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Sample records for affect oxidant-responsive heme

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  2. Heme Oxygenase-1 Deletion Affects Stress Erythropoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yu-An; Kusy, Sophie; Luong, Richard; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here,...

  3. Heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gledhill, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Laan, P.; Timmermans, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Heme is the iron-containing prosthetic group of hemoproteins, and is thus required for photosynthesis, respiration and nitrate reduction in marine phytoplankton. Here we report concentrations of heme b in Southern Ocean phytoplankton and contrast our findings with those in coastal species. The conce

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in prostate cancer cells modulates the oxidative response in bone cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ferrando

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs, we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1 cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis.

  5. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome anal

  6. Dietary heme adversely affects experimental colitis in rats, despite heat-shock protein induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, Marloes A. A.; Vink, Carolien; Schonewille, Arjan J.; Dijkstra, Gerard; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on dietary modulation of inflammatory bowel disease is in its infancy. Dietary heme, mimicking red meat, is cytotoxic to colonic epithelium and thus may aggravate colitis. Alternatively, heme-induced colonic stress might also result in potential protective heat-shock proteins (HS

  7. Free heme pool and activity of key enzyme of heme synthesis in the rat liver under action of agents affecting reduced glutathione level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barannik, T V; Inshina, N M; Kaliman, P A

    2005-01-01

    The decrease of GSH level in the rat liver was found to be accompanied by an increase of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation during first hours after HgCl2, phenylhydrazine (Ph) injection or rhabdomyolysis (the coefficient of correlation -0.978). The activity of the key enzyme of heme synthesis--5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) was 2.5-fold increased in the first hours after Ph injection and rhabdomyolysis. Glutathione injection in vivo as well as CdCl2 caused the increase of GSH content and the inhibition of ALAS. The coefficient of correlation for GSH content and ALAS activity under the action of agents altering both these parameters (CdCl2, Ph, GSH injection and rhabdomyolysis) is 0.938. Taking into account the presence of heme regulatory motif with conserved cystein in many proteins, including ALAS and TDO (accession number in SwissProt database AAH61793 and P21643, respectively), the link between alterations of GSH content, ALAS activity and heme saturation of TDO in the rat liver could be proposed. The further experiments should be performed in order to elucidate the mechanisms of GSH level influence on free heme pool formation in the liver cells. PMID:16846079

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 and its metabolites affect pancreatic tumor growth in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhn Philipp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer (PaCa is a fatal human cancer due to its exceptional resistance to all current anticancer therapies. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is significantly overexpressed in PaCa and seems to play an important role in cancer resistance to anticancer treatment. The inhibition of HO-1 sensitized PaCa cells to chemo- and radiotherapy in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and its metabolites biliverdin, carbon monoxide and iron on PaCa cells. PaCa cell lines with divergent HO-1 expression patterns were used in a murine orthotopic cancer model. HO-1 expression and activity was regulated by zinc (inhibition and cobalt (induction protoporphyrin. Furthermore, the influence of cellular HO-1 levels and its metabolites on effects of standard chemotherapy with gemcitabine was tested in vivo and in vitro. Results High HO-1 expression in PaCa cell lines was associated with increased chemoresistance in vitro. Chemoresistance to gemcitabine was increased during HO-1 induction in PaCa cells expressing low levels of HO-1. The inhibition of HO-1 activity in pancreatic tumors with high HO-1 boosted chemotherapeutic effects in vivo significantly. Furthermore, biliverdin and iron promoted PaCa resistance to chemotherapy. Consequently, specific iron chelation by desferrioxamine revealed profound anticancerous effects. Conclusion In summary, the inhibition of HO-1 and the chelation of iron in PaCa cells were associated with increased sensitivity and susceptibility of pancreatic tumors to chemotherapy in vivo. The metabolites biliverdin and iron seem to be involved in HO-1-mediated resistance to anticancer treatment. Therefore, HO-1 inhibition or direct interference with its metabolites may evolve new PaCa treatment strategies.

  9. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and Heme oxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number...

  10. A mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. Multiple oxygen-responsive steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway affect Hap1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Thomas; Dodd, Athena; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Gorman, Nadia; Sinclair, Peter R; Zhang, Li; Poyton, Robert O

    2003-12-12

    Heme plays central roles in oxygen sensing and utilization in many living organisms. In yeast, heme mediates the effect of oxygen on the expression of many genes involved in using or detoxifying oxygen. However, a direct link between intracellular heme level and oxygen concentration has not been vigorously established. In this report, we have examined the relationships among oxygen levels, heme levels, Hap1 activity, and HAP1 expression. We found that Hap1 activity is controlled in vivo by heme and not by its precursors and that heme activates Hap1 even in anoxic cells. We also found that Hap1 activity exhibits the same oxygen dose-response curves as Hap1-dependent aerobic genes and that these dose-response curves have a sharp break at approximately 1 microM O2. The results show that the intracellular signaling heme level, reflected as Hap1 activity, is closely correlated with oxygen concentration. Furthermore, we found that bypass of all heme synthetic steps but ferrochelatase by deuteroporphyrin IX does not circumvent the need for oxygen in Hap1 full activation by heme, suggesting that the last step of heme synthesis, catalyzed by ferrochelatase, is also subjected to oxygen control. Our results show that multiple heme synthetic steps can sense oxygen concentration and provide significant insights into the mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. PMID:14512429

  11. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group...

  12. [Heme metabolism and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Barannik, T B

    2001-01-01

    The role of heme metabolism in oxidative stress development and defense reactions formation in mammals under different stress factors are discussed in the article. Heme metabolism is considered as the totality of synthesis, degradation, transport and exchange processes of exogenous heme and heme liberated from erythrocyte hemoglobin under erythrocyte aging and hemolysis. The literature data presented display normal heme metabolism including mammals heme-binding proteins and intracellular free heme pool and heme metabolism alterations under oxidative stress development. The main attention is focused to the prooxidant action of heme, the interaction of heme transport and lipid exchange, and to the heme metabolism key enzymes (delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase), serum heme-binding protein hemopexin and intracellular heme-binding proteins participating in metabolism adaptation under the action of factors, which cause oxidative stress. PMID:11599427

  13. Characterization of Heme-DNA Complexes Composed of Some Chemically Modified Hemes and Parallel G-Quadruplex DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Masashi; Katahira, Yuya; Shimizu, Haruna; Di, Yue; Shibata, Tomokazu; Tai, Hulin; Suzuki, Akihiro; Neya, Saburo

    2015-12-15

    Heme {Fe(II)- or Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX complex [heme(Fe(2+)) or heme(Fe(3+)), respectively]} binds selectively to the 3'-terminal G-quartet of a parallel G-quadruplex DNA formed from a single repeat sequence of the human telomere, d(TTAGGG), through a π-π stacking interaction between the porphyrin moiety of the heme and the G-quartet. The binding affinities of some chemically modified hemes(Fe(3+)) for DNA and the structures of complexes between the modified hemes(Fe(2+)) and DNA, with carbon monoxide (CO) coordinated to the heme Fe atom on the side of the heme opposite the G6 G-quartet, have been characterized to elucidate the interaction between the heme and G-quartet in the complexes through analysis of the effects of the heme modification on the structural properties of the complex. The study revealed that the binding affinities and structures of the complexes were barely affected by the heme modification performed in the study. Such plasticity in the binding of heme to the G-quartet is useful for the versatile design of the complex through heme chemical modification and DNA sequence alteration. Furthermore, exchangeable proton signals exhibiting two-proton intensity were observed at approximately -3.5 ppm in the (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the CO adducts of the complexes. Through analysis of the NMR results, together with theoretical consideration, we concluded that the heme(Fe(2+)) axial ligand trans to CO in the complex is a water molecule (H2O). Identification of the Fe-bound H2O accommodated between the heme and G-quartet planes in the complex provides new insights into the structure-function relationship of the complex. PMID:26595799

  14. Transmembrane heme delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Barry S; Beck, David L.; Monika, Elizabeth M.; Kranz, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Heme proteins play pivotal roles in a wealth of biological processes. Despite this, the molecular mechanisms by which heme traverses bilayer membranes for use in biosynthetic reactions are unknown. The biosynthesis of c-type cytochromes requires that heme is transported to the bacterial periplasm or mitochondrial intermembrane space where it is covalently ligated to two reduced cysteinyl residues of the apocytochrome. Results herein suggest that a family of integral membrane proteins in proka...

  15. Single or functionalized fullerenes interacting with heme group

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    Costa, Wallison Chaves; Diniz, Eduardo Moraes, E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Avenida dos Portugueses, 1966, CEP 65080-805, São Luís - MA (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    The heme group is responsible for iron transportation through the bloodstream, where iron participates in redox reactions, electron transfer, gases detection etc. The efficiency of such processes can be reduced if the whole heme molecule or even the iron is somehow altered from its original oxidation state, which can be caused by interactions with nanoparticles as fullerenes. To verify how such particles alter the geometry and electronic structure of heme molecule, here we report first principles calculations based on density functional theory of heme group interacting with single C{sub 60} fullerene or with C{sub 60} functionalized with small functional groups (−CH{sub 3}, −COOH, −NH{sub 2}, −OH). The calculations shown that the system heme + nanoparticle has a different spin state in comparison with heme group if the fullerene is functionalized. Also a functional group can provide a stronger binding between nanoparticle and heme molecule or inhibit the chemical bonding in comparison with single fullerene results. In addition heme molecule loses electrons to the nanoparticles and some systems exhibited a geometry distortion in heme group, depending on the binding energy. Furthermore, one find that such nanoparticles induce a formation of spin up states in heme group. Moreover, there exist modifications in density of states near the Fermi energy. Although of such changes in heme electronic structure and geometry, the iron atom remains in the heme group with the same oxidation state, so that processes that involve the iron might not be affected, only those that depend on the whole heme molecule.

  16. How Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Heme-Induced Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Lilibeth Lanceta; Mattingly, Jacob M.; Chi Li; Eaton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Earlier observations indicate that free heme is selectively toxic to cells lacking heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) but how this enzyme prevents heme toxicity remains unexplained. Here, using A549 (human lung cancer) and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells incubated with exogenous heme, we find knock-down of HO-1 using siRNA does promote the accumulation of cell-associated heme and heme-induced cell death. However, it appears that the toxic effects of heme are exerted by "loose" (probably in...

  17. Heme uptake in bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...

  18. Non-heme iron enzymes: Contrasts to heme catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Edward I.; Decker, Andrea; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2003-01-01

    Non-heme iron enzymes catalyze a wide range of O2 reactions, paralleling those of heme systems. Non-heme iron active sites are, however, much more difficult to study because they do not exhibit the intense spectral features characteristic of the porphyrin ligand. A spectroscopic methodology was developed that provides significant mechanistic insight into the reactivity of non-heme ferrous active sites. These studies reveal a general mechanistic strategy used by these enzymes and differences i...

  19. Dioxygen reactivity of meso-hydroxylated hemes: intermediates in heme degradation process catalyzed by heme oxygenase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Prasad Rath

    2006-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the only enzyme in mammals known to catalyse the physiological degradation of unwanted heme into biliverdin, Fe ion and CO. The process involves introduction of the hydroxyl group at one of its meso-positions as the first fundamental step of the heme cleavage process. It was also found that meso-amino heme undergoes similar ring-cleavage process while reacting with dioxygen in presence of pyridine as an axial ligand. The present paper briefly reviews the reactions of model meso-hydroxylated heme and its analogues with dioxygen, and their relevance in the heme degradation process.

  20. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauff, Devin L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, which alleviates heme toxicity. Importantly, the inability to sense or respond to heme alters the virulence of S. aureus, highlighting the importance of heme sensing and detoxification to staphylococcal pathogenesis. Furthermore, potential orthologues of the Hss and Hrt systems are found in many species of Gram-positive bacteria, a possible indication that heme stress is a challenge faced by bacteria whose habitats include host tissues rich in heme. PMID:19494582

  1. The effect of proteins from animal source foods on heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Valenzuela, Carolina; Brito, Alex; Weinborn, Valerie; Flores, Sebastián; Arredondo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Forty-five women (35-45 year) were randomly assigned to three iron (Fe) absorption sub-studies, which measured the effects of dietary animal proteins on the absorption of heme Fe. Study 1 was focused on heme, red blood cell concentrate (RBCC), hemoglobin (Hb), RBCC+beef meat; study 2 on heme, heme+fish, chicken, and beef; and study 3 on heme and heme+purified animal protein (casein, collagen, albumin). Study 1: the bioavailability of heme Fe from Hb was similar to heme only (∼13.0%). RBCC (25.0%) and RBCC+beef (21.3%) were found to be increased 2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, when compared with heme alone (p<0.05). Study 2: the bioavailability from heme alone (10.3%) was reduced (p<0.05) when it was blended with fish (7.1%) and chicken (4.9%), however it was unaffected by beef. Study 3: casein, collagen, and albumin did not affect the bioavailability of Fe. Proteins from animal source foods and their digestion products did not enhance heme Fe absorption. PMID:26593548

  2. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  3. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption. PMID:26529009

  4. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis and......-binding haptoglobin and the receptor CD163, and b) the heme-binding hemopexin and the receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/CD91. Apart from the disclosure of the molecular basis for these important heme scavenging systems by identifying the functional link between the carrier proteins and the...

  5. Heme degradation and vascular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Belcher, John D.; Beckman, Joan D.; Balla György; Balla József (1959-) (belgyógyász, nephrológus); Gregory M Vercellotti

    2010-01-01

    Heme is an essential molecule in aerobic organisms. Heme consists of protoporphyrin IX and a ferrous (Fe2+) iron atom, which has high affinity for oxygen (O2). Hemoglobin, the major oxygen-carrying protein in blood, is the most abundant heme-protein in animals and humans. Hemoglobin consists of four globin subunits (α2β2), with each subunit carrying a heme group. Ferrous (Fe2+) hemoglobin is easily oxidized in circulation to ferric (Fe3+) hemoglobin, which readily releases free hemin. Hemin i...

  6. Heme degradation and vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John D; Beckman, Joan D; Balla, Gyorgy; Balla, Jozsef; Vercellotti, Gregory

    2010-02-01

    Heme is an essential molecule in aerobic organisms. Heme consists of protoporphyrin IX and a ferrous (Fe(2+)) iron atom, which has high affinity for oxygen (O(2)). Hemoglobin, the major oxygen-carrying protein in blood, is the most abundant heme-protein in animals and humans. Hemoglobin consists of four globin subunits (alpha(2)beta(2)), with each subunit carrying a heme group. Ferrous (Fe(2+)) hemoglobin is easily oxidized in circulation to ferric (Fe(3+)) hemoglobin, which readily releases free hemin. Hemin is hydrophobic and intercalates into cell membranes. Hydrogen peroxide can split the heme ring and release "free" redox-active iron, which catalytically amplifies the production of reactive oxygen species. These oxidants can oxidize lipids, proteins, and DNA; activate cell-signaling pathways and oxidant-sensitive, proinflammatory transcription factors; alter protein expression; perturb membrane channels; and induce apoptosis and cell death. Heme-derived oxidants induce recruitment of leukocytes, platelets, and red blood cells to the vessel wall; oxidize low-density lipoproteins; and consume nitric oxide. Heme metabolism, extracellular and intracellular defenses against heme, and cellular cytoprotective adaptations are emphasized. Sickle cell disease, an archetypal example of hemolysis, heme-induced oxidative stress, and cytoprotective adaptation, is reviewed. PMID:19697995

  7. Protein sources of heme for Haemophilus influenzae.

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, T L

    1987-01-01

    Although Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth, the source of heme during invasive infections is not known. We compared heme, lactoperoxidase, catalase, cytochrome c, myoglobin, and hemoglobin as sources of heme for growth in defined media. The minimum concentration of heme permitting unrestricted growth of strain E1a, an H. influenzae type b isolate from cerebrospinal fluid, was 0.02 micrograms/ml. Using molar equivalents of heme as lactoperoxidase, catalase, cytochrome c, myoglobi...

  8. The Heme Sensor System of Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    The important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is able to satisfy its nutrient iron requirement by acquiring heme from host hemoglobin in the context of infection. However, heme acquisition exposes S. aureus to heme toxicity. In order to detect the presence of toxic levels of exogenous heme, S. aureus is able to sense heme through the heme sensing system (HssRS) two-component system. Upon sensing heme, HssRS directly regulates the expression of the heme-regulated ABC transporter HrtAB, wh...

  9. Quantitation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Heme Titration Increases Yield of Purified Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Warren J.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2007-01-01

    Free heme binds to heme oxygenase as a prosthetic group and substrate in the conversion of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. Current methods for quantifying heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) involve reconstitution of the enzyme with heme, followed by a hydroxyapatite column to remove the excess heme. As a result of the hydroxyapatite chromatography, there are significant losses of purified protein. We have developed a method which allows accurate quantitation of HO-1 using a heme titr...

  10. Distributions of particulate Heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gledhill, M.; Achterberg, E.P.; Honey, D.J.; Nielsdottir, M.C.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of heme b, the iron-containing component of b-type hemoproteins, ranged from?

  11. Intracellular redistribution of heme in rat liver under oxidative stress: the role of heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, Pavel A; Barannik, Tatyana; Strel'chenko, Ekaterina; Inshina, Natalya; Sokol, Oxana

    2005-01-01

    Heme distribution in subcellular fractions of rat liver was studied first hours under the action of several agents causing oxidative stress in vivo. Total and post-mitochondrial heme content in liver was found to depend on both the level of hemolysis products in blood and agent's capacity to modify heme and hemoproteins. The increase of activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) and/or heme accumulation in mitochondria was accompanied by increase of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation. Membrane stabilisation by tocopherol or prevention of early ALAS induction by cycloheximide prevented both mitochondrial heme accumulation and increase of TDO heme saturation. Modification of heme fully prevented the alterations of total heme content even under severe hemolysis as well as the increase of TDO heme saturation if no increase of heme synthesis occurred. Thus heme synthesis can greatly contribute to heme intracellular redistribution under oxidative stress. PMID:15763493

  12. Unusual Heme Binding in the Bacterial Iron Response Regulator Protein (Irr): Spectral Characterization of Heme Binding to Heme Regulatory Motif

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Haruto; Nakagaki, Megumi; Bamba, Ai; Uchida, Takeshi; Hori, Hiroshi; O'Brian, Mark R.; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    We characterized heme binding in the bacterial iron response regulator (Irr) protein, which is a simple heme-regulated protein having a single “heme-regulatory motif”, HRM, and plays a key role in the iron homeostasis of a nitrogen fixing bacterium. The heme titration to wild-type and mutant Irr clearly showed that Irr has two heme binding sites: one of the heme binding sites is in the HRM, where 29Cys is the axial ligand, and the other one, the secondary heme binding site, is located outside...

  13. Bacterial heme-transport proteins and their heme-coordination modes

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yong; Guo, Maolin

    2008-01-01

    Efficient iron acquisition is critical for an invading microbe’s survival and virulence. Most of the iron in mammals is incorporated into heme, which can be plundered by certain bacterial pathogens as a nutritional iron source. Utilization of exogenous heme by bacteria involves the binding of heme or hemoproteins to the cell surface receptors, followed by the transport of heme into cells. Once taken into the cytosol, heme is presented to heme oxygenases where the tetrapyrrole ring is cleaved ...

  14. Alteration by irradiation and storage at amount of heme iron in poultry meat; Alteracoes provocadas pela irradiacao e armazenamento nos teores de ferro heme em carne de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter Arthur [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2007-04-15

    Studies of irradiation and storage effects in chicken were carried out to discover the influence in iron heme, non-heme amount, color and total pigments. Chicken thighs and chicken breast were studied. These were irradiated to 0, 1 and 2 kGy stored by 14 days to 4 deg C in refrigerator. Determining the heme content and non-heme of meat was done using the colorimeter method and the Ferrozine reagent. The values of iron heme were influenced both by the irradiation and the storage, reducing the amount throughout the course of time. The iron non-heme was also influenced by the doses and the storage time, however the values increased throughout the course of time, because of the conversion of iron heme in non-heme. The color did not show that it was influenced by the studied doses, except for the storage, and the total number of pigments was affected by the irradiation and the time, reducing the values with the increase of storage. Irradiation was shown to be a good method to conserve iron. (author)

  15. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Heme Biosynthetic Mutants Utilize Heme and Hemoglobin as a Heme Source but Fail To Grow within Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Paul C; Thomas, Christopher E.; Elkins, Christopher; Clary, Susan; Sparling, P F

    1998-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens, including pathogenic neisseriae, can use heme as an iron source for growth. To study heme utilization by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, two heme biosynthetic mutants were constructed, one with a mutation in hemH (the gene encoding ferrochelatase) and one with a mutation in hemA (the gene encoding γ-glutamyl tRNA reductase). The hemH mutant failed to grow without an exogenous supply of heme or hemoglobin, whereas the hemA mutant failed to grow unless heme, hemoglobin, or heme...

  16. The P. aeruginosa Heme Binding Protein PhuS is a Heme Oxygenase Titratable Regulator of Heme Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, Maura J.; Wilks, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa heme utilization (Phu) system encodes several proteins involved in the acquisition of heme as an iron source. Once internalized heme is degraded by the iron-regulated heme oxygenase, HemO to biliverdin (BV) IXδ and β. In vitro studies have shown holo-PhuS transfers heme to the iron-regulated HemO. This protein-protein interaction is specific for HemO as PhuS does not interact with the α-regioselective heme oxygenase, BphO. Bacterial genetics and isotopic labeling...

  17. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Muraki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow.

  18. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Norifumi; Kitatsuji, Chihiro; Ogura, Mariko; Uchida, Takeshi; Ishimori, Koichiro; Aono, Shigetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT) reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow. PMID:27240352

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum anchored heme-oxygenase 1 faces the cytosol

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Yehonatan; Truman, Marianna; Cohen, Lyora A.; Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Yael; Meyron-Holtz, Esther G.

    2012-01-01

    Heme-oxygenase 1 is an endoplasmic reticulum-anchored enzyme that breaks down heme into iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. Heme is a hydrophobic co-factor in many proteins, including hemoglobin. Free heme is highly cytotoxic and, therefore, both heme synthesis and breakdown are tightly regulated. During turnover of heme proteins, heme is released in the phago-lysosomal compartment or the cytosol. The subcellular location of the heme-oxygenase 1 active site has not been clarified. Using con...

  20. Molecular Phylogeny of Heme Peroxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámocký, Marcel; Obinger, Christian

    All currently available gene sequences of heme peroxidases can be phylogenetically divided in two superfamilies and three families. In this chapter, the phylogenetics and genomic distribution of each group are presented. Within the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily, the main evolutionary direction developed peroxidatic heme proteins involved in the innate immune defense system and in biosynthesis of (iodinated) hormones. The peroxidase-catalase superfamily is widely spread mainly among bacteria, fungi, and plants, and particularly in Class I led to the evolution of bifunctional catalase-peroxidases. Its numerous fungal representatives of Class II are involved in carbon recycling via lignin degradation, whereas Class III secretory peroxidases from algae and plants are included in various forms of secondary metabolism. The family of di-heme peroxidases are predominantly bacteria-inducible enzymes; however, a few corresponding genes were also detected in archaeal genomes. Four subfamilies of dyp-type peroxidases capable of degradation of various xenobiotics are abundant mainly among bacteria and fungi. Heme-haloperoxidase genes are widely spread among sac and club fungi, but corresponding genes were recently found also among oomycetes. All described families herein represent heme peroxidases of broad diversity in structure and function. Our accumulating knowledge about the evolution of various enzymatic functions and physiological roles can be exploited in future directed evolution approaches for engineering peroxidase genes de novo for various demands.

  1. Heme-heme magnetic interaction of cytochrome c3 studied by Mössbauer effect

    OpenAIRE

    Utuno, M.; Ôno, K.; Kimura, K.; Inokuchi, H; Yagi, T

    1980-01-01

    A Mössbauer effect study was carried out on cytochrome c3 to investigate the heme-heme magnetic interaction. Results observed in the spectrum of partially reduced cytochrome c3 at 4.2 K shows that a strongly enhanced heme-heme magnetic interaction exists between cytochrome c 3 molecules.

  2. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Dutra, Fabianno F.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prosthetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, ...

  3. Stanniocalcin 1 binds hemin through a partially conserved heme regulatory motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) binds heme through novel heme binding motif. → Central iron atom of heme and cysteine-114 of STC1 are essential for binding. → STC1 binds Fe2+ and Fe3+ heme. → STC1 peptide prevents oxidative decay of heme. -- Abstract: Hemin (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a necessary component of many proteins, functioning either as a cofactor or an intracellular messenger. Hemoproteins have diverse functions, such as transportation of gases, gas detection, chemical catalysis and electron transfer. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a protein involved in respiratory responses of the cell but whose mechanism of action is still undetermined. We examined the ability of STC1 to bind hemin in both its reduced and oxidized states and located Cys114 as the axial ligand of the central iron atom of hemin. The amino acid sequence differs from the established (Cys-Pro) heme regulatory motif (HRM) and therefore presents a novel heme binding motif (Cys-Ser). A STC1 peptide containing the heme binding sequence was able to inhibit both spontaneous and H2O2 induced decay of hemin. Binding of hemin does not affect the mitochondrial localization of STC1.

  4. Alteration by irradiation and storage at amount of heme iron in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of irradiation and storage effects in chicken were carried out to discover the influence in iron heme, non-heme amount, color and total pigments. Chicken thighs and chicken breast were studied. These were irradiated to 0, 1 and 2 kGy stored by 14 days to 4 deg C in refrigerator. Determining the heme content and non-heme of meat was done using the colorimeter method and the Ferrozine reagent. The values of iron heme were influenced both by the irradiation and the storage, reducing the amount throughout the course of time. The iron non-heme was also influenced by the doses and the storage time, however the values increased throughout the course of time, because of the conversion of iron heme in non-heme. The color did not show that it was influenced by the studied doses, except for the storage, and the total number of pigments was affected by the irradiation and the time, reducing the values with the increase of storage. Irradiation was shown to be a good method to conserve iron. (author)

  5. Alteration by irradiation and storage at amount of heme iron in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of irradiation and storage effects in chicken were carried out to discover the influence in iron heme, non-heme amount, color and total pigments. Chicken thighs and chicken breast were studied. These were irradiated to 0, 1 and 2 kGy stored by 14 days to 4 °C in refrigerator. Determining the heme content and non-heme of meat was done using the colorimeter method and the Ferrozine reagent. The values of iron heme were influenced both by the irradiation and the storage, reducing the amount throughout the course of time. The iron non-heme was also influenced by the doses and the storage time, however the values increased throughout the course of time, because of the conversion of iron heme in non-heme. The color did not show that it was influenced by the studied doses, except for the storage, and the total number of pigments was affected by the irradiation and the time, reducing the values with the increase of storage. Irradiation was shown to be a good method to conserve iron. (author)

  6. Recent advances in bacterial heme protein biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Jeffery A.; Dehner, Carolyn A.; Dubois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in genetics, fed by the burst in genome sequence data, has led to the identification of a host of novel bacterial heme proteins that are now being characterized in structural and mechanistic terms. The following short review highlights very recent work with bacterial heme proteins involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, degradation, and use of heme in respiration and sensing.

  7. Direct Heme Transfer Reactions in the Group A Streptococcus Heme Acquisition Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Chunmei Lu; Gang Xie; Mengyao Liu; Hui Zhu; Benfang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The heme acquisition machinery in Group A Streptococcus (GAS) consists of the surface proteins Shr and Shp and ATP-binding cassette transporter HtsABC. Shp cannot directly acquire heme from methemoglobin (metHb) but directly transfers its heme to HtsA. It has not been previously determined whether Shr directly relays heme from metHb to Shp. Thus, the complete pathway for heme acquisition from metHb by the GAS heme acquisition machinery has remained unclear. In this study, the metHb-to-Shr and...

  8. Heme-coordinated histidine residues form non-specific functional "ferritin-heme" peroxidase system: Possible and partial mechanistic relevance to oxidative stress-mediated pathology in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Sajjad; Kooshk, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi; Asghari, Seyyed Mohsen; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    Ferritin is a giant protein composed of 24 subunits which is able to sequester up to 4500 atoms of iron. We proposed two kinds of heme binding sites in mammalian ferritins and provided direct evidence for peroxidase activity of heme-ferritin, since there is the possibility that "ferritin-heme" systems display unexpected catalytic behavior like heme-containing enzymes. In the current study, peroxidase activity of heme-bound ferritin was studied using TMB(1), l-DOPA, serotonin, and dopamine, in the presence of H2O2, as oxidant substrate. The catalytic oxidation of TMB was consistent with first-order kinetics with respect to ferritin concentration. Perturbation of the binding affinity and catalytic behavior of heme-bound His-modified ferritin were also documented. We also discuss the importance of the peroxidase-/nitrative-mediated oxidation of vital molecules as well as ferritin-induced catalase inhibition using in vitro experimental system. Uncontrollable "heme-ferritin"-based enzyme activity as well as up-regulation of heme and ferritin may inspire that some oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic effects in AD-affected cells could be correlated to ferritin-heme interaction and/or ferritin-induced catalase inhibition and describe its contribution as an important causative pathogenesis mechanism in some neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27212214

  9. ApoHRP-based Assay to Measure Intracellular Regulatory Heme

    OpenAIRE

    Atamna, Hani; Brahmbhatt, Marmik; Atamna, Wafa; Shanower, Gregory A.; Dhahbi, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the heme-binding proteins possess a “heme-pocket” that stably binds with heme. Usually known as housekeeping heme-proteins, they participate in a variety of metabolic reactions (e.g., catalase). Heme also binds with lower affinity to the “Heme-Regulatory Motifs” (HRM) in specific regulatory proteins. This type of heme binding is known as exchangeable or regulatory heme (RH). Heme binding to HRM proteins regulates their function (e.g., Bach1). Although there are well-establishe...

  10. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Norifumi Muraki; Chihiro Kitatsuji; Mariko Ogura; Takeshi Uchida; Koichiro Ishimori; Shigetoshi Aono

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT) reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand ...

  11. Overcoming the Heme Paradox: Heme Toxicity and Tolerance in Bacterial Pathogens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Anzaldi, Laura L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2010-01-01

    Virtually all bacterial pathogens require iron to infect vertebrates. The most abundant source of iron within vertebrates is in the form of heme as a cofactor of hemoproteins. Many bacterial pathogens have elegant systems dedicated to the acquisition of heme from host hemoproteins. Once internalized, heme is either degraded to release free iron or used intact as a cofactor in catalases, cytochromes, and other bacterial hemoproteins. Paradoxically, the high redox potential of heme makes it a l...

  12. Effect of disordered hemes on energy transfer rates between tryptophans and heme in myoglobin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gryczynski, Z.; Fronticelli, C; Tenenholz, T; Bucci, E

    1993-01-01

    Our recent linear dichroism study of heme transitions (Gryczynski, Z., E. Bucci, and J. Kusba. 1993. Photochem. Photobiology. in press) indicate that heme cannot be considered a planar oscillator when it acts as an acceptor of radiationless excitation energy transfer from tryptophan. The linear nature of the heme absorption transition moment in the near-UV region implies a strong dependence of the transfer rate factors on the relative angular position of the heme and tryptophan, i.e., on the ...

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Protect Against Heme-induced Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Dankers, A.C.A.; Summeren, F. van; Scharstuhl, A.; Heuvel, J.J. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Pennings, S.W.C.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is the functional group of diverse hemoproteins and crucial for many cellular processes. However, heme is increasingly recognized as a culprit for a wide variety of pathologies, including sepsis, malaria, and kidney failure. Excess of free heme can be detrimental to tissues by mediating oxidati

  14. The IsdG-family of heme oxygenases degrades heme to a novel chromophore

    OpenAIRE

    Reniere, Michelle L.; Ukpabi, Georgia N.; Harry, S. Reese; Stec, Donald F.; Krull, Robert; Wright, David W.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Murphy, Michael E; Skaar, Eric P.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic heme catabolism by heme oxygenases is conserved from bacteria to humans and proceeds through a common mechanism leading to the formation of iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin. The first members of a novel class of heme oxygenases were recently identified in Staphylococcus aureus (IsdG and IsdI) and were termed the IsdG-family of heme oxygenases. Enzymes of the IsdG-family form tertiary structures distinct from those of the canonical heme oxygenase family, suggesting that IsdG-fam...

  15. A role for heme in Alzheimer's disease: Heme binds amyloid β and has altered metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Atamna, Hani; Frey, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Heme is a common factor linking several metabolic perturbations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including iron metabolism, mitochondrial complex IV, heme oxygenase, and bilirubin. Therefore, we determined whether heme metabolism was altered in temporal lobes obtained at autopsy from AD patients and age-matched nondemented subjects. AD brain demonstrated 2.5-fold more heme-b (P < 0.01) and 26% less heme-a (P = 0.16) compared with controls, resulting in a highly significant 2.9-fold decrease in he...

  16. Heme dynamics and trafficking factors revealed by genetically encoded fluorescent heme sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, David A; Harvey, Raven M; Martinez-Guzman, Osiris; Yuan, Xiaojing; Chandrasekharan, Bindu; Raju, Gheevarghese; Outten, F Wayne; Hamza, Iqbal; Reddi, Amit R

    2016-07-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor and signaling molecule. Heme acquisition by proteins and heme signaling are ultimately reliant on the ability to mobilize labile heme (LH). However, the properties of LH pools, including concentration, oxidation state, distribution, speciation, and dynamics, are poorly understood. Herein, we elucidate the nature and dynamics of LH using genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent heme sensors in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae We find that the subcellular distribution of LH is heterogeneous; the cytosol maintains LH at ∼20-40 nM, whereas the mitochondria and nucleus maintain it at concentrations below 2.5 nM. Further, we find that the signaling molecule nitric oxide can initiate the rapid mobilization of heme in the cytosol and nucleus from certain thiol-containing factors. We also find that the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase constitutes a major cellular heme buffer, and is responsible for maintaining the activity of the heme-dependent nuclear transcription factor heme activator protein (Hap1p). Altogether, we demonstrate that the heme sensors can be used to reveal fundamental aspects of heme trafficking and dynamics and can be used across multiple organisms, including Escherichia coli, yeast, and human cell lines. PMID:27247412

  17. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  18. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. → POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. → POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. → Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. → POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  19. Heme sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis: a supplementary HssRS-regulated heme resistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rachel M; Carter, Micaela M; Chu, Michelle L; Latario, Casey J; Stadler, Sarah K; Stauff, Devin L

    2016-05-01

    Several Gram-positive pathogens scavenge host-derived heme to satisfy their nutritional iron requirement. However, heme is a toxic molecule capable of damaging the bacterial cell. Gram-positive pathogens within the phylum Firmicutes overcome heme toxicity by sensing heme through HssRS, a two-component system that regulates the heme detoxification transporter HrtAB. Here we show that heme sensing by HssRS and heme detoxification by HrtAB occur in the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis We find that in B. thuringiensis, HssRS directly regulates an operon, hrmXY, encoding hypothetical membrane proteins that are not found in other Firmicutes with characterized HssRS and HrtAB systems. This novel HssRS-regulated operon or its orthologs BMB171_c3178 and BMB171_c3330 are required for maximal heme resistance. Furthermore, the activity of HrmXY is not dependent on expression of HrtAB. These results suggest that B. thuringiensis senses heme through HssRS and induces expression of separate membrane-localized systems capable of overcoming different aspects of heme toxicity. PMID:27030728

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Can Utilize Heme as an Iron Source▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Christopher M.; Niederweis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most iron in mammals is found within the heme prosthetic group. Consequently, many bacterial pathogens possess heme acquisition systems to utilize iron from the host. Here, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can utilize heme as an iron source, suggesting that M. tuberculosis possesses a yet-unknown heme acquisition system.

  1. HEME-HEME COMUNICATION DURING THE ALKALINE INDUCED STRUCTURAL TRANSITION IN CYTOCROME C OXIDASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong; Rousseau, Denis L.; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline induced conformational changes at pH 12.0 in the oxidized as well as the reduced state of cytochrome c oxidase have been systematically studied with time-resolved optical absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies. In the reduced state, the heme a3 first converts from the native five-coordinate configuration to a six-coordinate bis-histidine intermediate as a result of the coordination of one of the CuB ligands, H290 or H291, to the heme iron. The coordination state change in the heme a3 causes the alteration in the microenvironment of the formyl group of the heme a3 and the disruption of the H-bond between R38 and the formyl group of the heme a. This structural transition, which occurs within 1 minute following the initiation of the pH jump, is followed by a slower reaction, in which Schiff base linkages are formed between the formyl groups of the two hemes and their nearby amino acid residues, presumably R38 and R302 for the heme a and a3, respectively. In the oxidized enzyme, a similar Schiff base modification on heme a and a3 was observed but it is triggered by the coordination of the H290 or H291 to heme a3 followed by the breakage of the native proximal H378-iron and H376-iron bonds in heme a and a3, respectively. In both oxidation states, the synchronous formation of the Schiff base linkages in heme a and a3 relies on the structural communication between the two hemes via the H-bonding network involving R438 and R439 and the propionate groups of the two hemes as well as the helix X housing the two proximal ligands, H378 and H376, of the hemes. The heme-heme communication mechanism revealed in this work may be important in controlling the coupling of the oxygen and redox chemistry in the heme sites to proton pumping during the enzymatic turnover of CcO. PMID:18187199

  2. Heme environment in HmuY, the heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, Halina [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Wojaczynski, Jacek [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Mariusz [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Kroliczewski, Jaroslaw [Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, 50-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Latos-Grazynski, Lechoslaw [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Teresa, E-mail: Teresa.Olczak@biotech.uni.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-29

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis, acquires heme for growth by a novel mechanism composed of HmuY and HmuR proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature of heme binding to HmuY. The protein was expressed, purified and detailed investigations using UV-vis absorption, CD, MCD, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy were carried out. Ferric heme bound to HmuY may be reduced by sodium dithionite and re-oxidized by potassium ferricyanide. Heme complexed to HmuY, with a midpoint potential of 136 mV, is in a low-spin Fe(III) hexa-coordinate environment. Analysis of heme binding to several single and double HmuY mutants with the methionine, histidine, cysteine, or tyrosine residues replaced by an alanine residue identified histidines 134 and 166 as potential heme ligands.

  3. Structural analysis of heme proteins: implications for design and prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bonkovsky Herbert L; Li Ting; Guo Jun-tao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Heme is an essential molecule and plays vital roles in many biological processes. The structural determination of a large number of heme proteins has made it possible to study the detailed chemical and structural properties of heme binding environment. Knowledge of these characteristics can provide valuable guidelines in the design of novel heme proteins and help us predict unknown heme binding proteins. Results In this paper, we constructed a non-redundant dataset of 125 ...

  4. Transcriptional Profile of Haemophilus influenzae: Effects of Iron and Heme

    OpenAIRE

    Whitby, Paul W.; VanWagoner, Timothy M.; Seale, Thomas W.; Morton, Daniel J; Stull, Terrence L.

    2006-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires either heme or a porphyrin and iron source for growth. Microarray studies of H. influenzae strain Rd KW20 identified 162 iron/heme-regulated genes, representing ∼10% of the genome, with ≥1.5-fold changes in transcription in response to iron/heme availability in vitro. Eighty genes were preferentially expressed under iron/heme restriction; 82 genes were preferentially expressed under iron/heme-replete conditions.

  5. Spectroscopic evidence for a heme-heme binuclear center in the cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, J J; Alben, J O; Gennis, R B

    1993-01-01

    The cytochrome bd complex is a ubiquinol oxidase, which is part of the aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli. This enzyme is structurally unrelated to the heme-Cu oxidases such as cytochrome c oxidase. While the cytochrome bd complex contains no copper, it does have three heme prosthetic groups: heme b558, heme b595, and heme d (a chlorin). Heme b558 appears to be involved in the oxidation of quinol, and heme d is known to be the site where oxygen binds and is reduced to water. The ro...

  6. Shigella dysenteriae ShuS Promotes Utilization of Heme as an Iron Source and Protects against Heme Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.; Lopreato, Gregory F.; Tipton, Kimberly A.; Shelley M Payne

    2005-01-01

    Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, a major cause of bacillary dysentery in humans, can use heme as a source of iron. Genes for the transport of heme into the bacterial cell have been identified, but little is known about proteins that control the fate of the heme molecule after it has entered the cell. The shuS gene is located within the heme transport locus, downstream of the heme receptor gene shuA. ShuS is a heme binding protein, but its role in heme utilization is poorly understood. In this...

  7. Utility of heme analogues to intentionally modify heme-globin interactions in myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neya, Saburo; Nagai, Masako; Nagatomo, Shigenori; Hoshino, Tyuji; Yoneda, Tomoki; Kawaguchi, Akira T

    2016-05-01

    Myoglobin reconstitution with various synthetic heme analogues was reviewed to follow the consequences of modified heme-globin interactions. Utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent for water-insoluble hemes was emphasized. Proton NMR spectroscopy revealed that loose heme-globin contacts in the heme pocket eventually caused the dynamic heme rotation around the iron-histidine bond. The full rotational rate was estimated to be about 1400s(-1) at room temperature for 1,4,5,8-tetramethylhemin. The X-ray analysis of the myoglobin containing iron porphine, the smallest heme without any side chains, showed that the original globin fold was well conserved despite the serious disruption of native heme-globin contacts. Comparison between the two myoglobins with static and rotatory prosthetic groups indicated that the oxygen and carbon monoxide binding profiles were almost unaffected by the heme motion. On the other hand, altered tetrapyrrole array of porphyrin dramatically changed the dissociation constant of oxygen from 0.0005mmHg of porphycene-myoglobin to ∞ in oxypyriporphyrin-myoglobin. Heme-globin interactions in myoglobin were also monitored with circular dichroism spectroscopy. The observation on several reconstituted protein revealed an unrecognized role of the propionate groups in protoheme. Shortening of heme 6,7-propionates to carboxylates resulted in almost complete disappearance of the positive circular dichroism band in the Soret region. The theoretical analysis suggested that the disappeared circular dichroism band reflected the cancellation effects between different conformers of the carboxyl groups directly attached to heme periphery. The above techniques were proposed to be applicable to other hemoproteins to create new biocatalysts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics - the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson

  8. [Heme oxygenase activity in the tissues of the vessels and heart of rats under co-administration of NO-synthase inhibitor and hemin chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Filimonenko, V P; Nikitchenko, I V

    2008-01-01

    The administration of hemin chloride in a dose of 1.5 mg/100 g of the body weight was found to cause accumulation of the total heme and TBA-reactive products in the rat blood serum and vessels. Pretreatment by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (0.5 h before hemin chloride administration) did not affect the dynamics of the total heme and TBA-reacting products accumulation. The increase of heme oxygenase activity was observed in the vessels after hemin chloride administration. This effect was strengthened by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine pretreatment. The changes of heme oxygenase activity and the total heme level in heart were not observed at any periods studied. The increase of the TBA-reactive products level in the heart after exogenous hemin injection was accompanied by an increase of nitrites content and blocked by pretreatment of NOS inhibitor. The N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine alone caused the accumulation of the total heme, TBA-reacting products and the increase of heme oxygenase activity in the vessels. The role of heme and NO in regulation of the heme oxygenase activity is discussed. PMID:18819384

  9. Structural mechanisms of nonplanar hemes in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective is to assess the occurrence of nonplanar distortions of hemes and other tetrapyrroles in proteins and to determine the biological function of these distortions. Recently, these distortions were found by us to be conserved among proteins belonging to a functional class. Conservation of the conformation of the heme indicates a possible functional role. Researchers have suggested possible mechanisms by which heme distortions might influence biological properties; however, no heme distortion has yet been shown conclusively to participate in a structural mechanism of hemoprotein function. The specific aims of the proposed work are: (1) to characterize and quantify the distortions of the hemes in all of the more than 300 hemoprotein X-ray crystal structures in terms of displacements along the lowest-frequency normal coordinates, (2) to determine the structural features of the protein component that generate and control these nonplanar distortions by using spectroscopic studies and molecular-mechanics calculations for the native proteins, their mutants and heme-peptide fragments, and model porphyrins, (3) to determine spectroscopic markers for the various types of distortion, and, finally, (4) to discover the functional significance of the nonplanar distortions by correlating function with porphyrin conformation for proteins and model porphyrins.

