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is an important insect in the textile industry and its pupa are used in Chinese cuisine and traditional Chinese medicine. The silk, urine and dander of silkworms is often the cause of allergies in sericulture workers and the pupa has been found to be a food allergen in China. Recent studies have focused on reporting cases of silkworm allergies, but only a few studies have addressed the specific allergens present in the B. mori silkworm. We collected sera from 10 patients with a positive skin prick test to silkworm crude extract (SCE) and analyzed these samples by Western blot and ELISA. The cDNA of arginine kinase from the B. mori silkworm was also cloned and expressed in high yield in Escherichia coli. Allergenicity and cross-allergenicity of the recombinant B. mori arginine kinase (rBmAK) were investigated by ELISA inhibition assay. Collected sera all reacted to a 42-kDa protein in a Western blot with SCE as the antigen. Preincubation of sera with rBmAK eliminated the reactivity of the patients' sera to this 42-kDa band. All patient sera also exhibited positive reactivity to SCE in an ELISA assay. BmAK also demonstrated cross-reactivity with a recombinant AK from cockroach. Arginine kinase from the B. mori silkworm is a major allergen and crossreacts with cockroach AK. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Asymmetric Arginine dimethylation of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 promotes DNA targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Henrik; Barth, Stephanie; Palermo, Richard D.; Mamiani, Alfredo; Hennard, Christine; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; West, Michelle J.; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Graesser, Friedrich A.

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) growth-transforms B-lymphocytes. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for transformation and activates gene expression by association with DNA-bound transcription factors such as RBPJκ (CSL/CBF1). We have previously shown that EBNA2 contains symmetrically dimethylated Arginine (sDMA) residues. Deletion of the RG-repeat results in a reduced ability of the virus to immortalise B-cells. We now show that the RG repeat also contains asymmetrically dimethylated Arginines (aDMA) but neither non-methylated (NMA) Arginines nor citrulline residues. We demonstrate that only aDMA-containing EBNA2 is found in a complex with DNA-bound RBPJκ in vitro and preferentially associates with the EBNA2-responsive EBV C, LMP1 and LMP2A promoters in vivo. Inhibition of methylation in EBV-infected cells results in reduced expression of the EBNA2-regulated viral gene LMP1, providing additional evidence that methylation is a prerequisite for DNA-binding by EBNA2 via association with the transcription factor RBPJκ.

  7. Expression of progesterone receptor protein in the ovine uterus during the estrous cycle: Effects of nutrition, arginine and FSH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazul-Bilska, Anna T; Thammasiri, Jiratti; Kraisoon, Aree; Reyaz, Arshi; Bass, Casie S; Kaminski, Samantha L; Navanukraw, Chainarong; Redmer, Dale A

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) AB in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated or non-treated sheep administered with arginine (Arg) or saline (Sal) fed a control (C), excess (O) or restricted (U) diet, uterine tissues were collected at the early, mid and/or late luteal phases. In exp. 1, ewes from each diet were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, Arg or Sal administration three times daily from day 0 of the first estrous cycle until uterine tissue collection. In exp. 2, ewes were injected twice daily with FSH on days 13-15 of the first estrous cycle. Uterine tissues were immunostained to detect PGR followed by image analysis. PGR were detected in luminal epithelium (LE), endometrial glands (EG), endometrial stroma (ES), myometrium (Myo), and endometrial and myometrial blood vessels. The percentage of PR-positive cells and/or intensity of staining were affected by phase of the estrous cycle, plane of nutrition, and/or FSH but not by Arg. In exp. 1, percentage of PGR-positive cells in LE and EG but not in ES and Myo was greater at the early and mid than late luteal phase, was not affected by plane of nutrition, and was similar in LE and EG. Intensity of staining was affected by phase of the estrous cycle and plane of nutrition in LE, EG and Myo, and was the greatest in LE, less in EG, and least in ES and Myo. In exp. 2, percentage of PGR-positive cells in LE, EG, ES and Myo was affected by phase of the estrous cycle, but not by plane of nutrition; was greater at the early than mid luteal phase; and was greatest in LE and EG, less in luminal (superficial) ES and Myo and least in deep ES. Intensity of staining was affected by phase of the estrous cycle and plane of nutrition in all compartments but ES, and was the greatest in LE and luminal EG, less in deep EG, and least in ES and Myo. Comparison of data for FSH (superovulated) and Sal-treated (non-superovulated) ewes demonstrated that FSH affected PR expression in all evaluated

  8. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above

  9. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-05-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above.