  10. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation : Toward understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokman, Christien; Franken, A.C.; Ram, A.F.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A. van den; Weert, S. de

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  11. Heme biosynthesis and its regulation: Towards understanding and improvement of heme biosynthesis in filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.C.W.; Lokman, B.C.; Ram, A.F.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Weert, S. de

    2011-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis in fungal host strains has acquired considerable interest in relation to the production of secreted heme-containing peroxidases. Class II peroxidase enzymes have been suggested as eco-friendly replacements of polluting chemical processes in industry. These peroxidases are naturally

  12. A Novel Heme-responsive Element Mediates Transcriptional Regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Hemes are prosthetic groups that participate in diverse biochemical pathways across phylogeny. Although heme can also regulate broad physiological processes by directly modulating gene expression in Metazoa, the regulatory pathways for sensing and responding to heme are not well defined. Caenorhabditis elegans is a heme auxotroph and relies solely on environmental heme for sustenance. Worms respond to heme availability by regulating heme-responsive genes such as hrg-1, an intestinal heme tran...

  13. The surface protein Shr of Streptococcus pyogenes binds heme and transfers it to the streptococcal heme-binding protein Shp

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Benfang; Liu Mengyao; Zhu Hui

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The heme acquisition machinery in Streptococcus pyogenes is believed to consist of the surface proteins, Shr and Shp, and heme-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter HtsABC. Shp has been shown to rapidly transfer its heme to the lipoprotein component, HtsA, of HtsABC. The function of Shr and the heme source of Shp have not been established. Results The objective of this study was to determine whether Shr binds heme and is a heme source of Shp. To achieve the objective, ...

  14. The CcmC:Heme:CcmE Complex in Heme Trafficking and Cytochrome c Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia; Kranz, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    A superfamily of integral membrane proteins is characterized by a conserved tryptophan-rich region (called the WWD domain) in an external loop at the inner membrane surface. The three major members of this family (CcmC, CcmF, and CcsBA) are each involved in cytochrome c biosynthesis, yet the function of the WWD domain is unknown. It has been hypothesized that the WWD domain binds heme to present it to an acceptor protein (apoCcmE for CcmC or apocytochrome c for CcmF and CcsBA) such that the heme vinyl group(s) covalently attaches to the acceptors. Alternative proposals suggest that the WWD domain interacts directly with the acceptor protein (e.g., apoCcmE for CcmC). Here, it is shown that CcmC is only trapped with heme when its cognate acceptor protein CcmE is present. It is demonstrated that CcmE only interacts stably with CcmC when heme is present; thus, specific residues in each protein provide sites of interaction with heme to form this very stable complex. For the first time, evidence that the external WWD domain of CcmC interacts directly with heme is presented. Single and multiple substitutions of completely conserved residues in the WWD domain of CcmC alter the spectral properties of heme in the stable CcmC:heme:CcmE complexes. Moreover, some mutations reduce the binding of heme up to 100%. It is likely that endogenously synthesized heme enters the external WWD domain of CcmC either via a channel within this six-transmembrane-spanning protein or from the membrane. The data suggest that a specific heme channel (i.e., heme binding site within membrane spanning helices) is not present in CcmC, in contrast to the CcsBA protein. We discuss the likelihood that it is not important to protect the heme via trafficking in CcmC whereas it is critical in CcsBA. PMID:20599545

  15. Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Du, Y.; Liu, G.; Yan, Y.; Huang, D.; Luo, W.; Martínková, M.; Man, Petr; Shimizu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 839-852. ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Heme oxygenase * Heme protein * Hydrogen sulfide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.689, year: 2013

  16. ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARSENITE INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsi...

  17. Heme and erythropoieis: more than a structural role

    OpenAIRE

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Mercurio, Sonia; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is the biological process that consumes the highest amount of body iron for heme synthesis. Heme synthesis in erythroid cells is finely coordinated with that of alpha (α) and beta (β)-globin, resulting in the production of hemoglobin, a tetramer of 2α- and 2β-globin chains, and heme as the prosthetic group. Heme is not only the structural component of hemoglobin, but it plays multiple regulatory roles during the differentiation of erythroid precursors since it controls its own ...

  18. Kidney injury and heme oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xing MAI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available     Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is one of the main pathways to degrade heme in mammals, and the main degradation products are free iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO, and bilirubin. Heme plays an important role in promoting cell survival, circulation of intracellular substrates, and immune regulation. Previous studies suggest that HO-1 pathway is an important internal factor in determining the susceptibility and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. The induction of HO-1 expression can attenuate the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI, and the inhibition of HO-1 expression will aggravate IRI. The present article summarizes the latest advances in research abroad and at home on protective mechanism by which HO-1 prevents AKI to further deepen our understanding of the role of HO-1 in the treatment of AKI.   

  19. Leishmania amazonensis: heme stimulates (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity via phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C/protein kinase C-like (PI-PLC/PKC) signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo; Cardoso, Viviane Carrozino; Francioli, Fernanda Gomes; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2010-04-01

    In the present paper we studied the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC (PI-PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway in (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase stimulation by heme in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Heme stimulated the PKC-like activity with a concentration of 50nM. Interestingly, the maximal stimulation of the PKC-like activity promoted by phorbol ester was of the same magnitude promoted by heme. However, the stimulatory effect of heme is completely abolished by ET-18-OCH(3) and U73122, specific inhibitors of PI-PLC. (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity is increased in the presence of increased concentrations of heme, being maximally affected at 50nM. This effect was completely reversed by 10nM calphostin C, an inhibitor of PKC. Thus, the effect of 50nM heme on (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity is completely abolished by ET-18-OCH(3) and U73122. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the heme receptor mediates the stimulatory effect of heme on the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase activity through a PI-PLC/PKC signaling pathway. PMID:20045694

  20. Absorption by Isolated Ferric Heme Nitrosyl Cations In Vacuo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-01-01

    Keywords:biophysics;gas-phase spectroscopy;heme proteins;mass spectrometry;nitric oxide Almost innocent: In photobiophysical studies of ferric heme nitrosyl complexes, the absorption spectra of six-coordinate complexes with NO and Met or Cys are similar to that of the five-coordinate complex ion Fe(heme...

  1. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme to

  2. Molecular Simulations of Porphyrins and Heme Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-01-18

    An overview of the use of classical mechanical molecular simulations of porphyrins, hydroporphyrins, and heme proteins is given. The topics cover molecular mechanics calculations of structures and conformer energies of porphyrins, energies of barriers for interconversion between stable conformers, molecular dynamics of porphyrins and heme proteins, and normal-coordinate structural analysis of experimental and calculated porphyrin structures. Molecular mechanics and dynamics are currently a fertile area of research on porphyrins. In the future, other computational methods such as Monte Carlo simulations, which have yet to be applied to porphyrins, will come into use and open new avenues of research into molecular simulations of porphyrins.

  3. Analysis of Heme oxygenase isomers in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-ZhuLi; Wen-JunCui; Xue-HongZhang; Qing-XiangShen; JianWang; She

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To purify and identify heme oxygenase(HO) isomers which exist in rat liver,spleen and brain treated with hematin and phenylhydrazine and in untrated rat liver and to investigate the characteristics of HO isomers,to isolate and confirm the rat HO-1 cDNA that actually encodes HO-1 by expressing cDNA in monkey Kidney cells(COS-1 cells),to prepare the rat heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)mutant and to detect inhibition of HO-1 mutated enzyme.

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie; CM; Lin; Hsiangfu; Kung

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) system catabolizes heme into three products:carbon monoxide,biliverdin/bilirubin and free iron.It is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes.A great deal of data has demonstrated the roles of HO-1 in the formation,growth and metastasis of tumors.The interest in this system by investigators involved in gastrointestinal tumors is fairly recent,and few papers on HO-1 have touched upon this subject.This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiologic...

  5. Mechanism of asbestos-mediated DNA damage: role of heme and heme proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Q; Mahmood, N.; Khan, S G; Arif, J M; Athar, M

    1997-01-01

    Several observations, including studies from this laboratory, demonstrate that asbestos generates free radicals in the biological system that may play a role in the manifestation of asbestos-related cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity. It has also been demonstrated that iron associated with asbestos plays an important role in the asbestos-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species. Exposure to asbestos leads to degradation of heme proteins such as cytochrome P450-releasing heme in cytosol. O...

  6. Malaria impairs resistance to Salmonella through heme- and heme oxygenase-dependent dysfunctional granulocyte mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A. J.; de Souza, J.B.; Walther, R-M.; Riley, E M

    2011-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive non-Typhoid Salmonella (NTS) is a common and often fatal complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mediates tolerance to the cytotoxic effects of heme during malarial hemolysis but might impair resistance to NTS by limiting production of bactericidal reactive oxygen species. We show that co-infection of mice with Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL (Py17XNL) and S. typhimurium causes acute, fatal bacteremia with increased bacteri...

  7. Like Iron in the Blood of the People: The Requirement for Heme Trafficking in Iron Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal eHamza; Tamara eKorolnek

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an iron-containing porphyrin ring that serves as a prosthetic group in proteins that function in diverse metabolic pathways. Heme is also a major source of bioavailable iron in the human diet. While the synthesis of heme has been well-characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking remain poorly understood. It is likely that heme transport across membranes is highly regulated, as free heme is toxic to cells. This review outlines the requirement for heme delivery to various subcellula...

  8. The Chemistry and Biochemistry of Heme c: Functional Bases for Covalent Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Sarah E. J.; Bren, Kara L.

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of the literature concerning the synthesis, function, and activity of heme c-containing proteins is presented. Comparison of the properties of heme c, which is covalently bound to protein, is made to heme b, which is bound noncovalently. A question of interest is why nature uses biochemically expensive heme c in many proteins when its properties are expected to be similar to heme b. Considering the effects of covalent heme attachment on heme conformation and on the proximal histi...

  9. Like iron in the blood of the people: the requirement for heme trafficking in iron metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Korolnek, Tamara; Hamza, Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Heme is an iron-containing porphyrin ring that serves as a prosthetic group in proteins that function in diverse metabolic pathways. Heme is also a major source of bioavailable iron in the human diet. While the synthesis of heme has been well-characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking remain poorly understood. It is likely that heme transport across membranes is highly regulated, as free heme is toxic to cells. This review outlines the requirement for heme delivery to various subcellula...

  10. Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Jacobsen, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    Heme released from heme-binding proteins on internal hemorrhage, hemolysis, myolysis, or other cell damage is highly toxic due to oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Complex formation with hemopexin, the high-affinity heme-binding protein in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, dampens these effects...... and is suggested to facilitate cellular heme metabolism. Using a ligand-affinity approach, we purified the human hemopexin-heme receptor and identified it as the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)/CD91, a receptor expressed in several cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes......, neurons, and syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding experiments, including Biacore analysis, showed that hemopexin-heme complex formation elicits the high receptor affinity. Uptake studies of radio-labeled hemopexin-heme complex in LRP/CD91-expressing COS cells and confocal microscopy of the cellular processing of...

  11. Aerobic kinetoplastid flagellate Phytomonas does not require heme for viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kořený, Luděk; Sobotka, Roman; Kovářová, Julie; Gnipová, Anna; Flegontov, Pavel; Horváth, Anton; Oborník, Miroslav; Ayala, Francisco J; Lukeš, Julius

    2012-03-01

    Heme is an iron-coordinated porphyrin that is universally essential as a protein cofactor for fundamental cellular processes, such as electron transport in the respiratory chain, oxidative stress response, or redox reactions in various metabolic pathways. Parasitic kinetoplastid flagellates represent a rare example of organisms that depend on oxidative metabolism but are heme auxotrophs. Here, we show that heme is fully dispensable for the survival of Phytomonas serpens, a plant parasite. Seeking to understand the metabolism of this heme-free eukaryote, we searched for heme-containing proteins in its de novo sequenced genome and examined several cellular processes for which heme has so far been considered indispensable. We found that P. serpens lacks most of the known hemoproteins and does not require heme for electron transport in the respiratory chain, protection against oxidative stress, or desaturation of fatty acids. Although heme is still required for the synthesis of ergosterol, its precursor, lanosterol, is instead incorporated into the membranes of P. serpens grown in the absence of heme. In conclusion, P. serpens is a flagellate with unique metabolic adaptations that allow it to bypass all requirements for heme. PMID:22355128

  12. Identification of essential histidine residues involved in heme binding and Hemozoin formation in heme detoxification protein from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Haruto; Aono, Shigetoshi; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Malaria parasites digest hemoglobin within a food vacuole to supply amino acids, releasing the toxic product heme. During the detoxification, toxic free heme is converted into an insoluble crystalline form called hemozoin (Hz). Heme detoxification protein (HDP) in Plasmodium falciparum is one of the most potent of the hemozoin-producing enzymes. However, the reaction mechanisms of HDP are poorly understood. We identified the active site residues in HDP using a combination of Hz formation assay and spectroscopic characterization of mutant proteins. Replacement of the critical histidine residues His122, His172, His175, and His197 resulted in a reduction in the Hz formation activity to approximately 50% of the wild-type protein. Spectroscopic characterization of histidine-substituted mutants revealed that His122 binds heme and that His172 and His175 form a part of another heme-binding site. Our results show that the histidine residues could be present in the individual active sites and could be ligated to each heme. The interaction between heme and the histidine residues would serve as a molecular tether, allowing the proper positioning of two hemes to enable heme dimer formation. The heme dimer would act as a seed for the crystal growth of Hz in P. falciparum. PMID:25138161

  13. Role of Heme and Heme-Proteins in Trypanosomatid Essential Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina E. J. Tripodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, trypanosomatids are known for being etiological agents of several highly disabling and often fatal diseases like Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp., and African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei. Throughout their life cycle, they must cope with diverse environmental conditions, and the mechanisms involved in these processes are crucial for their survival. In this review, we describe the role of heme in several essential metabolic pathways of these protozoans. Notwithstanding trypanosomatids lack of the complete heme biosynthetic pathway, we focus our discussion in the metabolic role played for important heme-proteins, like cytochromes. Although several genes for different types of cytochromes, involved in mitochondrial respiration, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and sterol biosynthesis, are annotated at the Tritryp Genome Project, the encoded proteins have not yet been deeply studied. We pointed our attention into relevant aspects of these protein functions that are amenable to be considered for rational design of trypanocidal agents.

  14. TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yien, Yvette Yee; Robledo, Raymond F.; Schultz, Iman J.; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel Evan; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Pierce, Eric Adam; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A.; Miyata, Non

    2014-01-01

    The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in ...

  15. The Bordetella bhu Locus Is Required for Heme Iron Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderpool, Carin K.; Armstrong, Sandra K.

    2001-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella bronchiseptica are capable of obtaining iron from hemin and hemoglobin. Genes encoding a putative bacterial heme iron acquisition system (bhu, for Bordetella heme utilization) were identified in a B. pertussis genomic sequence database, and the corresponding DNA was isolated from a virulent strain of B. pertussis. A B. pertussis bhuR mutant, predicted to lack the heme outer membrane receptor, was generated by allelic exchange. In contrast to the wild-type s...

  16. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  17. Study on the Gas Phase Stability of Heme-binding Pocket in Cytochrome Tb5 and Its Mutants by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,Chong-Tian(余翀天); GUO,Yin-Long(郭寅龙); L(U),Long(吕龙); WANG,Yun-Hua(王韵华); YAO,Ping(姚萍); HUANG,Zhong-Xian(黄仲贤)

    2002-01-01

    To ehucidate the effect of various amino acid residues on the heme-binding pocket in cytochrome Tbs, several residues were chosen for replacement by means of site-directed mutagenesis.Comparison of the mass spectrmn between the F35Y mutant and the wild type shows that the relative abundance of holoprotein ion of F35Y is lower than that of the wild type in gas phase. It is concluded that mutation from Phe35 residue to tyrosine decreases the hydrophobic character of cytochrome Tbs heme pocket, which decreases the stability of heme-binding pocket. ESI-MS spectra of the mutants V61E, V61K, V61H and V61Y show various contribution of amino acid to the stability of heme-binding pocket. The small and non-polar residue Vat61 was replaced with large or polar residues, resulting in enhancing the trend of heme leaving from the pocket. In addition, comparison of the mass relative abundance of bolo-proteins among all the Va161-mutants, shows that their stability in gas phase appropriately submit the following order: wild type > V61H > V61E > V61K ≈ V61Y. The extra great stability of quadruple sites mutant E44/48/56A/D60A shows that reduction of electrostatic or hydrogen bond interactions among the residues locating in the outside region of the heme edge remarkably affect the stability of heme. The results of analyzing the oxidation states of heme iron in Tbs and its mutants by insource-CAD experiment suggest that the charge states of heme iron maintain inflexible in mutation process.

  18. Moessbauer spectroscopic study of polymer-bound heme complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectra were measured on the heme complexes of poly(1-vinyl- and 1-vinyl-2-methylimidazole)(PVI and PMI) and heme derivatives with covalently bound imidazoleligand (IH) and 2-methylimidazole-ligand (MIH) embedded in poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) film. Quadrupole splitting (ΔE sub(Q)) for the carbon monoxide adduct of PMI-heme indicated large electronic field gradient at the iron nucleus, probably due to steric hindrance of the polymer chain, and this behavior agreed with its low affinity with carbon monoxide. PMI-heme formed an oxygen adduct and its isomer shift and ΔE sub(Q) values were obtained. (author)

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 is the candidate targeting for organ transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Le-ping; ZHANG Li; PENG Li-pan; CHENG Li

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the role of heme oxyenase-1 in organ transplantation and explore the potential applications targeted on overexpression of heme oxyenase-1 gene.Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles listed in Medline and PubMed,published from January 1996 to December 2008.The search terms were "heme oxygenase-1" and "transplantation".Study selection Articles regarding the role of heme oxyenase-1 in organ transplantation and its protective role in transplants were selected.Protective effects of heme oxygenase-1 overexpression using a gene transfer approach against ischaemic reperfusion injury during transplantation were widely explored.Results Local heme oxygenase-1 overexpression in the graft ameliorates the ischaemic reperfusion injury.This is due to removal of heme, a potent prooxidant and proinflammatory agent, but also because of generation of biologically active products.Conclusions Overexpressive heme oxygenase-1 activity is associated with tissue protection in the setting of graft,ischaemic reperfusion injury.Gene therapy is attractive to us; but a long way from general application.In terms of heme oxygenase-1, the gene promoters are polymorphic.Although individualization is an important principle during clinical application, it is difficult to put into practice.

  20. Free Heme and the Polymerization of Sickle Cell Hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Uzunova, Veselina V.; Pan, Weichun; Galkin, Oleg; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    In search of novel control parameters for the polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS), the primary pathogenic event of sickle cell anemia, we explore the role of free heme, which may be excessively released in sickle erythrocytes. We show that the concentration of free heme in HbS solutions typically used in the laboratory is 0.02–0.04 mole heme/mole HbS. We show that dialysis of small molecules out of HbS solutions arrests HbS polymerization. The addition of 100–260 μM of free heme to...

  1. Pyridine Hemochromagen Assay for Determining the Concentration of Heme in Purified Protein Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Ian; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Heme is a common cofactor in proteins, found in hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome P450, DGCR8, and nitric oxide synthase, among others. This protocol describes a method for quantifying heme that works best in purified protein samples. This protocol might be used to, for example, determine whether a given heme-binding protein is fully occupied by heme, thus allowing correlation of heme content with activity. This requires the absolute heme concentration and an accurate protein concentration. A...

  2. Bacillus anthracis HssRS signaling to HrtAB regulates heme resistance during infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stauff, Devin L; Skaar, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis proliferates to high levels within vertebrate tissues during the pathogenesis of anthrax. This growth is facilitated by the acquisition of nutrient iron from host heme. However, heme acquisition can lead to the accumulation of toxic amounts of heme within B. anthracis. Here, we show that B. anthracis resists heme toxicity by sensing heme through the HssRS two-component system, which regulates expression of the heme-detoxifying transporter HrtAB. In addition, we demonstrate ...

  3. Iron acquisition from heme and hemoglobin by a Serratia marcescens extracellular protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Létoffé, S; Ghigo, J M; Wandersman, C

    1994-01-01

    Several pathogenic bacteria are able to use heme and hemoproteins as iron sources independent of siderophore production by mechanisms involving outer membrane heme-binding proteins and heme transport systems. Here we show that Serratia marcescens has such a property and we identify an extracellular heme-binding protein, HasA (for heme acquisition system), allowing the release of heme from hemoglobin. This protein is secreted by S. marcescens under conditions of iron depletion and is essential...

  4. Cytochrome c Biogenesis: Mechanisms for Covalent Modifications and Trafficking of Heme and for Heme-Iron Redox Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kranz, Robert G.; Richard-Fogal, Cynthia; Taylor, John-Stephen; Frawley, Elaine R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Heme is the prosthetic group for cytochromes, which are directly involved in oxidation/reduction reactions inside and outside the cell. Many cytochromes contain heme with covalent additions at one or both vinyl groups. These include farnesylation at one vinyl in hemes o and a and thioether linkages to each vinyl in cytochrome c (at CXXCH of the protein). Here we review the mechanisms for these covalent attachments, with emphasis on the three unique cytochrome c assembly pathways call...

  5. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    albumin via the heme edge of the peroxidase. In contrast, albumin radical formation by the HRP/H2O2/free tyrosine system was only marginally affected by proteolysis, consistent with free tyrosine phenoxyl radicals being the mediators of radical transfer, without significant protein-protein interaction...

  6. Studies of the interaction between heme oxygenase - 1 and human HBP

    OpenAIRE

    Jodłowska, Iga Karolina

    2014-01-01

    The presented work aimed to examine for the first time the interaction between heme oxygenase -1 (HO-1) and heme bound human HBP (hHBP). The protein hHBP is thought to be a heme binding protein involved in heme transport during heme metabolism in cells, although the exact function is unknown. Heme binds with a mM Kd. Therefore if hHBP is being used to transport heme, a partner needs to be present to accept the heme ring. Unpublished results have shown that HO-1 is present...

  7. Molecular Mechanism Governing Heme Signaling in Yeast: a Higher-Order Complex Mediates Heme Regulation of the Transcriptional Activator HAP1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Hach, Angela; Wang, Cheng

    1998-01-01

    Apart from serving as a prosthetic group in globins and enzymes, heme is a key regulator controlling a wide range of molecular and cellular processes involved in oxygen sensing and utilization. To gain insights into molecular mechanisms of heme signaling and oxygen sensing in eukaryotes, we investigated the yeast heme-responsive transcriptional activator HAP1. HAP1 activity is regulated precisely and tightly by heme. Here we show that in the absence of heme, HAP1 forms a biochemically distinc...

  8. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  9. Heme Distortions in Sperm-Whale Carbonmonoxy Myoglobin: Correlations between Rotational Strengths and Heme Distortions in MD-Generated Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIEFL,CHRISTOPH; SCREERAMA,NARASIMHA; LU,YI; QIU,YAN; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; WOODY,ROBERT W.

    2000-07-13

    The authors have investigated the effects of heme rotational isomerism in sperm-whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin using computational techniques. Several molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for the two rotational isomers A and B, which are related by a 180{degree} rotation around the {alpha}-{gamma} axis of the heme, of sperm-whale carbonmonoxy myoglobin in water. Both neutron diffraction and NMR structures were used as starting structures. In the absence of an experimental structure, the structure of isomer B was generated by rotating the heme in the structure of isomer A. Distortions of the heme from planarity were characterized by normal coordinate structural decomposition and by the angle of twist of the pyrrole rings from the heme plane. The heme distortions of the neutron diffraction structure were conserved in the MD trajectories, but in the NMR-based trajectories, where the heme distortions are less well defined, they differ from the original heme deformations. The protein matrix induced similar distortions on the heroes in orientations A and B. The results suggest that the binding site prefers a particular macrocycle conformation, and a 180{degree} rotation of the heme does not significantly alter the protein's preference for this conformation. The intrinsic rotational strengths of the two Soret transitions, separated according to their polarization in the heme plane, show strong correlations with the ruf-deformation and the average twist angle of the pyrrole rings. The total rotational strength, which includes contributions from the chromophores in the protein, shows a weaker correlation with heme distortions.

  10. Cytochrome c Biogenesis: Mechanisms for Covalent Modifications and Trafficking of Heme and for Heme-Iron Redox Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Robert G.; Richard-Fogal, Cynthia; Taylor, John-Stephen; Frawley, Elaine R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Heme is the prosthetic group for cytochromes, which are directly involved in oxidation/reduction reactions inside and outside the cell. Many cytochromes contain heme with covalent additions at one or both vinyl groups. These include farnesylation at one vinyl in hemes o and a and thioether linkages to each vinyl in cytochrome c (at CXXCH of the protein). Here we review the mechanisms for these covalent attachments, with emphasis on the three unique cytochrome c assembly pathways called systems I, II, and III. All proteins in system I (called Ccm proteins) and system II (Ccs proteins) are integral membrane proteins. Recent biochemical analyses suggest mechanisms for heme channeling to the outside, heme-iron redox control, and attachment to the CXXCH. For system II, the CcsB and CcsA proteins form a cytochrome c synthetase complex which specifically channels heme to an external heme binding domain; in this conserved tryptophan-rich “WWD domain” (in CcsA), the heme is maintained in the reduced state by two external histidines and then ligated to the CXXCH motif. In system I, a two-step process is described. Step 1 is the CcmABCD-mediated synthesis and release of oxidized holoCcmE (heme in the Fe+3 state). We describe how external histidines in CcmC are involved in heme attachment to CcmE, and the chemical mechanism to form oxidized holoCcmE is discussed. Step 2 includes the CcmFH-mediated reduction (to Fe+2) of holoCcmE and ligation of the heme to CXXCH. The evolutionary and ecological advantages for each system are discussed with respect to iron limitation and oxidizing environments. PMID:19721088

  11. Gas-phase spectroscopy of ferric heme-NO complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, J.A.; Jørgensen, Anders; Pedersen, Bjarke;

    2013-01-01

    Weakly bound complexes between ferric heme cations and NO were synthesised in the gas phase from ion-molecule reactions, and their absorption measured based on photodissociation yields. The Soret band, which serves as an important marker band for heme-protein spectroscopy, is maximal at 357±5 nm...... and significantly blue-shifted compared to ferric heme nitrosyl proteins (maxima between 408 and 422 nm). This is in stark contrast to the Q-band absorption where the protein microenvironment is nearly innocent in perturbing the electronic structure of the porphyrin macrocycle. Photodissociation is...... absorption maxima of heme and its complexes with amino acids and NO. Not so innocent: Weakly bound complexes between ferric heme and NO were synthesised in the gas phase, and their absorption measured from photodissociation yields. Opposite absorption trends in the Soret-band are seen upon NO addition to...

  12. Effect of different drinks on the absorption of non-heme iron from composite meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Rossander, L

    1982-04-01

    A study was made on the effect of various drinks on the absorption on non-heme iron. The drinks were taken with standard meals composed of a hamburger, string beans and mashed potatoes. In each series identical meals were served to the same subject either with water or with the drink under study, labelling the meals with two different radio-iron isotopes. A reduction in iron absorption was seen when serving tea (62 per cent) or coffee (35 per cent) with the meals. Orange juice increased the iron absorption (85 per cent). Pure alcohol and wine increased only slightly the percentage absorbed. Wine often has a high iron content, which increased significantly the amount of iron absorbed (three times). Milk and beer have no significant effect. Coca-Cola increased only slightly the absorption. The present studies clearly shows that the choice of drink drunk with a meal can markedly affect the absorption of non-heme iron. PMID:6896705

  13. Bioinspired heme, heme/nonheme diiron, heme/copper, and inorganic NOx chemistry: *NO((g)) oxidation, peroxynitrite-metal chemistry, and *NO((g)) reductive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, Mark P; Wang, Jun; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2010-07-19

    The focus of this Forum Article highlights work from our own laboratories and those of others in the area of biochemical and biologically inspired inorganic chemistry dealing with nitric oxide [nitrogen monoxide, *NO((g))] and its biological roles and reactions. The latter focus is on (i) oxidation of *NO((g)) to nitrate by nitric oxide dioxygenases (NODs) and (ii) reductive coupling of two molecules of *NO((g)) to give N(2)O(g). In the former case, NODs are described, and the highlighting of possible peroxynitrite/heme intermediates and the consequences of this are given by a discussion of recent works with myoglobin and a synthetic heme model system for NOD action. Summaries of recent copper complex chemistries with *NO((g)) and O(2)(g), leading to peroxynitrite species, are given. The coverage of biological reductive coupling of *NO((g)) deals with bacterial nitric oxide reductases (NORs) with heme/nonheme diiron active sites and on heme/copper oxidases such as cytochrome c oxidase, which can mediate the same chemistry. Recently designed protein and synthetic model compounds (heme/nonheme/diiron or heme/copper) as functional mimics are discussed in some detail. We also highlight examples from the chemical literature, not necessarily involving biologically relevant metal ions, that describe the oxidation of *NO((g)) to nitrate (or nitrite) and possible peroxynitrite intermediates or reductive coupling of *NO((g)) to give nitrous oxide. PMID:20666386

  14. The molecular mechanism of heme loss from oxidized soluble guanylate cyclase induced by conformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Yuan, Hong; Xu, Qiming; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhou, Yajun; Huang, Zhong-Xian; Tan, Xiangshi

    2016-05-01

    Heme oxidation and loss of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is thought to be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, it remains unknown why the heme loses readily in oxidized sGC. In the current study, the conformational change of sGC upon heme oxidation by ODQ was studied based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the heme and a fluorophore fluorescein arsenical helix binder (FlAsH-EDT2) labeled at different domains of sGC β1. This study provides an opportunity to monitor the domain movement of sGC relative to the heme. The results indicated that heme oxidation by ODQ in truncated sCC induced the heme-associated αF helix moving away from the heme, the Per/Arnt/Sim domain (PAS) domain moving closer to the heme, but led the helical domain going further from the heme. We proposed that the synergistic effect of these conformational changes of the discrete region upon heme oxidation forces the heme pocket open, and subsequent heme loss readily. Furthermore, the kinetic studies suggested that the heme oxidation was a fast process and the conformational change was a relatively slow process. The kinetics of heme loss from oxidized sGC was monitored by a new method based on the heme group de-quenching the fluorescence of FlAsH-EDT2. PMID:26876536

  15. The housekeeping dipeptide permease is the Escherichia coli heme transporter and functions with two optional peptide binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Létoffé, Sylvie; Delepelaire, Philippe; Wandersman, Cécile

    2006-01-01

    Heme, a major iron source, is transported through the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by specific heme/hemoprotein receptors and through the inner membrane by heme-specific, periplasmic, binding protein-dependent, ATP-binding cassette permeases. Escherichia coli K12 does not use exogenous heme, and no heme uptake genes have been identified. Nevertheless, a recombinant E. coli strain expressing just one foreign heme outer membrane receptor can use exogenous heme as an iron source. Thi...

  16. The free heme concentration in healthy human erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Anupam; Freundlich, Melissa; Vekilov, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Heme, the prosthetic group of hemoglobin, may be released from its host due to an intrinsic instability of hemoglobin and accumulate in the erythrocytes. Free heme is in the form of hematin (Fe3+ protoporphyrin IX OH) and follows several pathways of biochemical toxicity to tissues, cells, and organelles since it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen species. To determine concentration of soluble free heme in human erythrocytes, we develop a new method. We lyse the red blood cells and isolate free heme from hemoglobin by dialysis. We use the heme to reconstitute horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from an excess of the apoenzyme and determine the HRP reaction rate from the evolution of the emitted luminescence. We find that in a population of five healthy adults the average free heme concentration in the erythrocytes is 21 ± 2 μM, ca. 100× higher than previously determined. Tests suggest that the lower previous value was due to the use of elevated concentrations of NaCl, which drive hematin precipitation and re-association with apoglobin. We show that the found hematin concentration is significantly higher than estimates based on equilibrium release and the known hematin dimerization. The factors that lead to enhanced heme release remain an open question. PMID:26460266

  17. Development of a heme protein structure–electrochemical function database

    OpenAIRE

    Reedy, Charles J.; Elvekrog, Margaret M.; Gibney, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    Proteins containing heme, iron(protoporphyrin IX) and its variants, continue to be one of the most-studied classes of biomolecules due to their diverse range of biological functions. The literature is abundant with reports of structural and functional characterization of individual heme proteins which demonstrate that heme protein reduction potential values, E m, span the range from –550 mV to +450 mV versus SHE. In order to unite these data for the purposes of global analysis, a new web-base...

  18. Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Maniecki, Maciej B; Jacobsen, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    and is suggested to facilitate cellular heme metabolism. Using a ligand-affinity approach, we purified the human hemopexin-heme receptor and identified it as the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)/CD91, a receptor expressed in several cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes...... conclusion, hemopexin-heme complexes are removed by a receptor-mediated pathway showing striking similarities to the CD163-mediated haptoglobin-hemoglobin clearance in macrophages. Furthermore, the data indicate a hitherto unknown role of LRP/CD91 in inflammation....

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Novel Genes Essential for Heme Homeostasis in Caenorhabditiselegans

    OpenAIRE

    Severance, Scott; Rajagopal, Abbhirami; Rao, Anita U.; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Mitreva, Makedonka; El-Sayed, Najib M.; Krause, Michael; Hamza, Iqbal

    2010-01-01

    Heme is a cofactor in proteins that function in almost all sub-cellular compartments and in many diverse biological processes. Heme is produced by a conserved biosynthetic pathway that is highly regulated to prevent the accumulation of heme—a cytotoxic, hydrophobic tetrapyrrole. Caenorhabditis elegans and related parasitic nematodes do not synthesize heme, but instead require environmental heme to grow and develop. Heme homeostasis in these auxotrophs is, therefore, regulated in accordance wi...

  20. Effect of endurance training and cinnamon supplementation on post-exercise oxidative responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Dehghan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the preventative and therapeutic effects of regular exercise, exhaustive exercise may be harmful to health. The present study aimed to determine the protective effect of endurance training and cinnamon bark extract (CBE supplementation on oxidative responses induced by an exhaustive exercise schedule in rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following five groups of 6; control sedentary (Con/Sed, control exercised (Con/Ex, trained exercised (Tr/Ex, supplemented exercised (Sup/Ex, and trained, supplemented and exercised (Tr/Sup/Ex. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill for an 8-week endurance training program. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and (MDA and total thiol (TT levels were measured in plasma. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in soleus muscles. Results showed significant increases in SOD activity and malondealdehyde (MDA levels in the soleus muscles and serum of exercised rats fed with the normal diet. The exhaustive exercise also induced a decrease in serum total thiol level and GPX activity. Elevated levels of total thiol and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reduced serum MDA levels were found in the Sup/Ex and Tr/Sup/Ex groups. CAT and GPX activities increased by CBE treatment in trained rats. Regular training increased CAT and GPX activities in the Tr/Sup/Ex group. CAT, GPX and SOD activities were not affected by the CBE treatment in untrained rats. Results suggest that additional use of regular training and CBE supplementation increase TAC and protect healthy male rats against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

  1. Heme in pathophysiology: a matter of scavenging, metabolism and trafficking across cell membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EmanuelaTolosano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heme (iron-protoporphyrin IX is an essential co-factor involved in multiple biological processes: oxygen transport and storage, electron transfer, drug and steroid metabolism, signal transduction, and micro RNA processing. However, excess free-heme is highly toxic due to its ability to promote oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, thus leading to membrane injury and, ultimately, apoptosis. Thus, heme metabolism needs to be finely regulated. Intracellular heme amount is controlled at multiple levels: synthesis, utilization by hemoproteins, degradation and both intracellular and intercellular trafficking.This review focuses on recent findings highlighting the importance of controlling intracellular heme levels to counteract heme-induced oxidative stress. The contributions of heme scavenging from the extracellular environment, heme synthesis and incorporation into hemoproteins, heme catabolism and heme transport in maintaining adequate intracellular heme content are discussed. Particular attention is put on the recently described mechanisms of heme trafficking through the plasma membrane mediated by specific heme importers and exporters. Finally, the involvement of genes orchestrating heme metabolism in several pathological conditions is illustrated and new therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling heme metabolism are discussed.

  2. Carbon monoxide-driven reduction of ferric heme and heme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickar, D; Bonaventura, C; Bonaventura, J

    1984-09-10

    Oxidized cytochrome c oxidase in a carbon monoxide atmosphere slowly becomes reduced as shown by changes in its visible spectra and its reactivity toward oxygen. The "auto-reduction" of cytochrome c oxidase by this procedure has been used to prepare mixed valence hybrids. We have found that this process is a general phenomenon for oxygen-binding heme proteins, and even for isolated hemin in basic aqueous solution. This reductive reaction may have physiological significance. It also explains why oxygen-binding heme proteins become oxidized much more slowly and appear to be more stable when they are kept under a CO atmosphere. Oxidized alpha and beta chains of human hemoglobin become reduced under CO much more slowly than does cytochrome c oxidase, where the CO-binding heme is coupled with another electron accepting metal center. By observing the reaction in both the forward and reverse direction, we have concluded that the heme is reduced by an equivalent of the water-gas shift reaction (CO + H2O----CO2 + 2e- + 2H+). The reaction does not require molecular oxygen. However, when the CO-driven reduction of cytochrome c oxidase occurs in the presence of oxygen, there is a competition between CO and oxygen for the reduced heme and copper of cytochrome alpha 3. Under certain conditions when both CO and oxygen are present, a peroxide adduct derived from oxygen reduction can be observed. This "607 nm complex," described in 1981 by Nicholls and Chanady (Nicholls, P., and Chanady, G. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 634, 256-265), forms and decays with kinetics in accord with the rate constants for CO dissociation, oxygen association and reduction, and dissociation of the peroxide adduct. In the absence of oxygen, if a mixture of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase is incubated under a CO atmosphere, auto-reduction of the cytochrome c as well as of the cytochrome c oxidase occurs. By our proposed mechanism this involves a redistribution of electrons from cytochrome alpha 3 to

  3. Feasibility of combining spectra with texture data of multispectral imaging to predict heme and non-heme iron contents in pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Qin, Hao; Shi, Kefu; Zhou, Cunliu; Chen, Conggui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    To precisely determine heme and non-heme iron contents in meat product, the feasibility of combining spectral with texture features extracted from multispectral imaging data (405-970 nm) was assessed. In our study, spectra and textures of 120 pork sausages (PSs) treated by different temperatures (30-80 °C) were analyzed using different calibration models including partial least squares regression (PLSR) and LIB support vector machine (Lib-SVM) for predicting heme and non-heme iron contents in PSs. Based on a combination of spectral and textural features, optimized PLSR models were obtained with determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.912 for heme and of 0.901 for non-heme iron prediction, which demonstrated the superiority of combining spectra with texture data. Results of satisfactory determination and visualization of heme and non-heme iron contents indicated that multispectral imaging could serve as a feasible approach for online industrial applications in the future. PMID:26212953

  4. The influence of heme ruffling on spin densities in ferricytochromes c probed by heme core 13C NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Kleingardner, Jesse G.; Bowman, Sarah E. J.; Bren, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    The heme in cytochromes c undergoes a conserved out-of-plane distortion known as ruffling. For cytochromes c from the bacteria Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, NMR and EPR spectra have been shown to be sensitive to the extent of heme ruffling and to provide insights into the effect of ruffling on electronic structure. Using mutants of each of these cytochromes that differ in the amount of heme ruffling, NMR characterization of the low-spin (S=1/2) ferric proteins has c...

  5. Cytochrome c peroxidase activity of heme bound amyloid β peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Manas; Ghosh, Chandradeep; Basu, Olivia; Dey, Somdatta Ghosh

    2016-09-01

    Heme bound amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), can catalytically oxidize ferrocytochrome c (Cyt c(II)) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The rate of catalytic oxidation of Cyt(II) c has been found to be dependent on several factors, such as concentration of heme(III)-Aβ, Cyt(II) c, H2O2, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and peptide chain length of Aβ. The above features resemble the naturally occurring enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) which is known to catalytically oxidize Cyt(II) c in the presence of H2O2. In the absence of heme(III)-Aβ, the oxidation of Cyt(II) c is not catalytic. Thus, heme-Aβ complex behaves as CCP. PMID:27270708

  6. Immunolocalization of heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study is an increasing evidence of involvement of antioxidant enzymes like heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal inflammation and their implication for treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  7. ARSENIC INDUCTION OF HEME OXYGENASE AS A BIOMARKER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useful biomarkers of arsenic effects in both experimental animals and humans are needed. Arsenate and arsenite are good inducers of rat hepatic and renal heme oxygenase (HO); monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) are not. Therefore, HO enzyme induction ...

  8. Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: Current questions and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Iron is a critical micronutrient, and iron derived from heme contributes a large proportion of the total iron absorbed in a typical Western diet. Heine iron is absorbed by different mechanisms than non-heine iron, but despite considerable study over many years these mechanisms remain poorly understood. This review provides an overview of the importance of heme iron in the diet and discusses the two prevailing hypotheses of heine absorption; namely receptor mediated endocytosis of heme, and direct transport into the intestinal enterocyte by recently discovered heine transporters. A specific emphasis is placed on the questions surrounding the site of heme catabolism and the identity of the enzyme that performs this task. Additionally, we present the hypothesis that a nonheme iron transport protein may be required for heine iron absorption and discuss the experiences of our laboratory in examining this hypothesis.

  9. Bacillus anthracis secretes proteins that mediate heme acquisition from hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W Maresso

    Full Text Available Acquisition of iron is necessary for the replication of nearly all bacterial pathogens; however, iron of vertebrate hosts is mostly sequestered by heme and bound to hemoglobin within red blood cells. In Bacillus anthracis, the spore-forming agent of anthrax, the mechanisms of iron scavenging from hemoglobin are unknown. We report here that B. anthracis secretes IsdX1 and IsdX2, two NEAT domain proteins, to remove heme from hemoglobin, thereby retrieving iron for bacterial growth. Unlike other Gram-positive bacteria, which rely on cell wall anchored Isd proteins for heme scavenging, B. anthracis seems to have also evolved NEAT domain proteins in the extracellular milieu and in the bacterial envelope to provide for the passage of heme.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1: a novel therapeutic target for gastrointestinal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme, followed by production of biliverdin, free iron and carbon monoxide (CO). HO-1 is a stress-responsive protein induced by various oxidative agents. Recent studies demonstrate that the expression of HO-1 in response to different inflammatory mediators may contribute to the resolution of inflammation and has protective effects in several organs against oxidative injury. Although the mechanism underlying the anti-infla...

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Augustine MK; Ryter Stefan W; Slebos Dirk-Jan

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 respo...

  12. A novel heme a insertion factor gene cotranscribes with the Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba3 oxidase locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carolin; Richter, Oliver-Matthias H; Ludwig, Bernd

    2010-09-01

    Studying the biogenesis of the Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba(3) oxidase, we analyze heme a cofactor insertion into this membrane protein complex. Only three proteins linked to oxidase maturation have been described for this extreme thermophile, and in particular, no evidence for a canonical Surf1 homologue, required for heme a insertion, is available from genome sequence data. Here, we characterize the product of an open reading frame, cbaX, in the operon encoding subunits of the ba(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase. CbaX shares no sequence identity with any known oxidase biogenesis factor, and CbaX homologues are found only in the Thermaceae group. In a series of cbaX deletion and complementation experiments, we demonstrate that the resulting ba(3) oxidase complexes, affinity purified via an internally inserted His tag located in subunit I, are severely affected in their enzymatic activities and heme compositions in both the low- and high-spin sites. Thus, CbaX displays typical features of a generic Surf1 factor essential for binding and positioning the heme a moiety for correct assembly into the protein scaffold of oxidase subunit I. PMID:20622059

  13. Acquisition of iron from transferrin regulates reticulocyte heme synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fe-salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone (SIH), which can donate iron to reticulocytes without transferrin as a mediator, has been utilized to test the hypothesis that the rate of iron uptake from transferrin limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. Reticulocytes take up 59Fe from [59Fe]SIH and incorporate it into heme to a much greater extent than from saturating concentrations of [59Fe]transferrin. Also, Fe-SIH stimulates [2-14C]glycine into heme when compared to the incorporation observed with saturating levels of Fe-transferrin. In addition, delta-aminolevulinic acid does not stimulate 59Fe incorporation into heme from either [59Fe]transferrin or [59Fe]SIH but does reverse the inhibition of 59Fe incorporation into heme caused by isoniazid, an inhibitor of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. Taken together, these results suggest the hypothesis that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular transferrin to intracellular protoporphyrin limits the overall rate of heme synthesis in reticulocytes

  14. Binding and storage of heme by vitellin from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logullo, C; Moraes, J; Dansa-Petretski, M; Vaz, I S; Masuda, A; Sorgine, M H F; Braz, G R; Masuda, H; Oliveira, P L

    2002-12-01

    We have previously shown (, Curr. Biol. 9, 703-706) that the cattle tick Boophilus microplus does not synthesize heme, relying solely on the recovery of the heme from the diet to make all its hemeproteins. Here we present evidence that Vitellin (VN(1)), the main tick yolk protein, is a reservoir of heme for embryo development. VN was isolated from eggs at different days throughout embryogenesis. Immediately after oviposition, Boophilus VN contains approximately one mol of heme/mol of protein. During embryo development about one third of egg VN is degraded. The remaining VN molecules bind part of the heme released. These results suggest that VN functions as a heme reservoir, binding any free heme that exceeds the amount needed for development. In vitro measurement of the binding of heme to VN showed that each VN molecule binds up to 31 heme molecules. The association of heme with VN strongly inhibits heme-induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that binding of heme is an important antioxidant mechanism to protect embryo cells from oxidative damage. This mechanism allows this hematophagous arthropod to safely store heme obtained from a blood meal inside their eggs for future use. Taken together our data suggest that, besides its known roles, VN also plays additional functions as a heme deposit and an antioxidant protective molecule. PMID:12429132

  15. Cytoprotective role of heme oxygenase-1 and heme degradation derived end products in liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origassa, Clarice Silvia Taemi; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2013-10-27

    The activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) appears to be an endogenous defensive mechanism used by cells to reduce inflammation and tissue damage in a number of injury models. HO-1, a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron, has previously been shown to protect grafts from ischemia/reperfusion and rejection. In addition, the products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly CO and biliverdin/bilirubin, have been shown to exert protective effects in the liver against a number of stimuli, as in chronic hepatitis C and in transplanted liver grafts. Furthermore, the induction of HO-1 expression can protect the liver against damage caused by a number of chemical compounds. More specifically, the CO derived from HO-1-mediated heme catabolism has been shown to be involved in the regulation of inflammation; furthermore, administration of low concentrations of exogenous CO has a protective effect against inflammation. Both murine and human HO-1 deficiencies have systemic manifestations associated with iron metabolism, such as hepatic overload (with signs of a chronic hepatitis) and iron deficiency anemia (with paradoxical increased levels of ferritin). Hypoxia induces HO-1 expression in multiple rodent, bovine and monkey cell lines, but interestingly, hypoxia represses expression of the human HO-1 gene in a variety of human cell types (endothelial cells, epithelial cells, T cells). These data suggest that HO-1 and CO are promising novel therapeutic molecules for patients with inflammatory diseases. In this review, we present what is currently known regarding the role of HO-1 in liver injuries and in particular, we focus on the implications of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against chemically induced injury. PMID:24179613

  16. The CcmC:Heme:CcmE Complex in Heme Trafficking and Cytochrome c Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia; Kranz, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    A superfamily of integral membrane proteins is characterized by a conserved tryptophan-rich region (called the WWD domain) in an external loop at the inner membrane surface. The three major members of this family (CcmC, CcmF, and CcsBA) are each involved in cytochrome c biosynthesis, yet the function of the WWD domain is unknown. It has been hypothesized that the WWD domain binds heme to present it to an acceptor protein (apoCcmE for CcmC or apocytochrome c for CcmF and CcsBA) such that the h...

  17. The Role of the Cytoplasmic Heme-binding Protein (PhuS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Intracellular Heme Trafficking and Iron Homeostasis*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Ajinder P.; Lansky, Ila B.; Wilks, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The cytoplasmic heme-binding protein PhuS, encoded within the Fur-regulated Pseudomonas heme utilization (phu) operon, has previously been shown to traffic heme to the iron-regulated heme oxygenase (HO). We further investigate the role of PhuS in heme trafficking to HO on disruption of the phuS and hemO genes in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa siderophore-deficient and wild-type background. Previous studies have shown that deletion of hemO prevents the cells from utilizin...

  18. Heme-nitrosyls: electronic structure implications for function in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew P; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2015-07-21

    The question of why mammalian systems use nitric oxide (NO), a potentially hazardous and toxic diatomic, as a signaling molecule to mediate important functions such as vasodilation (blood pressure control) and nerve signal transduction initially perplexed researchers when this discovery was made in the 1980s. Through extensive research over the past two decades, it is now well rationalized why NO is used in vivo for these signaling functions, and that heme proteins play a dominant role in NO signaling in mammals. Key insight into the properties of heme-nitrosyl complexes that make heme proteins so well poised to take full advantage of the unique properties of NO has come from in-depth structural, spectroscopic, and theoretical studies on ferrous and ferric heme-nitrosyls. This Account highlights recent findings that have led to greater understanding of the electronic structures of heme-nitrosyls, and the contributions that model complex studies have made to elucidate Fe-NO bonding are highlighted. These results are then discussed in the context of the biological functions of heme-nitrosyls, in particular in soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC; NO signaling), nitrophorins (NO transport), and NO-producing enzymes. Central to this Account is the thermodynamic σ-trans effect of NO, and how this relates to the activation of the universal mammalian NO sensor sGC, which uses a ferrous heme as the high affinity "NO detection unit". It is shown via detailed spectroscopic and computational studies that the strong and very covalent Fe(II)-NO σ-bond is at the heart of the strong thermodynamic σ-trans effect of NO, which greatly weakens the proximal Fe-NHis (or Fe-SCys) bond in six-coordinate ferrous heme-nitrosyls. In sGC, this causes the dissociation of the proximally bound histidine ligand upon NO binding to the ferrous heme, inducing a significant conformational change that activates the sGC catalytic domain for the production of cGMP. This, in turn, leads to vasodilation and

  19. Heme oxygenase metabolites inhibit tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, YiLin; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Wang, Hong; Liu, Ruisheng; Garvin, Jeffrey L; Carretero, Oscar A

    2008-10-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is the mechanism by which the macula densa (MD) senses increases in luminal NaCl concentration and sends a signal to constrict the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). The kidney expresses constitutively heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and low levels of HO-1. HOs release carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and free iron. We hypothesized that renal HOs inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. Rabbit Af-Arts and attached MD were simultaneously microperfused in vitro. The TGF response was determined by measuring Af-Art diameter before and after increasing NaCl in the MD perfusate. When HO activity was inhibited by adding stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) to the MD perfusate, the TGF response increased from 2.1+/-0.2 to 4.1+/-0.4 microm (P=0.003, control vs. SnMP, n=7). When a CO-releasing molecule, (CORM-3; 50 microM), was added to the MD perfusate, the TGF response decreased by 41%, from 3.6+/-0.3 to 2.1+/-0.2 microm (PSnMP and CORM-3 were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We concluded that renal HO inhibits TGF probably via release of CO and biliverdin. HO regulation of TGF is a novel mechanism that could lead to a better understanding of the control of renal microcirculation and function. PMID:18715939

  20. Computational prediction of heme-binding residues by exploiting residue interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Liu

    Full Text Available Computational identification of heme-binding residues is beneficial for predicting and designing novel heme proteins. Here we proposed a novel method for heme-binding residue prediction by exploiting topological properties of these residues in the residue interaction networks derived from three-dimensional structures. Comprehensive analysis showed that key residues located in heme-binding regions are generally associated with the nodes with higher degree, closeness and betweenness, but lower clustering coefficient in the network. HemeNet, a support vector machine (SVM based predictor, was developed to identify heme-binding residues by combining topological features with existing sequence and structural features. The results showed that incorporation of network-based features significantly improved the prediction performance. We also compared the residue interaction networks of heme proteins before and after heme binding and found that the topological features can well characterize the heme-binding sites of apo structures as well as those of holo structures, which led to reliable performance improvement as we applied HemeNet to predicting the binding residues of proteins in the heme-free state. HemeNet web server is freely accessible at http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/hemeNet/.

  1. A Ferric-Peroxo Intermediate in the Oxidation of Heme by IsdI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin-Ichi J; Loutet, Slade A; Mauk, A Grant; Murphy, Michael E P

    2015-04-28

    The canonical heme oxygenases (HOs) catalyze heme oxidation via a heme-bound hydroperoxo intermediate that is stabilized by a water cluster at the active site of the enzyme. In contrast, the hydrophobic active site of IsdI, a heme-degrading enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus, lacks a water cluster and is expected to oxidize heme by an alternative mechanism. Reaction of the IsdI-heme complex with either H2O2 or m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid fails to produce a specific oxidized heme iron intermediate, suggesting that ferric-hydroperoxo or ferryl derivatives of IsdI are not involved in the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme. IsdI lacks a proton-donating group in the distal heme pocket, so the possible involvement of a ferric-peroxo intermediate has been evaluated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that heme oxidation involving a ferric-peroxo intermediate is energetically accessible, whereas the energy barrier for a reaction involving a ferric-hydroperoxo intermediate is too great in the absence of a proton donor. We propose that IsdI catalyzes heme oxidation through nucleophilic attack by the heme-bound peroxo species. This proposal is consistent with our previous demonstration by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that heme ruffling increases the susceptibility of the meso-carbon of heme to nucleophilic attack. PMID:25853501

  2. [Heme oxygenase activity in rat organs during cadmium chloride administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Kaliman, P A

    2002-01-01

    Heme oxygenase activity, the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of rats and blood serum absorption spectrum in the Soret region in different periods both after CdCl2 and prior alpha-tocopherol administration were studied. The increase in the hemolysis products content in the serum was observed in 15 min after CdCl2 injection and remained during 24 h. Heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney increased after 6 h and stayed at the same level 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The level of spontaneous LPO in the spleen increased after 6 h, and in the liver and kidney the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO increased in 24 h after CdCl2 injection. The preliminary alpha-tocopherol administration did not prevent the accumulation of hemolysis products in the serum and the increase of heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney caused by CdCl2 administration. However, the increase in the ascorbat-induced LPO in these organs was completely blocked. The role of heme and LPO in the heme oxygenase induction by CdCl2 are discussed. PMID:12916165

  3. Heme oxygenase activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirm...

  4. [Metabolism of heme and hemoproteins in rat liver upon administration of mercuric chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Nikitchenko, I V; Barannik, T V; Sokol, O A

    1999-01-01

    Rat liver delta-aminolevulinate synthase (delta-ALAS) activity in the early period after mercury chloride administration (0.7 mg per 100 g body weight) was found to be followed by free heme level increase, which was registered by the increase of heme saturation of the heme-binding protein tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (T-2,3-DO). delta-ALAS and heme oxygenase activity increase was observed 24 h after action. Microsomal cytochromes P450 and b5 levels decrease. Heme saturation of the T-2,3-DO returned to control level. Heme oxygenase and T-2,3-DO induction promoted hepatocytes free heme level normalization. Heme oxygenase and delta-ALAS induction role in the liver cells defense from the oxidative damage is discussed. PMID:10820853

  5. Heme b in marine cyanobacteria and the (sub-) tropical North Atlantic

    OpenAIRE

    Honey, David James

    2012-01-01

    Heme b is the iron containing prosthetic group to an important pool of iron proteins known as the hemoproteins. Hemoproteins are functionally diverse, playing key roles in photosynthetic and respiratory electron transfer (e.g. cytochrome b6f, photosystem II, cytochrome bc1) among other fundamental biological processes. Heme b is the most naturally abundant heme structure, but data regarding hemes in the marine environment are limited. An investigation has been conducted to improve our underst...

  6. CcsBA is a cytochrome c synthetase that also functions in heme transport

    OpenAIRE

    Frawley, Elaine R; Kranz, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about trafficking of heme from its sites of synthesis to sites of heme-protein assembly. We describe an integral membrane protein that allows trapping of endogenous heme to elucidate trafficking mechanisms. We show that CcsBA, a representative of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in cytochrome c biosynthesis, exports and protects heme from oxidation. CcsBA has 10 transmembrane domains (TMDs) and reconstitutes cytochrome c synthesis in the Escherichia coli pe...

  7. Crystal Structure of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cytoplasmic Heme Binding Protein, Apo-PhuS

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sarvind; O'Neill, Maura J.; Wilks, Angela; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential element to all living organisms and is an important determinant of bacterial virulence. Bacteria have evolved specialized systems to sequester and transport iron from the environment or host. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, uses two outer membrane receptor mediated systems (Phu and Has) to utilize host heme as a source of iron. PhuS is a 39 kDa soluble cytoplasmic heme binding protein which interacts and transports heme from the inner membrane heme tran...

  8. Computational Prediction of Heme-Binding Residues by Exploiting Residue Interaction Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Liu; Jianjun Hu

    2011-01-01

    Computational identification of heme-binding residues is beneficial for predicting and designing novel heme proteins. Here we proposed a novel method for heme-binding residue prediction by exploiting topological properties of these residues in the residue interaction networks derived from three-dimensional structures. Comprehensive analysis showed that key residues located in heme-binding regions are generally associated with the nodes with higher degree, closeness and betweenness, but lower ...

  9. Heme in pathophysiology: a matter of scavenging, metabolism and trafficking across cell membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah eChiabrando; Francesca eVinchi; Veronica eFiorito; Sonia eMercurio; Emanuela eTolosano

    2014-01-01

    Heme (iron-protoporphyrin IX) is an essential co-factor involved in multiple biological processes: oxygen transport and storage, electron transfer, drug and steroid metabolism, signal transduction, and micro RNA processing. However, excess free-heme is highly toxic due to its ability to promote oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, thus leading to membrane injury and, ultimately, apoptosis. Thus, heme metabolism needs to be finely regulated. Intracellular heme amount is controlled at multi...

  10. Effect of Growth Conditions on Yield and Heme Content of Vitreoscilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Parveen; Webster, Dale A.

    1980-01-01

    Vitreoscilla, a gliding bacterium in the Beggiatoaceae, is an obligate aerobe in which cytochrome o functions as the terminal oxidase. Protoheme IX is the only heme type present in this organism. The yield and heme content of Vitreoscilla cells grown in yeast extract, peptone, and acetate were dependent on growth conditions. Cells harvested in early stationary phase contained roughly three times as much heme as cells in early log phase. There was an optimal shaking rate for maximum heme conte...

  11. Pulsed EPR studies of bis imidazole heme a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin echo studies have been performed on the model compound for cytochrome a, bis imidazole heme a, and the results compared with those obtained for bis imidazole protoheme and for cytochrome a. The 14N coupling with the iron in the heme a model compound, as obtained from a study of the nuclear modulation effect, is comparable with that seen for the bis imidazole complex of protoheme. The magnetic field dependence of the linear electric field effect is essentially the same in both bis imidazole complexes, but is markedly different from that observed for cytochrome a. Thus the odd field component of the crystal field in bis imid heme a is different from that in cytochrome a. (author)

  12. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evacuation service (HEMES). 135.271 Section 135.271 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... 24-consecutive hour period of a HEMES assignment, unless an emergency medical evacuation operation...

  13. Determinants of Ligand Affinity and Heme Reactivity in H-NOX Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Weinert, Emily E.; Plate, Lars; Whited, Charlotte A.; Olea, Charles; Marletta, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    O_2 balks at extra bulk: The introduction of distal-pocket bulk into the Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis H-NOX (heme nitric oxide/oxygen) domain caused key changes in the protein structure. Rearrangement of the heme pocket resulted in dramatic differences in O_2-binding kinetics and heme reactivity (see picture).

  14. AN INTEGRATED PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDY OF ARSENITE ACTION 2. HEME OXYGENASE INDUCTION IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation and its activity has a significant impact on intracellular heme pools. Rat studies indicate that HO induction is a sensitive, dose-dependent response to arsenite (AsIII) exposure in both liver and kidney. The o...

  15. Like Iron in the Blood of the People: The Requirement for Heme Trafficking in Iron Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IqbalHamza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heme is an iron-containing porphyrin ring that serves as a prosthetic group in proteins that function in diverse metabolic pathways. Heme is also a major source of bioavailable iron in the human diet. While the synthesis of heme has been well-characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking remain poorly understood. It is likely that heme transport across membranes is highly regulated, as free heme is toxic to cells. This review outlines the requirement for heme delivery to various subcellular compartments as well as possible mechanisms for the mobilization of heme from these compartments. We also discuss how these trafficking pathways might function during physiological events involving inter- and intra-cellular mobilization of heme, including erythropoiesis, erythrophagocytosis, heme absorption in the gut, as well as heme transport pathways supporting embryonic development. Lastly, we aim to question the current dogma that heme, in toto, is not mobilized from one cell or tissue to another, outlining the evidence for these pathways and drawing parallels to other well-accepted paradigms for copper, iron, and cholesterol homeostasis.

  16. CcsBA is a cytochrome c synthetase that also functions in heme transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Elaine R.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about trafficking of heme from its sites of synthesis to sites of heme-protein assembly. We describe an integral membrane protein that allows trapping of endogenous heme to elucidate trafficking mechanisms. We show that CcsBA, a representative of a superfamily of integral membrane proteins involved in cytochrome c biosynthesis, exports and protects heme from oxidation. CcsBA has 10 transmembrane domains (TMDs) and reconstitutes cytochrome c synthesis in the Escherichia coli periplasm; thus, CcsBA is a cytochrome c synthetase. Purified CcsBA contains heme in an “external heme binding domain” for which two external histidines are shown to serve as axial ligands that protect the heme iron from oxidation. This is likely the active site of the synthetase. Furthermore, two conserved histidines in TMDs are required for heme to travel to the external heme binding domain. Remarkably, the function of CcsBA with mutations in these TMD histidines is corrected by exogenous imidazole, a result analogous to correction of heme binding by myoglobin when its proximal histidine is mutated. These data suggest that CcsBA has a heme binding site within the bilayer and that CcsBA is a heme channel. PMID:19509336

  17. Spectroscopy of Ferric Heme and Protoporphyrin IX Ions In Vacuo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with gas-phase spectroscopy of protoporphyrin IX and heme ions, two important biochromophores in nature. These ions strongly absorb blue and green light, which accounts for e.g. the red colour of blood. We present absorption spectra of four-coordinate ferric heme cations at room...... conversion to the ground state. This is somewhat supported by spectroscopic characterisation of the long-lived states based on pump-probe experiments. Hence from one time spectrum (a one-laser experiment), triplet quantum yields can easily be estimated....

  18. Ibuprofen impairs allosterically peroxynitrite isomerization by ferric human serum heme-albumin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra; Coletta, Massimo; Ciaccio, Chiara; Fanali, Gabriella; Nicoletti, Francesco P; Smulevich, Giulietta; Fasano, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) participates in heme scavenging; in turn, heme endows HSA with myoglobin-like reactivity and spectroscopic properties. Here, the allosteric effect of ibuprofen on peroxynitrite isomerization to NO3− catalyzed by ferric human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe(III)) is reported. Data were obtained at 22.0 °C. HSA-heme-Fe(III) catalyzes peroxynitrite isomerization in the absence and presence of CO2; the values of the second order catalytic rate constant (kon) are 4.1 × 10...

  19. DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8) Is a Double-cysteine-ligated Heme Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Ian; Smith, Aaron T.; Senturia, Rachel; Chen, Yanqiu; Scheidemantle, Brooke D.; Burstyn, Judith N.; Guo, Feng

    2011-01-01

    All known heme-thiolate proteins ligate the heme iron using one cysteine side chain. We previously found that DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8), an essential microRNA processing factor, associates with heme of unknown redox state when overexpressed in Escherichia coli. On the basis of the similarity of the 450-nm Soret absorption peak of the DGCR8-heme complex to that of cytochrome P450 containing ferrous heme with CO bound, we identified cysteine 352 as a probable axial ligand in DGCR8. Her...

  20. HutZ Is Required for Efficient Heme Utilization in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.; Schmitt, Michael; Wilks, Angela; Shelley M Payne

    2004-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires iron for growth. One mechanism by which it acquires iron is the uptake of heme, and several heme utilization genes have been identified in V. cholerae. These include three distinct outer membrane receptors, two TonB systems, and an apparent ABC transporter to transfer heme across the inner membrane. However, little is known about the fate of the heme after it enters the cell. In this report we show that a novel heme utilization protein...

  1. Respiration triggers heme transfer from cytochrome c peroxidase to catalase in yeast mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Kathiresan, Meena; Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    We provide to our knowledge the first in vivo and in vitro evidence for H2O2-triggered heme transfer between proteins. Specifically, H2O2 binds to and labilizes cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1)’s heme by oxidizing the proximal Fe ligand (His175), which activates Ccp1 to transfer its heme to apoCta1, and apoCcp1 subsequently escapes from mitochondria. This sequence of H2O2-activated heme labilization, heme transfer between proteins, and protein relocalization defines a previously undefined mecha...

  2. Heme metabolism in stress regulation and protein production: from Cinderella to a key player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, J. L.; Petranovic, D.; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Heme biosynthesis is a highly conserved pathway which is present in all kingdoms, from Archaea to higher organisms such as plants and mammals. The heme molecule acts as a prosthetic group for different proteins and enzymes involved in energy metabolism and reactions involved in electron transfer....... Based on our recent findings and other recent reports, we here illustrate that heme is more than a co-factor. We also discuss the necessity to gain more insight into the heme biosynthesis pathway regulation, as this interacts closely with overall stress control. Understanding heme biosynthesis and its...

  3. Crystallographic and Spectroscopic Insights into Heme Degradation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis MhuD

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Amanda B.; Morse, Robert P.; Chao, Alex; Iniguez, Angelina; Goulding, Celia W.; Liptak, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium heme utilization degrader (MhuD) is a heme-degrading protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis responsible for extracting the essential nutrient iron from host-derived heme. MhuD has been previously shown to produce unique organic products compared to those of canonical heme oxygenases (HOs) as well as those of the IsdG/I heme-degrading enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of cyanide-inhibited MhuD (MhuD–heme–CN) as well as detailed 1H nu...

  4. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  5. Effects of Heme Electronic Structure and Distal Polar Interaction on Functional and Vibrational Properties of Myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yuki; Nishimura, Ryu; Nishiyama, Kotaro; Shibata, Tomokazu; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Ogura, Takashi; Matsuo, Takashi; Hirota, Shun; Neya, Saburo; Suzuki, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2016-02-15

    We analyzed the oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO) binding properties, autoxidation reaction rate, and FeO2 and FeCO vibrational frequencies of the H64Q mutant of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) reconstituted with chemically modified heme cofactors possessing a variety of heme Fe electron densities (ρFe), and the results were compared with those for the previously studied native [Shibata, T. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010 , 132 , 6091 - 6098 ], and H64L [Nishimura, R. et al. Inorg. Chem. 2014 , 53 , 1091 - 1099 ], and L29F [Nishimura, R. et al. Inorg. Chem. 2014 , 53 , 9156 - 9165 ] mutants in order to elucidate the effect of changes in the heme electronic structure and distal polar interaction contributing to stabilization of the Fe-bound ligand on the functional and vibrational properties of the protein. The study revealed that, as in the cases of the previously studied native protein [Shibata, T. et al. Inorg. Chem. 2012 , 51 , 11955 - 11960 ], the O2 affinity and autoxidation reaction rate of the H64Q mutant decreased with a decrease in ρFe, as expected from the effect of a change in ρFe on the resonance between the Fe(2+)-O2 bond and Fe(3+)-O2(-)-like species in the O2 form, while the CO affinity of the protein is independent of a change in ρFe. We also found that the well-known inverse correlation between the frequencies of Fe-bound CO (νCO) and Fe-C (νFeC) stretching [Li, X.-Y.; Spiro, T. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1988 , 110 , 6024 - 6033 ] is affected differently by changes in ρFe and the distal polar interaction, indicating that the effects of the two electronic perturbations due to the chemical modification of a heme cofactor and the replacement of nearby amino acid residues on the resonance between the two alternative canonical forms of the FeCO fragment in the protein are slightly different from each other. These findings provide a new insight for deeper understanding of the functional regulation of the protein. PMID:26814981

  6. Heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion attenuates oxidative stress in neurons exposed to extracellular hemin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenisti-Zarom Luna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas and is a potent oxidant. Growing evidence suggests that it contributes to delayed injury to surrounding tissue, and that this process is affected by the heme oxygenase enzymes. In a prior study, heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion increased the vulnerability of cultured cortical astrocytes to hemin. The present study tested the effect of HO-2 gene deletion on protein oxidation, reactive oxygen species formation, and cell viability after mixed cortical neuron/astrocyte cultures were incubated with neurotoxic concentrations of hemin. Results Continuous exposure of wild-type cultures to 1–10 μM hemin for 14 h produced concentration-dependent neuronal death, as detected by both LDH release and fluorescence intensity after propidium iodide staining, with an EC50 of 1–2 μM; astrocytes were not injured by these low hemin concentrations. Cell death was consistently reduced by at least 60% in knockout cultures. Exposure to hemin for 4 hours, a time point that preceded cell lysis, increased protein oxidation in wild-type cultures, as detected by staining of immunoblots for protein carbonyl groups. At 10 μM hemin, carbonylation was increased 2.3-fold compared with control sister cultures subjected to medium exchanges only; this effect was reduced by about two-thirds in knockout cultures. Cellular reactive oxygen species, detected by fluorescence intensity after dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR staining, was markedly increased by hemin in wild-type cultures and was localized to neuronal cell bodies and processes. In contrast, DHR fluorescence intensity in knockout cultures did not differ from that of sham-washed controls. Neuronal death in wild-type cultures was almost completely prevented by the lipid-soluble iron chelator phenanthroline; deferoxamine had a weaker but significant effect. Conclusions These results suggest that HO-2 gene deletion protects neurons in mixed

  7. The Synthetic Analogs of Oxygen-Binding Heme Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslick, Kenneth S.; Reinert, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses model studies aimed at elucidating various ways in which molecular oxygen interacts with metalloproteins. The focus is on the chemistry of iron(II) porphyrins and their adducts with nitrogenous bases, carbon monoxide, and dioxygen, which are most relevant to the functional proteries of the heme proteins, hemoglobin, and myoglobin. (JN)

  8. Heme and HO-1 inhibition of HCV, HBV, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren N Schmidt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B virus are chronic viral infections that cause considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In the decades following the identification and sequencing of these viruses, in vitro experiments demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1, its oxidative products, and related compounds of the heme oxygenase system are virucidal for all three viruses. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate and summarize the seminal studies that described and characterized this remarkable behavior. It will also discuss more recent work that discovered the antiviral mechanisms and target sites of these unique antiviral agents. In spite of the fact that these viruses are diverse pathogens with quite profound differences in structure and life cycle, it is significant that heme and related compounds show striking similarity for viral target sites across all three species. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that we should move forward and develop heme and related tetrapyrroles into versatile antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically in patients with single or multiple viral infections.

  9. Characterization of heme-binding properties of Paracoccus denitrificans Surf1 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, Achim; Bundschuh, Freya A; Ludwig, Bernd

    2011-05-01

    Biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a highly complex process involving >30 chaperones in eukaryotes; those required for the incorporation of the copper and heme cofactors are also conserved in bacteria. Surf1, associated with heme a insertion and with Leigh syndrome if defective in humans, is present as two homologs in the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, Surf1c and Surf1q. In an in vitro interaction assay, the heme a transfer from purified heme a synthase, CtaA, to Surf1c was followed, and both Surf proteins were tested for their heme a binding properties. Mutation of four strictly conserved amino acid residues within the transmembrane part of each Surf1 protein confirmed their requirement for heme binding. Interestingly the mutation of a tryptophan residue in transmembrane helix II (W200 in Surf1c and W209 in Surf1q) led to a drastic switch in the heme composition, with Surf1 now being populated mostly by heme o, the intermediate in the heme a biosynthetic pathway. This tryptophan residue discriminates between the two heme moieties, apparently coordinates the formyl group of heme a, and most likely presents the cofactor in a spatial orientation suitable for optimal transfer to its target site within subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:21418525

  10. CYTOCHROME P450 REGULATION: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ITS HEME AND APOPROTEIN MOIETIES IN SYNTHESIS, ASSEMBLY, REPAIR AND DISPOSAL123

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Almira; Sinclair, Peter R.; De Matteis, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Heme is vital to our aerobic universe. Heme cellular content is finely tuned through an exquisite control of synthesis and degradation. Heme deficiency is deleterious to cells, whereas excess heme is toxic. Most of the cellular heme serves as the prosthetic moiety of functionally diverse hemoproteins, including cytochromes P450 (P450s). In the liver, P450s are its major consumers with >50% of hepatic heme committed to their synthesis. Prosthetic heme is the sine qua non of P450 catalytic biot...

  11. Heme degradation by Staphylococcus aureus IsdG and IsdI liberates formaldehyde rather than carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Toshitaka; Nambu, Shusuke; Ono, Yukari; Goulding, Celia W.; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    2013-01-01

    IsdG and IsdI from Staphylococcus aureus are novel heme degrading enzymes containing unusually non-planar (ruffled) heme. While canonical heme degrading enzymes, heme oxygenases, catalyze heme degradation coupled with the release of CO, in this study we demonstrate that the primary C1 product of the S. aureus enzymes is formaldehyde. This finding clearly reveals that both IsdG and IsdI degrade heme by an unusual mechanism distinct from the well-characterized heme oxygenase mechanism as recent...

  12. Enhanced heme accessibility in horse heart mini-myoglobin: Insights from molecular modelling and reactivity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polticelli, Fabio; Zobnina, Veranika; Ciaccio, Chiara; de Sanctis, Giampiero; Ascenzi, Paolo; Coletta, Massimo

    2015-11-01

    Mini-myoglobin (mini-HHMb) is a fragment of horse-heart myoglobin (HHMb) considered to be the prototype of the product encoded by the central exon of the HHMb gene. For this reason, mini-HHMb has been studied extensively showing that carbonylation and oxygenation properties of the ferrous form are similar to those of the full-length protein, while kinetics and thermodynamics of azide binding to the ferric form are significantly different from those of HHMb. To analyze the structure-function relationships in mini-HHMb and the role of conformational fluctuations in ligand accessibility, the molecular model of mini-HHMb has been built and refined by molecular dynamics simulations, and analyzed in parallel with that of full length HHMb. Moreover, imidazole binding parameters of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been determined. Furthermore, structural data of ferric mini-HHMb and HHMb have been correlated with the imidazole and previously determined azide binding properties. Present results indicate that, despite the extensive trimming, the heme-α-helices E-F substructure is essentially unaltered in mini-HHMb with respect to HHMb. However, the heme-Fe atom displays an enhanced accessibility in mini-HHMb, which may affect both ligand association and dissociation kinetics. PMID:26363214

  13. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined. PMID:27626297

  14. Transfection of the Human Heme Oxygenase Gene Into Rabbit Coronary Microvessel Endothelial Cells: Protective Effect Against Heme and Hemoglobin Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, N. G.; Lavrovsky, Y.; Schwartzman, M. L.; Stoltz, R. A.; Levere, R. D.; Gerritsen, M. E.

    1995-07-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress protein and has been suggested to participate in defense mechanisms against agents that may induce oxidative injury such as metals, endotoxin, heme/hemoglobin, and various cytokines. Overexpression of HO in cells might therefore protect against oxidative stress produced by certain of these agents, specifically heme and hemoglobin, by catalyzing their degradation to bilirubin, which itself has antioxidant properties. We report here the successful in vitro transfection of rabbit coronary microvessel endothelial cells with a functioning gene encoding the human HO enzyme. A plasmid containing the cytomegalovirus promoter and the human HO cDNA complexed to cationic liposomes (Lipofectin) was used to transfect rabbit endothelial cells. Cells transfected with human HO exhibited an ≈3.0-fold increase in enzyme activity and expressed a severalfold induction of human HO mRNA as compared with endogenous rabbit HO mRNA. Transfected and nontransfected cells expressed factor VIII antigen and exhibited similar acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake (two important features that characterize endothelial cells) with >85% of cells staining positive for each marker. Moreover, cells transfected with the human HO gene acquired substantial resistance to toxicity produced by exposure to recombinant hemoglobin and heme as compared with nontransfected cells. The protective effect of HO overexpression against heme/hemoglobin toxicity in endothelial cells shown in these studies provides direct evidence that the inductive response of human HO to such injurious stimuli represents an important tissue adaptive mechanism for moderating the severity of cell damage produced by these blood components.

  15. Heme A synthase in bacteria depends on one pair of cysteinyls for activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Anna; Hederstedt, Lars

    2016-02-01

    Heme A is a prosthetic group unique for cytochrome a-type respiratory oxidases in mammals, plants and many microorganisms. The poorly understood integral membrane protein heme A synthase catalyzes the synthesis of heme A from heme O. In bacteria, but not in mitochondria, this enzyme contains one or two pairs of cysteine residues that are present in predicted hydrophilic polypeptide loops on the extracytoplasmic side of the membrane. We used heme A synthase from the eubacterium Bacillus subtilis and the hyperthermophilic archeon Aeropyrum pernix to investigate the functional role of these cysteine residues. Results with B. subtilis amino acid substituted proteins indicated the pair of cysteine residues in the loop connecting transmembrane segments I and II as being essential for catalysis but not required for binding of the enzyme substrate, heme O. Experiments with isolated A. pernix and B. subtilis heme A synthase demonstrated that a disulfide bond can form between the cysteine residues in the same loop and also between loops showing close proximity of the two loops in the folded enzyme protein. Based on the findings, we propose a classification scheme for the four discrete types of heme A synthase found so far in different organisms and propose that essential cysteinyls mediate transfer of reducing equivalents required for the oxygen-dependent catalysis of heme A synthesis from heme O. PMID:26592143

  16. Bioavailability of Heme Iron in Biscuit Filling Using Piglets as an Animal Model for Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Guillermo Quintero-Gutiérrez, Guillermina González-Rosendo, Jonathan Sánchez-Muñoz, Javier Polo-Pozo, José Juan Rodríguez-Jerez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioavailability of heme iron added to biscuit filling. It comprised two stages: first, the development of the heme iron enriched biscuit filling; second, the evaluation of the bioavailability of the mineral in fattening piglets. Two groups were selected randomly and fed: a Low iron feed and biscuits with heme iron supplemented filling; b Normal feed (with ferrous sulphate. Weight and blood parameters were measured every fifteen days. Averages were compared after duplicate analyses. The filling had a creamy appearance, chocolate taste and smell, appropriate spreadability, heme iron content of 2.6 mg per gram and a shelf-life of a month. The heme iron supplemented pigs registered a greater (P<0.05 weight gain (27.8% more than the control group. Mortality in the heme iron group was 10%, compared to 50% in the control group. The amount of iron measured in the different compartment was greater in the heme group (3315 mg than in the control group (2792 mg. However, the amount of iron consumed in the latter was greater. We show that an acceptable product with high heme iron content can be formulated, suitable for use as biscuit filling. The heme iron supplement produced better weight increase and lesser mortality in fattening pigs. The bioavailability of heme iron was 23% greater (P<0.05 compared to ferrous sulphate.

  17. Heme degrading protein HemS is involved in oxidative stress response of Bartonella henselae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe³⁺ uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress.

  18. REGULATION OF RAT HEPATIC DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID SYNTHETASE AND HEME OXYGENASE ACTIVITIES: EVIDENCE FOR CONTROL BY HEME AND AGAINST MEDIATION BY PROSTHETIC IRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of in vivo administration of 6 compounds on the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase and heme oxygenase were determined. The order of decreasing potency in reducing ALA synthetase activity was heme, bilirubin, protoporphyrin IX, bilirubin dimethyl es...

  19. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  20. Localization of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aditya; Yeleswarapu, Sri Jyothsna; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Bulusu, Gopalakrishnan

    2008-12-01

    Protein trafficking in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum is dictated by a complex life-cycle that involves a variety of intra-cellular and host cell destinations, such as the mitochondrion, apicoplast, rhoptries and micronemes. Of these, the apicoplast and mitochondrion are believed to account for more than 10% of this traffic. Studies have shown that mechanisms for mitochondrion and apicoplast targeting are distinct, despite their close physical proximity. The heme biosynthesis pathway spans both these organelles, making trafficking studies crucial for the spatial demarcation of the constituent interactions. This minireview highlights the challenges in identifying the possible sub-cellular destinations of the heme pathway enzymes using gleanings from literature survey as well as focussed bioinformatic analysis. PMID:19239121

  1. Bacillus anthracis IsdG, a Heme-Degrading Monooxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    Skaar, Eric P.; Gaspar, Andrew H.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, utilizes hemin and hemoglobin for growth in culture, suggesting that these host molecules serve as sources for the nutrient iron during bacterial infection. Bioinformatic analyses of the B. anthracis genome revealed genes with similarity to the iron-regulated surface determinant (isd) system responsible for heme uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. We show that the protein product of one of these genes, isdG, binds hemin in a manner resembling t...

  2. Irradiation of bovine meat: effect of heme-iron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation is often used, nowadays, for meat conservation and it is important to know how much this process interferes with the nutritional quality of the meat. In this study round cut meat, ground and steaks (from a local supermarket) was irradiated with doses of O; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy (JS-7500 Nordium Inc -Canada) and the interference of irradiation and the process of food preparation on heme-iron (H Fe) content was determined. Half of the sample was kept raw and the other half was grilled in a pre-warmed oven at 250 deg C for 9 min and a controlled humidity of 70%. The chemical composition, the total iron (T Fe) (EM) and the heme iron concentration were determined (Hornsey,1956) and the sensorial quality evaluated. The average T Fe concentration of raw and ground , ground and grilled, raw steaks and grilled steak meat, on dry and degreased basis was 113 mug/g, 121 mug/g , 91 mug/g and 77 mug/g; and the H Fe concentration 105 mug/g (93% of T Fe) , 88 mug/g (73% of T Fe), 90 mug/g (99% of T Fe) and 52 mug/g (68% of T Fe) respectively. Data were evaluated by ANOVA with fixed effects and multiple comparisons. The irradiation neither altered the chemical composition nor the proportion of heme iron of meat. The preparation conditions (temperature, cooking time, environment humidity, meat presentation) of the sample interfered more with the heme iron content than the irradiation. With the sensorial analysis we verified that meats irradiated with doses of 3 kGy were better evaluated in softness and succulency attributes than the others. Meat submitted to irradiation doses up to 3 kGy were accepted by the specialists' panel. (author)

  3. Mechanism of reaction of chlorite with mammalian heme peroxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Jakopitsch, Christa; Pirker, Katharina F.; Flemmig, Jörg; Hofbauer, Stefan; Schlorke, Denise; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Arnhold, Jürgen; Obinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates that heme peroxidases from different superfamilies react differently with chlorite. In contrast to plant peroxidases, like horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the mammalian counterparts myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by chlorite in the micromolar concentration range. Chlorite acts as efficient one-electron donor for Compound I and Compound II of MPO and LPO and reacts with the corresponding ferric resting states in a ...