  10. Plasma Levels of Dimethylarginines in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Neonates: Its Relation with Perinatal Factors and Short-Term Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. Moonen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenously produced inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO synthase, in particular asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, are currently considered of importance in various disease states characterized by reduced NO availability. We investigated the association between plasma levels of ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA, l-arginine, and citrulline and perinatal factors and outcome in 130 preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g infants. Plasma samples were collected 6–12 h after birth. We did not find significant correlations between ADMA, SDMA, l-arginine, and citrulline levels and gestational age or birth weight. However, the arginine:ADMA ratio (AAR, a better indicator of NO availability than either arginine or ADMA separately was positively correlated with gestational age. ADMA and arginine levels were not significantly different between males and females but males showed a negative correlation between ADMA levels and gestational age. Perinatal factors such as preeclampsia, chrorioamnionitis, prolonged rupture of membranes, or form of delivery did not significantly alter dimethylarginine levels or AAR. In contrast, the AAR was significantly reduced in the infants with respiratory distress, mechanical ventilation, and systemic hypotension Therefore, our data suggest that altered NO availability may play a role in the respiratory and cardiovascular adaptation in preterm VLBW infants.

  11. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1947-01-01

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  12. Plasma Science Committee (PLSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Plasma Science Committee (PLSC) is a standing committee under the auspices of the Board on Physics and Astronomy, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications of the National Academy of Sciences--National Research Council. Plasma sciences represent a broad and diverse field. The PLSC has accepted the responsibility of monitoring the continuing development and assessing the general health of the field as whole. Although select advisory bodies have been created to address specific issues that affect plasma science, such as the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC), the PLSC provides a focus for the plasma science community that is unique and essential. The membership of the PLSC is drawn from research laboratories in universities, industry, and government. Areas of expertise on the committee include accelerators and beams, space physics, astrophysics, computational physics and applied mathematics, fusion plasmas, fundamental experiments and theory, radiation sources, low temperature plasmas, and plasma-surface interactions. The PLSC is well prepared to respond to requests for studies on specific issues. This report discusses ion of the PLSC work

  13. EG-01EPIGENETIC INACTIVATION OF ARGININE BIOSYNTHESIS PATHWAY IN PAEDIATRIC HIGH GRADE GLIOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channathodiyil, Prasanna; Kardooni, Hoda; Khozoie, Combiz; Nelofer, Syed; Darling, John; Morris, Mark; Warr, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant cellular metabolism contributes significantly to the growth and proliferation of several tumour types. Identification of genes that control critical metabolic pathways is a major factor in the development of novel therapies that target metabolic defects in tumour cells. Our aim is to identify such genes in paediatric high grade glioma that are altered due to promoter hyper-methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides. Genome wide DNA methylation profiling using Illumina infinium methylation 450K bead chip array was performed on 18 well-characterised short term cultures derived from paediatric high grade astrocytoma including 3 from diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Data analyses were based on beta scores of probes for each gene as measures of intensities of methylation. Genes were selected with beta scores of tumour > =0.70 and that of normal human astrocytes < =0.30. We identified that two vital genes involved in the regulation of arginine biosynthetic pathway, argininosuccinate synthetase 1(ASS1) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) were methylated in 9/18 (50%) cases. Hyper methylation was confirmed by methylation-specific PCR and up-regulation of gene expression following treatment with 2 µM 5-aza-2'-deoxyctidine. Down-regulation of ASS1 in hyper methylated samples was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Our findings report epigenetic deregulation of ASS1 and ASL in a subset of paediatric high grade glioma. The enzymes encoded by these genes are essential elements of urea cycle that function together in the de novo synthesis of arginine from citrulline. Tumour cells with deficient ASS1/ASL depend on external sources of arginine for survival and have been reported to be sensitive to autophagic cell death induced by arginine starvation. Therefore, further investigation may render the possibility of arginine-deprivation therapy in such sub type of paediatric high grade glioma. This therapeutic approach is of interest as tumour cells with abnormal