  4. Sexual dimorphism in renal heme-heme oxygenase system in the streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacasa, Bárbara; Pérez, Cayetano; Salom, Miguel G; López, Bernardo; Sáez-Belmonte, Fara; Martinez, Pedro; Casas, Teresa; Fenoy, Fráncisco J; Rodriguez, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Heme Oxygenase (HO) -1 and -2 exert antioxidant, cytoprotective and vascular actions in male diabetic rats. However, there is no information about the expression and functional significance of the renal HO system in diabetic females. The present study tested the hypothesis that the HO system is differentially regulated in the kidney of female Sprague Dawley diabetic rats, protecting it from nitrosative and glomerular functional damage. Two weeks after the administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg. i.p), males (DM) and females (DF) showed hyperglycemia, polyuria and elevated kidney/body weight ratio, compared to their control males (CM) and females (CF). In conscious animals, creatinine clearance was higher (0.5 ± 00 vs. 0.3 ± 00; ml/min/100g BW; pSnMP 40 mol/kg, i.v.) induced a greater renal vasoconstrictor response in DF than in DM. Western blot analysis of renal tissue revealed higher renal cortex HO-1 protein levels in DF compared to all other groups; by immunohistochemistry this induction of HO-1 in DF was localized in tubular segments and glomeruli. Furthermore, renal cortical concentration of nitrosylated protein was higher in DM than in DF animals and inversely related with HO-1 levels in both renal cortex and medulla. These data demonstrate that the HO-1 protein is induced in females, associated with renal vasodilation, decreased renal nitrosative stress and reduced albuminuria, indicating that the HO system is protecting the kidney from diabetes-induced damage specifically in females. PMID:23092315

  5. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of immobilized de novo designed heme proteins on metal electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, WW; Ulstrup, Jens;

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of rational design principles, template-assisted four-helix-bundle proteins that include two histidines for coordinative binding of a heme were synthesized. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the proteins in solution reveals the expected bis-histidine coordinated heme...... involves the coupling of electron transfer and heme ligand dissociation, which was analyzed by time-resolved SERR spectroscopy. Electron transfer was found to be significantly slower for the mono-histidine-coordinated than for the bis-histidine-coordinated heme. For the latter, the formal heterogeneous...... electron-transfer rate constant of 13 s(-1) is similar to those reported for natural heme proteins with comparable electron-transfer distances, which indicates that covalently bound synthetic heme proteins provide efficient electronic communication with a metal electrode as a prerequisite for potential...

  6. Translational Significance of Heme Oxygenase in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nader G; Junge, Joshua M; Drummond, George S

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues unabated with sequelae of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This review reflects the dramatic increase in research on the role of increased expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1/HO-2, biliverdin reductase, and HO activity on vascular disease. The HO system engages with other systems to mitigate the deleterious effects of oxidative stress in obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent reports indicate that HO-1/HO-2 protein expression and HO activity have several important roles in hemostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent perturbations associated with metabolic syndrome. HO-1 protects tissue during inflammatory stress in obesity through the degradation of pro-oxidant heme and the production of carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin, both of which have anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. By contrast, repression of HO-1 is associated with increases of cellular heme and inflammatory conditions including hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. HO-1 is a major focus in the development of potential therapeutic strategies to reverse the clinical complications of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26515032

  7. Bioavailability of Heme Iron in Biscuit Filling Using Piglets as an Animal Model for Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Guillermo Quintero-Gutiérrez, Guillermina González-Rosendo, Jonathan Sánchez-Muñoz, Javier Polo-Pozo, José Juan Rodríguez-Jerez

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioavailability of heme iron added to biscuit filling. It comprised two stages: first, the development of the heme iron enriched biscuit filling; second, the evaluation of the bioavailability of the mineral in fattening piglets. Two groups were selected randomly and fed: a) Low iron feed and biscuits with heme iron supplemented filling; b) Normal feed (with ferrous sulphate). Weight and blood parameters were measured every fifteen days. Averages ...

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 polymorphism is not associated with risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intake of red and processed meat confers risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to test whether heme in meat promotes carcinogenesis. Methods: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HMOX1) A-413T (rs2071746) was assessed in a nested case–cohort study of 383 CRC cases and 763 randomly selected...... for interaction=0.55). Conclusion: The studied HO-1 polymorphism was not associated with risk of CRC suggesting that heme from meat is not important in CRC development....

  9. O2 Binding to Heme is Strongly Facilitated by Near‐Degeneracy of Electronic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the computed O2 binding to heme, which for the first time explains experimental enthalpies for this process of central importance to bioinorganic chemistry. All four spin states along the relaxed FeO2‐binding curves were optimized using the full heme system with dispersion...... why the spin‐forbidden binding of O2 to heme, so fundamental to higher life forms, is fast and reversible....

  10. Prediction of heme binding residues from protein sequences with integrative sequence profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background The heme-protein interactions are essential for various biological processes such as electron transfer, catalysis, signal transduction and the control of gene expression. The knowledge of heme binding residues can provide crucial clues to understand these activities and aid in functional annotation, however, insufficient work has been done on the research of heme binding residues from protein sequence information. Methods We propose a sequence-based approach for accurate prediction...

  11. Heme deficiency may be a factor in the mitochondrial and neuronal decay of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Atamna, Hani; Killilea, David W.; Killilea, Alison Nisbet; Bruce N. Ames

    2002-01-01

    Heme, a major functional form of iron in the cell, is synthesized in the mitochondria by ferrochelatase inserting ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX. Heme deficiency was induced with N-methylprotoporphyrin IX, a selective inhibitor of ferrochelatase, in two human brain cell lines, SHSY5Y (neuroblastoma) and U373 (astrocytoma), as well as in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Heme deficiency in brain cells decreases mitochondrial complex IV, activates nitric oxide synthase, alters amyloid precu...

  12. Heme Oxygenase Gene Targeting to Adipocyte Attenuates Adiposity and Vascular Dysfunction in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jian; Peterson, Stephen J; Sodhi, Komal; Vanella, Luca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Rodella, Luigi F.; Schwartzman, Michal L.; Abraham, Nader G.; Kappas, Attallah

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that adipocyte dysfunction in mice fed a high fat (HF) diet can be prevented by lentiviral-mediated and adipocyte specific-targeting delivery of the human heme oxygenase-1 (aP2-HO-1). A bolus intracardial injection of aP2-HO-1 resulted in expression of human HO-1 for up to 9.5 months. Transduction of aP2-HO-1 increased human HO-1 expression in fat tissues without affecting murine HO-1. In mice fed a HF diet, aP2-HO-1 transduction attenuated the increases in body wei...

  13. Heme Transfer from Streptococcal Cell Surface Protein Shp to HtsA of Transporter HtsABC

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

    2005-01-01

    Human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS) can take up heme from host heme-containing proteins as a source of iron. Little is known about the heme acquisition mechanism in GAS. We recently identified a streptococcal cell surface protein (designated Shp) and the lipoprotein component (designated HtsA) of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter made by GAS as heme-binding proteins. In an effort to delineate the molecular mechanism involved in heme acquisition by GAS, heme-free Shp (apo-Shp) a...

  14. The hmuQ and hmuD Genes from Bradyrhizobium japonicum Encode Heme-Degrading Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Sumant; O'Brian, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of heme by bacteria as a nutritional iron source involves the transport of exogenous heme, followed by cleavage of the heme macrocycle to release iron. Bradyrhizobium japonicum can use heme as an iron source, but no heme-degrading oxygenase has been described. Here, bioinformatics analyses of the B. japonicum genome identified two paralogous genes renamed hmuQ (bll7075) and hmuD (bll7423) that encode proteins with weak similarity to the heme-degrading monooxygenase IsdG from Staph...

  15. Resonance Raman Spectra of Five-Coordinate Heme-Nitrosyl Cytochromes c': Effect of the Proximal Heme-NO Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servid, Amy E; McKay, Alison L; Davis, Cherry A; Garton, Elizabeth M; Manole, Andreea; Dobbin, Paul S; Hough, Michael A; Andrew, Colin R

    2015-06-01

    Five-coordinate heme nitrosyl complexes (5cNO) underpin biological heme-NO signal transduction. Bacterial cytochromes c' are some of the few structurally characterized 5cNO proteins, exhibiting a distal to proximal 5cNO transition of relevance to NO sensing. Establishing how 5cNO coordination (distal vs proximal) depends on the heme environment is important for understanding this process. Recent 5cNO crystal structures of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cytochrome c' (AXCP) and Shewanella frigidimarina cytochrome c' (SFCP) show a basic residue (Arg124 and Lys126, respectively) near the proximal NO binding sites. Using resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy, we show that structurally characterized 5cNO complexes of AXCP variants and SFCP exhibit a range of ν(NO) (1651-1671 cm(-1)) and ν(FeNO) (519-536 cm(-1)) vibrational frequencies, depending on the nature of the proximal heme pocket and the sample temperature. While the AXCP Arg124 residue appears to have little impact on 5cNO vibrations, the ν(NO) and ν(FeNO) frequencies of the R124K variant are consistent with (electrostatically) enhanced Fe(II) → (NO)π* backbonding. Notably, RR frequencies for SFCP and R124A AXCP are significantly displaced from the backbonding trendline, which in light of recent crystallographic data and density functional theory modeling may reflect changes in the Fe-N-O angle and/or extent of σ-donation from the NO(π*) to the Fe(II) (dz(2)) orbital. For R124A AXCP, correlation of vibrational and crystallographic data is complicated by distal and proximal 5cNO populations. Overall, this study highlights the complex structure-vibrational relationships of 5cNO proteins that allow RR spectra to distinguish 5cNO coordination in certain electrostatic and steric environments. PMID:25961377

  16. Benfang Lei’s research on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and bacterial pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benfang Lei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi (S. equi. His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S. equi pathogenesis. Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens. Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS, demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another, demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system, elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism, and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction. These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Gram-positive pathogens. Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins, and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors. Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination. These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.

  17. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme-proteins in regenerated silk fibroin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biocompatible silk fibroin (SF) film provided a feasible microenvironment for heme-proteins to direct electron transfer on graphite electrodes (GE). Myoglobin (Mb), hemoglobin (Hb), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and catalase (Cat) incorporated in SF films exhibited a pair of well-defined, nearly reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks, corresponding to the reaction of hemeFe (III) + e → hemeFe (II). The formal potential (E 0), the apparent coverage (Γ) and the electron transfer rate constant (k s) of four proteins in SF films were evaluated by analyzing the cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of heme-proteins. The formal potential was pH dependent, suggesting that proton ion was involved in the reaction. Ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectra and reflectance absorbance infrared (RAIR) spectra indicated that heme-proteins in SF films were not grossly denatured. The structure of heme-proteins-SF films was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and RAIR. It indicated that there existed intermolecular interaction between heme-proteins and SF and this governed their different morphology in SF films. Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide were catalytically reduced by the heme-proteins in SF films, showing the potential applicability of the heme-proteins-SF films as the new type of biosensors based on the protein film voltammetry

  18. Heme, an Essential Nutrient from Dietary Proteins, Critically Impacts Diverse Physiological and Pathological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Hooda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme constitutes 95% of functional iron in the human body, as well as two-thirds of the average person’s iron intake in developed countries. Hence, a wide range of epidemiological studies have focused on examining the association of dietary heme intake, mainly from red meat, with the risks of common diseases. High heme intake is associated with increased risk of several cancers, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer. Likewise, the evidence for increased risks of type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease associated with high heme intake is compelling. Furthermore, recent comparative metabolic and molecular studies of lung cancer cells showed that cancer cells require increased intracellular heme biosynthesis and uptake to meet the increased demand for oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins. Increased levels of hemoproteins in turn lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy generation, thereby fueling cancer cell progression. Together, both epidemiological and molecular studies support the idea that heme positively impacts cancer progression. However, it is also worth noting that heme deficiency can cause serious diseases in humans, such as anemia, porphyrias, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review attempts to summarize the latest literature in understanding the role of dietary heme intake and heme function in diverse diseases.

  19. Benfang Lei’s research on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and bacterial pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS)and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi(S.equi). His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S.equi pathogenesis.Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens.Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS,demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another,demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system,elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism,and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction.These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Grampositive pathogens.Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins,and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors.Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination.These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.

  20. Regulating the nitrite reductase activity of myoglobin by redesigning the heme active center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei-Bin; Yuan, Hong; Gao, Shu-Qin; You, Yong; Nie, Chang-Ming; Wen, Ge-Bo; Lin, Ying-Wu; Tan, Xiangshi

    2016-07-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse functions in living systems, of which nitrite reductase (NIR) activity receives much attention recently. In this study, to better understand the structural elements responsible for the NIR activity, we used myoglobin (Mb) as a model heme protein and redesigned the heme active center, by introducing one or two distal histidines, and by creating a channel to the heme center with removal of the native distal His64 gate (His to Ala mutation). UV-Vis kinetic studies, combined with EPR studies, showed that a single distal histidine with a suitable position to the heme iron, i.e., His43, is crucial for nitrite (NO2(-)) to nitric oxide (NO) reduction. Moreover, creation of a water channel to the heme center significantly enhanced the NIR activity compared to the corresponding mutant without the channel. In addition, X-ray crystallographic studies of F43H/H64A Mb and its complexes with NO2(-) or NO revealed a unique hydrogen-bonding network in the heme active center, as well as unique substrate and product binding models, providing valuable structural information for the enhanced NIR activity. These findings enriched our understanding of the structure and NIR activity relationship of heme proteins. The approach of creating a channel in this study is also useful for rational design of other functional heme proteins. PMID:27108710

  1. Out of plane distortions of the heme b of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang M Tran

    Full Text Available The role of the heme b in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase is highly ambiguous and its role in catalysis is questionable. To examine whether heme reduction is an essential step of the catalytic mechanism, we generated a series of site-directed mutations around the heme binding pocket, creating a library of variants with a stepwise decrease in the midpoint potential of the heme from the wild-type value of +20 mV down to -80 mV. This difference in midpoint potential is enough to alter the reactivity of the heme towards succinate and thus its redox state under turnover conditions. Our results show both the steady state succinate oxidase and fumarate reductase catalytic activity of the enzyme are not a function of the redox potential of the heme. As well, lower heme potential did not cause an increase in the rate of superoxide production both in vitro and in vivo. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrum of the heme in the wild-type enzyme is a combination of two distinct signals. We link EPR spectra to structure, showing that one of the signals likely arises from an out-of-plane distortion of the heme, a saddled conformation, while the second signal originates from a more planar orientation of the porphyrin ring.

  2. In vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation catalyzed by heme enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Pedro S; Brustad, Eric M; Arnold, Frances H; Wang, Zhan; Lewis, Jared C

    2015-03-31

    The present invention provides methods for catalyzing the conversion of an olefin to any compound containing one or more cyclopropane functional groups using heme enzymes. In certain aspects, the present invention provides a method for producing a cyclopropanation product comprising providing an olefinic substrate, a diazo reagent, and a heme enzyme; and admixing the components in a reaction for a time sufficient to produce a cyclopropanation product. In other aspects, the present invention provides heme enzymes including variants and fragments thereof that are capable of carrying out in vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation reactions. Expression vectors and host cells expressing the heme enzymes are also provided by the present invention.

  3. A Novel Approach for Identifying the Heme-Binding Proteins from Mouse Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolei Li; Rong Wang; Zhongsheng Sun; Zuyuan Xu; Jingyue Bao; Xiuqing Zhang; Xiaoli Feng; Siqi Liu; Xiaoshan Wang; Kang Zhao; Zhengfeng Zhou; Caifeng Zhao; Ren Yan; Liang Lin; Tingting Lei; Jianning Yin

    2003-01-01

    Heme is a key cofactor in aerobic life, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Because of the high reactivity of ferrous protoporphyrin IX, the reactions of heme in cells are often carried out through heme-protein complexes. Traditionally studies of hemebinding proteins have been approached on a case by case basis, thus there is a limited global view of the distribution of heme-binding proteins in different cells or tissues. The procedure described here is aimed at profiling hemne-binding proteins in mouse tissues sequentially by 1) purification of heme-binding proteins by hemeagarose, an affinity chromatographic resin; 2) isolation of heme-binding proteins by SDS-PAGE or two-dimensional electrophoresis; 3) identification of heme-binding proteins by mass spectrometry. In five mouse tissues, over 600 protein spots were visualized on 2DE gel stained by Commassie blue and 154 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF, in which most proteins belong to heme related. This methodology makes it possible to globally characterize the heme-binding proteins in a biological system.

  4. Calcium-Dependent Conformation of a Heme and Fingerprint Peptide of the Di-Heme Cytochrome c Peroxidase from Paracoccus Pantotrophus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAULETA,SOFIA R.; LU,YI; GOODHEW,CELIA F.; MOURA,ISABEL; PETTIGREW,GRAHAM W.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-12-18

    The structural changes in the heme macrocycle and substituents caused by binding of Ca{sup 2+} to the diheme cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccuspantotrophus were clarified by resonance Raman spectroscopy of the inactive filly oxidized form of the enzyme. The changes in the macrocycle vibrational modes are consistent with a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent increase in the out-of-plane distortion of the low-potential heme, the proposed peroxidatic heme. Most of the increase in out-of-plane distortion occurs when the high affinity site I is occupied, but a small further increase in distortion occurs when site II is also occupied by Ca{sup 2+}or Mg{sup 2+}. This increase in the heme distortion also explains the red shift in the Soret absorption band that occurs upon Ca{sup 2+} binding. Changes also occur in the low frequency substituent modes of the heme, indicating that a structural change in the covalently attached fingerprint pentapeptide of the LP heme occurs upon CM{sup 2+} binding to site I. These structural changes, possibly enhanced in the semi-reduced form of the enzyme, may lead to loss of the sixth ligand at the peroxidatic heme and activation of the enzyme.

  5. Differential effects of metalloporphyrins on messenger RNA levels of delta-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase. Studies in cultured chick embryo liver cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Cable, E. E.; Pepe, J A; Karamitsios, N C; Lambrecht, R W; Bonkovsky, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    The acute porphyrias in relapse are commonly treated with intravenous heme infusion to decrease the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, normally the rate-controlling enzyme in heme biosynthesis. The biochemical effects of heme treatment are short-lived, probably due in part to heme-mediated induction of heme oxygenase, the rate-controlling enzyme for heme degradation. In this work, selected nonheme metalloporphyrins were screened for their ability to reduce delta-aminolevulinic ac...

  6. O2-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. → O2-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. → Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. → Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. → Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O2-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O2-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10-5 and 8.3 x 10-4 s-1, and h = 1.3 x 10-4 and 8.5 x 10-4 s-1, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 oC. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O2-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O2 does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O2-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  7. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019

  8. Paradoxical effects of heme arginate on survival of myocutaneous flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Marie-Claire; Czopek, Alicja; Wigmore, Stephen J; Kluth, David C

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to partial flap and solid organ transplant failure. Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible, cytoprotective enzyme which protects against IRI in solid organ transplant models. Heme arginate (HA), a HO-1 inducer, is a promising, translatable, preconditioning agent. This study investigated the effects of preconditioning with HA on the clinical outcome of a myocutaneous IRI model. Forty male Lewis rats were randomized to intravenously receive 1) Control-NaCl, 2) HA, 3) HA and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), a HO-1 inhibitor; and 4) SnMP alone. Twenty-four hours later, an in situ transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. Viability of flaps was measured clinically and by laser-Doppler perfusion scanning. In vitro work on human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa) assessed the effects of HA, SnMP, and the iron chelator desferrioxamine on 1) cytotoxicity, 2) intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, and 3) ROS-mediated DNA damage. In contrast to our hypothesis, HA preconditioning produced over 30% more flap necrosis at 48 h compared with controls (P = 0.02). HA-containing treatments produced significantly worse flap perfusion at all postoperative time points. In vitro work showed that HA is cytotoxic to keratinocytes. This cytotoxicity was independent of HO-1 and was mediated by the generation of ROS by free heme. In contrast to solid organ data, pharmacological preconditioning with HA significantly worsened clinical outcome, thus indicating that this is not a viable approach in free flap research. PMID:24089372

  9. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  10. Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced

  11. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body’s iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation.

  12. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Mary; Chiu, Edison Y.; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Abkowitz, Janis L.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body's iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C) receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation. PMID:27006955

  13. Heme in intestinal epithelial cell turnover, differentiation,detoxification, inflammation, carcinogenesis, absorption and motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S Oates; Adrian R West

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a simple epithelium that undergoes constant renewal involving cell division,differentiation and cell death. In addition, the epithelial lining separates the hostile processes of digestion and absorption that occur in the intestinal lumen from the aseptic environment of the internal milieu by defensive mechanisms that protect the epithelium from being breached. Central to these defensive processes is the synthesis of heme and its catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO). Dietary heme is also an important source of iron for the body which is taken up intact by the enterocyte.This review describes the recent literature on the diverse properties of heme/HO in the intestine tract.The roles of heme/HO in the regulation of the cell cycle/apoptosis, detoxification of xenobiotics, oxidative stress,inflammation, development of colon cancer, hemeiron absorption and intestinal motility are specifically examined.

  14. Unsaturated Glycerophospholipids Mediate Heme Crystallization: Biological Implications for Hemozoin Formation in the Kissing Bug Rhodnius prolixus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiebler, R.; Majerowicz, D.; Knudsen, Jens;

    2014-01-01

    Hemozoin (Hz) is a heme crystal produced by some blood-feeding organisms, as an efficient way to detoxify heme derived from hemoglobin digestion. In the triatomine insect Rhodnius prolixus, Hz is essentially produced by midgut extracellular phospholipid membranes known as perimicrovillar membranes...... (PMVM). Here, we investigated the role of commercial glycerophospholipids containing serine, choline and ethanolamine as headgroups and R. prolixus midgut lipids (RML) in heme crystallization. All commercial unsaturated forms of phospholipids, as well as RML, mediated fast and efficient beta...... induced by uPE, and the other largely represented by crystals with numerous sharp edges and tapered ends. Heme crystallization reactions induced by RML were efficient, with a heme to beta-hematin conversion rate higher than 70%, but clearly slower (t1/2 of 9.9-17.7 minutes) than those induced by uPC and u...

  15. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, Abhinav [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Venkatachalam, Avanthika [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India); Gideon, Daniel Andrew [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  16. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes

  17. Embryo Microinjection of Selenomethionine Reduces Hatchability and Modifies Oxidant Responsive Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. K.; Janz, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated that exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet) causes developmental toxicities in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The objectives of this study were to establish a dose-response relationship for developmental toxicities in zebrafish after embryo microinjection of Se (8, 16 or 32 μg/g dry mass of eggs) in the form of SeMet, and to investigate potential underlying mechanism(s) of SeMet-induced developmental toxicities. A dose-dependent increase in frequencies of mortality and total deformities, and reduced hatchability were observed in zebrafish exposed to excess Se via embryo microinjection. The egg Se concentration causing 20% mortality was then used to investigate transcript abundance of proteins involved in antioxidant protection and methylation. Excess Se exposure modified gene expression of oxidant-responsive transcription factors (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor nrf2a and nrf2b), and enzymes involved in cellular methylation (methionine adenosyltransferase mat1a and mat2ab) in zebrafish larvae. Notably, excess Se exposure up-regulated transcript abundance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (ahr2), a signalling pathway involved in the toxicity of dioxin-related compounds. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress or modification of methylation, or a combination of these mechanisms, might be responsible for Se-induced developmental toxicities in fishes.

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomics analysis of nitric oxide-responsive phosphoproteins in cotton leaf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Fan

    Full Text Available Knowledge of phosphorylation events and their regulation is crucial to understanding the functional biology of plant proteins, but very little is currently known about nitric oxide-responsive phosphorylation in plants. Here, we report the first large-scale, quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum treated with sodium nitroprusside (nitric oxide donor by utilizing the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method. A total of 1315 unique phosphopeptides, spanning 1528 non-redundant phosphorylation sites, were detected from 1020 cotton phosphoproteins. Among them, 183 phosphopeptides corresponding to 167 phosphoproteins were found to be differentially phosphorylated in response to sodium nitroprusside. Several of the phosphorylation sites that we identified, including RQxS, DSxE, TxxxxSP and SPxT, have not, to our knowledge, been reported to be protein kinase sites in other species. The phosphoproteins identified are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including signal transduction, RNA metabolism, intracellular transport and so on. This study reveals unique features of the cotton phosphoproteome and provides new insight into the biochemical pathways that are regulated by nitric oxide.

  19. Imatinib binding to human serum albumin modulates heme association and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muzio, Elena; Polticelli, Fabio; Trezza, Viviana; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2014-10-15

    Imatinib, an inhibitor of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase, is approximately 95% bound to plasma proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) being the primary carrier. However, human serum albumin (HSA) may represent the secondary carrier of imatinib in pathological states characterized by low AGP levels, such as pancreatic cancer, hepatic cirrhosis, hepatitis, hyperthyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition, and cachexia. Here, thermodynamics of imatinib binding to full-length HSA and its recombinant Asp1-Glu382 truncated form (containing only the FA1, FA2, FA6, and FA7 binding sites; trHSA), in the absence and presence of ferric heme (heme-Fe(III)), and the thermodynamics of heme-Fe(III) binding to HSA and trHSA, in the absence and presence of imatinib, has been investigated. Moreover, the effect of imatinib on kinetics of peroxynitrite detoxification by ferric human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe(III)) and ferric truncated human serum heme-albumin (trHSA-heme-Fe(III)) has been explored. All data were obtained at pH 7.0, and 20.0 °C and 37.0 °C. Imatinib binding to the FA7 site of HSA and trHSA inhibits allosterically heme-Fe(III) association to the FA1 site and vice versa, according to linked functions. Moreover, imatinib binding to the secondary FA2 site of HSA-heme-Fe(III) inhibits allosterically peroxynitrite detoxification. Docking simulations and local structural comparison with other imatinib-binding proteins support functional data indicating the preferential binding of imatinib to the FA1 and FA7 sites of HSA, and to the FA2 and FA7 sites of HSA-heme-Fe(III). Present results highlight the allosteric coupling of the FA1, FA2, and FA7 sites of HSA, and may be relevant in modulating ligand binding and reactivity properties of HSA in vivo. PMID:25057771

  20. Heme ligand identification and redox properties of the cytochrome c synthetase, CcmF†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Brian San; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome c maturation in many bacteria, archaea, and plant mitochondria involves the integral membrane protein CcmF, which is thought to function as a cytochrome c synthetase by facilitating the final covalent attachment of heme to the apocytochrome c. We previously reported that the E. coli CcmF protein contains a b-type heme that is stably and stoichiometrically associated with the protein and is not the heme attached to apocytochrome c. Here, we show that mutation of either of two conserved transmembrane histidines (His261 or His491) impairs stoichiometric b-heme binding in CcmF and results in spectral perturbations in the remaining heme. Exogeneous imidazole is able to correct cytochrome c maturation for His261 and His491 substitutions with small side chains (Ala or Gly), suggesting that a “cavity” is formed in these CcmF mutants in which imidazole binds and acts as a functional ligand to the b-heme. The results of resonance Raman spectroscopy on wild-type CcmF are consistent with a hexacoordinate low spin b-heme with at least one endogeneous axial His ligand. Analysis of purified recombinant CcmF proteins from diverse prokaryotes reveals that the b-heme in CcmF is widely conserved. We have also determined the reduction potential of the CcmF b-heme (Em,7 = -147 mV). We discuss these results in the context of CcmF structure and functions as a heme reductase and cytochrome c synthetase. PMID:22066495

  1. Investigations of ultrafast ligand rebinding to heme and heme proteins using temperature and strong magnetic field perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    This thesis is written to summarize investigations of the mechanisms that underlie the kinetics of diatomic ligand rebinding to the iron atom of the heme group, which is chelated inside heme proteins. The family of heme proteins is a major object of studies for several branches of scientific research activity. Understanding the ligand binding mechanisms and pathways is one of the major goals for biophysics. My interests mainly focus on the physics of this ligand binding process. Therefore, to investigate the problem, isolated from the influence of the protein matrix, Fe-protophorphyrin IX is chosen as the prototype system in my studies. Myoglobin, the most extensively and intensively studied protein, is another ideal system that allows coupling the protein polypeptide matrix into the investigation. A technique to synchro-lock two laser pulse trains electronically is applied to our pump-probe spectroscopic studies. Based on this technique, a two color, fs/ps pump-probe system is developed which extends the temporal window for our investigation to 13ns and fills a gap existing in previous pump-probe investigations. In order to apply this newly-developed pump-probe laser system to implement systematic studies on the kinetics of diatomic ligand (NO, CO, O2) rebinding to heme and heme proteins, several experimental setups are utilized. In Chapter 1, the essential background knowledge, which helps to understand the iron-ligand interaction, is briefly described. In Chapter 2, in addition to a description of the preparation protocols of protein samples and details of the method for data analysis, three home-made setups are described, which include: a picosecond laser regenerative amplifier, a pump-probe application along the bore (2-inch in diameter) of a superconducting magnet and a temperature-controllable cryostat for spinning sample cell. Chapter 3 presents high magnetic field studies of several heme-ligand or protein-ligand systems. Pump-probe spectroscopy is used to

  2. Endogenous Estrogen-Mediated Heme Oxygenase Regulation in Experimental Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of age-associated diseases in the cardiovascular system. Female Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: pharmacologically ovariectomized, surgically ovariectomized, and 24-month-old intact aging animals were compared with a control group. The activity and expression of heme oxygenases (HO in the cardiac left ventricle, the concentrations of cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the cardiac left ventricle, and the effects of heme oxygenase blockade (by 24-hour and 1-hour pretreatment with tin-protoporphyrin IX, SnPP on the epinephrine and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo were investigated. The cardiac HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were significantly decreased in the aged rats and after ovariectomy. Estrogen depletion was accompanied by significant increases in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The aged and ovariectomized animals exhibited a significantly elevated MPO activity and a significant ST segment depression. After pretreatment with SnPP augmented ST segment changes were determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensitivity to cardiac ischemia in estrogen depletion models is associated with suppression of the activity and expression of the HO system and increases in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of); Pae, Hyun-Ock [Department of Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Je Moon [Department of Opthalmology, Ulasn University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Son, Yong [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun-Taeg, E-mail: chung@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates mitochondrial quality control in the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Travis D.; Boddu, Ravindra; Guo, Lingling; Tisher, Cornelia C.; Traylor, Amie M.; Patel, Bindiya; Joseph, Reny; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The cardioprotective inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades prooxidant heme into equimolar quantities of carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and iron. We hypothesized that HO-1 mediates cardiac protection, at least in part, by regulating mitochondrial quality control. We treated WT and HO-1 transgenic mice with the known mitochondrial toxin, doxorubicin (DOX). Relative to WT mice, mice globally overexpressing human HO-1 were protected from DOX-induced dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac cytoarchitectural derangement, and infiltration of CD11b+ mononuclear phagocytes. Cardiac-specific overexpression of HO-1 ameliorated DOX-mediated dilation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondrial disorganization in the form of mitochondrial fragmentation and increased numbers of damaged mitochondria in autophagic vacuoles. HO-1 overexpression promotes mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating protein expression of NRF1, PGC1α, and TFAM, which was inhibited in WT animals treated with DOX. Concomitantly, HO-1 overexpression inhibited the upregulation of the mitochondrial fission mediator Fis1 and resulted in increased expression of the fusion mediators, Mfn1 and Mfn2. It also prevented dynamic changes in the levels of key mediators of the mitophagy pathway, PINK1 and parkin. Therefore, these findings suggest that HO-1 has a novel role in protecting the heart from oxidative injury by regulating mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27110594

  5. The heme a synthase Cox15 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates during Cox1 maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bareth, B.; Dennerlein, S.; Mick, D.; Nikolov, M.; Urlaub, H; Rehling, P

    2013-01-01

    Cox1, the core subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase, receives two heme a cofactors during assembly of the 13-subunit enzyme complex. However, at which step of the assembly process and how heme is inserted into Cox1 have remained an enigma. Shy1, the yeast SURF1 homolog, has been implicated in heme transfer to Cox1, whereas the heme a synthase, Cox15, catalyzes the final step of heme a synthesis. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates containin...

  6. A new type of hemophore-dependent heme acquisition system of Serratia marcescens reconstituted in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghigo, J M; Létoffé, S; Wandersman, C

    1997-01-01

    The utilization by Serratia marcescens of heme bound to hemoglobin requires HasA, an extracellular heme-binding protein. This unique heme acquisition system was studied in an Escherichia coli hemA mutant that was a heme auxotroph. We identified a 92-kDa iron-regulated S. marcescens outer membrane protein, HasR, which alone enabled the E. coli hemA mutant to grow on heme or hemoglobin as a porphyrin source. The concomitant secretion of HasA by the HasR-producing hemA mutant greatly facilitates...

  7. Interaction of HoloCcmE with CcmF in Heme Trafficking and Cytochrome c Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Brian San; Kranz, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The periplasmic heme chaperone holoCcmE is essential for heme trafficking in the cytochrome c biosynthetic pathway in many bacteria, archaea, and plant mitochondria. This pathway, called system I, involves two steps: i) formation and release of holoCcmE (by the ABC-transporter complex CcmABCD), and ii) delivery of the heme in holoCcmE to the putative cytochrome c heme lyase complex, CcmFH. CcmFH is believed to facilitate the final covalent attachment of heme (from holoCcmE) to the apocytochro...

  8. Rates and Equilibrium of CuA to heme a electron transfer in Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Grell, Ernst; Ludwig, Bernd;

    2006-01-01

    Intramolecular electron transfer between CuA and heme a in solubilized bacterial (Paracoccus denitrificans) cytochrome c oxidase was investigated by pulse radiolysis. CuA, the initial electron acceptor, was reduced by 1-methylnicotinamide radicals in a diffusion-controlled reaction, as monitored by...... absorption changes at 825 nm, followed by partial restoration of the absorption and paralleled by an increase in the heme a absorption at 605 nm. The latter observations indicate partial reoxidation of the CuA center and the concomitant reduction of heme a. The rate constants for heme a reduction and Cu......A reoxidation were identical within experimental error and independent of the enzyme concentration and its degree of reduction, demonstrating that a fast intramolecular electron equilibration is taking place between CuA and heme a. The rate constants for CuA --> heme a ET and the reverse heme a --> CuA process...

  9. Heme oxygenase activity and some indices of antioxidant protection in rat liver and kidney in glycerol model of rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Filimonenko, V P

    2003-01-01

    Activity of heme oxygenase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, the content of reduced glutathione and total heme in the liver and kidneys, and serum absorption spectrum in the Soret band were studied in rats with glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Glycerol increased the content of heme-containing metabolites in the serum and the total heme content in the liver and kidneys, and decreased the content of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in the examined organs. Superoxide dismutase activity increased in the liver and decreased in the kidneys. Heme oxygenase activity increased in the liver and kidneys 2 and 6 h postinjection, respectively. The effects of heme delivered to the liver and kidneys from the vascular bed on the antioxidant defense and heme oxygenase activity were studied. PMID:12717508

  10. Distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by myoglobin with a designed heme active center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Du, Ke-Jie; Gao, Shu-Qin; He, Bo; Wen, Ge-Bo; Tan, Xiangshi; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse biological functions, of which myoglobin (Mb) is a representative protein. In this study, the O2 carrier Mb was shown to cleave double stranded DNA upon aerobic dithiothreitol-induced reduction, which is fine-tuned by an additional distal histidine, His29 or His43, engineered in the heme active center. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and inhibition studies suggested that free radicals including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are responsible for efficient DNA cleavage via an oxidative cleavage mechanism. On the other hand, L29E Mb, with a distinct heme active center involving three water molecules in the met form, was found to exhibit an excellent DNA cleavage activity that was not depending on O2. Inhibition and ligation studies demonstrated for the first time that L29E Mb cleaves double stranded DNA into both the nicked circular and linear forms via a hydrolytic cleavage mechanism, which resembles native endonucleases. This study provides valuable insights into the distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by heme proteins, and lays down a base for creating artificial DNA endonucleases by rational design of heme proteins. Moreover, this study suggests that the diverse functions of heme proteins can be fine-tuned by rational design of the heme active center with a hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:26775281

  11. XAS study of the active site of a bacterial heme-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Longa, S [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita dell' Aquila via Vetoio, loc. Coppito II 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Arcovito, A [Istituto di Biochimica e Biochimica Clinica, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Roma (Italy); Brunori, M; Castiglione, N; Cutruzzola, F; Giardina, G; Rinaldo, S [Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche ' A. Rossi Fanelli' , Sapienza Universit/a di Roma, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); D' Angelo, P, E-mail: dlonga@caspur.i [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, P. le A.Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Denitrifying bacteria control NO and NO{sub 2} cytosolic levels by regulating the expression of denitrification gene clusters via REDOX signalling of specific transcriptional factors that may act as NO sensors in vivo. A protein belonging to the subclass DNR (dissimilative nitrate respiration regulator) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recently suggested to be a heme containing protein. Very recently the three dimensional structure of the apo-form of DNR (in the absence of heme) has been determined by X-Ray crystallography, whereas the holo-form (in the presence of heme) has not yet been crystallized. We have investigated the heme local structure in solution of ferric and ferrous holo-DNR by XAS. The Fe K-edge XANES spectrum of the ferric adduct displays typical features of a low-spin hexacoordinate Fe-heme complex, having two histidines ligated. After chemical reduction, relevant changes of the XANES fingerprints suggest a repositioning of the heme inside the hydrophobic core of the protein in agreement with previously reported structural and spectroscopic evidence. Partial release of the axial ligands leaves the Fe(II)heme available, and very reactive, to bind exogenous ligands like NO, thus supporting its role as the cofactor involved in NO sensing activity.

  12. Heme-induced Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation is mediated by CaM kinase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted through triatomine vectors during their blood-meal on vertebrate hosts. These hematophagous insects usually ingest approximately 10 mM of heme bound to hemoglobin in a single meal. Blood forms of the parasite are transformed into epimastigotes in the crop which initiates a few hours after parasite ingestion. In a previous work, we investigated the role of heme in parasite cell proliferation and showed that the addition of heme significantly increased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner . To investigate whether the heme effect is mediated by protein kinase signalling pathways, parasite proliferation was evaluated in the presence of several protein kinase (PK) inhibitors. We found that only KN-93, a classical inhibitor of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), blocked heme-induced cell proliferation. KN-92, an inactive analogue of KN-93, was not able to block this effect. A T. cruzi CaMKII homologue is most likely the main enzyme involved in this process since parasite proliferation was also blocked when Myr-AIP, an inhibitory peptide for mammalian CaMKII, was included in the cell proliferation assay. Moreover, CaMK activity increased in parasite cells with the addition of heme as shown by immunological and biochemical assays. In conclusion, the present results are the first strong indications that CaMKII is involved in the heme-induced cell signalling pathway that mediates parasite proliferation.

  13. Heme-induced Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation is mediated by CaM kinase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, C.F. [Laboratorio de Imunomodulacao e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz (Brazil); Carneiro, A.B.; Silveira, A.B. [Laboratorio de Sinalizacao Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, UFRJ (Brazil); Laranja, G.A.T. [Laboratorio de Interacao Tripanosomatideos e Vetores, Departamento de Bioquimica, IBRAG, UERJ, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva-Neto, M.A.C. [Laboratorio de Sinalizacao Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, UFRJ (Brazil); INCT, Entomologia Molecular (Brazil); Costa, S.C. Goncalves da [Laboratorio de Imunomodulacao e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz (Brazil); Paes, M.C., E-mail: mcpaes@uerj.br [Laboratorio de Interacao Tripanosomatideos e Vetores, Departamento de Bioquimica, IBRAG, UERJ, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); INCT, Entomologia Molecular (Brazil)

    2009-12-18

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted through triatomine vectors during their blood-meal on vertebrate hosts. These hematophagous insects usually ingest approximately 10 mM of heme bound to hemoglobin in a single meal. Blood forms of the parasite are transformed into epimastigotes in the crop which initiates a few hours after parasite ingestion. In a previous work, we investigated the role of heme in parasite cell proliferation and showed that the addition of heme significantly increased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner . To investigate whether the heme effect is mediated by protein kinase signalling pathways, parasite proliferation was evaluated in the presence of several protein kinase (PK) inhibitors. We found that only KN-93, a classical inhibitor of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), blocked heme-induced cell proliferation. KN-92, an inactive analogue of KN-93, was not able to block this effect. A T. cruzi CaMKII homologue is most likely the main enzyme involved in this process since parasite proliferation was also blocked when Myr-AIP, an inhibitory peptide for mammalian CaMKII, was included in the cell proliferation assay. Moreover, CaMK activity increased in parasite cells with the addition of heme as shown by immunological and biochemical assays. In conclusion, the present results are the first strong indications that CaMKII is involved in the heme-induced cell signalling pathway that mediates parasite proliferation.

  14. XAS study of the active site of a bacterial heme-sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denitrifying bacteria control NO and NO2 cytosolic levels by regulating the expression of denitrification gene clusters via REDOX signalling of specific transcriptional factors that may act as NO sensors in vivo. A protein belonging to the subclass DNR (dissimilative nitrate respiration regulator) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recently suggested to be a heme containing protein. Very recently the three dimensional structure of the apo-form of DNR (in the absence of heme) has been determined by X-Ray crystallography, whereas the holo-form (in the presence of heme) has not yet been crystallized. We have investigated the heme local structure in solution of ferric and ferrous holo-DNR by XAS. The Fe K-edge XANES spectrum of the ferric adduct displays typical features of a low-spin hexacoordinate Fe-heme complex, having two histidines ligated. After chemical reduction, relevant changes of the XANES fingerprints suggest a repositioning of the heme inside the hydrophobic core of the protein in agreement with previously reported structural and spectroscopic evidence. Partial release of the axial ligands leaves the Fe(II)heme available, and very reactive, to bind exogenous ligands like NO, thus supporting its role as the cofactor involved in NO sensing activity.

  15. XAS study of the active site of a bacterial heme-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Longa, S.; Arcovito, A.; Brunori, M.; Castiglione, N.; Cutruzzolà, F.; D'Angelo, P.; Giardina, G.; Rinaldo, S.

    2009-11-01

    Denitrifying bacteria control NO and NO2 cytosolic levels by regulating the expression of denitrification gene clusters via REDOX signalling of specific transcriptional factors that may act as NO sensors in vivo. A protein belonging to the subclass DNR (dissimilative nitrate respiration regulator) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recently suggested to be a heme containing protein. Very recently the three dimensional structure of the apo-form of DNR (in the absence of heme) has been determined by X-Ray crystallography, whereas the holo-form (in the presence of heme) has not yet been crystallized. We have investigated the heme local structure in solution of ferric and ferrous holo-DNR by XAS. The Fe K-edge XANES spectrum of the ferric adduct displays typical features of a low-spin hexacoordinate Fe-heme complex, having two histidines ligated. After chemical reduction, relevant changes of the XANES fingerprints suggest a repositioning of the heme inside the hydrophobic core of the protein in agreement with previously reported structural and spectroscopic evidence. Partial release of the axial ligands leaves the Fe(II)heme available, and very reactive, to bind exogenous ligands like NO, thus supporting its role as the cofactor involved in NO sensing activity.

  16. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  17. Heme oxygenase, inflammation, and fibrosis: the good, the bad, and the ugly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StephanImmenschuh

    2012-05-01

    Extra- and intracellular levels of free heme may be increased in a variety of pathological conditions due to heme-release from hemoproteins. Free heme possesses pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects, and may act as a danger signal, which counteracted by protein scavenging via various heme-binding proteins and by heme degradation. Heme is degraded by heme oxygenase (HO that exists as two isoforms: inducible HO-1 and constitutively expressed HO-2. This generates the effector molecules biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. HO deficiency in mouse and man leads to exaggerated inflammation upon insults, and still accumulating epidemiological and preclinical studies support the widely recognized notion of the cytoprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects of the activity of the HO system and the generated effector molecules. In this review, we address the potential applications of targeted HO-1 induction or administration of its effector molecules as therapeutic targets in fibrotic and inflammatory conditions to counteract inflammatory and oxidative insults. This is shown in various clinically relevant conditions, such as hypertrophic scarring, chronic inflammatory liver disease, chronic pancreatitis, and chronic graft rejection in transplantation.

  18. Proinflammatory Responses of Heme in Alveolar Macrophages: Repercussion in Lung Hemorrhagic Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L. Simões

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental observations have supported the notion that free heme released during hemorrhagic and hemolytic episodes may have a major role in lung inflammation. With alveolar macrophages (AM being the main line of defense in lung environments, the influence of free heme on AM activity and function was investigated. We observed that heme in a concentration range found during hemolytic episodes (3–30 μM elicits AM to present a proinflammatory profile, stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation and inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion. ROS production is NADPH oxidase-dependent, being inhibited by DPI and apocynin, and involves p47 subunit phosphorylation. Furthermore, heme induces NF-κB nuclear translocation, iNOS, and also HO-1 expression. Moreover, AM stimulated with free heme show enhanced phagocytic and bactericidal activities. Taken together, the data support a dual role for heme in the inflammatory response associated with lung hemorrhage, acting as a proinflammatory molecule that can either act as both an adjuvant of the innate immunity and as an amplifier of the inflammatory response, leading tissue injury. The understanding of heme effects on pulmonary inflammatory processes can lead to the development of new strategies to ameliorate tissue damage associated with hemorrhagic episodes.

  19. Heme and FLVCR-related transporter families SLC48 and SLC49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar A; Quigley, John G

    2013-01-01

    Heme is critical for a variety of cellular processes, but excess intracellular heme may result in oxidative stress and membrane injury. Feline leukemia virus subgroup C receptor (FLVCR1), a member of the SLC49 family of four paralogous genes, is a cell surface heme exporter, essential for erythropoiesis and systemic iron homeostasis. Disruption of FLVCR1 function blocks development of erythroid progenitors, likely due to heme toxicity. Mutations of SLC49A1 encoding FLVCR1 are noted in patients with a rare neurodegenerative disorder: posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa. FLVCR2 is highly homologous to FLVCR1 and may function as a cellular heme importer. Mutations of SLC49A2 encoding FLVCR2 are observed in Fowler syndrome, a rare proliferative vascular disorder of the brain. The functions of the remaining members of the SLC49 family, MFSD7 and DIRC2 (encoded by the SLC49A3 and SLC49A4 genes), are unknown, although the latter is implicated in hereditary renal carcinomas. SLC48A1 (heme responsive gene-1, HRG-1), the sole member of the SLC48 family, is associated with the endosome and appears to transport heme from the endosome into the cytosol. PMID:23506900

  20. Respiration triggers heme transfer from cytochrome c peroxidase to catalase in yeast mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiresan, Meena; Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M

    2014-12-01

    In exponentially growing yeast, the heme enzyme, cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp1) is targeted to the mitochondrial intermembrane space. When the fermentable source (glucose) is depleted, cells switch to respiration and mitochondrial H2O2 levels rise. It has long been assumed that CCP activity detoxifies mitochondrial H2O2 because of the efficiency of this activity in vitro. However, we find that a large pool of Ccp1 exits the mitochondria of respiring cells. We detect no extramitochondrial CCP activity because Ccp1 crosses the outer mitochondrial membrane as the heme-free protein. In parallel with apoCcp1 export, cells exhibit increased activity of catalase A (Cta1), the mitochondrial and peroxisomal catalase isoform in yeast. This identifies Cta1 as a likely recipient of Ccp1 heme, which is supported by low Cta1 activity in ccp1Δ cells and the accumulation of holoCcp1 in cta1Δ mitochondria. We hypothesized that Ccp1's heme is labilized by hyperoxidation of the protein during the burst in H2O2 production as cells begin to respire. To test this hypothesis, recombinant Ccp1 was hyperoxidized with excess H2O2 in vitro, which accelerated heme transfer to apomyoglobin added as a surrogate heme acceptor. Furthermore, the proximal heme Fe ligand, His175, was found to be ∼ 85% oxidized to oxo-histidine in extramitochondrial Ccp1 isolated from 7-d cells, indicating that heme labilization results from oxidation of this ligand. We conclude that Ccp1 responds to respiration-derived H2O2 via a previously unidentified mechanism involving H2O2-activated heme transfer to apoCta1. Subsequently, the catalase activity of Cta1, not CCP activity, contributes to mitochondrial H2O2 detoxification. PMID:25422453

  1. Non-heme iron availability of usual and improved meals from selected regions in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of non-heme iron in 12 usual and 12 improved meals from four selected regions in the Philippines was determined using in-vitro radiochemical method. Geometric mean values of 5.8 and 6.4% non-heme iron availability were obtained from one-day usual meals and meals improved to correct nutritional deficiencies, respectively. Comparison between usual and improved meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) for each region showed significant differences in non-heme iron availability for breakfast (Central Luzon, P.05). (author). 26 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Balanced globin protein expression and heme biosynthesis improve production of human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lifang; Martínez, José L.; Liu, Zihe;

    2014-01-01

    synthesized in yeast, however the challenge is to balance the expression of the two different globin subunits, as well as the supply of the prosthetic heme required for obtaining the active hemoglobin (α2β2). In this work we evaluated the expression of different combinations of α and β peptides and combined...... this with metabolic engineering of the heme biosynthetic pathway. Through evaluation of several different strategies we showed that engineering the biosynthesis pathway can substantially increase the heme level in yeast cells, and this resulted in a significant enhancement of human hemoglobin...

  3. Construction of a bisaquo heme enzyme and binding by exogenous ligands.

    OpenAIRE

    McRee, D E; Jensen, G M; Fitzgerald, M M; Siegel, H A; Goodin, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    The crystal structure of the His-175-->Gly (H175G) mutant of cytochrome-c peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.5), missing its only heme ligand, reveals that the histidine is replaced by solvent to give a bisaquo heme protein. This protein retains some residual activity, which can be stimulated or inhibited by addition of exogenous ligands. Structural analysis confirms the binding of imidazole to the heme at the position of the wild-type histidine ligand. This imidazole complex reacts readily with hydrogen ...

  4. Heme ligand identification and redox properties of the cytochrome c synthetase, CcmF†

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Brian San; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome c maturation in many bacteria, archaea, and plant mitochondria involves the integral membrane protein CcmF, which is thought to function as a cytochrome c synthetase by facilitating the final covalent attachment of heme to the apocytochrome c. We previously reported that the E. coli CcmF protein contains a b-type heme that is stably and stoichiometrically associated with the protein and is not the heme attached to apocytochrome c. Here, we show that mutation of either of two conser...

  5. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  6. Heme oxygenase system and hypertension: a comprehensive insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shuchita; Ndisang, Joseph Fomusi

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex interplay of interrelated etiologies, and the leading risk factor for many cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cardinal pathophysiological features of hypertension include enhanced vascular inflammation, vascular remodeling, vascular contractility and increased oxidative stress. In response to oxidative, inflammatory or other noxious stimuli, many physiological pathways like the heme oxygenase (HO) system are activated in an attempt to counteract tissue insults. However, the pathophysiological activation of the HO system only results to a transient increase of HO activity that fall below the necessary threshold capable of activating the downstream signaling components of the HO system like the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) secondary messenger system. Therefore, a more robust potentiation of the HO system by pharmacological agents such as hemin, heme-arginate, cobalt protoporphyrin or through retroviral HO-1 gene delivery would be needed to surmount the threshold for cytoprotection. The HO system modulates cellular homeostasis. Importantly, the HO system plays a vital role in a wide spectrum of physiologic including the regulation of blood vessel tone. Alterations in the activity and expression of HO has been correlated to pathophysiology of hypertension and related complications such as hypertrophy, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Moreover, the cytoprotection exerted by HO is attributable to its catabolic products namely, carbon monoxide, bilirubin/biliverdin, and ferritin that are known to modulate immune, inflammatory and oxidative insults. The growing incidence of hypertension and associated cardiometabolic complications has prompted the need for the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies like substances capable of potentiating the HO system. This review briefly, highlights the functional significance of the HO system and its downstream signaling molecules

  7. Peroxide-Dependent Analyte Conversion by the Heme Prosthetic Group, the Heme Peptide “Microperoxidase-11” and Cytochrome c on Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder W. Scheller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the role ascribed to the peroxidatic activity of degradation products of cytochrome c (cyt c in the processes of apoptosis, we investigate the catalytic potential of heme and of the cyt c derived heme peptide MP-11 to catalyse the cathodic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and to oxidize aromatic compounds. In order to check whether cyt c has an enzymatic activity in the native state where the protein matrix should suppress the inherent peroxidatic activity of its heme prosthetic group, we applied a biocompatible immobilization matrix and very low concentrations of the co-substrate H2O2. The biocatalysts were entrapped on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode in a biocompatible chitosan layer which contained gold nanoparticles. The electrochemical signal for the peroxide reduction is generated by the redox conversion of the heme group, whilst a reaction product of the substrate oxidation is cathodically reduced in the substrate indication. The catalytic efficiency of microperoxidase-11 is sufficient for sensors indicating HRP substrates, e.g., p-aminophenol, paracetamol and catechol, but also the hydroxylation of aniline and dehalogenation of 4-fluoroaniline. The lower limit of detection for p-aminophenol is comparable to previously published papers with different enzyme systems. The peroxidatic activity of cyt c immobilized in the chitosan layer for catechol was found to be below 1 per mill and for p-aminophenol about 3% as compared with that of heme or MP-11.

  8. A switch in the electron transfer from heme a to binuclear centre of cytochrome c oxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敖金; 徐建兴

    2002-01-01

    New experimental evidence that a switch controls the reduction of the heme a3-CuB binuclear centre has beenobserved in the N2-dried thin film of purified cytochrome oxidase. When immersing the enzyme film into the acidphosphate buffer with extremely low concentration of dithionite, a spectrum was given to show a reduction of heme awith no electrons resting on CuA. By increasing dithionite, electrons could be accumulated gradually on CuA, but thebinuclear centre still remains in the oxidized state. When the accumulation of electrons on CuA and/or heme a exceededa threshold, a turnover of reduction of the binuclear centre and oxidation of heme a occurred abruptly. This switch-likeaction is pH-dependent.

  9. The haptoglobin-CD163-heme oxygenase-1 pathway for hemoglobin scavenging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Haugbølle; Etzerodt, Anders; Svendsen, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    The haptoglobin- (Hp-) CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb)/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex...... in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb...... inflammation. The heme metabolites including bilirubin converted from biliverdin have overall an anti-inflammatory effect and thus reinforce the anti-inflammatory efficacy of the Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway. Future studies of animal models of inflammation should further define the importance of the pathway in the...

  10. The Effect of Distal Interactions on O2-Binding to Heme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Dasmeh, Pouria

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports DFT-computed electronic ground states, Mössbauer isomer shifts, O-O and Fe-O vibration frequencies, and thermodynamics of O2-binding of heme models representing different distal (position E7) interactions, strictly validated against experimental data. Based on the results, the...... impact of specific types of distal interactions on oxyheme electronic structure can be systematized. Hydrogen bonding increases back donation, O-O bond activation, and oxygen binding affinity. The heme side-chains reduce isomer shifts by -0.06 mm/s due to electron-withdrawal from iron, and distal......-O bonding combined with electron withdrawal by hydrogen bonds is shown to robustly explain the structural, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic properties of the hemes. The identified correlations may be useful e.g. for designing O2-activating catalysts or for diagnosing heme protein variants....

  11. Electron transfer patterns of the di-heme protein cytochrome c(4) from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Schmidt, L.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2009-01-01

    We report kinetic data for the two-step electron transfer (ET) oxidation and reduction of the two-domain di-heme redox protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome (cyt) c(4) by [Co(bipy)(3)](2- 3-) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Following earlier reports, the data accord with both bi- and tri......-exponential kinetics. A complete kinetic scheme includes both "cooperative" intermolecular ET between each heme group and the external reaction partner, and intramolecular ET between the two heme groups. A now data analysis scheme shows unequivocally that two-ET oxidation and reduction of P. stutzeri cyt c(4) is...... entirely dominated by intermolecular ET between the heme groups and the external reaction partner in the ms time range, with virtually no contribution from intramolecular interheme ET in this time range. This is in striking contrast to two-ET electrochemical oxidation or reduction of P. stutzeri cyt c(4...

  12. The roles of cysteines in the heme domain of human soluble guanylate cyclase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang Zhong; Xiao Xiao Liu; Jie Pan; Zhong Xian Huang; Xiang Shi Tan

    2012-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a critical heme-containing enzyme involved in NO signaling.The dimerization of sGC subunits is necessary for its bioactivity and its mechanism is a striiking and an indistinct issue.The roles of heme domain cysteines of the sGC on the dimerization and heme binding were investigated herein.The site-directed mutations of three conserved cysteines (C78A,C 122A and C 174S) were studied systematically and the three mutants were characterized by gel filtration analysis,UV-vis spectroscopy and heime transfer examination.Cys78 was involved in heme binding but not referred to the dimerization,while Cys174 was demonstrated to be involved in the homodimerization.These results provide new insights into the cysteine-related dimerization regulation of sGC.

  13. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M P Alves

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont in the flagellate's cytoplasm. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remained obscure. In this work, we sequence and phylogenetically analyze the heme pathway genes from the symbionts and from their hosts, as well as from a number of heme synthesis-deficient Kinetoplastida. Our results show that the enzymes responsible for synthesis of heme are encoded on the symbiont genomes and produced in close cooperation with the flagellate host. Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae.

  14. Interaction Study of Ferrocene Derivatives and Heme by UV-Vis Spectroscopy%紫外-可见光谱法研究二茂铁衍生物与血红素的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国成; 冯小珍; 梁晋涛; 肖文香; 陈真诚

    2016-01-01

    derivatives are fixed,the absorbance of Fc(COOH)2 and Fc(Cys)also increases with the increase of heme concentration,the absorbance of Fc(OBt)2 almost keep the same when heme concentration increase.It is demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding interac-tions happen between Fc(COOH)2 ,Fc(Cys)and heme,none of Fc(OBt)2 ,the formation of hydrogen bonding lead to the growth of molecular chain,the bigger molecule can absorb more energy and increase the absor-bance.Meanwhile,the stability of molecule is affected by the formation of hydrogen bonding,when the reac-tion time increases from 0.5 h to 18 h and 48 h,the absorbance atλmax=384 nm change from 2.64 to 2.53 and 2.51 with fixed concentration of Fc(COOH)2 ,the absorbance atλmax=384 nm change from 1.76 to 1.72 and 1.68 with fixed concentration of heme,the absorbance atλmax=397 nm change from 2.74 to 2.63 and 2.55 with fixed concentration of Fc(Cys),and the absorbance atλmax=397 nm change from 1.82 to 1.58 and 1.49 with fixed concentration of heme,respectively.

  15. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J., E-mail: brenda.ramos@upr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico); Lopez-Garriga, Juan, E-mail: juan.lopez16@upr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus

  16. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. ► The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. ► The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. ► Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. 1H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OHη at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 Nε1H/Nε2H at 10.66 ppm/−3.27 ppm, and PheE11 CδH at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus, we hypothesize that in hemeproteins with similar electrostatic environment the flexibility of the heme-6-propionate promotes a hydrogen bonding

  17. Heme-mediated SPI-C induction promotes monocyte differentiation into iron-recycling macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Haldar, Malay; Kohyama, Masako; So, Alex Yick-Lun; Wumesh, KC; Wu, Xiaodi; Briseno, Carlos G.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Kretzer, Nicole M.; Rajasekaran, Namakkal Soorappan; Wang, Li; Egawa, Takeshi; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Baltimore, David; Murphy, Theresa L; Murphy, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Splenic red pulp macrophages (RPM) degrade senescent erythrocytes and recycle heme-associated iron. The transcription factor SPI-C is selectively expressed by RPM and is required for their development, but the physiologic stimulus inducing Spic is unknown. Here, we report that Spic also regulated the development of F4/80^+VCAM1^+ bone marrow macrophages (BMM) and that Spic expression in BMM and RPM development was induced by heme, a metabolite of erythrocyte degradation. Pathologic hemolysis ...

  18. Linkage isomerization in heme-NOx compounds: understanding NO, nitrite, and hyponitrite interactions with iron porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Yi, Jun; Richter-Addo, George B

    2010-07-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives such as nitrite and hyponitrite are biologically important species of relevance to human health. Much of their physiological relevance stems from their interactions with the iron centers in heme proteins. The chemical reactivities displayed by the heme-NOx species (NOx = NO, nitrite, hyponitrite) are a function of the binding modes of the NOx ligands. Hence, an understanding of the types of binding modes extant in heme-NOx compounds is important if we are to unravel the inherent chemical properties of these NOx metabolites. In this Forum Article, the experimentally characterized linkage isomers of heme-NOx models and proteins are presented and reviewed. Nitrosyl linkage isomers of synthetic iron and ruthenium porphyrins have been generated by photolysis at low temperatures and characterized by spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Nitrite linkage isomers in synthetic metalloporphyrin derivatives have been generated from photolysis experiments and in low-temperature matrices. In the case of nitrite adducts of heme proteins, both N and O binding have been determined crystallographically, and the role of the distal H-bonding residue in myoglobin in directing the O-binding mode of nitrite has been explored using mutagenesis. To date, only one synthetic metalloporphyrin complex containing a hyponitrite ligand (displaying an O-binding mode) has been characterized by crystallography. This is contrasted with other hyponitrite binding modes experimentally determined for coordination compounds and computationally for NO reductase enzymes. Although linkage isomerism in heme-NOx derivatives is still in its infancy, opportunities now exist for a detailed exploration of the existence and stabilities of the metastable states in both heme models and heme proteins. PMID:20666385

  19. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Keyse, S M; Applegate, L. A.; Tromvoukis, Y; Tyrrell, R M

    1990-01-01

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents.

  20. Vasculoprotective effects of heme oxygenase-1 in a murine model of hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Alex Mitsialis, S.; Liu, Xianlan; Kourembanas, Stella

    2011-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by simplified alveolarization and arrested vascular development of the lung with associated evidence of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, increased oxidative damage, and iron deposition. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to be protective in the pathogenesis of diseases of inflammatory and oxidative etiology. Because HO-1 is involved in the response to oxidative stress produced by hyperoxia and is critical for cellular heme and iro...

  1. Control of heme synthesis during Friend cell differentiation: role of iron and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many types of cells the synthesis of σ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) limits the rate of heme formation. However, results from this laboratory with reticulocytes suggest that the rate of iron uptake from 125I-transferrin (Tf), rather than ALA synthase activity, limits the rate of heme synthesis in erythroid cells. To determine whether changes occur in iron metabolism and the control of heme synthesis during erythroid cell development Friend erythroleukemia cells induced to erythroid differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were studied. While added ALA stimulated heme synthesis in uninduced Friend cells (suggesting ALA synthase is limiting) it did not do so in induced cells. Therefore the possibility was investigated that, in induced cells, iron uptake from Tf limits and controls heme synthesis. Several aspects of iron metabolism were investigated using the synthetic iron chelator salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH). Both induced and uninduced Friend cells take up and utilize Fe for heme synthesis directly from Fe-SIH without the involvement of transferrin and transferrin receptors and to a much greater extent than from saturating levels or 59Fe-Tf (20 μM). Furthermore, in induced Friend cells 100 μM Fe-SIH stimulated 2-14C-glycine incorporation into heme up to 3.6-fold as compared to the incorporation observed with saturating concentrations of Fe-Tf. These results indicate that some step(s) in the pathway of iron from extracellular Tf to protoporphyrin, rather than the activity of ALA synthase, limits and controls the overall rate of heme and possibly hemoglobin synthesis in differentiating Friend erythroleukemia cells

  2. Heme photolysis occurs by ultrafast excited state metal-to-ring charge transfer.

    OpenAIRE

    Franzen, S.; Kiger, L.; Poyart, C; Martin, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrafast time-resolved resonance Raman spectra of carbonmonoxy hemoglobin (Hb), nitroxy Hb, and deoxy Hb are compared to determine excited state decay mechanisms for both ligated and unligated hemes. Transient absorption and Raman data provide evidence for a sequential photophysical relaxation pathway common to both ligated and unligated forms of Hb* (photolyzed heme), in which the excited state 1Q decays sequentially: 1Q-->Hb*I-->Hb*II-->Hb ground state. Consistent with the observed kinetic...

  3. Oxidant stress leads to transcriptional activation of the human heme oxygenase gene in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with near-UV radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induces accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA and protein. In this study, these treatments led to a dramatic increase in the rate of RNA transcription from the heme oxygenase gene but had no effect on mRNA stability. Transcriptional activation, therefore, appears to be the major mechanism of stimulation of expression of this gene by either oxidative stress or sulfydryl reagents

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Myrna Constantin; Choi, Alexander J. S.; Cloonan, Suzanne M.; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin-IX\\(\\alpha\\). Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when...

  5. Manipulating Conserved Heme Cavity Residues of Chlorite Dismutase: Effect on Structure, Redox Chemistry, and Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Gysel, Kira; Bellei, Marzia; Hagmüller, Andreas; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Kostan, Julius; Pirker, Katharina F.; Daims, Holger; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Obinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Chlorite dismutases (Clds) are heme b containing oxidoreductases that convert chlorite to chloride and molecular oxygen. In order to elucidate the role of conserved heme cavity residues in the catalysis of this reaction comprehensive mutational and biochemical analyses of Cld from “Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii” (NdCld) were performed. Particularly, point mutations of the cavity-forming residues R173, K141, W145, W146, and E210 were performed. The effect of manipulation in 12 single and doub...

  6. Conserved Residues of the Human Mitochondrial Holocytochrome c Synthase Mediate Interactions with Heme

    OpenAIRE

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; San Francisco, Brian; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    C-type cytochromes are distinguished by the covalent attachment of a heme cofactor, a modification that is typically required for its subsequent folding, stability, and function. Heme attachment takes place in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and, in most eukaryotes, is mediated by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS). HCCS is the primary component of the eukaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathway, known as System III. The catalytic function of HCCS depends on its ability to coordinate inter...

  7. A Comparative Study of O2, CO and CN Binding to Heme IX Protein Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Parametrization of a molecular-mechanics program to include terms specificfor five- and six-coordinate transition metal complexes results in computer-simulatedstructures of heme complexes. The principal new feature peculiar to five and sixcoordination is a term that measures the effect of electron-pair repulsion modified by theligand electronegativity and takes into account the different structural possibilities. Themodel system takes into account the structural differences of the fixing centre in thehaemoglobin subunits. The customary proximal histidine is added. The prosthetic groupheme IX is wholly considered in our model. The calculations show clearly that certainconformations are much more favourable that others for fixing O2. From the O2 bindingin haemoglobin, myoglobin and simple Fe porphyrin models it is concluded that the bentO2 ligand is best viewed as bound superoxide O2–. Axial ligands are practically free-rotating. A small modification of the model in both crystal and protein matrix affects theorientation of the ligands in experimental systems.

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 and 2 Common Genetic Variants and Risk for Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, José A G; García-Martín, Elena; Martínez, Carmen; Benito-León, Julián; Millán-Pascual, Jorge; Díaz-Sánchez, María; Calleja, Patricia; Pisa, Diana; Turpín-Fenoll, Laura; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Ayuso-Peralta, Lucía; Torrecillas, Dolores; García-Albea, Esteban; Plaza-Nieto, José Francisco; Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier

    2016-01-01

    Several neurochemical, neuropathological, and experimental data suggest a possible role of oxidative stress in the ethiopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis(MS). Heme-oxygenases(HMOX) are an important defensive mechanism against oxidative stress, and HMOX1 is overexpressed in the brain and spinal cord of MS patients and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis(EAE). We analyzed whether common polymorphisms affecting the HMOX1 and HMOX2 genes are related with the risk to develop MS. We analyzed the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of the HMOX1 rs2071746, HMOX1 rs2071747, HMOX2 rs2270363, and HMOX2 rs1051308 SNPs, as well as the presence of Copy number variations(CNVs) of these genes in 292 subjects MS and 533 healthy controls, using TaqMan assays. The frequencies of HMOX2 rs1051308AA genotype and HMOX2 rs1051308A and HMOX1 rs2071746A alleles were higher in MS patients than in controls, although only that of the SNP HMOX2 rs1051308 in men remained as significant after correction for multiple comparisons. None of the studied polymorphisms was related to the age at disease onset or with the MS phenotype. The present study suggests a weak association between HMOX2 rs1051308 polymorphism and the risk to develop MS in Spanish Caucasian men and a trend towards association between the HMOX1 rs2071746A and MS risk. PMID:26868429

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates the immune response to influenza virus infection and vaccination in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Nathan W; Weaver, Eric A; May, Shannon M; Croatt, Anthony J; Foreman, Oded; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A; Barry, Michael A; Nath, Karl A; Badley, Andrew D

    2012-07-01

    Underlying mechanisms of individual variation in severity of influenza infection and response to vaccination are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression on vaccine response and outcome of influenza infection. HO-1-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice (kingdom, Animalia; phylum, Chordata; genus/species, Mus musculus) were infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 with or without prior vaccination with an adenoviral-based influenza vaccine. A genome-wide association study evaluated the expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HO-1 gene and the response to influenza vaccination in healthy humans. HO-1-deficient mice had decreased survival after influenza infection compared to WT mice (median survival 5.5 vs. 6.5 d, P=0.016). HO-1-deficient mice had impaired production of antibody following influenza vaccination compared to WT mice (mean antibody titer 869 vs. 1698, P=0.02). One SNP in HO-1 and one SNP in the constitutively expressed isoform HO-2 were independently associated with decreased antibody production after influenza vaccination in healthy human volunteers (P=0.017 and 0.014, respectively). HO-1 deficient mice were paired with sex- and age-matched WT controls. HO-1 affects the immune response to both influenza infection and vaccination, suggesting that therapeutic induction of HO-1 expression may represent a novel adjuvant to enhance influenza vaccine effectiveness. PMID:22490782

  10. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 expression on sterol homeostasis in rat astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaya, Jacob; Song, Wei; Khatib, Soliman; Geng, Guoyan; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-03-15

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased (AD) neural tissues. Central oxidation of cholesterol to oxysterols has been implicated in neuroembryogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and membrane repair. In the current study, we demonstrated that transient transfection of rat astroglia with human (h)ho-1 cDNA for 3 days significantly decreased intracellular cholesterol concentrations and increased levels of four oxysterol species (measured by GC/MS) compared to untreated control cultures and HO-1-transfected cells exposed to the HO inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP). Relative to control preparations, oxidative stress was augmented in mitochondria (isolated by subcellular fractionation) and culture media derived from HO-1-transfected astrocytes, as evidenced by enhanced oxidation of the synthetic reporter molecules, linoleoyl tyrosine (LT), linoleoyl tyrosine cholesterol ester (LTC), or linoleoyl tyrosine deoxyguanosyl ester (LTG; measured by GC/MS and LC/MS/MS). We also observed enhanced oxidation of exogenous LTC in human neuroblastoma (M17) cells exposed for 18 h to conditioned media collected from HO-1-transfected astrocytes relative to control media. In AD and other pathological states, glial HO-1 induction may transduce ambient noxious stimuli (e.g., beta-amyloid) into altered patterns of glial sterol metabolism which, in turn, may affect neuronal membrane turnover, survival, and adaptability. PMID:17320768

  11. Heme-mediated SPI-C induction promotes monocyte differentiation into iron-recycling macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Malay; Kohyama, Masako; So, Alex Yick-Lun; Kc, Wumesh; Wu, Xiaodi; Briseño, Carlos G; Satpathy, Ansuman T; Kretzer, Nicole M; Arase, Hisashi; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S; Wang, Li; Egawa, Takeshi; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Baltimore, David; Murphy, Theresa L; Murphy, Kenneth M

    2014-03-13

    Splenic red pulp macrophages (RPM) degrade senescent erythrocytes and recycle heme-associated iron. The transcription factor SPI-C is selectively expressed by RPM and is required for their development, but the physiologic stimulus inducing Spic is unknown. Here, we report that Spic also regulated the development of F4/80(+)VCAM1(+) bone marrow macrophages (BMM) and that Spic expression in BMM and RPM development was induced by heme, a metabolite of erythrocyte degradation. Pathologic hemolysis induced loss of RPM and BMM due to excess heme but induced Spic in monocytes to generate new RPM and BMM. Spic expression in monocytes was constitutively inhibited by the transcriptional repressor BACH1. Heme induced proteasome-dependent BACH1 degradation and rapid Spic derepression. Furthermore, cysteine-proline dipeptide motifs in BACH1 that mediate heme-dependent degradation were necessary for Spic induction by heme. These findings are the first example of metabolite-driven differentiation of a tissue-resident macrophage subset and provide new insights into iron homeostasis. PMID:24630724

  12. Human hemoglobin structural and functional alterations and heme degradation upon interaction with benzene: A spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-03-01

    Here, the effect of benzene on hemoglobin structure, stability and heme prosthetic group integrity was studied by different methods. These included UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry, normal and synchronous fluorescence techniques, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Our results indicated that benzene has high hemolytic potential even at low concentrations. The UV-vis spectroscopic results demonstrated that benzene altered both the globin chain and the heme prosthetic group of hemoglobin increasing met- and deoxy-Hb, while decreasing oxy-Hb. However, with increasing benzene the concentration of all species decreased due to heme destruction. The spectrophotometric results show that benzene has a high potential for penetrating the hydrophobic pocket of hemoglobin. These results were consistent with the molecular docking simulation results of benzene-hHb. Aggregation and thermal denaturation studies show that the increased benzene concentration induced hemoglobin aggregation with a decrease in stability, which is consistent with the DSC results. Conventional fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the heme degradation species were produced in the presence of benzene. The results of constant wavelength synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (CWSFS) indicated that at least five heme-degraded species were produced. Together, our results indicated that benzene has adverse effects on hemoglobin structure and function, and heme degradation.

  13. Comparison of ligand migration and binding in heme proteins of the globin family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Nienhaus; Ulrich Nienhaus, G.

    2015-12-01

    The binding of small diatomic ligands such as carbon monoxide or dioxygen to heme proteins is among the simplest biological processes known. Still, it has taken many decades to understand the mechanistic aspects of this process in full detail. Here, we compare ligand binding in three heme proteins of the globin family, myoglobin, a dimeric hemoglobin, and neuroglobin. The combination of structural, spectroscopic, and kinetic experiments over many years by many laboratories has revealed common properties of globins and a clear mechanistic picture of ligand binding at the molecular level. In addition to the ligand binding site at the heme iron, a primary ligand docking site exists that ensures efficient ligand binding to and release from the heme iron. Additional, secondary docking sites can greatly facilitate ligand escape after its dissociation from the heme. Although there is only indirect evidence at present, a preformed histidine gate appears to exist that allows ligand entry to and exit from the active site. The importance of these features can be assessed by studies involving modified proteins (via site-directed mutagenesis) and comparison with heme proteins not belonging to the globin family.

  14. Multi-heme Cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Structures, functions and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen; Butt, Julea N.

    2014-11-05

    Multi-heme cytochromes are employed by a range of microorganisms to transport electrons over distances of up to tens of nanometers. Perhaps the most spectacular utilization of these proteins is in the reduction of extracellular solid substrates, including electrodes and insoluble mineral oxides of Fe(III) and Mn(III/IV), by species of Shewanella and Geobacter. However, multi-heme cytochromes are found in numerous and phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes where they participate in electron transfer and redox catalysis that contributes to biogeochemical cycling of N, S and Fe on the global scale. These properties of multi-heme cytochromes have attracted much interest and contributed to advances in bioenergy applications and bioremediation of contaminated soils. Looking forward there are opportunities to engage multi-heme cytochromes for biological photovoltaic cells, microbial electrosynthesis and developing bespoke molecular devices. As a consequence it is timely to review our present understanding of these proteins and we do this here with a focus on the multitude of functionally diverse multi-heme cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We draw on findings from experimental and computational approaches which ideally complement each other in the study of these systems: computational methods can interpret experimentally determined properties in terms of molecular structure to cast light on the relation between structure and function. We show how this synergy has contributed to our understanding of multi-heme cytochromes and can be expected to continue to do so for greater insight into natural processes and their informed exploitation in biotechnologies.

  15. The Fowler syndrome-associated protein FLVCR2 is an importer of heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Simon P; Shing, Jennifer; Saraon, Punit; Berger, Lloyd C; Eiden, Maribeth V; Wilde, Andrew; Tailor, Chetankumar S

    2010-11-01

    Mutations in FLVCR2, a cell surface protein related by homology and membrane topology to the heme exporter/retroviral receptor FLVCR1, have recently been associated with Fowler syndrome, a vascular disorder of the brain. We previously identified FLVCR2 to function as a receptor for FY981 feline leukemia virus (FeLV). However, the cellular function of FLVCR2 remains unresolved. Here, we report the cellular function of FLVCR2 as an importer of heme, based on the following observations. First, FLVCR2 binds to hemin-conjugated agarose, and binding is competed by free hemin. Second, mammalian cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing FLVCR2 display enhanced heme uptake. Third, heme import is reduced after the expression of FLVCR2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or after the binding of the FY981 FeLV envelope protein to the FLVCR2 receptor. Finally, cells overexpressing FLVCR2 are more sensitive to heme toxicity, a finding most likely attributable to enhanced heme uptake. Tissue expression analysis indicates that FLVCR2 is expressed in a broad range of human tissues, including liver, placenta, brain, and kidney. The identification of a cellular function for FLVCR2 will have important implications in elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of Fowler syndrome and of phenotypically associated disorders. PMID:20823265

  16. The Fowler Syndrome-Associated Protein FLVCR2 Is an Importer of Heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Simon P.; Shing, Jennifer; Saraon, Punit; Berger, Lloyd C.; Eiden, Maribeth V.; Wilde, Andrew; Tailor, Chetankumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in FLVCR2, a cell surface protein related by homology and membrane topology to the heme exporter/retroviral receptor FLVCR1, have recently been associated with Fowler syndrome, a vascular disorder of the brain. We previously identified FLVCR2 to function as a receptor for FY981 feline leukemia virus (FeLV). However, the cellular function of FLVCR2 remains unresolved. Here, we report the cellular function of FLVCR2 as an importer of heme, based on the following observations. First, FLVCR2 binds to hemin-conjugated agarose, and binding is competed by free hemin. Second, mammalian cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing FLVCR2 display enhanced heme uptake. Third, heme import is reduced after the expression of FLVCR2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or after the binding of the FY981 FeLV envelope protein to the FLVCR2 receptor. Finally, cells overexpressing FLVCR2 are more sensitive to heme toxicity, a finding most likely attributable to enhanced heme uptake. Tissue expression analysis indicates that FLVCR2 is expressed in a broad range of human tissues, including liver, placenta, brain, and kidney. The identification of a cellular function for FLVCR2 will have important implications in elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of Fowler syndrome and of phenotypically associated disorders. PMID:20823265

  17. A novel field transplantation technique reveals intra-specific metal-induced oxidative responses in strains of Ectocarpus siliculosus with different pollution histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel field transplantation technique, in which seaweed material is incorporated into dialysis tubing, was used to investigate intra-specific responses to metals in the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Metal accumulation in the two strains was similar, with higher concentrations in material deployed to the metal-contaminated site (Ventanas, Chile) than the pristine site (Quintay, Chile). However, the oxidative responses differed. At Ventanas, strain Es147 (from low-polluted site) underwent oxidative damage whereas Es524 (from highly polluted site) was not affected. Concentrations of reduced ascorbate (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly higher in Es524. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) all increased in Es524, whereas only SOD increased in Es147. For the first time, employing a field transplantation technique, we provide unambiguous evidence of inter-population variation of metal-tolerance in brown algae and establish that antioxidant defences are, in part, responsible. - Highlights: • Metal tolerance in Ectocarpus siliculosus populations was studied through in situ experiments. • Metal tolerance in E. siliculosus populations is partly based in antioxidant defences. • In situ experiments using a dialysis tubing device was successful for metal diagnosis. - Field transplantation experimentation provides evidence that differential antioxidant defences, in part, mediate inter-population tolerance to metal pollution in the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus

  18. Resistance of Neisseria meningitidis to the Toxic Effects of Heme Iron and Other Hydrophobic Agents Requires Expression of ght

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Andrew W.; Heather L Alexander; Perkins-Balding, Donna; Shafer, William M.; Stojiljkovic, Igor

    2005-01-01

    Several genetic systems that allow the use of iron-protoporphyrin IX (heme) have been described for the pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. However, many questions about the process of heme acquisition and utilization remain to be answered. To isolate and analyze unidentified genes that play a role in heme iron uptake and utilization, a Himar1 transposon mutant library was screened in N. meningitidis serogroup A strain IR4162. One locus identified by transposon mutagenesis conferred ...

  19. Stabilization and Characterization of a Heme-Oxy Reaction Intermediate in Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Tejero, Jesús; Biswas, Ashis; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Page, Richard C.; Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Hemann, Craig; Zweier, Jay L; Misra, Saurav; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2008-01-01

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) are heme-thiolate enzymes that N-hydroxylate l-arginine (l-Arg) to make NO. NOS contain a unique Trp residue whose side chain stacks with the heme and hydrogen bonds with the heme thiolate. To understand its importance we substituted His for Trp188 in the inducible NOS oxygenase domain (iNOSoxy) and characterized enzyme spectral, thermodynamic, structural, kinetic, and catalytic properties. The W188H mutation had relatively small effect...

  20. The Yeast Homolog of Heme Oxygenase-1 Affords Cellular Antioxidant Protection via the Transcriptional Regulation of Known Antioxidant Genes*

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Emma J.; Wimmer-Kleikamp, Sabine; Gerega, Sebastien K.; Yang, Yee Hwa; Parish, Christopher R.; Dawes, Ian W.; Stocker, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades heme and protects cells from oxidative challenge. This antioxidant activity is thought to result from the HO-1 enzymatic activity, manifested by a decrease in the concentration of the pro-oxidant substrate heme, and an increase in the antioxidant product bilirubin. Using a global transcriptional approach, and yeast as a model, we show that HO-1 affords cellular protection via up-regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in cellular antioxidant defens...

  1. Use of iron-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphine (FeTPPS) to examine hemopexin-mediated heme transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemopexin (HPX) alters conformation upon binding heme as shown by circular dichroism (CD) while FeTPPS binds without changes in the CD spectrum . Therefore, FeTPPS was used to examine the importance of changes in HPX conformation for receptor binding and for HPX-mediated heme transport. FeTPPS-HPX binds to the HPX receptor on mouse hepatoma Hepa cells but with lower affinity then heme-HPX. Incubation of cells with 50 nM heme-125I-HPX after 2.5 μM heme- or FeTPPS-HPX decreased binding from 0.34 pmol/mg protein to 0.10 and 0.27, respectively. Preincubation with 2.5 μM apoHPX reduced binding to the same extent as FeTPPS-HPX indicating that certain conformational changes in HPX increase the affinity of its receptor. Interestingly, FeTPPS-HPX inhibited heme uptake more effectively than heme-HPX. Preincubation of cells with 2.5 μM heme- or FeTPPS-HPX decreased 55Feheme uptake from 55Feheme-HPX (500 nM) by 28% and 70%, respectively; heme or FeTPPS alone had no effect. After incubation with 500 nM 55Feheme-HPX or 55FeTPPS-HPX for up to 30 minutes at 370C, 55Feheme was associated with the plasma-membrane and intracellular compartments but 55FeTPPs remained with the plasma membrane. FeTPPS presented to the cells as a complex with HPX inhibits HPX-mediated heme uptake by blocking events after heme-HPX binds to its receptor but needed for heme transport

  2. Distributions of particulate Heme b in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans—Implications for electron transport in phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Martha; Achterberg, Eric P.; Honey, David J.; Nielsdottir, Maria C.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations of heme b, the iron-containing component of b-type hemoproteins, ranged from 500). High chl a:heme b ratios resulted from relative decreases in heme b, suggesting proteins such as cytochrome b6f, the core complex of photosystem II, and eukaryotic nitrate reductase were depleted relative to proteins containing chlorophyll such as the eukaryotic light-harvesting antenna. Relative variations in heme b, particulate organic carbon, and chl a can thus be indicative of a physiological response of the phytoplankton community to the prevailing growth conditions, within the context of large-scale changes in phytoplankton community composition.