  14. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  15. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  16. INF-β1b therapy modulates L-arginine and nitric oxide metabolism in patients with relapse remittent multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Ivana; Vojinovic, Slobodan; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Radmila; Basic, Jelena; Pavlovic, Dusica; Ilic, Andjelka; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Stukalov, Maja

    2012-12-15

    The scope of this study is the examination of NO(2)+NO(3), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), arginase activity and asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethyl-L-arginine concentrations in plasma of MS patients during interferon-β1b therapy. The study population included 15 (12 women, 3 men) untreated MS patients and 12 (10 women, 2 men) interferon-β1b treated MS patients with clinically definite relapsing MS (McDonalds criteria) for at least 1 year and a baseline EDSS score of 1.0 to 3.5 inclusive. Patients were treated with 250 μg IU interferon-β1b s.c. every second day during 30 months. The disease course was evaluated using correlations between baseline EDSS score and relapse rates in both groups. During interferon-β1b treatment, EDSS scores in treated patients were decreased compared to untreated ones - after 18 and 30 months (p<0.05). In interferon-β1b treated MS patients, NO(2)+NO(3), 3-NT and RSNO plasma concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.05), while arginase activity, ADMA and SDMA levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) during the therapy, compared to the baseline levels in treated patients. The investigated parameters may be the new biomarkers, providing information for the therapeutic approach and valuable in clinical monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  18. Interactions of GRF(1-29)NH2 with plasma proteins and their effects on the release of the peptide from a PLAGA matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, B; Coudane, J; Vert, M

    2005-09-02

    The administration of the GRF(1-29)NH2 Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone analog is known as relevant of the concept of drug delivery system using a bioresorbable matrix. However, the release of this peptide from poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) matrices is affected by its insolubility at neutral in salted media and in plasma as well. In order to investigate the origin and the nature of the insolubility in these media in more details, the precipitates collected when the peptide was set in contact with saline, isotonic pH=7.4 phosphate buffer and plasma were analyzed by various techniques, namely weighting, gel chromatography, 1D- and 2D-immunoelectrophoresis, and dialysis to discern the soluble from the insoluble or aggregated fractions. It is shown that precipitation in protein-free salted media is due to a salting out phenomenon complemented by the neutralization of the solubilizing electrostatic charges in the isotonic buffer. In contrast, the precipitation in plasma is due to inter polyelectrolyte-type complexation that involved polyanionic proteins having a rather low isoelectric point like albumin, transferin, haptoglobulin and IgG immunoglobulins. When a rather large quantity of GRF(1-29)NH2 was entrapped in bioresorbable pellets working at a percolating regime after subcutaneous implantation in rats, the peptide was slowly released despite the complexation with plasma proteins. However only a very small part of the peptide was found in blood, this small part being still large enough to cause a detectable increase of the circulating growth hormone concentration. Attempts made to increase the solubility of the peptide in plasma were successful when the peptide was combined with arginine, an amino acid known to promote the poor hormonal activity of injected GRF(1-29)NH2 solutions under clinical conditions.

  19. Arginase treatment prevents the recovery of canine lymphoma and osteosarcoma cells resistant to the toxic effects of prolonged arginine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James W; Evans, Christopher H; Scott, Milcah C; Rütgen, Barbara C; O'Brien, Timothy D; Modiano, Jaime F; Cvetkovic, Goran; Tepic, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly growing tumor cells require a n