  3. The heme a synthase Cox15 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates during Cox1 maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareth, Bettina; Dennerlein, Sven; Mick, David U; Nikolov, Miroslav; Urlaub, Henning; Rehling, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Cox1, the core subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase, receives two heme a cofactors during assembly of the 13-subunit enzyme complex. However, at which step of the assembly process and how heme is inserted into Cox1 have remained an enigma. Shy1, the yeast SURF1 homolog, has been implicated in heme transfer to Cox1, whereas the heme a synthase, Cox15, catalyzes the final step of heme a synthesis. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates containing Shy1. Our analyses suggest that Cox15 displays a role in cytochrome c oxidase assembly, which is independent of its functions as the heme a synthase. Cox15 forms protein complexes with Shy1 and also associates with Cox1-containing complexes independently of Shy1 function. These findings indicate that Shy1 does not serve as a mobile heme carrier between the heme a synthase and maturing Cox1 but rather cooperates with Cox15 for heme transfer and insertion in early assembly intermediates of cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:23979592

  4. Photo-induced oxidation of the uniquely liganded heme f in the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Adrien A P; Agarwal, Rachna; Haddad, André Al; van Mourik, Frank; Cramer, William A

    2016-05-14

    The ultrafast behavior of the ferrous heme f from the cytochrome b6f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis is revealed by means of transient absorption spectroscopy. Benefiting from the use of microfluidic technologies for handling the sample as well as from a complementary frame-by-frame analysis of the heme dynamics, the different relaxation mechanisms from vibrationally excited states are disentangled and monitored via the shifts of the heme α-absorption band. Under 520 nm laser excitation, about 85% of the heme f undergoes pulse-limited photo-oxidation (<100 fs), with the electron acceptor being most probably one of the adjacent aromatic amino acid residues. After charge recombination in 5.3 ps, the residual excess energy is dissipated in 3.6 ps. In a parallel pathway, the remaining 15% of the hemes directly relax from their excited state in 2.5 ps. In contrast to a vast variety of heme-proteins, including the homologous heme c1 from the cytochrome bc1 complex, there is no evidence that heme f photo-dissociates from its axial ligands. Due to its unique binding, with histidine and an unusual tyrosine as axial ligands, the heme f exemplifies a dependence of ultrafast dynamics on the structural environment. PMID:27108913

  5. Identification of residues in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase that are important for basal and stimulated catalytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmamalini Baskaran

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide signals through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, a heme-containing heterodimer. NO binds to the heme domain located in the N-terminal part of the β subunit of sGC resulting in increased production of cGMP in the catalytic domain located at the C-terminal part of sGC. Little is known about the mechanism by which the NO signaling is propagated from the receptor domain (heme domain to the effector domain (catalytic domain, in particular events subsequent to the breakage of the bond between the heme iron and Histidine 105 (H105 of the β subunit. Our modeling of the heme-binding domain as well as previous homologous heme domain structures in different states point to two regions that could be critical for propagation of the NO activation signal. Structure-based mutational analysis of these regions revealed that residues T110 and R116 in the αF helix-β1 strand, and residues I41 and R40 in the αB-αC loop mediate propagation of activation between the heme domain and the catalytic domain. Biochemical analysis of these heme mutants allows refinement of the map of the residues that are critical for heme stability and propagation of the NO/YC-1 activation signal in sGC.

  6. Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes (pRBC induce endothelial cell apoptosis via a heme-mediated signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mingli Liu, Carmen Dickinson-Copeland, Salifu Hassana, Jonathan K Stiles Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Heme is cytotoxic to the plasmodium parasite, which converts it to an insoluble crystalline form called hemozoin (malaria pigment in erythrocytes during replication. The increased serum levels of free heme cause tissue damage, activation of microvascular endothelial and glial cells, focal inflammation, activation of apoptotic pathways, and neuronal tissue damage. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how these causative factors exacerbate fatal malaria. However, none of them fully explain the detailed mechanisms leading to the high morbidity and mortality associated with malaria. We have previously reported that heme-induced brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBVEC apoptosis is a major contributor to severe malaria pathogenesis. Here, we hypothesized that heme (at clinically relevant levels induces inflammation and apoptosis in HBVEC, a process that is mediated by independent proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling pathways. In this study, we determined the key signaling molecules associated with heme-mediated apoptosis in HBVEC in vitro using RT2 profiler polymerase chain reaction array technology and confirmed results using immunostaining techniques. While several expressed genes in HBVEC were altered upon heme stimulation, we determined that the apoptotic effects of heme were mediated through p73 (tumor protein p73. The results provide an opportunity to target heme-mediated apoptosis therapeutically in malaria-infected individuals. Keywords: heme, endothelial cells, signaling pathways, cerebral malaria

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochot-Przeczek

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a cytoprotective, pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory enzyme, is strongly induced in injured tissues. Our aim was to clarify its role in cutaneous wound healing. In wild type mice, maximal expression of HO-1 in the skin was observed on the 2(nd and 3(rd days after wounding. Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin-IX resulted in retardation of wound closure. Healing was also delayed in HO-1 deficient mice, where lack of HO-1 could lead to complete suppression of reepithelialization and to formation of extensive skin lesions, accompanied by impaired neovascularization. Experiments performed in transgenic mice bearing HO-1 under control of keratin 14 promoter showed that increased level of HO-1 in keratinocytes is enough to improve the neovascularization and hasten the closure of wounds. Importantly, induction of HO-1 in wounded skin was relatively weak and delayed in diabetic (db/db mice, in which also angiogenesis and wound closure were impaired. In such animals local delivery of HO-1 transgene using adenoviral vectors accelerated the wound healing and increased the vascularization. In summary, induction of HO-1 is necessary for efficient wound closure and neovascularization. Impaired wound healing in diabetic mice may be associated with delayed HO-1 upregulation and can be improved by HO-1 gene transfer.

  8. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  9. Non Heme System Asymmetric Epoxidation Reaction Made Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Chinese Academy of Sciences "Hundred Talents Program", the Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation State Key Laboratory of biological and Biomimetic Catalytic task group has recently developed a new type of non heme enzyme simulation system, the system uses the benz- imidazole instead of four nitrogen ligands pyridine units, natural proline derivatives two amine instead of HMDA skeleton, the manganese complexes in asymmetric epoxidation reaction shown high activity, but in 1/10000 the amount of catalyst under conditions of high selectivity to obtain corresponding product, TON (Turnover numbers) up to 9600, TOF (Turnover frequency) up to 59000 h-1. It is currently reported the highest activity in epoxidation catalyst. Use the H202/AcOH or peracetic acid as oxidant, 180 isotope la- beling experiments, were found different degrees of 180 isotope labeling of epoxy products, won the first direct evidence of response is obtained by the high Mn O intermediates in the process, the work was pub- lished recently in Chem. Eur. J. (Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 6750--6753. ).

  10. Catalytic enhancement of the heme-based oxygen-sensing phosphodiesterase EcDOS by hydrogen sulfide is caused by changes in heme coordination structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yang, F.; Fojtíková, V.; Man, Petr; Stráňava, M.; Martínková, M.; Du, Y.; Huang, D.; Shimizu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), s. 637-652. ISSN 0966-0844 Grant ostatní: OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Heme * O-2 sensor * Phosphodiesterase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.503, year: 2014

  11. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage. PMID:26593529

  12. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  13. In vitro heme biotransformation by the HupZ enzyme from Group A streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachla, Ankita J; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; Romero, Elvira; Agniswamy, Johnson; Weber, Irene T; Gadda, Giovanni; Eichenbaum, Zehava

    2016-08-01

    In Group A streptococcus (GAS), the metallorepressor MtsR regulates iron homeostasis. Here we describe a new MtsR-repressed gene, which we named hupZ (heme utilization protein). A recombinant HupZ protein was purified bound to heme from Escherichia coli grown in the presence of 5-aminolevulinic acid and iron. HupZ specifically binds heme with stoichiometry of 1:1. The addition of NADPH to heme-bound HupZ (in the presence of cytochrome P450 reductase, NADPH-regeneration system and catalase) triggered progressive decrease of the HupZ Soret band and the appearance of an absorption peak at 660 nm that was resistance to hydrolytic conditions. No spectral changes were observed when ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase were used as redox partners. Differential spectroscopy with myoglobin or with the ferrous chelator, ferrozine, confirmed that carbon monoxide and free iron are produced during the reaction. ApoHupZ was crystallized as a homodimer with a split β-barrel conformation in each monomer comprising six β strands and three α helices. This structure resembles the split β-barrel domain shared by the members of a recently described family of heme degrading enzymes. However, HupZ is smaller and lacks key residues found in the proteins of the latter group. Phylogenetic analysis places HupZ on a clade separated from those for previously described heme oxygenases. In summary, we have identified a new GAS enzyme-containing split β-barrel and capable of heme biotransformation in vitro; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first enzyme among Streptococcus species with such activity. PMID:27154580

  14. Heme oxygenase and the immune system in normal and pathological pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide eOzen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is an immunotolerant state. Many factors, including environmental, socioeconomic, genetic, and immunologic changes by infection and/or other causes of inflammation, may contribute to inter-individual differences resulting in a normal or pathologic pregnancy. In particular, imbalances in the immune system can cause many pregnancy-related diseases, such as infertility, abortions, pre-eclampsia, and preterm labor, which result in maternal/fetal death, prematurity, or small-for-gestational age newborns. New findings imply that myeloid regulatory cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs may mediate immunotolerance during normal pregnancy. Effector T cells (Teffs have, in contrast, been implicated to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, feto-maternal tolerance affects the developing fetus. It has been shown that the Treg/Teff balance affects litter size and adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced Tregs can prevent fetal rejection in the mouse. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has a protective role in many conditions through its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative actions. HO-1 is highly expressed in the placenta and plays a role in angiogenesis and placental vascular development and in regulating vascular tone in pregnancy. In addition, HO-1 is a major regulator of immune homeostasis by mediating crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems. Moreover, HO-1 can inhibit inflammation-induced phenotypic maturation of immune effector cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and promote anti-inflammatory cytokine production. HO-1 may also be associated with T-cell activation and can limit immune-based tissue injury by promoting Treg suppression of effector responses. Thus, HO-1 and its byproducts may protect against pregnancy complications by its immunomodulatory effects, and the regulation of HO-1 or its downstream effects has the potential to prevent or treat pregnancy complications and

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of oxidation-responsive alginate-deferoxamine conjugates with increased stability and low toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Chen, Xi; Gu, Zhipeng; Li, Hao; Ma, Lu; Qi, Xin; Tan, Hong; You, Chao

    2016-06-25

    Deferoxamine is commonly used for iron-overload related diseases, its drawbacks such as instability and toxicity, however, significantly limited its utility in clinic. To address these issues, oxidation-responsive alginate-deferoxamine (Alg-DFO) conjugates were synthesized and their structure was characterized. The metabolism studies shown the conjugation of alginate significantly increased the stability of the DFO, with half-life more than 10 times longer than that of the free DFO. Moreover, the conjugates could not only quickly respond to oxidative stimuli and degradation, suggesting their potential to be cleared from the body by responding to iron-overload associated oxidative environment to avoid its accumulation and safety concern, but also protect iron binding capacity of the attached DFO from oxidation. The degradation mechanism for oxidative-response was proposed. In addition, the conjugates shown lower cytotoxicity compared to the free DFO. Taken together, the Alg-DFO conjugates synthesized in this work has promise for treating iron-overload related conditions. PMID:27083844

  16. Curcumin-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Death in Wild Type and Heme Oxygenase-2 Knockout Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels A. J. Cremers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs from wild type (WT and HO-2 knockout (KO mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2 significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.

  17. Therapeutic Roles of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Metabolic Diseases: Curcumin and Resveratrol Analogues as Possible Inducers of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Son

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate these stress responses are emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has been recognized that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays an important role in cellular protection. Because HO-1 can reduce inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress, in part by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 has been suggested to play important roles in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In the present review, we will explore our current understanding of the protective mechanisms of HO-1 in metabolic diseases and present some emerging therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating metabolic diseases, together with the therapeutic potential of curcumin and resveratrol analogues that have their ability to induce HO-1 expression.

  18. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer co-factors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF may serve as a prototype for conformationally-gated multi-heme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme “wires” containing thermodynamic “hills” and “valleys”, suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Recent molecular simulations have established the pair-wise electronic couplings, redox potentials, and reorganization energies to predict the maximum conductance along the various heme wire pathways by sequential hopping of a single electron (PNAS (2014) 11,611-616). Here, we expand this information with classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF employing ten independent 50-ns simulations at 300 K and 1 atm showed that reduced MtrF is more expanded and explores more conformational space than oxidized MtrF, and that heme reduction leads to increased heme solvent exposure. The slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states, and consists primarily of inter-heme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7×107 s 1 for fully-oxidized and fully-reduced MtrF, respectively, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway

  19. Role of peroxidation and heme catalysis in coloration of raw meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Shleikin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that lipid peroxidation is one of the main factors limiting the ąuality and acceptability of meat and other animal tissues. The current data conceming connection of heme and peroxidation were summarized and analysed here. The muscle food compounds that are most influenced by oxidative processes include unsaturated fatty acids of lipids, amino acids of proteins and heme groups of pigments. Heme proteins and particularly myoglobin are abundant in muscle tissues. Meat colour is primarily influenced by the concentration and chemical State of heme pigments, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Oxygenated myoglobin oxidized to the brown metmyoglobin form and its accumulation is highly correlated with progress of lipid peroxidation. Heme proteins such as hemoglobin or myoglobin accelerate the decomposition of hydroperoxides to free radicals. Metmyoglobin possesses «pseudoperoxidase» activity and catalyzes the oxidation of various compounds following the reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The reaction between hydrogen peroxide and metmyoglobin results in the formation of two active hypervalent myoglobin species, perferrylmyoglobin (*MbFelv=0 and ferrylmyoglobin (MbFelv=0, which participate in lipid oxidation catalysis. Both MbFeIV=0 and *MbFelv=0 are deactivated in the presence of reducing agents, whose naturę determines the overall effect of the pseudoperoxidase cycle. Hypothesis can be put forward that loss of cellular antioxidants might precede the rise of peroxidase-like activity, thus being a sign of incipient discoloration of meats and muscle components of foods.  

  20. Clinically Important Features of Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Besur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, porphobilinogen and porphyrins are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther’s disease and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow. We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria.

  1. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  2. Proton NMR investigation of heme pocket mobility in hemoglobin via hydrogen isotope exchange kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic mobility of heme cavity, the active site of Hb, was investigated by analyzing the hydrogen isotope exchange kinetics of the proximal histidyl ring NH of various kinds of Hbs with the aid of the high field Fourier Transform 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The exchange reaction occurs faster in oxy or R-state Hb than in deoxy or T-state Hb and there exists a good correlation between the oxygen affinity of Hb and the heme pocket mobility reflected in the hydrogen exchange rate. The effect of pH on the exchange is dramatically different for the two subunits of Hb A. Studying the exchange characteristics of mutant Hbs and chemically modified Hbs not only showed the existence of three well-defined localized paths for transmission of conformational changes between different heme pockets through a1b2 subunit interface, but also indicated that the heme pocket mobility is regulated by the quaternary state of Hb as well as by the ligation state of Hb. Finally, the effect of the quaternary state on the heme pocket mobility is separated from that of the ligation by following the exchange reactions in Hbs where only their quaternary structure transition can be achieved without changing their ligation states by adjusting experimental conditions such as adding inositol hexaphosphate

  3. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 in atrial remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Lung-An; Chen, Ying-Hwa; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Chen, Wei-Jan

    2016-09-01

    Structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium constitutes the main feature of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is characterized by increased oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a potent anti-oxidant system that may provide protection against various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HO-1 has a protective effect on AF-related remodeling. Cultured atrium-derived myocytes (HL-1 cell line) were used to evaluate tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, structural, and electrical remodeling. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was utilized to assess collagen (a main fibrosis-related protein) expression in atrial fibroblasts. Tachypacing in HL-1 myocytes and treatment of atrial fibroblasts with TGF-β enhanced the expression of HO-1, both of which were mediated by the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2. Over-expression of HO-1 in HL-1 cells attenuated tachypacing-induced oxidative stress, myofibril degradation, down-regulation of L-type calcium channel, and shortening of action potential duration. Furthermore, HO-1 over-expression in atrial fibroblasts blocked the up-regulation of collagen by TGF-β, implicating a protective role of HO-1 in structural and electrical remodeling in the atrium. In vivo, HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited a higher degree of oxidative stress, myofibril degradation, and collagen deposit in their atria than wild-type mice. Moreover, burst atrial pacing induced a greater susceptibility to AF in HO-1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In conclusion, a negative-feedback regulation of HO-1 in activated atrial myocytes and fibroblasts may provide protection against AF-related remodeling and AF development. PMID:27562817

  4. Heme oxygenase metabolites inhibit tubuloglomerular feedback in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Garvin, Jeffrey L; D'Ambrosio, Martin A; Falck, John R; Leung, Pablo; Liu, Ruisheng; Ren, YiLin; Carretero, Oscar A

    2011-04-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a renal autoregulatory mechanism that constricts the afferent arteriole in response to increases in distal NaCl. Heme oxygenases (HO-1 and HO-2) release carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, which may help control renal function. We showed in vitro that HO products inhibit TGF; however, we do not know whether this also occurs in vivo or the mechanism(s) involved. We hypothesized that in vivo HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF via release of CO and biliverdin. We first performed laser capture microdissection followed by real-time PCR and found that both HO-1 and HO-2 are expressed in the macula densa. We next performed micropuncture experiments in vivo on individual rat nephrons, adding different compounds to the perfusate, and found that an HO inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP), potentiated TGF (P SnMP vs. control). The CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3 partially inhibited TGF at 50 μmol/l (P < 0.01, CORM-3 vs. control) and blocked it completely at higher doses. A soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor, LY83583, blocked the inhibitory effect of CORM-3 on TGF. Biliverdin also partially inhibited TGF (P < 0.01, biliverdin vs. control), most likely attributable to decreased superoxide (O(2)(-)) because biliverdin was rendered ineffective by tempol, a O(2)(-) dismutase mimetic. We concluded that HO-1 and HO-2 in the nephron inhibit TGF by releasing CO and biliverdin. The inhibitory effect of CO on TGF is mediated by the sGC/cGMP signaling pathway, whereas biliverdin probably acts by reducing O(2)(-). PMID:21239629

  5. Natural heme oxygenase-1 inducers in hepatobiliary function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Li Volti; Raul Abella; Alessandro Frigiola; Fabio Galvano; David Sacerdoti; Claudia Di Giacomo; Maria Luisa Barcellona; Antonio Scacco; Paolo Murabito; Antonio Biondi; Francesco Basile; Diego Gazzolo

    2008-01-01

    Many physiological effects of natural antioxidants, their extracts or their major active components, have been reported in recent decades. Most of these compounds are characterized by a phenolic structure, similar to that of a-tocopherol, and present antioxidant proper-ties that have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Polyphenols may increase the capacity of endog-enous antioxidant defences and modulate the cellular redox state. Changes in the cellular redox state may have wide-ranging consequences for cellular growth and differentiation. The majority of in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far have attributed the protective effect of bioactive polyphenols to their chemical reac-tivity toward free radicals and their capacity to prevent the oxidation of important intracellular components. However, in recent years a possible novel aspect in the mode of action of these compounds has been sug-gested; that is, the ultimate stimulation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is likely to account for the established and powerful antioxidant/anti-inflam-matory properties of these polyphenols. The products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly carbon mon-oxide (CO) and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is interesting to note that induction of HO-1 expression by means of natural compounds contributes to protec-tion against liver damage in various experimental mod-els. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against various stressors in several pathological conditions.

  6. Heme-Coordinating Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase. Iron-Thioether Coordination is Stabilized by Hydrophobic Contacts Without Increased Inhibitor Potency

    OpenAIRE

    Martell, Jeffrey D.; Li, Huiying; Doukov, Tzanko; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Soltis, Michael; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    The heme-thioether ligand interaction often occurs between heme iron and native methionine ligands, but thioether-based heme-coordinating (type II) inhibitors are uncommon due to the difficulty in stabilizing the Fe-S bond. Here, a thioether-based inhibitor (3) of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was designed, and its binding was characterized by spectrophotometry and crystallography. A crystal structure of inhibitor 3 coordinated to heme iron was obtained, representing, to our knowledge...

  7. Time-resolved Studies of IsdG Protein Identify Molecular Signposts along the Non-canonical Heme Oxygenase Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Bennett R; Kant, Ravi; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Celis, Arianna I; Machovina, Melodie M; Skaar, Eric P; Bothner, Brian; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    IsdGs are heme monooxygenases that break open the tetrapyrrole, releasing the iron, and thereby allowing bacteria expressing this protein to use heme as a nutritional iron source. Little is currently known about the mechanism by which IsdGs degrade heme, although the products differ from those generated by canonical heme oxygenases. A synthesis of time-resolved techniques, including in proteo mass spectrometry and conventional and stopped-flow UV/visible spectroscopy, was used in conjunction with analytical methods to define the reaction steps mediated by IsdG from Staphylococcus aureus and their time scales. An apparent meso-hydroxyheme (forming with k = 0.6 min(-1), pH 7.4, 10 mm ascorbate, 10 μm IsdG-heme, 22 °C) was identified as a likely common intermediate with the canonical heme oxygenases. Unlike heme oxygenases, this intermediate does not form with added H2O2 nor does it convert to verdoheme and CO. Rather, the next observable intermediates (k = 0.16 min(-1)) were a set of formyloxobilin isomers, similar to the mycobilin products of the IsdG homolog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MhuD). These converted in separate fast and slow phases to β-/δ-staphylobilin isomers and formaldehyde (CH2O). Controlled release of this unusual C1 product may support IsdG's dual role as both an oxygenase and a sensor of heme availability in S. aureus. PMID:26534961

  8. Non-Heme Iron Absorption and Utilization from Typical Whole Chinese Diets in Young Chinese Urban Men Measured by a Double-Labeled Stable Isotope Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichen; Zhang, Yuhui; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhengwu; Gou, Lingyan; Wang, Zhilin; Ren, Tongxiang; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was to observe the non-heme iron absorption and biological utilization from typical whole Chinese diets in young Chinese healthy urban men, and to observe if the iron absorption and utilization could be affected by the staple food patterns of Southern and Northern China. Materials and Methods Twenty-two young urban men aged 18–24 years were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups in which the staple food was rice and steamed buns, respectively. Each subject received 3 meals containing approximately 3.25 mg stable 57FeSO4 (the ratio of 57Fe content in breakfast, lunch and dinner was 1:2:2) daily for 2 consecutive days. In addition, approximately 2.4 mg 58FeSO4 was administered intravenously to each subject at 30–60 min after dinner each day. Blood samples were collected from each subject to measure the enrichment of the 57Fe and 58Fe. Fourteen days after the experimental diet, non-heme iron absorption was assessed by measuring 57Fe incorporation into red blood cells, and absorbed iron utilization was determined according to the red blood cell incorporation of intravenously infused 58Fe SO4. Results Non-heme iron intake values overall, and in the rice and steamed buns groups were 12.8 ±2.1, 11.3±1.3 and 14.3±1.5 mg, respectively; the mean 57Fe absorption rates were 11±7%, 13±7%, and 8±4%, respectively; and the mean infused 58Fe utilization rates were 85±8%, 84±6%, and 85±10%, respectively. There was no significantly difference in the iron intakes, and 57Fe absorption and infused 58Fe utilization rates between rice and steamed buns groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion We present the non-heme iron absorption and utilization rates from typical whole Chinese diets among young Chinese healthy urban men, which was not affected by the representative staple food patterns of Southern and Northern China. This study will provide a basis for the setting of Chinese iron DRIs. PMID:27099954

  9. Modulation of heme oxygenase-1 by metalloporphyrins increases anti-viral T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunse, C E; Fortmeier, V; Tischer, S; Zilian, E; Figueiredo, C; Witte, T; Blasczyk, R; Immenschuh, S; Eiz-Vesper, B

    2015-02-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of HO, has immunomodulatory functions and is considered a target for therapeutic interventions. In the present study, we investigated whether modulation of HO-1 might have regulatory effects on in-vitro T cell activation. The study examined whether: (i) HO-1 induction by cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) or inhibition by tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP) can affect expansion and function of virus-specific T cells, (ii) HO-1 modulation might have a functional effect on other cell populations mediating effects on proliferating T cells [e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), regulatory T cells (T(regs)) and natural killer cells] and (iii) HO-1-modulated anti-viral T cells might be suitable for adoptive immunotherapy. Inhibition of HO-1 via SnMP in cytomegalovirus (CMV)pp65-peptide-pulsed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) led to increased anti-viral T cell activation and the generation of a higher proportion of effector memory T cells (CD45RA(-) CD62L(-)) with increased capability to secrete interferon (IFN)-γ and granzyme B. T(reg) depletion and SnMP exposure increased the number of anti-viral T cells 15-fold. To test the possibility that HO-1 modulation might be clinically applicable in conformity with good manufacturing practice (GMP), SnMP was tested in isolated anti-viral T cells using the cytokine secretion assay. Compared to control, SnMP treatment resulted in higher cell counts and purity without negative impact on quality and effector function [CD107a, IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were stable]. These results suggest an important role of HO-1 in the modulation of adaptive immune responses. HO-1 inhibition resulted in markedly more effective generation of functionally active T cells suitable for adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:25196646

  10. Unsaturated glycerophospholipids mediate heme crystallization: biological implications for hemozoin formation in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stiebler

    Full Text Available Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal produced by some blood-feeding organisms, as an efficient way to detoxify heme derived from hemoglobin digestion. In the triatomine insect Rhodnius prolixus, Hz is essentially produced by midgut extracellular phospholipid membranes known as perimicrovillar membranes (PMVM. Here, we investigated the role of commercial glycerophospholipids containing serine, choline and ethanolamine as headgroups and R. prolixus midgut lipids (RML in heme crystallization. All commercial unsaturated forms of phospholipids, as well as RML, mediated fast and efficient β-hematin formation by means of two kinetically distinct mechanisms: an early and fast component, followed by a late and slow one. The fastest reactions observed were induced by unsaturated forms of phosphatidylethanolamine (uPE and phosphatidylcholine (uPC, with half-lives of 0.04 and 0.7 minutes, respectively. β-hematin crystal morphologies were strikingly distinct among groups, with uPE producing homogeneous regular brick-shaped crystals. Interestingly, uPC-mediated reactions resulted in two morphologically distinct crystal populations: one less representative group of regular crystals, resembling those induced by uPE, and the other largely represented by crystals with numerous sharp edges and tapered ends. Heme crystallization reactions induced by RML were efficient, with a heme to β-hematin conversion rate higher than 70%, but clearly slower (t1/2 of 9.9-17.7 minutes than those induced by uPC and uPE. Interestingly, crystals produced by RML were homogeneous in shape and quite similar to those mediated by uPE. Thus, β-hematin formation can be rapidly and efficiently induced by unsaturated glycerophospholipids, particularly uPE and uPC, and may play a role on biological heme crystallization in R. prolixus midgut.

  11. Reduction potential and heme-pocket polarity in low potential cytochrome b5 of Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen Alice; Pazdzior, Robert; Yee, Janet; Rafferty, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Although it lacks mitochondria and the ability to synthesize heme, the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis encodes several heme proteins. This includes four members of the cytochrome b5 family, three of which are of similar size to mammalian cytochromes b5 but with reduction potentials that are 140 to 180mV lower. While no structures have yet been determined for any of these proteins, homology modeling points to an increase in heme pocket polarity as a reason for their low potentials. To test this we measured the reduction potentials of four mutants of Giardia cytochrome b5 isotype-I (gCYTB5-I) in which polar residues at two candidate positions (C84, Y51) in the heme pocket were changed to nonpolar ones (C84A, C84F; Y51L, Y51F). All mutants were expressed with comparable levels of heme incorporation and had UV-visible spectra consistent with low spin bis-histidyl coordination. These mutations increased the reduction potential by 18 to 57mV and highlight the influence of C84, which is a residue unique to gCYTB5-I and whose mutation to alanine caused the largest increase. The influence of these two residues plus that of Y61 reported previously accounts for much of the reduction potential difference between gCYTB5-I and microsomal cytochrome b5. A complementary triple mutant of the latter with the hydrophilic residues found in gCYTB5-I bound heme less effectively but nonetheless had a reduction potential that was 135mV lower than wild type. PMID:27048807

  12. Heme Iron Release from Alginate Beads at In Vitro Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carolina; Hernández, Valesca; Morales, María Sol; Pizarro, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Heme iron (Fe) release from alginate beads at in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions for potential use as oral heme Fe supplement was studied. Five beads at different ratios of sodium alginate (SA)-to-spray-dried bovine blood cells (SDBC) with weight ratios of 1:1.25, 1:2.5, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 (w/w) were prepared. Release characteristics of these beads were investigated at in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Release media pH strongly influenced the controlled Fe release from the beads. The heme Fe-beads in simulated gastric fluid (pH 2) remained in a shrinkage state and Fe release was low: 25.8, 21.1, 11.6, 12.1, and 12.0 % for 1:1.25, 1:2.5, 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15 ratios, respectively. Proportion and amount of Fe released by 1:1.25 and 1:2.5 ratios was higher than the other ratios. The heme Fe-beads swelled and dissociated in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6), releasing three-fourths of the Fe in 200 min. The morphology studies showed that Fe release followed formation of pores in the alginate matrix, generating erosion of the beads and complete disintegration after 75 and 200 min of gastric and intestinal incubation, respectively. These results indicate that heme Fe-beads may be useful for oral delivery of heme Fe supplement. PMID:26610684

  13. Electron transfer among the CuA-, heme b- and a3-centers of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Chen, Ying; Fee, James A;

    2006-01-01

    The 1-methyl-nicotinamide radical (MNA(*)), produced by pulse radiolysis has previously been shown to reduce the Cu(A)-site of cytochromes aa(3), a process followed by intramolecular electron transfer (ET) to the heme a but not to the heme a(3) [Farver, O., Grell, E., Ludwig, B., Michel, H. and...... Pecht, I. (2006) Rates and equilibrium of CuA to heme a electron transfer in Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase. Biophys. J. 90, 2131-2137]. Investigating this process in the cytochrome ba(3) of Thermus thermophilus (Tt), we now show that MNA(*) also reduces Cu(A) with a subsequent ET to the...... heme b and then to heme a(3), with first-order rate constants 11200 s(-1), and 770 s(-1), respectively. The results provide clear evidence for ET among the three spectroscopically distinguishable centers and indicate that the binuclear a(3)-Cu(B) center can be reduced in molecules containing a single...

  14. Voltammetry and In Situ Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy of De Novo Designed Heme Protein Monolayers on Au(111)-Electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, Wu; Haehnel, Wolfgang;

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we report the electrochemical characterization and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies of monolayers of an artificial de novo designed heme protein MOP-C, covalently immobilized on modified Au(111) surfaces. The protein forms closely packed monolayers, which...... minimal and proteins could be imaged without detectable tip interference. The results indicate further that the structural sensitivity of (in situ) STM depends to a significant extent on associated electron transfer kinetics. In the present case, the heme group does not contribute significantly to the...... tunnelling current, apparently due to slow electron transfer kinetics. As a consequence, STM images of heme-containing and heme-free MOP-C did not reveal any notable differences in apparent height or physical extension. The apparent height of heme-containing MOP-C did not show any dependence on the substrate...

  15. Myeloid heme oxygenase–1 regulates innate immunity and autoimmunity by modulating IFN-β production

    OpenAIRE

    Tzima, Sotiria; Victoratos, Panayiotis; Kranidioti, Ksanthi; Alexiou, Maria; Kollias, George

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenase–1 (HO-1) is a key cytoprotective, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory molecule. The pathophysiological functions of HO-1 have been associated with its enzymatic activities in heme catabolism. We have examined the immune functions of HO-1 by its conditional ablation in myeloid cells (HO-1M-KO mice). We demonstrate that myeloid HO-1 is required for the activation of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) 3 after Toll-like receptor 3 or 4 stimulation, or viral infection. HO-1–defi...

  16. Therapeutic Efficacy of Stem Cells Transplantation in Diabetes: Role of Heme Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaele, Marco; Li Volti, Giovanni; Barbagallo, Ignazio A.; Vanella, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The growing data obtained from in vivo studies and clinical trials demonstrated the benefit of adult stem cells transplantation in diabetes; although an important limit is represented by their survival after the transplant. To this regard, recent reports suggest that genetic manipulation of stem cells prior to transplantation can lead to enhanced survival and better engraftment. The following review proposes to stimulate interest in the role of heme oxygenase-1 over-expression on transplantation of stem cells in diabetes, focusing on the clinical potential of heme oxygenase protein and activity to restore tissue damage and/or to improve the immunomodulatory properties of transplanted stem cells.

  17. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal inflammation:A short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Zhu; Wen-Guo Fan; Dong-Pei Li; Hsiangfu Kung; Marie CM Lin

    2011-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) system catalyzes heme to biologically active products:carbon monoxide,bili-verdin/bilirubin and free iron.It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes.A growing body of evidence indicates that HO-1 activation may play an important protective role in acute and chronic inflammation of gastrointestinal tract.This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiological significance of HO-1 induction and its possible roles inthe gastrointestinal inflammation studied to date.The ability to upregulate HO-1 by pharmacological means or using gene therapy may offer therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal inflammation in the future.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 as a therapeutic target in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijith; Vijayan; Sebastian; Mueller; Eveline; Baumgart-Vogt; Stephan; Immenschuh

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is the inducible isoform of the first and rate-limiting enzyme of heme degradation. HO-1 not only protects against oxidative stress and apoptosis, but has received a great deal of attention in recent years because ofits potent anti-inflammatory functions. Studies with HO-1 knockout animal models have led to major advances in the understanding of how HO-1 might regulate inflammatory immune responses, although little is known on the underlying mechanisms. Due to its beneficial effects th...

  19. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of immobilized de novo designed heme proteins on metal electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, WW; Ulstrup, Jens;

    2005-01-01

    configuration. The proteins possess different binding domains on the top surfaces of the bundles to allow for electrostatic, covalent, and hydrophobic binding to metal electrodes. Electrostatic immobilization was achieved for proteins with lysine-rich binding domains (MOP-P) that adsorb to electrodes covered by...... electron-transfer rate constant of 13 s(-1) is similar to those reported for natural heme proteins with comparable electron-transfer distances, which indicates that covalently bound synthetic heme proteins provide efficient electronic communication with a metal electrode as a prerequisite for potential...

  20. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  1. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite. PMID:26070143

  2. Interaction of HoloCcmE with CcmF in Heme Trafficking and Cytochrome c Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Brian San; Kranz, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic heme chaperone holoCcmE is essential for heme trafficking in the cytochrome c biosynthetic pathway in many bacteria, archaea, and plant mitochondria. This pathway, called system I, involves two steps: i) formation and release of holoCcmE (by the ABC-transporter complex CcmABCD), and ii) delivery of the heme in holoCcmE to the putative cytochrome c heme lyase complex, CcmFH. CcmFH is believed to facilitate the final covalent attachment of heme (from holoCcmE) to the apocytochrome c. Although most models for system I propose that holoCcmE delivers heme directly to CcmF, no interaction between holoCcmE and CcmF has been demonstrated. Here, a complex between holoCcmE and CcmF is “trapped”, purified, and characterized. HoloCcmE must be released from the ABC-transporter complex CcmABCD to interact with CcmF, and the holo-form of CcmE interacts with CcmF at levels at least 20-fold higher than apoCcmE. Two conserved histidines (here termed P-His1 and P-His2) in separate periplasmic loops in CcmF are required for interaction with holoCcmE, and evidence is presented that P-His1 and P-His2 function as heme-binding ligands. These results show that heme in holoCcmE is essential for complex formation with CcmF, and that the heme of holoCcmE is coordinated by P-His1 and P-His2 within the WWD domain of CcmF. These features are strikingly similar to formation of the CcmC:heme:CcmE ternary complex (Richard-Fogal and Kranz, JMB 2010), and suggest common mechanistic and structural aspects. PMID:24513106

  3. Heme-independent Redox Sensing by the Heme-Nitric Oxide/Oxygen-binding Protein (H-NOX) from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadyay, Roma; Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Schaub, Tanner; Yukl, Erik T

    2016-08-19

    Heme nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX)-binding proteins act as nitric oxide (NO) sensors among various bacterial species. In several cases, they act to mediate communal behavior such as biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and motility by influencing the activity of downstream signaling proteins such as histidine kinases (HisKa) in a NO-dependent manner. An H-NOX/HisKa regulatory circuit was recently identified in Vibrio cholerae, and the H-NOX protein has been spectroscopically characterized. However, the influence of the H-NOX protein on HisKa autophosphorylation has not been evaluated. This process may be important for persistence and pathogenicity in this organism. Here, we have expressed and purified the V. cholerae HisKa (HnoK) and H-NOX in its heme-bound (holo) and heme-free (apo) forms. Autophosphorylation assays of HnoK in the presence of H-NOX show that the holoprotein in the Fe(II)-NO and Fe(III) forms is a potent inhibitor of HnoK. Activity of the Fe(III) form and aerobic instability of the Fe(II) form suggested that Vibrio cholerae H-NOX may act as a sensor of the redox state as well as NO. Remarkably, the apoprotein also showed robust HnoK inhibition that was dependent on the oxidation of cysteine residues to form disulfide bonds at a highly conserved zinc site. The importance of cysteine in this process was confirmed by mutagenesis, which also showed that holo Fe(III), but not Fe(II)-NO, H-NOX relied heavily upon cysteine for activation. These results highlight a heme-independent mechanism for activation of V. cholerae H-NOX that implicates this protein as a dual redox/NO sensor. PMID:27358409

  4. Roles of iron acquisition systems in virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: salmochelin and aerobactin contribute more to virulence than heme in a chicken infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qingqing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC are the two main subsets of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Both types have multiple iron acquisition systems, including heme and siderophores. Although iron transport systems involved in the pathogenesis of APEC or UPEC have been documented individually in corresponding animal models, the contribution of these systems during simultaneous APEC and UPEC infection is not well described. To determine the contribution of each individual iron acquisition system to the virulence of APEC and UPEC, isogenic mutants affecting iron uptake in APEC E058 and UPEC U17 were constructed and compared in a chicken challenge model. Results Salmochelin-defective mutants E058ΔiroD and U17ΔiroD showed significantly decreased pathogenicity compared to the wild-type strains. Aerobactin defective mutants E058ΔiucD and U17ΔiucD demonstrated reduced colonization in several internal organs, whereas the heme defective mutants E058ΔchuT and U17ΔchuT colonized internal organs to the same extent as their wild-type strains. The triple mutant ΔchuTΔiroDΔiucD in both E058 and U17 showed decreased pathogenicity compared to each of the single mutants. The histopathological lesions in visceral organs of birds challenged with the wild-type strains were more severe than those from birds challenged with ΔiroD, ΔiucD or the triple mutants. Conversely, chickens inoculated with the ΔchuT mutants had lesions comparable to those in chickens inoculated with the wild-type strains. However, no significant differences were observed between the mutants and the wild-type strains in resistance to serum, cellular invasion and intracellular survival in HD-11, and growth in iron-rich or iron-restricted medium. Conclusions Results indicated that APEC and UPEC utilize similar iron acquisition mechanisms in chickens. Both salmochelin and aerobactin systems appeared to be important in APEC

  5. Heme protein-gluten films: voltammetric studies and their electrocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins, such as hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), incorporated in gluten biopolymer films cast on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes, were studied by voltammetry and amperometry. All the three protein-gluten films exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.28 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in pH 5.5 buffers, respectively, characteristic of the heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples, indicating enhanced electron transfer between the proteins and PG electrodes in a gluten film environment. The protein-gluten hydrogel films showed excellent stability. Positions of Soret absorption band of protein-gluten films suggested that the heme proteins kept their secondary structure similar to their native state in the films in the medium pH range. The heme proteins in gluten films were act as a biologic catalyst to catalyze reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric or amperometric responses of H2O2 at the protein-gluten film electrodes could be used to determine the concentration of H2O2 in solution

  6. Heme protein-gluten films: voltammetric studies and their electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hongyun; Hu Naifei

    2003-03-28

    Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins, such as hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (Mb), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), incorporated in gluten biopolymer films cast on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes, were studied by voltammetry and amperometry. All the three protein-gluten films exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.28 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in pH 5.5 buffers, respectively, characteristic of the heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples, indicating enhanced electron transfer between the proteins and PG electrodes in a gluten film environment. The protein-gluten hydrogel films showed excellent stability. Positions of Soret absorption band of protein-gluten films suggested that the heme proteins kept their secondary structure similar to their native state in the films in the medium pH range. The heme proteins in gluten films were act as a biologic catalyst to catalyze reduction of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide. The voltammetric or amperometric responses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at the protein-gluten film electrodes could be used to determine the concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in solution.

  7. Nitrosyl-Heme Structures of Bacillus subtilis Nitric Oxide Synthase Have Implications for Understanding Substrate Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structures of nitrosyl-heme complexes of a prokaryotic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from Bacillus subtilis (bsNOS) reveal changes in active-site hydrogen bonding in the presence of the intermediate Nω-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA) compared to the substrate L-arginine (L-Arg). Correlating with a Val-to-Ile residue substitution in the bsNOS heme pocket, the Fe(II)-NO complex with both L-Arg and NOHA is more bent than the Fe(II)-NO, L-Arg complex of mammalian eNOS. Structures of the Fe(III)-NO complex with NOHA show a nearly linear nitrosyl group, and in one subunit, partial nitrosation of bound NOHA. In the Fe(II)-NO complexes, the protonated NOHA Nω atom forms a short hydrogen bond with the heme-coordinated NO nitrogen, but active-site water molecules are out of hydrogen bonding range with the distal NO oxygen. In contrast, the L-Arg guanidinium interacts more weakly and equally with both NO atoms, and an active-site water molecule hydrogen bonds to the distal NO oxygen. This difference in hydrogen bonding to the nitrosyl group by the two substrates indicates that interactions provided by NOHA may preferentially stabilize an electrophilic peroxo-heme intermediate in the second step of NOS catalysis

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits neuropathic pain in rats with diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Kong; Kang Liu; Lingxi Wu; Long Wang

    2012-01-01

    A diabetes mellitus model was established through single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin into rats.Seven days later,model rats were intraperitoneally administered zinc protoporphyrin,a heme oxygenase-1 inducer,and cobalt protoporphyrin,a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor,once every two days,for 5 successive weeks.After administration,the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold of diabetic mellitus rats significantly decreased,the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve thickened or showed vacuole defects,the number of spinal dorsal horn neurons reduced,some neurons degenerated and were necrotic,and heme oxygenase-1 was visible in the cytoplasm of spinal dorsal horn neurons.Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling demonstrated that the number of apoptotic neurons increased,which could be inhibited by cobalt protoporphyrin,however,zinc protoporphyrin led to an opposite effect.Our experimental findings indicate that heme oxygenase-1 attenuates neuropathic pain in diabetic mellitus rats through amelioration of peripheral neuropathy and inhibition of spinal dorsal horn neuron apoptosis.

  9. Identification of heme oxygenase-1-specific regulatory CD8+ T cells in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Sørensen, Rikke Baek; Brimnes, Marie K;

    2009-01-01

    the antigens they recognize. Here, we describe what we believe to be the first natural target for CD8+ Tregs. Naturally occurring HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cells specific for the antiinflammatory molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were able to suppress cellular immune responses with outstanding efficacy...

  10. Redox and Chemical Activities of the Hemes in the Sulfur Oxidation Pathway Enzyme SoxAX*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Justin M.; Marritt, Sophie J.; Kihlken, Margaret A.; Haynes, Kate; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Berks, Ben C.; Cheesman, Myles R.; Butt, Julea N.

    2012-01-01

    SoxAX enzymes couple disulfide bond formation to the reduction of cytochrome c in the first step of the phylogenetically widespread Sox microbial sulfur oxidation pathway. Rhodovulum sulfidophilum SoxAX contains three hemes. An electrochemical cell compatible with magnetic circular dichroism at near infrared wavelengths has been developed to resolve redox and chemical properties of the SoxAX hemes. In combination with potentiometric titrations monitored by electronic absorbance and EPR, this method defines midpoint potentials (Em) at pH 7.0 of approximately +210, −340, and −400 mV for the His/Met, His/Cys−, and active site His/CysS−-ligated heme, respectively. Exposing SoxAX to S2O42−, a substrate analog with Em ∼−450 mV, but not Eu(II) complexed with diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Em ∼−1140 mV), allows cyanide to displace the cysteine persulfide (CysS−) ligand to the active site heme. This provides the first evidence for the dissociation of CysS− that has been proposed as a key event in SoxAX catalysis. PMID:23060437

  11. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron (non-heme) test system. 862.1410 Section 862.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  12. A Diffusion-Based Approach to Geminate Recombination of Heme Proteins with Small Ligands

    CERN Document Server

    Starovoitov, V S

    2002-01-01

    A model of postphotodissociative monomolecular (geminate) recombination of heme proteins with small ligands (NO, O2 or CO) is represented. The non-exponential decay with time for the probability to find a heme in unbound state is interpreted in terms of diffusion-like migration of ligabs physics/0212040and between protein cavities. The temporal behavior for the probability is obtained from numerical simulation and specified by two parameters: the time \\tau_{reb} of heme-ligand rebinding for the ligand localized inside the heme pocket and the time \\tau_{esc} of ligand escape from the pocket. The model is applied in the analysis of available experimental data for geminate reoxygenation of human hemoglobin HbA. Our simulation is in good agreement with the measurements. The analysis shows that the variation in pH of the solution (6.0

  13. Control of carotenoid biosynthesis through a heme-based cis-trans isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Jesús; Kloss, Brian; Hosler, Jonathan P; Geng, Jiafeng; Liu, Aimin; Modi, Anuja; Dawson, John H; Sono, Masanori; Shumskaya, Maria; Ampomah-Dwamena, Charles; Love, James D; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2015-08-01

    Plants synthesize carotenoids, which are essential for plant development and survival. These metabolites also serve as essential nutrients for human health. The biosynthetic pathway for all plant carotenoids occurs in chloroplasts and other plastids and requires 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO). It was not known whether Z-ISO catalyzes isomerization alone or in combination with other enzymes. Here we show that Z-ISO is a bona fide enzyme and integral membrane protein. Z-ISO independently catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the 15-15' carbon-carbon double bond in 9,15,9'-cis-ζ-carotene to produce the substrate required by the subsequent biosynthetic-pathway enzyme. We discovered that isomerization depends upon a ferrous heme b cofactor that undergoes redox-regulated ligand switching between the heme iron and alternate Z-ISO amino acid residues. Heme b-dependent isomerization of a large hydrophobic compound in a membrane was previously undescribed. As an isomerase, Z-ISO represents a new prototype for heme b proteins and potentially uses a new chemical mechanism. PMID:26075523

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents smoke induced B-cell infiltrates : a role for regulatory T cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Hylkema, Machteld N.; van der Strate, Barry W. A.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Luinge, Marjan A.; Geerlings, Marie; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Smoking is the most important cause for the development of COPD. Since not all smokers develop COPD, it is obvious that other factors must be involved in disease development. We hypothesize that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a protective enzyme against oxidative stress and inflammation, is in

  15. Dry powder inhalation of hemin to induce heme oxygenase expression in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.S.; Brandsma, C.A.; Harpe, M.F.H.; Van Dam, G.M.; Slebos, D.J.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate hemin as a powder for inhalation and to show proof of concept of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the lungs of mice by inhalation of hemin. Hemin was spray dried from a neutralized sodium hydroxide solution. The particle size distribution of the powder

  16. Increasing the heme-dependent respiratory efficiency of Lactococcus lactis by inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Daniele; Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Pedersen, Martin B; Pedersen, Per Dedenroth; Dal Bello, Fabio; Mora, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of heme-induced respiration in Lactococcus lactis has radically improved the industrial processes used for the biomass production of this species. Here, we show that inhibition of the lactate dehydrogenase activity of L. lactis during growth under respiration-permissive conditions can stimulate aerobic respiration, thereby increasing not only growth efficiency but also the robustness of this organism. PMID:23064338

  17. Measurement of Heme Ruffling Changes in MhuD Using UV-vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Amanda B; Graves, Max T; Liptak, Matthew D

    2016-04-28

    For decades it has been known that an out-of-plane ruffling distortion of heme perturbs its UV-vis absorption (Abs) spectrum, but whether increased ruffling induces a red or blue shift of the Soret band has remained a topic of debate. This debate has been resolved by the spectroscopic and computational characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MhuD presented here, an enzyme that converts heme, oxygen, and reducing equivalents to nonheme iron and mycobilin. W66F and W66A MhuD have been characterized using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, Abs, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies, and the data have been used to develop an experimentally validated theoretical model of ruffled, ferric heme. The PBE density functional theory (DFT) model that has been developed accurately reproduces the observed spectral changes from wild type enzyme, and the underlying quantum mechanical origins of these ruffling-induced changes were revealed by analyzing the PBE DFT description of the electronic structure. Small amounts of heme ruffling have no influence on the energy of the Q-band and blue-shift the Soret band due to symmetry-allowed mixing of the Fe 3dxy and porphyrin a2u orbitals. Larger amounts of ruffling red-shift both the Q and Soret bands due to disruption of π-bonding within the porphyrin ring. PMID:27035523

  18. Non-heme iron catalysts for the benzylic oxidation : a parallel ligand screening approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopstra, M; Hage, R; Kellogg, R.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethylbenzene and 4-ethylanisole were used as model substrates for benzylic oxidation with H2O2 or O-2 using a range of non-heme iron catalysts following a parallel ligand screening approach. Effective oxidation was found for Fe complexes based on tetra- and pentadentate nitrogen ligands affording th

  19. ["Kuhu me siis läheme? - Eks ikka koju."] / M. J.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Mall, 1947-

    2016-01-01

    Tutvustus: „Kuhu me siis läheme? - Eks ikka koju.“ : sajandivahetus saksa kirjanduses 200 aastat tagasi : Goethe, Schiller, Tieck, Kleist, Hoffmann, Eichendorff, Büchner, Novalis, Hegel (Schelling? Hölderlin?), Schlegel / saksa keelest valinud ja tõlkinud Mati Sirkel. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2015

  20. Surf1, associated with Leigh syndrome in humans, is a heme-binding protein in bacterial oxidase biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Freya A; Hannappel, Achim; Anderka, Oliver; Ludwig, Bernd

    2009-09-18

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) relies on a large number of assembly factors, among them the transmembrane protein Surf1. The loss of human Surf1 function is associated with Leigh syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by severe COX deficiency. In the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, two homologous proteins, Surf1c and Surf1q, were identified, which we characterize in the present study. When coexpressed in Escherichia coli together with enzymes for heme a synthesis, the bacterial Surf1 proteins bind heme a in vivo. Using redox difference spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, the binding of the heme cofactor to purified apo-Surf1c and apo-Surf1q is quantified: Each of the Paracoccus proteins binds heme a in a 1:1 stoichiometry and with Kd values in the submicromolar range. In addition, we identify a conserved histidine as a residue crucial for heme binding. Contrary to most earlier concepts, these data support a direct role of Surf1 in heme a cofactor insertion into COX subunit I by providing a protein-bound heme a pool. PMID:19625251

  1. Faster heme loss from hemoglobin E than HbS, in acidic pH: Effect of aminophospholipids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mousumi Banerjee; Malini Pramanik; Dipankar Bhattacharya; Mohini Lahiry; Samita Basu; Abhjit Chakrabarti

    2011-12-01

    We report studies on loss of heme at or below pH 3.0 from two clinically important hemoglobin variants, HbE and HbS, in the presence and absence of phopholipid membranes. The kinetics of heme loss has been studied at pH 3.0 to simulate the same at a faster rate than at physiological pH, for spectroscopic investigation. Results obtained from the study clearly establish the probable fate of the lost heme to partition into the phospholipid bilayer independent of the pH range. This is also of particular importance to membranes containing the aminophospholipid and cholesterol which are predominantly localized in the inner leaflet of erythrocytes. Absorption measurements indicated such loss of heme when the Soret peak at 415 nm blue-shifted to 380 nm at pH 3.0. The extent of this blue shift decreased from 35 nm to ∼15 nm in the presence of small unilammelar vesicles of both dimyristoyl- and dioleoyl-based phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating partitioning of the released heme in the membrane bilayer. The kinetics of heme loss was faster from HbE than HbA and HbS, obeying first-order reaction kinetics. Released heme could be involved in the premature destruction of erythrocytes in hemoglobin disorders.

  2. Heme-bound SiaA from Streptococcus pyogenes: Effects of mutations and oxidation state on protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Neval; Draganova, Elizabeth B; Block, Darci R; Sook, Brian R; Chan, Yau Fong; Zhuo, Joy; Eichenbaum, Zehava; Rodgers, Kenton R; Dixon, Dabney W

    2016-05-01

    The protein SiaA (HtsA) is part of a heme uptake pathway in Streptococcus pyogenes. In this report, we present the heme binding of the alanine mutants of the axial histidine (H229A) and methionine (M79A) ligands, as well as a lysine (K61A) and cysteine (C58A) located near the heme propionates (based on homology modeling) and a control mutant (C47A). pH titrations gave pKa values ranging from 9.0 to 9.5, close to the value of 9.7 for WT SiaA. Resonance Raman spectra of the mutants suggested that the ferric heme environment may be distinct from the wild-type; spectra of the ferrous states were similar. The midpoint reduction potential of the K61A mutant was determined by spectroelectrochemical titration to be 61±3mV vs. SHE, similar to the wild-type protein (68±3mV). The addition of guanidine hydrochloride showed two processes for protein denaturation, consistent with heme loss from protein forms differing by the orientation of the heme in the binding pocket (the half-life for the slower process ranged from less than half a day to two days). The ease of protein unfolding was related to the strength of interaction of the residues with the heme. We hypothesize that kinetically facile but only partial unfolding, followed by a very slow approach to the completely unfolded state, may be a fundamental attribute of heme trafficking proteins. Small motions to release/transfer the heme accompanied by resistance to extensive unfolding may preserve the three dimensional form of the protein for further uptake and release. PMID:26746808

  3. SapF-mediated heme iron utilization enhances persistence and coordinates biofilm architecture of Haemophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Vogel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI is a common commensal bacterium that resides in the human upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. NTHI is also a known causative agent of multiple diseases including sinusitis, otitis media as well as exacerbates disease severity of patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have previously shown that the Sap ABC transporter mediates resistance to host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and import of the iron-containing compound heme. Here, we analyzed the contribution of the Sap structural ATPase protein, SapF, in these essential functions. SapF was dispensable for NTHI survival when exposed to AMPs in vitro. SapF was responsible for heme utilization and recovery of depleted internal heme iron stores. Further, a loss of SapF resulted in morphological plasticity and enhanced community development and biofilm architecture, suggesting the potential role of heme iron availability in coordinating the complexity of NTHI biofilm architecture. SapF was required for colonization of the nasopharynx and acute infection of the middle ear, as SapF deficiency correlated with a statistically significant decrease in NTHI persistence in vivo. These data suggest that SapF is required for proper heme utilization which directly impacts NTHI survival. Thus, these studies further support a role for the Sap complex in the transport of multiple substrates and further defines substrate specificity for the two ATPase subunits. Given the multiple essential functions provided by the Sap ABC transporter, this complex could prove to be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of NTHI diseases.

  4. Structure prediction and activity analysis of human heme oxygenase-1 and its mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Wei Xia; Wen-Pu Zhou; Wen-Jun Cui; Xue-Hong Zhang; Qing-Xiang Shen; Yun-Zhu Li; Shan-Chang Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To predict wild human heme oxygenase-1 (whHO-1)and hHO-1 His25Ala mutant (△hHO-1) structures, to clone and express them and analyze their activities.METHODS: Swiss-PdbViewer and Antheprot 5.0 were used for the prediction of structure diversity and physicalchemical changes between wild and mutant hHO-1. hHO1 His25Ala mutant cDNA was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two plasmids of E. coli DH5α. Expression products were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, and their activities were measured.RESULTS: rHO-1 had the structure of a helical fold with the heme sandwiched between heme-heme oxygenase1 helices. Bond angle, dihedral angle and chemical bond in the active pocket changed after Ala25 was replaced by His25, but Ala25 was still contacting the surface and the electrostatic potential of the active pocket was negative. The mutated enzyme kept binding activity to heme. Two vectors pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M) were constructed and expressed. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography yielded 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher purities of whHO-1, respectively. The activity of △hHO-1 was reduced 91.21% after mutation compared with whHO-1.CONCLUSION: Proximal His25 ligand is crucial for normal hHO-1 catalytic activity. △hHO-1 is deactivated by mutation but keeps the same binding site as whHO-1. △hHO-1 might be a potential inhibitor of whHO-1 for preventing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  5. Nitrobindin: An Ubiquitous Family of All β-Barrel Heme-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Giovanna; Ascenzi, Paolo; Polticelli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorins (Rp-NPs), Arabidopsis thaliana nitrobindin (At-Nb), and Homo sapiens THAP4 (Hs-THAP4) are the unique known proteins that use a β-barrel fold to bind ferric heme, which is devoted to NO transport and/or catalysis. The eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Rp-NPs, which represent the only heme-binding lipocalins, are devoted to deliver NO into the blood vessel of the host and to scavenge histamine during blood sucking. Regarding Nbs, crystallographic data suggest the ability of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 to bind ferric heme; however, no data are available with respect to these functions in the natural host. Here, a bioinformatics investigation based on the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 suggests a conservation of the 10-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Nb structural module in all life kingdoms of the evolutionary ladder. In particular, amino acid residues involved in the heme recognition and in the structure stabilization of the Nb structural module are highly conserved (identity > 29%; homology > 83%). Moreover, molecular models of putative Nbs from different organisms match very well with each other and known three-dimensional structures of Nbs. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree reconstruction indicates that NPs and Nbs group in distinct clades. These data indicate that 10-stranded β-barrel Nbs constitute a new ubiquitous heme protein family spanning from bacteria to Homo sapiens. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):423-428, 2016. PMID:27080126

  6. Resonance Raman spectra of an O2-binding H-NOX domain reveal heme relaxation upon mutation†

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Rosalie; Boon, Elizabeth M.; Marletta, Michael A.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra are measured for Tt H-NOX WT and three other Tt H-NOX proteins containing mutations at key conserved residues to determine the heme conformation in solution. The most dramatic changes in heme conformation occurred in the O2-bound forms, and the single Tt H-NOX P115A mutation was sufficient to generate a significant relaxation of the chromophore. Clear evidence of heme relaxation in the Tt H-NOX I5L, P115A, and I5L/P115A mutants in solution is demonstrated by the observ...

  7. Chronic hyperbaric oxygen treatment elicits an anti-oxidant response and attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchodkar, Bhalchandra J; Pierce, Anson; Dory, Ladislav

    2007-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment inhibits diet-induced atherosclerosis in New Zealand White rabbits. In the present study we investigate the mechanisms that might be involved in the athero-protective effect of HBO treatment in a well-accepted model of atherosclerosis, the apoE knockout (KO) mouse. We examine the effects of daily HBO treatment (for 5 and 10 weeks) on the components of the anti-oxidant defense mechanism and the redox state in blood, liver and aortic tissues and compare them to those of untreated apoE KO mice. HBO treatment results in a significant reduction of aortic cholesterol content and decreased fatty streak formation. These changes are accompanied by a significant reduction of autoantibodies against oxidatively modified LDL and profound changes in the redox state of the liver and aortic tissues. A 10-week treatment significantly reduces hepatic levels of TBARS and oxidized glutathione, while significantly increases the levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase (GR), transferase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and catalase (CAT). The effects of HBO treatment are similar in the aortic tissues. These observations provide evidence that HBO treatment has a powerful effect on the redox state of relevant tissues and produces an environment that inhibits oxidation. The anti-oxidant response may be the key to the anti-atherogenic effect of HBO treatment. PMID:16973170

  8. Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy applied to [Fe(OEP)(NO)] : the vibrational assignments of five-coordinate ferrous heme-nitrosyls and implications for electronic structure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, N.; Galinato, M. I.; Paulat, F.; Richter-Addo, G. B.; Sturhahn, W.; Xu, N.; Zhao, J. (X-Ray Science Division); (Univ. of Michigan); (Univ. of Oklahoma)

    2010-01-01

    This study presents Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy (NRVS) data on the five-coordinate (5C) ferrous heme-nitrosyl complex [Fe(OEP)(NO)] (1, OEP{sup 2-} = octaethylporphyrinato dianion) and the corresponding {sup 15}N{sup 18}O labeled complex. The obtained spectra identify two isotope sensitive features at 522 and 388 cm{sup -1}, which shift to 508 and 381 cm{sup -1}, respectively, upon isotope labeling. These features are assigned to the Fe-NO stretch v(Fe-NO) and the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode {delta}{sub ip}(Fe-N-O), the latter has been unambiguously assigned for the first time for 1. The obtained NRVS data were simulated using our quantum chemistry centered normal coordinate analysis (QCC-NCA). Since complex 1 can potentially exist in 12 different conformations involving the FeNO and peripheral ethyl orientations, extended density functional theory (DFT) calculations and QCC-NCA simulations were performed to determine how these conformations affect the NRVS properties of [Fe(OEP)NO]. These results show that the properties and force constants of the FeNO unit are hardly affected by the conformational changes involving the ethyl substituents. On the other hand, the NRVS-active porphyrin-based vibrations around 340-360, 300-320, and 250-270 cm{sup -1} are sensitive to the conformational changes. The spectroscopic changes observed in these regions are due to selective mechanical couplings of one component of Eu-type (in ideal D4h symmetry) porphyrin-based vibrations with the in-plane Fe-N-O bending mode. This leads to the observed variations in Fe(OEP) core mode energies and NRVS intensities without affecting the properties of the FeNO unit. The QCC-NCA simulated NRVS spectra of 1 show excellent agreement with experiment, and indicate that conformer F is likely present in the samples of this complex investigated here. The observed porphyrin-based vibrations in the NRVS spectra of 1 are also assigned based on the QCC-NCA results. The obtained force

  9. [Activity of key enzymes of heme metabolism and cytochrome P-450 content in the rat liver in experimental rhabdomyolysis and hemolytic anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Inshina, N N; Strel'chenko, E V

    2003-01-01

    The 5-aminolevulinate synthase, heme oxygenase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase activities, the content of total heme and cytochrome P-450 content in the rat liver and absorption spectrum of blood serum in Soret region under glycerol model of rhabdomiolisis and hemolytic anemia caused by single phenylhydrazine injection have been investigated. The glycerol injection caused a considerable accumulation of heme-containing products in the serum and the increase of the total heme content, holoenzyme, total activity and heme saturation of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, as well as the increase of the 5-aminolevulinate synthase and heme oxygenase activities in the liver during the first hours of its action and the decrease of cytochrome P-450 content in 24 h. Administration of phenylhydrazine lead to the increasing of hemolysis products content in blood serum too, although it was less expressed. The phenylhydrazine injection caused the increase of activities of 5-aminolevulinate synthase, holoenzyme, total activity and heme saturation of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, as well as decrease of cytochrome P-450 content in the rat liver in 2 h. The increase of the total heme content and heme oxygenase activity has been observed in 24 h. The effect of heme arrival from the blood stream, as well as a direct influence of glycerol and phenylhydrazine on the investigated parameters are discussed. PMID:14577161

  10. A Novel Heme a Insertion Factor Gene Cotranscribes with the Thermus thermophilus Cytochrome ba3 Oxidase Locus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Carolin; Richter, Oliver-Matthias H.; Ludwig, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Studying the biogenesis of the Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba3 oxidase, we analyze heme a cofactor insertion into this membrane protein complex. Only three proteins linked to oxidase maturation have been described for this extreme thermophile, and in particular, no evidence for a canonical Surf1 homologue, required for heme a insertion, is available from genome sequence data. Here, we characterize the product of an open reading frame, cbaX, in the operon encoding subunits of the ba3-type ...

  11. [Determination of apparent mean mass of proteins associated with heme in the hemoglobin molecule of Arenicola marina (L.), Annelida, Polychaeta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulmond, A

    1979-02-12

    Protein and iron concentrations and maximum combined oxygen concentration were measured in the blood of the lugworm Arenicola marina. The calculated mean molecular mass of the heme-associated proteins was higher than that reported for known invertebrate and vertebrate intracellular hemoglobins. The difference is probably due to the presence of polypeptide chains not linked to heme groups in the extracellular annelid hemoglobins. PMID:111865

  12. Candida albicans heme oxygenase and its product CO contribute to pathogenesis of candidemia and alter systemic chemokine and cytokine expression

    OpenAIRE

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Roberts, David D.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian heme oxygenases play important roles in immune regulation by producing immunosuppressive CO. The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans encodes a heme oxygenase, Hmx1, that is specifically induced by the host protein hemoglobin, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of disseminated bloodstream infections. We show that exposing mice to therapeutic levels of CO increases C. albicans virulence, whereas a HMX1 null strain has decreased virulence in murine disseminated candidiasis. Levels of ...

  13. Human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase’s heme binding, maturation determinants, and complex formation with cytochrome c

    OpenAIRE

    San Francisco, Brian; Bretsnyder, Eric C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Proper functioning of the mitochondrion requires the orchestrated assembly of respiratory complexes with their cofactors. Cytochrome c, an essential electron carrier in mitochondria and a critical component of the apoptotic pathway, contains a heme cofactor covalently attached to the protein at a conserved CXXCH motif. Although it has been known for more than two decades that heme attachment requires the mitochondrial protein holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), the mechanism remained unknown. W...

  14. Heme Concentration Dependence and Metalloporphyrin Inhibition of the System I and II Cytochrome c Assembly Pathways▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia L; Frawley, Elaine R.; Feissner, Robert E.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    Studies have indicated that specific heme delivery to apocytochrome c is a critical feature of the cytochrome c biogenesis pathways called system I and II. To determine directly the heme requirements of each system, including whether other metal porphyrins can be incorporated into cytochromes c, we engineered Escherichia coli so that the natural system I (ccmABCDEFGH) was deleted and exogenous porphyrins were the sole source of porphyrins (ΔhemA). The engineered E. coli strains that produced ...

  15. Abscisic Acid Participates in the Control of Cell Cycle Initiation Through Heme Homeostasis in the Unicellular Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Ando, Hiroyuki; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-05-01

    ABA is a phytohormone that is synthesized in response to abiotic stresses and other environmental changes, inducing various physiological responses. While ABA has been found in unicellular photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae, its function in these organisms is poorly understood. Here, we found that ABA accumulated in the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae under conditions of salt stress and that the cell cycle G1/S transition was inhibited when ABA was added to the culture medium. A gene encoding heme-scavenging tryptophan-rich sensory protein-related protein (CmTSPO; CMS231C) was positively regulated by ABA, as in Arabidopsis, and CmTSPO bound heme in vitro. The intracellular content of total heme was increased by addition of ABA, but unfettered heme decreased, presumably due to scavenging by CmTSPO. The inhibition of DNA replication by ABA was negated by addition of heme to the culture medium. Thus, we propose a regulatory role for ABA and heme in algal cell cycle initiation. Finally, we found that a C. merolae mutant that is defective in ABA production was more susceptible to salt stress, indicating the importance of ABA to stress resistance in red algae. PMID:27044672

  16. Heme arginate improves reperfusion patterns after ischemia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme arginate can induce heme oxygenase-1 to protect tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging measures changes in tissue oxygenation with a high spatial and temporal resolution. BOLD imaging was applied to test the effect of heme arginate on experimental ischemia reperfusion injury in the calf muscles. Methods A two period, controlled, observer blinded, crossover trial was performed in 12 healthy male subjects. Heme arginate (1 mg/kg body weight or placebo were infused 24 h prior to a 20 min leg ischemia induced by a thigh cuff. 3 Tesla BOLD-imaging of the calf was performed and signal time courses from soleus, gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscle were available from 11 participants for technical reasons. Results Peak reactive hyperemia signal of the musculature was significantly increased and occurred earlier after heme arginate compared to placebo (106.2±0.6% at 175±16s vs. 104.5±0.6% at 221±19s; p = 0.025 for peak reperfusion and p = 0.012 for time to peak. Conclusions A single high dose of heme arginate improves reperfusion patterns during ischemia reperfusion injury in humans. BOLD sensitive, functional MRI is applicable for the assessment of experimental ischemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01461512 EudraCT: 2008-006967-35

  17. Development of refractoriness of induced human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression to reinduction by UVA irradiation and hemin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using primary human fibroblasts we have observed the existence of an acquired refractoriness of the heme oxygenase-1 gene to induction by a second dose of UVA (320-380 nm) radiation. We studied the kinetics of development of refractoriness over a time interval of up to 72 h between the first inducing event and the second (challenge) dose. Complete refractoriness was observed at 48 h. We also studied development of refractoriness after UVA, sodium arsenite and H2O2 treatment in all possible combinations and demonstrated that only UVA led to refractoriness. Ultraviolet radiation induced partial refractoriness to H2O2 induction but did not change the response of sodium arsenite. In an investigation of the mechanism of development of refractories we used the heme oxygenase inhibitor, tin-protoporphyrin IX and showed that induction of heme oxygenases enzymatic activity is a crucial step. However, the induction of ferritin, which is known to play a key role in protection against oxidative stress, did not appear to be involved. Damage to membranes is also probably not involved in the refractoriness mechanism. Because either hemin alone or UVA radiation are able to lead to a refractoriness of the heme oxygenase-1 gene to reinduction by a second exposure to one or the other agent in human fibroblasts we conclude that heme, or an as yet unidentified heme derivative, is involved in the refractoriness response. (Author)

  18. Heme Concentration Dependence and Metalloporphyrin Inhibition of the System I and II Cytochrome c Assembly Pathways▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Fogal, Cynthia L.; Frawley, Elaine R.; Feissner, Robert E.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have indicated that specific heme delivery to apocytochrome c is a critical feature of the cytochrome c biogenesis pathways called system I and II. To determine directly the heme requirements of each system, including whether other metal porphyrins can be incorporated into cytochromes c, we engineered Escherichia coli so that the natural system I (ccmABCDEFGH) was deleted and exogenous porphyrins were the sole source of porphyrins (ΔhemA). The engineered E. coli strains that produced recombinant system I (from E. coli) or system II (from Helicobacter) facilitated studies of the heme concentration dependence of each system. Using this exogenous porphyrin approach, it was shown that in system I the levels of heme used are at least fivefold lower than the levels used in system II, providing an important advantage for system I. Neither system could assemble holocytochromes c with other metal porphyrins, suggesting that the attachment mechanism is specific for Fe protoporphyrin. Surprisingly, Zn and Sn protoporphyrins are potent inhibitors of the pathways, and exogenous heme competes with this inhibition. We propose that the targets are the heme binding proteins in the pathways (CcmC, CcmE, and CcmF for system I and CcsA for system II). PMID:17085564

  19. The iron/heme regulated genes of Haemophilus influenzae: comparative transcriptional profiling as a tool to define the species core modulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient. Although an understanding of the heme acquisition mechanisms of H. influenzae is emerging, significant gaps in our knowledge remain. Unresolved issues include the identities of all genes exhibiting altered transcription in response to iron and heme availability, the fraction of such genes functioning in iron/heme acquisition, and the heterogeneity of this gene set among clinical isolates. Previously we utilized H. influenzae strain Rd KW20 to demonstrate the utility of transcriptional profiling in defining the genes exhibiting altered transcription in response to environmental iron and heme levels. The current study expands upon those observations by determining the iron/heme modulons of two clinical isolates, the type b isolate 10810 and the nontypeable isolate R2866. These data are used to begin to define the core iron/heme modulon of the species. Results Microarray studies were performed to compare gene expression on transition from iron/heme-restricted to iron/heme-replete conditions for each isolate. Of 1820 ORFs on the array corresponding to R2866 genes, 363 were significantly differentially expressed: 233 were maximally transcribed under iron/heme-replete conditions and 130 under iron/heme-restricted conditions. Of the 1883 ORFs representing genes of strain 10810, 353 were significantly differentially transcribed: 150 were preferentially transcribed under iron/heme-replete conditions and 203 under iron/heme-restricted conditions. Comparison of the data sets indicated that 163 genes exhibited similar regulation in both isolates and that 74 of these exhibited similar patterns of regulation in Rd KW20. These comprise the putative core iron/heme modulon. Conclusion This study provides evidence for a conserved core of H. influenzae genes the transcription of which is altered by the availability of

  20. Role of Surf1 in heme recruitment for bacterial COX biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, Achim; Bundschuh, Freya A; Ludwig, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    Biogenesis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a highly complex process involving subunits encoded both in the nuclear and the organellar genome; in addition, a large number of assembly factors participate in this process. The soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans is an interesting alternative model for the study of COX biogenesis events because the number of chaperones involved is restricted to an essential set acting in the metal centre formation of oxidase, and the high degree of sequence homology suggests the same basic mechanisms during early COX assembly. Over the last years, studies on the P. denitrificans Surf1 protein shed some light on this important assembly factor as a heme a binding protein associated with Leigh syndrome in humans. Here, we summarise our current knowledge about Surf1 and its role in heme a incorporation events during bacterial COX biogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biogenesis/Assembly of Respiratory Enzyme Complexes. PMID:21945856

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westre, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  2. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  3. Genotype and allele frequencies of heme oxygenase-1 promoter region in a Greek cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleni P. Katana; Lemonia G. Skoura; Zacharias G Scouras; Michail A. Daniilidis

    2011-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme,which catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide,biliverdin and free iron.The induction of this enzyme is an important cytoprotective mechanism,which occurs as an adaptive and beneficial response to a wide variety of oxidant stimuli.HO-1 inducibility is mainly modulated by a (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region,and has been shown that short (S) repeats are associated with greater up-regulation of HO-1,compared with long (L) repeats.Methods In the present study,250 healthy Greek individuals have been screened in order to estimate the frequencies of (GT)n alleles in the HO-1 gene.Results Nineteen different alleles,ranging from 17 to 39 repeats,with (GT)23 and (GT)30 being the most common ones,were identified.Conclusion The possible role of this polymorphism in disease states is discussed.

  4. Mechanistic Investigation of a Non-Heme Iron Enzyme Catalyzed Epoxidation in (-)-4'-Methoxycyclopenin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Li, Jikun; Lee, Justin L; Cronican, Andrea A; Guo, Yisong

    2016-08-24

    Mechanisms have been proposed for α-KG-dependent non-heme iron enzyme catalyzed oxygen atom insertion into an olefinic moiety in various natural products, but they have not been examined in detail. Using a combination of methods including transient kinetics, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that AsqJ-catalyzed (-)-4'-methoxycyclopenin formation uses a high-spin Fe(IV)-oxo intermediate to carry out epoxidation. Furthermore, product analysis on (16)O/(18)O isotope incorporation from the reactions using the native substrate, 4'-methoxydehydrocyclopeptin, and a mechanistic probe, dehydrocyclopeptin, reveals evidence supporting oxo↔hydroxo tautomerism of the Fe(IV)-oxo species in the non-heme iron enzyme catalysis. PMID:27442345

  5. Modulation of the intermolecular interaction of myoglobin by removal of the heme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Hiroshi; Morita, Takeshi [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Sumi, Tomonari [Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Isogai, Yasuhiro [Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama 939-0398 (Japan); Kato, Minoru [Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nishikawa, Keiko, E-mail: k.nishikawa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The present study analysed small-angle X-ray scattering profiles of myoglobin to examine how removal of the heme changes the intermolecular interaction. Toward understanding intermolecular interactions governing self-association of proteins, the present study investigated a model protein, myoglobin, using a small-angle X-ray scattering technique. It has been known that removal of the heme makes myoglobin aggregation-prone. The interparticle interferences of the holomyoglobin and the apomyoglobin were compared in terms of the structure factor. Analysis of the structure factor using a model potential of Derjaguin–Laudau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) suggests that the intermolecular interaction potential of apomyoglobin is more attractive than that of holomyoglobin at short range from the protein molecule.

  6. Balanced globin protein expression and heme biosynthesis improve production of human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lifang; Martínez, José L.; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Due to limitations associated with whole blood for transfusions (antigen compatibility, transmission of infections, supply and storage), the use of cell-free hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier substitute has been in the center of research interest for decades. Human hemoglobin has previously been synthesized in yeast, however the challenge is to balance the expression of the two different globin subunits, as well as the supply of the prosthetic heme required for obtaining the active hemoglobin (...

  7. Molecularly Imprinted Electropolymer for a Hexameric Heme Protein with Direct Electron Transfer and Peroxide Electrocatalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Peng; Aysu Yarman; Jetzschmann, Katharina J.; Jae-Hun Jeoung; Daniel Schad; Holger Dobbek; Ulla Wollenberger; Scheller, Frieder W.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with direct electron transfer (DET) and bioelectrocatalytic activity of the target protein is presented. Thin films of MIPs for the recognition of a hexameric tyrosine-coordinated heme protein (HTHP) have been prepared by electropolymerization of scopoletin after oriented assembly of HTHP on a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) on gold electrodes. Cavities which should resemble the shape and size of HTHP wer...

  8. Heme-related gene expression signatures of meat intakes in lung cancer tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tram Kim; Rotunno, Melissa; Ryan, Brid M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Spitz, Margaret; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes more deaths worldwide than any other cancer. In addition to cigarette smoking, dietary factors may contribute to lung carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic studies, including the Environment and Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE), have reported increased consumption of red/processed meats to be associated with higher risk of lung cancer. Heme-iron toxicity may link meat intake with cancer. We investigated this hypothesis in meat-related lung carcinogenesis using whole genome ...

  9. IsdB-dependent Hemoglobin Binding Is Required for Acquisition of Heme by Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Pishchany, Gleb; Sheldon, Jessica R.; Dickson, Claire F.; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Read, Timothy D.; Gell, David A; Heinrichs, David E.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality. As with most bacteria, S. aureus requires iron to cause disease, and it can acquire iron from host hemoglobin. The current model for staphylococcal hemoglobin-iron acquisition proposes that S. aureus binds hemoglobin through the surface-exposed hemoglobin receptor IsdB. IsdB removes heme from bound hemoglobin and transfers this cofactor to other proteins of the Isd system, which import and de...

  10. Kinetics of proton and electron transfer in heme-copper oxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Lachmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Heme-copper oxidases are transmembrane proteins that are found in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. During aerobic respiration, these enzymes reduce dioxygen to water. The energy released in the reaction is used to transport protons across a biological membrane. Stored as proton electrochemical gradient, the energy can be used to regenerate ATP. It is known that aa3 oxidases, which are the most common oxidases, transport pumped protons and protons used for the catalytic reaction using...

  11. Heme Utilization by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Is Essential and Dependent on Sap Transporter Function▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Kevin M.; Raffel, Forrest K.; Ray, William C.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strategies of innate immune evasion and essential metabolic functions are critical for commensal-host homeostasis. Previously, we showed that Sap translocator function is necessary for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) behaviors that mediate diseases of the human airway. Antimicrobial peptide (AP) lethality is limited by binding mediated by the Sap complex. SapA shares homology with the dipeptide-binding protein (DppA) and the heme-binding lipoprotein (HbpA), both of which h...

  12. Neutralization of Japanese Encephalitis Virus by heme-induced broadly reactive human monoclonal antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Nimesh Gupta; Mélissanne de Wispelaere; Maxime Lecerf; Manjula Kalia; Tobias Scheel; Sudhanshu Vrati; Claudia Berek; Kaveri, Srinivas V.; Philippe Desprès; Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes; Dimitrov, Jordan D.

    2015-01-01

    International audience Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic domain-III of JEV E glycoprotein. These JEV-reactive antibodies exhibited neutralizing activity against recently domina...

  13. Steric control of CO binding in a totally synthetic heme protein model

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Daryle H.; Zimmer, L. Lawrence; Grzybowski, Joseph J.; Olszanski, Dennis J.; Jackels, Susan C.; Callahan, Robert C.; Christoph, Gary G.

    1981-01-01

    A family of totally synthetic models for the carbon monoxide adducts of heme proteins has been synthesized and applied to the elucidation of the role of steric effects in the relative detoxification of carbon monoxide. The complexes are designed such that a sheltered void of controllable dimensions encompasses the CO binding site. Systematic variations in the available space for the iron-bound CO produce a wide range of equilibrium binding constants (KCO). An x-ray structure determination of ...

  14. Kidney Injury Accelerates Cystogenesis via Pathways Modulated by Heme Oxygenase and Complement

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juling; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Cui, Xiangqin; Mrug, Sylvie; Yoder, Bradley K.; Johnson, Martin R.; Alexander J. Szalai; Mrug, Michal

    2012-01-01

    AKI accelerates cystogenesis. Because cystogenic mutations induce strong transcriptional responses similar to those seen after AKI, these responses may accelerate the progression of cystic renal disease. Here, we modulated the severity of the AKI-like response in Cys1cpk/cpk mice, a model that mimics autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. Specifically, we induced or inhibited activity of the renoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) and determined the effects on renal cystogenesis. We...

  15. Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Polymyxin B-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dezoti Fonseca, Cassiane; Watanabe, Mirian; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Polymyxin B (PMB) is a cationic polypeptide antibiotic with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMB-induced nephrotoxicity consists of direct toxicity to the renal tubules and the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with oxidative damage. This study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) against PMB-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 286 ± 12 g, were treated intraperitoneally once a day for 5 days with salin...

  16. Involvement of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Orexin-A-induced Angiogenesis in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Su-Ryun; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Bae, Moon-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) influences endothelial cell survival, proliferation, inflammatory response, and angiogenesis in response to various angiogenic stimuli. In this study, we investigate the involvement of HO-1 in the angiogenic activity of orexin-A. We showed that orexin-A stimulates expression and activity of HO-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, we showed that inhibition of HO-1 by tin (Sn) protoporphryin-IX (SnPP) reduced orexin...

  17. Bilirubin and heme as growth inhibitors of chicken embryos in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulou-Sellin, R; Foster, P; Oyedeji, C O

    1990-06-01

    The increased morbidity during pregnancies complicated by hematologic or liver disease has generally been attributed to the metabolic abnormalities of the illness itself. Because tetrapyrrole concentrations are elevated in these conditions, we introduced bilirubin or heme (prepared as 10 mM solutions) into the air sac of fertilized chicken eggs to study their effect on the growth of normal chicken embryos. In 9-d eggs, the injection of 0.06 mL heme resulted in significant embryo growth inhibition as indicated by overall wt (91 +/- 3% versus control), tibia length (84 +/- 2%), tibia wt (81 +/- 3%), femur length (88 +/- 1%), and femur wt (78 +/- 3%); doses greater than 0.10 mL resulted in substantial fetal losses. The injection of 0.06 mL bilirubin into the same-age eggs also resulted in less than normal tibia length (87 +/- 2% versus control), tibia wt (75 +/- 4%), femur length (91 +/- 2%), and femur wt (81 +/- 3%); larger doses resulted in more pronounced growth inhibition, but fetal losses were less common than with heme. Older chick embryos (12-d) appeared more resistant to the effects of bilirubin: 0.15 mL bilirubin inhibited only tibia and femur wt; larger doses were required to significantly suppress the other growth parameters. The same-age chicken embryos, however, remained exquisitely sensitive to heme; 0.05 mL resulted in less than normal whole embryo wt (88 +/- 2% versus control), tibia length (80 +/- 1%), tibia wt (76 +/- 1%), femur length (78 +/- 1%), and femur wt (77 +/- 1%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2356106

  18. Significance of Heme-Based Respiration in Meat Spoilage Caused by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum

    OpenAIRE

    Jääskeläinen, Elina; Johansson, Per; Kostiainen, Olli; Nieminen, Timo; Schmidt, Georg; Somervuo, Panu; Mohsina, Marzia; Vanninen, Paula; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Leuconostoc gasicomitatum is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) which causes spoilage in cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) meat products. In addition to the fermentative metabolism, L. gasicomitatum is able to respire when exogenous heme and oxygen are available. In this study, we investigated the respiration effects on growth rate, biomass, gene expression, and volatile organic compound (VOC) production in laboratory media and pork loin. The meat samples were evaluated...

  19. Explaining the atypical reaction profiles of heme enzymes with a novel mechanistic hypothesis and kinetic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelath Murali Manoj

    Full Text Available Many heme enzymes show remarkable versatility and atypical kinetics. The fungal extracellular enzyme chloroperoxidase (CPO characterizes a variety of one and two electron redox reactions in the presence of hydroperoxides. A structural counterpart, found in mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP, uses molecular oxygen plus NADPH for the oxidative metabolism (predominantly hydroxylation of substrate in conjunction with a redox partner enzyme, cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we employ the two above-mentioned heme-thiolate proteins to probe the reaction kinetics and mechanism of heme enzymes. Hitherto, a substrate inhibition model based upon non-productive binding of substrate (two-site model was used to account for the inhibition of reaction at higher substrate concentrations for the CYP reaction systems. Herein, the observation of substrate inhibition is shown for both peroxide and final substrate in CPO catalyzed peroxidations. Further, analogy is drawn in the "steady state kinetics" of CPO and CYP reaction systems. New experimental observations and analyses indicate that a scheme of competing reactions (involving primary product with enzyme or other reaction components/intermediates is relevant in such complex reaction mixtures. The presence of non-selective reactive intermediate(s affords alternate reaction routes at various substrate/product concentrations, thereby leading to a lowered detectable concentration of "the product of interest" in the reaction milieu. Occam's razor favors the new hypothesis. With the new hypothesis as foundation, a new biphasic treatment to analyze the kinetics is put forth. We also introduce a key concept of "substrate concentration at maximum observed rate". The new treatment affords a more acceptable fit for observable experimental kinetic data of heme redox enzymes.

  20. Acquisition of heme iron by Neisseria meningitidis does not involve meningococcal transferrin-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, N; Lee, B C

    1994-02-01

    Similarities in size between hemin-binding protein 1 (HmBP1) and transferrin-binding protein 1 (TBP1) of Neisseria meningitidis suggest that these proteins are functionally homologous. However, a meningococcal mutant lacking the transferrin-binding proteins retained the capacity to acquire iron from heme and hemoglobin. In immunoblots, hyperimmune polyclonal antiserum against TBP1 did not react with HmBP1. PMID:8300227

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 regulates the immune response to influenza virus infection and vaccination in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Nathan W.; Weaver, Eric A.; May, Shannon M.; Croatt, Anthony J.; Foreman, Oded; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.; Michael A. Barry; Nath, Karl A.; Badley, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms of individual variation in severity of influenza infection and response to vaccination are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression on vaccine response and outcome of influenza infection. HO-1-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice (kingdom, Animalia; phylum, Chordata; genus/species, Mus musculus) were infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 with or without prior vaccination with an adenoviral-based influenza vaccine. A genom...

  2. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor. PMID:21406370

  3. Heme Oxygenase-1 in Cardiovascular Diseases: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yung Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO catalyzes the rate-limiting step inthe oxidative degradation of cellular heme that liberates iron,carbon monoxide (CO, and biliverdin. Two distinct HO isoformshave been identified in mammalian system. Comparedto HO-2, which is constitutively expressed, HO-1 is a stressresponsiveprotein that is highly induced by many agents,including cytokines, endotoxin, heavy metals, nitric oxide andits own substrate heme. In addition to its well-defined role inheme catabolism and erythrocyte turnover, HO-1 also plays animportant function in various physiological and pathophysiologicalstates associated with cellular stress. Over the pastdecade, compelling evidence has revealed that the induction ofHO-1 represents an important defensive mechanism againstfurther oxidative injury in tissues and cells following variousinsults; this occurs by virtue of the anti-inflammatory andantioxidant capacities of CO, biliverdin, and the subsequent metabolite of biliverdin, bilirubin.In line with the findings from the basic research, numerous studies have supported theimportance of HO-1 in various clinical diseases, including coronary artery disease, cardiachypertrophy, diabetes mellitus, ischemic/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and cancer. Thisreview provides an overview on the regulation and function of HO-1, ranging from the molecularmechanisms involved to various clinical perspectives. Specifically, there is a focus onthe enzyme’s role in various cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Unique coupling of mono- and dioxygenase chemistries in a single active site promotes heme degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshitaka; Nambu, Shusuke; Goulding, Celia W; Takahashi, Satoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial pathogens must acquire host iron for survival and colonization. Because free iron is restricted in the host, numerous pathogens have evolved to overcome this limitation by using a family of monooxygenases that mediate the oxidative cleavage of heme into biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. However, the etiological agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, accomplishes this task without generating carbon monoxide, which potentially induces its latent state. Here we show that this unusual heme degradation reaction proceeds through sequential mono- and dioxygenation events within the single active center of MhuD, a mechanism unparalleled in enzyme catalysis. A key intermediate of the MhuD reaction is found to be meso-hydroxyheme, which reacts with O2 at an unusual position to completely suppress its monooxygenation but to allow ring cleavage through dioxygenation. This mechanistic change, possibly due to heavy steric deformation of hydroxyheme, rationally explains the unique heme catabolites of MhuD. Coexistence of mechanistically distinct functions is a previously unidentified strategy to expand the physiological outcome of enzymes, and may be applied to engineer unique biocatalysts. PMID:27006503

  5. EPR spectral changes of nitrosil hemes and their relation to the hemoglobin T-R transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPR spectra of nitrosil-hemes were used to study the quaternary structure of hemoglobin. Human adult hemoglobin has been titrated with nitric oxide at pH 7.0 and 250C. After the equilibration of NO among the α and β subunits the samples were frozen for EPR measurements. The spectra were fitted by linear combinations of three standard signals: the first arising from NO - β hemes and the other two arising from NO - α hemes of molecules in the high and low affinity conformations. The fractional amounts of α subunits exhibiting the high affinity spectrum fitted the two-state model with L = 7 x 106, and csup(α) sub(NO) and csup(β) sub(NO) approximately 0.01. Hemoglobin has been marked with nitric oxide at one chain using low-saturation amounts of nitric oxide. The EPR spectra were studied as a function of oxygen saturation. Linear combinations of the three standard signals above fitted these spectra. The fractions of molecules exhibiting the high affinity spectrum fitted the two-state model with L = 7 x 106, csub(O2) = 0.0033 and csup(α) sub(NO) = 0.08, instead of csup(α) sub(NO) = 0.01.Thus, the two state model is not adequate to describe the conformational transition of these hybrids. The results are evidence of the nonequivalence between oxygen and nitric oxide as ligands. (Author)

  6. Heme Synthesis by Plastid Ferrochelatase I Regulates Nuclear Gene Expression in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Perez-Ruiz, Juan M.; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chloroplast signals regulate hundreds of nuclear genes during development and in response to stress, but little is known of the signals or signal transduction mechanisms of plastid-to-nucleus (retrograde) signaling [1, 2]. In Arabidopsis thaliana, genetic studies using norflurazon (NF), an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis, have identified five GUN (genomes uncoupled) genes, implicating the tetrapyrrole pathway as a source of a retrograde signal. Loss of function of any of these GUN genes leads to increased expression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs) when chloroplast development has been blocked by NF [3, 4]. Here we present a new Arabidopsis gain-of-function mutant, gun6-1D, with a similar phenotype. The gun6-1Dmutant overexpresses the conserved plastid ferrochelatase 1 (FC1, heme synthase). Genetic and biochemical experiments demonstrate that increased flux through the heme branch of the plastid tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway increases PhANG expression. The second conserved plant ferrochelatase, FC2, colocalizes with FC1, but FC2 activity is unable to increase PhANG expression in undeveloped plastids. These data suggest a model in which heme, specifically produced by FC1, may be used as a retrograde signal to coordinate PhANG expression with chloroplast development. PMID:21565502

  7. Diamond Blackfan Anemia at the Crossroad between Ribosome Biogenesis and Heme Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Chiabrando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA is a rare, pure red-cell aplasia that presents during infancy. Approximately 40% of cases are associated with other congenital defects, particularly malformations of the upper limb or craniofacial region. Mutations in the gene coding for the ribosomal protein RPS19 have been identified in 25% of patients with DBA, with resulting impairment of 18S rRNA processing and 40S ribosomal subunit formation. Moreover, mutations in other ribosomal protein coding genes account for about 25% of other DBA cases. Recently, the analysis of mice from which the gene coding for the heme exporter Feline Leukemia Virus subgroup C Receptor (FLVCR1 is deleted suggested that this gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of DBA. FLVCR1-null mice show a phenotype resembling that of DBA patients, including erythroid failure and malformations. Interestingly, some DBA patients have disease linkage to chromosome 1q31, where FLVCR1 is mapped. Moreover, it has been reported that cells from DBA patients express alternatively spliced isoforms of FLVCR1 which encode non-functional proteins. Herein, we review the known roles of RPS19 and FLVCR1 in ribosome function and heme metabolism respectively, and discuss how the deficiency of a ribosomal protein or of a heme exporter may result in the same phenotype.

  8. Wild-type macrophages reverse disease in heme oxygenase 1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Ghosh, Manik C; Ollivierre, Wade; Weitzel, R Patrick; Eckhaus, Michael A; Tisdale, John F; Yachie, Akihiro; Rouault, Tracey A

    2014-08-28

    Loss-of-function mutation in the heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) gene causes a rare and lethal disease in children, characterized by severe anemia and intravascular hemolysis, with damage to endothelia and kidneys. Previously, we found that macrophages engaged in recycling of red cells were depleted from the tissues of Hmox1(-/-) mice, which resulted in intravascular hemolysis and severe damage to the endothelial system, kidneys, and other organs. Here, we report that subablative bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has a curative effect for disease in Hmox1(-/-) animals as a result of restoration of heme recycling by repopulation of the tissues with wild-type macrophages. Although engraftment was transient, BMT reversed anemia, normalized blood chemistries and iron metabolism parameters, and prevented renal damage. The largest proportion of donor-derived cells was observed in the livers of transplanted animals. These cells, identified as Kupffer cells with high levels of Hmox1 expression, persisted months after transient engraftment of the donor bone marrow and were responsible for the full restoration of heme-recycling ability in Hmox1(-/-) mice and reversing Hmox1-deficient phenotype. Our findings suggest that BMT or the development of specific cell therapies to repopulate patients' tissues with wild-type or reengineered macrophages represent promising approaches for HMOX1 deficiency treatment in humans. PMID:24963040

  9. Alterations in the heme biosynthetic pathway as an index of exposure to toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, G.S.; Zelt, D.T.; Cole, S.P.

    1982-07-01

    Under normal circumstances the heme biosynthetic pathway is carefully controlled and porphyrins are formed in only trace amounts. When control mechanisms are disturbed by xenobiotics, porphyrins may be formed and serve as a signal of the interaction between a xenobiotic and the heme biosynthetic pathway. For example, porphyrinuria was an early manifestation of a hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria outbreak in Turkey. In humans exposed to polybrominated biphenyls and to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin the urinary porphyrin pattern was significantly different from normal in a large number of exposed individuals. The question is raised whether measurement of urinary porphyrin profiles by improved methods will enable an estimate to be made of the extent of exposure to haloaromatic hydrocarbons in the human population. A wide variety of xenobiotics interact with the prosthetic heme of cytochrome P-450 forming novel N-alkylporphyrins. Identification of these N-alkylporphyrins in body fluids might provide a means of assessing exposure to a variety of xenobiotics in human populations.

  10. An association study between Heme oxygenase-1 genetic variants and Parkinson´s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eAyuso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe blood-brain barrier (BBB supplies brain tissues with nutrients, filters harmful compounds from the brain back to the bloodstream, and plays a key role in iron homeostasis in the human brain. Disruptions of the BBB are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Oxidative stress, iron deposition and mitochondrial impaired function are considered as risk factors for degeneration of the central nervous system. Heme oxygenase (HMOX degrades heme ring to biliverdin, free ferrous iron and carbon monoxide being the rate-limiting activity in heme catabolism. The isoform HMOX1 is highly inducible in response to reactive oxygen species which induce an increase in BBB permeability and impair its pathophysiology. Consequently, an over- expression of this enzyme may contribute to the marked iron deposition found in PD. We analyzed common HMOX1 gene variants in 691 patients suffering from PD and 766 healthy control individuals. Copy number variations in the HMOX1 gene exist, but these do not seem to be associated with PD risk. In contrast two polymorphisms that modify the transcriptional activity of the gene, namely a VNTR (GTn and the SNP rs2071746, are strongly associated with PD risk, particularly with the classic PD phenotype and with early onset of the disease.This study indicates that HMOX1 gene variants are associated to the risk of developing some forms of PD, thus adding new information that supports association of HMOX gene variations with PD risk.

  11. Dengue virus type 2 (DENV2)-induced oxidative responses in monocytes from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and G6PD normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Ahmed Al-Alimi; Syed A. Ali; Faisal Muti Al-Hassan; Fauziah Mohd Idris; Sin-Yeang Teow; Narazah Mohd Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocyte...

  12. Dengue Virus Type 2 (DENV2)-Induced Oxidative Responses in Monocytes from Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient and G6PD Normal Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Al-alimi, Abdullah Ahmed; Syed A. Ali; AL-HASSAN, FAISAL MUTI; Idris, Fauziah Mohd; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocytes...

  13. Red meat and colon cancer: a possible role for heme

    OpenAIRE

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however, poorly understood (see General Introduction, chapter 1). The general hypothesis purports that animal saturated fat increases soluble secondary bile acids and fatty acids in the colonic lumen. These...

  14. Degradation of endogenous hepatic heme by pathways not yielding carbon monoxide. Studies in normal rat liver and in primary hepatocyte culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Bissell, D. M.; Guzelian, P S

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of endogenous hepatic heme to bilirubin and CO is established. However, it is unknown whether this process is quantitative or whether heme may be degraded to other products as well. To study this question, we administered the heme precursor, delta-amino-[5-14C]levulinic acid to rats in vivo. In liver, [14C]heme was predominately associated with microsomal cytochromes, and its degradation was examined over a period of 12--14 h; concurrently, excretion of labeled carbon monoxide ...

  15. [Metabolism of heme and hemeproteins and some indices of the antioxidant system in rat erythrocytes and tissues under anemia caused by phenylhydrazine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Strel'chenko, K V; Barannik, T V; Nikitchenko, I V; Inshina, N M; Pavychenko, O V; Fylymonenko, V P

    2003-01-01

    The decrease of activity of several antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes in the first hours after injection of phenylhydrazine to rats (7 mg per 100 g body weight) was found to be accompanied by accumulation of heme-containing compounds in rat serum and appearance of free heme in liver and decrease of cytochrome P450 content. Tissue-specific features of dynamics of activity of enzymes studied and reduced glutathione content were revealed, that might be caused by differences in total and free heme content in these organs. The role of key enzymes of heme biosynthesis and degradation in adaptation of metabolism under phenylhydrazine action is discussed. PMID:12945117

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of hemes and hemeproteins in solution: multiple scattering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Paola; Lapi, Andrea; Migliorati, Valentina; Arcovito, Alessandro; Benfatto, Maurizio; Roscioni, Otello Maria; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Della-Longa, Stefano

    2008-11-01

    A full quantitative analysis of Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectra has been performed for hemes in two porphynato complexes, that is, iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (Fe(III)TPPCl) and iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin bis(imidazole) (Fe(III)TPP(Imid)2), in two protein complexes whose X-ray structure is known at atomic resolution (1.0 A), that is, ferrous deoxy-myoglobin (Fe(II)Mb) and ferric aquo-myoglobin (Fe(III)MbH2O), and in ferric cyano-myoglobin (Fe(III)MbCN), whose X-ray structure is known at lower resolution (1.4 A). The analysis has been performed via the multiple scattering approach, starting from a muffin tin approximation of the molecular potential. The Fe-heme structure has been obtained by analyzing independently the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) region and the X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) region. The EXAFS structural results are in full agreement with the crystallographic values of the models, with an accuracy of +/- 0.02 A for Fe-ligand distances, and +/-6 degrees for angular parameters. All the XANES features above the theoretical zero energy (in the lower rising edge) are well accounted for by single-channel calculations, for both Fe(II) and Fe(III) hemes, and the Fe-N p distance is determined with the same accuracy as EXAFS. XANES evaluations of Fe-5th and Fe-6th ligand distances are determined with 0.04-0.07 A accuracy; a small discrepancy with EXAFS (0.01 to 0.05 A beyond the statistical error), is found for protein compounds. Concerns from statistical correlation among parameters and multiple minima in the parameter space are discussed. As expected, the XANES accuracy is slightly lower than what was found for polarized XANES on Fe(III)MbCN single crystal (0.03-0.04 A), and states the actual state-of-the-art of XANES analysis when used to extract heme-normal parameters in a solution spectrum dominated by heme-plane scattering. PMID:18837548

  17. Isocyanide or nitrosyl complexation to hemes with varying tethered axial base ligand donors: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita K; Kim, Hyun; Rogler, Patrick J; A Siegler, Maxime; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    A series of ferrous-heme 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide (DIMPI) and ferrous-heme mononitrosyl complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The heme portion of the complexes studied is varied with respect to the nature of the axial ligand, including complexes, where it is covalently tethered to the porphyrinate periphery. Reduced heme complexes, [(F8)Fe(II)], [(P(Py))Fe(II)], [(P(Im))Fe(II)], and [(P(ImH))Fe(II)], where F8 = tetrakis(2,6-difluorophenyl)-porphyrinate and P(Py), P(Im), and P(ImH) are partially fluorinated tetraaryl porphyrinates with covalently appended axial base pyridyl/imidazolyl or histamine moieties, were employed; P(ImH) is a new construct. Room temperature addition of DIMPI to these iron(II) complexes affords the bis-isocyanide species [(F8)Fe(II)-(DIMPI)2] in the case of [(F8)Fe(II)], while for the other hemes, mono-DIMPI compounds are obtained, [(P(Py))Fe(II)-(DIMPI)] [(2)-DIMPI], [(P(Im))Fe(II)-(DIMPI)] [(3)-DIMPI], and [(P(ImH))Fe(II)-(DIMPI)] [(4)-DIMPI]. The structures of complexes (3)-DIMPI and (4)-DIMPI have been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography, where interesting H…F(porphryinate aryl group) interactions are observed. (19)F-NMR spectra determined for these complexes suggest that H…F(porphyrinate aryl groups) attractions also occur in solution, the H atom coming either from the DIMPI methyl groups or from a porphyinate axial base imidazole or porphyrinate pyrrole. Similarly, we have used nitrogen monoxide to generate ferrous-nitrosyl complexes, a five-coordinate species for F8, [(F8)Fe(II)-(NO)], or low-spin six-coordinate compounds [(P(Py))Fe(II)-(NO)], [(P(Im))Fe(II)-(NO)], and [(P(ImH))Fe(II)-(NO)]. The DIMPI and mononitrosyl complexes have also been characterized using UV-Vis, IR, (1)H-NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. PMID:27350154

  18. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 in renovascular hypertension is associated with inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, F T; Olszanecki, R; Prieto-Carrasquero, M C; Goodman, A I; Navar, L G; Abraham, N G

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the impact of induction or inhibition of the heme-HO system on renal apoptosis in clipped and non-clipped kidneys from 2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had a 0.25 mm silver clip placed around the left renal artery. Four groups of rats were studied: sham operated animals, 2K1C control rats, 2K1C rats received weekly injections of CoPP (5 mg/100 g body wt, administered subcutaneously), and 2K1C rats pretreated with SnMP (5 mg/ 100g body wt, administered intraperitoneally three times a week). The animals were sacrificed three weeks after surgery. We measured systolic blood pressure, plasma renin activity, non-clipped and clipped kidney HO-1 and HO-2 protein expression, HO activity, heme content, nitrotyrosine levels, and activation of selected pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Systolic blood pressure and plasma renin activity were significantly higher in 2K1C rats compared to sham rats. Compared to kidneys from sham animals, clipped kidneys from 2K1C rats showed a significant increase in HO-1 expression with increases in HO activity (26%), heme content (47%) and nitrotyrosine levels (49%), accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. In contrast, non-clipped kidneys from 2K1C rats showed no differences in HO-1 expression, HO activity, heme content, nitrotyrosine levels and caspase activity compared to sham rats. In clipped kidneys from 2K1C rats, inhibition of HO activity by SnMP augmented caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, while induction of HO-1 with CoPP strongly inhibited the activity of both caspases and increased the induction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins. These findings demonstrate that the clipped kidneys responded to decreased renal perfusion pressure and increased oxidative stress by activation of the heme-HO system, which exerts antiapoptotic action via mechanisms involving decreased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, and

  19. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

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    Linda S Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC.

  20. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC) is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO), which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light-dark box test (LDB) in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182). The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol), a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats. PMID:27074170

  1. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC. In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO, which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO. Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM and light-dark box test (LDB in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182. The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol, a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  2. Systemic effects of orally-administered zinc and tin (IV) metalloporphyrins on heme oxygenase expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Ichiro; Wong, Ronald J; Abate, Aida; Vreman, Hendrik J; Contag, Christopher H; Stevenson, David K

    2006-05-01

    Some metalloporphyrins (Mps) inhibit heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of bilirubin, and are potential compounds for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. We studied the safety and efficacy of Mps following oral administration. Adult HO-1-luc reporter mice were administered 30 micromol/kg body weight of tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), zinc bis glycol deuteroporphyrin (ZnBG), or zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), or vehicle by oral gavage. Bilirubin production was measured as total body carbon monoxide (CO) excretion (VeCO). HO activity was quantitated via CO measurements by gas chromatography. HO-1 protein was determined by Western blot. HO-1 transcription levels were assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. A significant 28% decrease in bilirubin production occurred within 3 h of SnMP treatment and persisted beyond 48 h. Bilirubin production decreased 15% and 9% by 3 h after administration of ZnBG and ZnPP, respectively, but returned to baseline within 48 h. Maximal inhibition of liver, spleen, and intestine HO activity was seen at 3 h with inhibitory effects decreasing in the order: SnMP > or = ZnBG > or = ZnPP. After SnMP treatment, HO-1 transcription increased 5.7-fold after 24 h. Furthermore, liver and spleen HO-1 protein significantly increased 3.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively, after 24 h. HO-1 transcription and protein were not affected in ZnBG- or ZnPP-treated mice. We conclude that the three Mps are absorbed at different rates in the mouse and affect bilirubin production and HO-1 expression in a tissue- and time-dependent manner. PMID:16627879

  3. Regulation of heme oxygenase activity in rat liver during oxidative stress induced by cobalt chloride and mercury chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Nikitchenko, I V; Sokol, O A; Strel'chenko, E V

    2001-01-01

    Activities of heme oxygenase and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase and cytochrome P450 content in liver as well as absorption of the Soret band and optical density at 280 nm in serum were determined 2 and 24 h after administration of HgCl(2) and CoCl(2) and after co-administration of the metal salts with alpha-tocopherol. Administration of HgCl(2) and CoCl(2) increased the contents of hemolysis products in the serum, induced heme oxygenase, and decreased cytochrome P450 content in the liver. Injection of HgCl(2) increased the activity of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase holoenzyme and enzyme saturation with the heme, but administration of CoCl(2) decreased these parameters. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol completely blocked the changes induced by HgCl(2) after 24 h. Induction of heme oxygenase induced by CoCl(2) was not blocked by alpha-tocopherol, but this antioxidant normalized the increase in the level of hemolysis products in the serum and decrease in tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase holoenzyme activity and cytochrome P450 content. Mechanisms of regulation of heme oxygenase by mercury and cobalt ions are discussed. PMID:11240397

  4. Physiological responses in roots of the grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri subjected to Fe deficiency and Fe-heme nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Di Foggia, Michele; Rodrigues Moreira, Erica; Donnini, Silvia; Bombai, Giuseppe; Filippini, Gianfranco; Pisi, Annamaria; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2015-11-01

    Iron (Fe)-heme containing fertilizers can effectively prevent Fe deficiency. This paper aims to investigate root physiological responses after a short period of Fe-heme nutrition and Fe deficiency under two pH conditions (with or without HEPES) in the Fe chlorosis-tolerant grapevine rootstock 140 Ruggeri. Organic acids in root exudates, Fe reduction capacity, both roots and root exudates contributions, together with other physiological parameters associated to plant Fe status were evaluated in plants grown in hydroponics. Analyses of root tips by SEM, and Raman and IR spectra of the precipitates of Fe-heme fertilizers were performed. The physiological responses adopted by the tolerant 140 Ruggeri to the application of Fe-heme indicated an increased Fe reduction capacity of the roots. This is the first report showing oxalic, tartaric, malic and ascorbic as major organic acids in Vitis spp. root exudates. Plants reacted to Fe deficiency condition exuding a higher amount of ascorbic acid in the rhizosphere. The presence of HEPES in the medium favoured the malic acid exudation. The lowest concentration of oxalic acid was found in exudates of plants subjected to Fe-heme and could be associated to a higher accumulation in their root tips visualized by SEM analysis. PMID:26276277

  5. Genetic analyses of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 in different forms of pancreatitis.

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    Sebastian Weis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 is the rate limiting enzyme in heme degradation and a key regulator of inflammatory processes. In animal models the course of pancreatitis was ameliorated by up-regulation of HMOX1 expression. Additionally, carbon monoxide released during heme breakdown inhibited proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells and might thereby prevent the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP. Transcription of HMOX1 in humans is influenced by a GT-repeat located in the promoter. As such, HMOX1 variants might be of importance in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. METHODS: The GT-repeat and SNP rs2071746 were investigated with fluorescence labelled primers and by melting curve analysis in 285 patients with acute pancreatitis, 208 patients with alcoholic CP, 207 patients with idiopathic/hereditary CP, 147 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and in 289 controls, respectively. GT-repeat analysis was extended to a total of 446 alcoholic CP patients. In addition, we performed DNA sequencing in 145 patients with alcoholic CP, 138 patients with idiopathic/hereditary CP, 147 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and 151 controls. Exon 3 screening was extended to additional patients and controls. RESULTS: S- and L-alleles of the GT-repeat, genotypes and alleles of SNP rs2071746 and non-synonymous variants detected by sequencing were found with similar frequencies in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although functional data implicate a potential influence of HMOX1 variants on the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, we did not find any association. As rare non-synonymous HMOX1 variants were found in patients and controls, it is rather unlikely that they will have functional consequences essential for pancreatitis development.

  6. Protein effects in non-heme iron enzyme catalysis: insights from multiscale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos Vedin, Nathalie; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Many non-heme iron enzymes have similar sets of ligands but still catalyze widely different reactions. A key question is, therefore, the role of the protein in controlling reactivity and selectivity. Examples from multiscale simulations, primarily QM/MM, of both mono- and binuclear non-heme iron enzymes are used to analyze the stability of these models and what they reveal about the protein effects. Consistent results from QM/MM modeling are the importance of the hydrogen bond network to control reactivity and electrostatic stabilization of electron transfer from second-sphere residues. The long-range electrostatic effects on reaction barriers are small for many systems. In the systems where large electrostatic effects have been reported, these lead to higher barriers. There is thus no evidence of any significant long-range electrostatic effects contributing to the catalytic efficiency of non-heme iron enzymes. However, the correct evaluation of electrostatic contributions is challenging, and the correlation between calculated residue contributions and the effects of mutation experiments is not very strong. The largest benefits of QM/MM models are thus the improved active-site geometries, rather than the calculation of accurate energies. Reported differences in mechanistic predictions between QM and QM/MM models can be explained by differences in hydrogen bonding patterns in and around the active site. Correctly constructed cluster models can give results with similar accuracy as those from multiscale models, but the latter reduces the risk of drawing the wrong mechanistic conclusions based on incorrect geometries and are preferable for all types of modeling, even when using very large QM parts. PMID:27364958

  7. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role of endogenous heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats.Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amount of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-oximeter.Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% of the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence of IN were significantly increased by 50% (P<0.05) and by 83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate(heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P<0.05) after administration of ZnDPBG, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level of cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6%(P<0.01), 40.0%(P<0.01), 49.3%(P<0.05) and 38.9%(P<0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats.Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process of IN induced by LPS, and inhibition of HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  8. Protective effects of heme-oxygenase expression in cyclosporine A--induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi; Bianchi, Rossella; Goodman, Alvin I; Lianos, Elias A

    2005-04-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the immunosuppressant of first choice in allotransplantation. Its use is associated with side effects of nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity, which are among the most prominent. This study was undertaken to explore whether expression and activity of heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is altered in a rat model of CsA-induced injury. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and treated for 21 days. Group I (control) was injected with olive oil (vehicle), group II with CsA (15 mg/kg/day), group III with CsA and the HO inhibitor stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP) (30 micromol/kg/day) and group IV with one dose of the HO inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) 5 mg/100 or heme (10 mg/kg body weight), three days after onset of CsA treatment. Renal tissue was processed for light microscopy, and for HO-1 enzyme activity, assay and for Western blot analysis. In CsA-treated rats there was histological evidence of tubulointerstitial scarring. HO-1 was undetectable in CsA-treated rats compared to control while there was no change in HO-2. In animals treated with a combination of CsA and SnMP, HO-1 activity was further reduced. In animals treated with a combination of CsA and CoPP, HO-1 protein levels were partially restored. These observations indicate that downregulation of HO-1 expression by CsA could be one mechanism underlying CsA-induced toxicity. The CsA-induced decrease in HO-1 expression is partial and restorable, and attempts to preserve HO levels may attenuate CsA toxicity. PMID:16181108

  9. Gut Microbiota Conversion of Dietary Ellagic Acid into Bioactive Phytoceutical Urolithin A Inhibits Heme Peroxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Piu; Yeoh, Beng San; Singh, Rajbir; Chandrasekar, Bhargavi; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Jala, Venkatakrishna R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies signify that diets rich in phytochemicals offer many beneficial functions specifically during pathologic conditions, yet their effects are often not uniform due to inter-individual variation. The host indigenous gut microbiota and their modifications of dietary phytochemicals have emerged as factors that greatly influence the efficacy of phytoceutical-based intervention. Here, we investigated the biological activities of one such active microbial metabolite, Urolithin A (UA or 3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one), which is derived from the ellagic acid (EA). Our study demonstrates that UA potently inhibits heme peroxidases i.e. myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) when compared to the parent compound EA. In addition, chrome azurol S (CAS) assay suggests that EA, but not UA, is capable of binding to Fe3+, due to its catechol-like structure, although its modest heme peroxidase inhibitory activity is abrogated upon Fe3+-binding. Interestingly, UA-mediated MPO and LPO inhibition can be prevented by innate immune protein human NGAL or its murine ortholog lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), implying the complex nature of host innate immunity-microbiota interactions. Spectral analysis indicates that UA inhibits heme peroxidase-catalyzed reaction by reverting the peroxidase back to its inactive native state. In support of these in vitro results, UA significantly reduced phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced superoxide generation in neutrophils, however, EA failed to block the superoxide generation. Treatment with UA significantly reduced PMA-induced mouse ear edema and MPO activity compared to EA treated mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that microbiota-mediated conversion of EA to UA is advantageous to both host and microbiota i.e. UA-mediated inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes reduce tissue inflammation, mitigate non-specific killing of gut bacteria, and abrogate iron-binding property of EA, thus providing a competitive edge to the microbiota in

  10. In vivo bioluminescent monitoring of chemical toxicity using heme oxygenase-luciferase transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase (luc) gene under the control of the heme oxygenase-1 promoter (Ho1) were used to measure the induction of heme oxygenase in response to known toxicants. Transgenic Ho1-luc expression was visualized in vivo using a low-light imaging system (IVIS). Ho1-luc activation was compared to Ho1-luc expression, HO1 protein levels, standard markers of toxicity, and histology. Male and female Ho1-luc transgenic mice were exposed to acute doses of cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 3.7 mg/kg), doxorubicin (15 mg/kg), and thioacetamide (300 mg/kg). These agents induced the expression of Ho1-luc in the liver and other tissues to varying degrees. The greatest increase in Ho1-luc activity was observed in the liver in response to CdCl2; intermediate responses were observed for doxorubicin and thioacetamide. Induction of the Ho1-luc transgene by these agents was similar to endogenous protein levels of heme oxygenase as assessed by Western blotting, and generally correlated with plasma levels of circulating enzymes reflecting hepatic or general tissue damage. Histopathology confirmed the toxic effects of CdCl2 on liver and kidney; doxorubicin on kidney, liver, and intestine; and thioacetamide on the liver. Tissue damage was much more pronounced than the luciferase expression following thioacetamide treatment when compared with tissue damage and bioluminescence of the other toxicants. Nevertheless, the induction of Ho1-luc expression following exposure to these agents suggests that the Ho1-luc transgenic mouse may prove useful as a model for in vivo screening of compounds that induce luciferase expression as a marker of toxicity

  11. Proximal tubule-targeted heme oxygenase-1 in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Subhashini; Traylor, Amie; Joseph, Reny; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Agarwal, Anupam

    2016-03-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. The beneficial effects of HO-1 expression are not merely due to degradation of the pro-oxidant heme but are also credited to the by-products that have potent, protective effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and prosurvival properties. This is well reflected in the preclinical animal models of injury in both renal and nonrenal settings. However, excessive accumulation of the by-products can be deleterious and lead to mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, use of the HO system in alleviating injury merits a targeted approach. Based on the higher susceptibility of the proximal tubule segment of the nephron to injury, we generated transgenic mice using cre-lox technology to enable manipulation of HO-1 (deletion or overexpression) in a cell-specific manner. We demonstrate the validity and feasibility of these mice by breeding them with proximal tubule-specific Cre transgenic mice. Similar to previous reports using chemical modulators and global transgenic mice, we demonstrate that whereas deletion of HO-1, specifically in the proximal tubules, aggravates structural and functional damage during cisplatin nephrotoxicity, selective overexpression of HO-1 in proximal tubules is protective. At the cellular level, cleaved caspase-3 expression, a marker of apoptosis, and p38 signaling were modulated by HO-1. Use of these transgenic mice will aid in the evaluation of the effects of cell-specific HO-1 expression in response to injury and assist in the generation of targeted approaches that will enhance recovery with reduced, unwarranted adverse effects. PMID:26672618

  12. LC-MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2: Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI-MS and UV-Vis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    The protein species of apomyoglobin (apoMb) and heme are freed and segregated from the aqueous protein solution of metmyoglobin by liquid chromatography, and are distinguished by UV-Vis absorption or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This is an ingenious and effective approach to characterize apomyoglobin and heme, while students…

  13. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Pourkhalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.

  14. Effect of disordered hemes and dimerization in isolated greek>a-subunits of hemoglobin detected by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in the picosecond range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Fronticelli, Clara; Gratton, Enrico; Lubkowski, Jacek; Bucci, Enrico

    1994-08-01

    Our recent linear dichroism study of transition moment directions for protoporphyrin derivatives [1,2] demonstrate that heme cannot be considered a planar oscillator when it acts as an acceptor of radiationless excitation energy transfer from tryptophan. The linear nature of the heme absorption transition moment implies a strong dependence of the transfer rate factors on the relative angular position of the heme and tryptophan, i.e. on the k2 orientation parameter of the Forster equation. Using the atomic coordinates of human hemoglobin and taking into account the direction of the transition moment of the near UV (300-380 nm) heme absorption band we have estimated the rate of energy transfer from tryptophan to heme in the isolated a chains, which are a single tryptophan protein. It appears that the rate of energy transfer is very sensitive to the orientation of the transition moment of the heme and similarly to myoglobin [3] natural heme disorder significantly reduces the transfer efficiency in isolated a subunits. On this basis we were able to predict very accurately the two lifetimes detectable in the systems, of 32 and 1050 ps respectively, where the amplitude of the longer lifetime is very consistent with the amount of disordered hemes found by La Mar [4,5] for the a subunits of hemoglobin.

  15. Peroxo-Type Intermediates in Class I Ribonucleotide Reductase and Related Binuclear Non-Heme Iron Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Bell, Caleb B.; Clay, MIchael D.;

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study of chemically possible peroxo-type intermediates occurring in the non-heme di-iron enzyme class la ribonucleotide reductase, using spectroscopically calibrated computational chemistry. Density functional computations of equilibrium structures, Fe-O and O...... carboxylate conformations occurring during the O-2 reaction of this class of non-heme iron enzymes. Our procedure identifies and characterizes various possible candidates for peroxo intermediates experimentally observed along the ribonucleotide reductase dioxygen activation reaction. The study explores how...... a proton to a terminal carboxylate. ligand in the site which increases the electron affinity and triggers electron transfer to form X. Both pathways provide a mechanism for the activation of peroxy intermediates in binuclear non-heme iron enzymes for reactivity. The studies further show that water...

  16. DEER Sensitivity between Iron Centers and Nitroxides in Heme-Containing Proteins Improves Dramatically Using Broadband, High-Field EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motion, Claire L; Lovett, Janet E; Bell, Stacey; Cassidy, Scott L; Cruickshank, Paul A S; Bolton, David R; Hunter, Robert I; El Mkami, Hassane; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Smith, Graham M

    2016-04-21

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of making sensitive nanometer distance measurements between Fe(III) heme centers and nitroxide spin labels in proteins using the double electron-electron resonance (DEER) pulsed EPR technique at 94 GHz. Techniques to measure accurately long distances in many classes of heme proteins using DEER are currently strongly limited by sensitivity. In this paper we demonstrate sensitivity gains of more than 30 times compared with previous lower frequency (X-band) DEER measurements on both human neuroglobin and sperm whale myoglobin. This is achieved by taking advantage of recent instrumental advances, employing wideband excitation techniques based on composite pulses and exploiting more favorable relaxation properties of low-spin Fe(III) in high magnetic fields. This gain in sensitivity potentially allows the DEER technique to be routinely used as a sensitive probe of structure and conformation in the large number of heme and many other metalloproteins. PMID:27035368

  17. The Heme-Based Oxygen-Sensor Phosphodiesterase Ec DOS (DosP: Structure-Function Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Shimizu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Direct Oxygen Sensor (Ec DOS, also known as Ec DosP is a heme-based O2-sensing phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli that catalyzes the conversion of cyclic-di-GMP to linear di-GMP. Cyclic-di-GMP is an important second messenger in bacteria, highlighting the importance of understanding structure-function relationships of Ec DOS. Ec DOS is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound O2-sensing PAS domain and a C-terminal phosphodiesterase catalytic domain. Notably, its activity is markedly enhanced by O2 binding to the heme Fe(II complex in the PAS sensor domain. X-ray crystal structures and spectroscopic and catalytic characterization of the wild-type and mutant proteins have provided important structural and functional clues to understanding the molecular mechanism of intramolecular catalytic regulation by O2 binding. This review summarizes the intriguing findings that have obtained for Ec DOS.

  18. Heme-copper terminal oxidase using both cytochrome c and ubiquinol as electron donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Ye; De Meyer, Björn; Sokolova, Lucie; Zwicker, Klaus; Karas, Michael; Brutschy, Bernd; Peng, Guohong; Michel, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    The cytochrome c oxidase Cox2 has been purified from native membranes of the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Aquifex aeolicus. It is a cytochrome ba3 oxidase belonging to the family B of the heme-copper containing terminal oxidases. It consists of three subunits, subunit I (CoxA2, 63.9 kDa), subunit II (CoxB2, 16.8 kDa), and an additional subunit IIa of 5.2 kDa. Surprisingly it is able to oxidize both reduced cytochrome c and ubiquinol in a cyanide sensitive manner. Cox2 is part of a respirator...

  19. Role of Heme Oxygenase, Leptin, Coenzyme Q10 and Trace Elements in Pre-eclamptic Women

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-ElMatty, Dina M.; Badawy, Ehsan A.; Hussein, Jihan S.; Elela, Somaya Abo; Megahed, Hoda A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate heme oxygenase (COHb), leptin and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in pre-eclamptic women. Also Zinc, copper, Iron, total iron binding capacity, Ferritin and uric acid were assessed. 120 female subjects were included in this study. They were divided into, 60 female with normal pregnancy attending the outpatient clinic, 60 pre-eclamptic patients were recruited from obstetrics and gynaecology department El-kasr El-Aini hospital. The results showed that in pre-eclampa...

  20. Mutational Analysis of Hemoglobin Binding and Heme Utilization by a Bacterial Hemoglobin Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, W. G.; Choudhary, N. R.; Council, S.E.; Collins, E J; Leduc, I.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most living organisms. To acquire iron from their environment, Gram-negative bacteria use TonB-dependent transporters that bind host proteins at the bacterial surface and transport iron or heme to the periplasm via the Ton machinery. TonB-dependent transporters are barrel-shaped outer membrane proteins with 22 transmembrane domains, 11 surface-exposed loops, and a plug domain that occludes the pore. To identify key residues of TonB-dependent transporters invo...

  1. Heme regulates the expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of chimaeric genes containing 5'-flanking soybean leghemoglobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E O; Marcker, K A; Villadsen, IS

    1986-01-01

    The TM1 yeast mutant was transformed with a 2 micron-derived plasmid (YEp24) which carries a chimaeric gene containing the Escherichia coli chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene fused to the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions of the soybean leghemoglobin (Lb) c3 gene. Expression of the chimaeric...... CAT gene is controlled specifically by heme at a post-transcriptional level, most likely by regulating the efficiencies of translation. Expression of another chimaeric gene consisting of the neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) gene fused to only the 5'-flanking region of the Lbc3 gene is regulated by...

  2. An Experimental Study on the Expression of Heme Oxygenase-2 mRNA in Hirschsprung's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱珉; 魏明发; 刘芳

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the relationship between the expression of heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) mRNA and the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD), total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted in the aganglionic and ganglionic segments of colon respectively from 15 cases of HD. The single-stranded cDNA of HO-2 was synthesized and further amplified by reverse transcription-poly merase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of HO-2 mRNA was normal in ganglionic seg ments, but absent in aganglionic segments. It is concluded that the absence of HO-2 mRNA expres sion may be an important mechanism responsible for HD.

  3. Adipocyte Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction Attenuates Metabolic Syndrome In Both Male And Female Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Angela; Li, Ming; Vanella, Luca; Kim, Dong Hyun; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi; Sodhi, Komal; Canestraro, Martina; Martasek, Pavel; Peterson, Stephen J; Kappas, Attallah; Abraham, Nader G.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in visceral fat are associated with increased inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction. We examined the effect of the potent heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), on regulation of adiposity and glucose levels in both female and male obese mice. Both lean and obese mice were administered CoPP intraperitoneally, (3mg/kg/once a week) for 6 weeks. Serum levels of adiponectin, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, and HO-1, PPARγ...

  4. The Role of Bach1 in the Induction of Heme Oxygenase by Tin Mesoporphyrin

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Aida; Zhao, Hui; Wong, Ronald J.; Stevenson, David K

    2007-01-01

    Tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), a competitive heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor, also induces HO-1 mRNA and protein expression by a mechanism that is not fully understood. We examined whether the induction by SnMP is mediated by a de-repression of Bach1, a transcription factor that suppresses the HO-1 gene. Incubation of NIH3T3-HO-1-luc cells with SnMP attenuated HO activity with a concomitant increase in HO-1 mRNA and protein and a decrease in Bach1 and HO-2 proteins, which was not due to transcriptio...

  5. Biliverdin-promoted lateral root formation is mediated through heme oxygenase in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Yen Hsu, Yun; Chao, Yun-Yang; Huei Kao, Ching

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of biliverdin (BV), a product of heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzed reaction, on lateral root (LR) formation in rice. Treatment with BV induced LR formation and HO activity. As well, BV, could induce OsHO1 mRNA expression. Zn protoporphyrin IX (the specific inhibitor of HO) reduced LR number, HO activity and OsHO1 mRNA level induced by BV. Our data suggest that HO is required for BV-induced LR formation in rice.

  6. In silico multiple-targets identification for heme detoxification in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiphinit, Suthat; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Lursinsap, Chidchanok; Plaimas, Kitiporn

    2016-01-01

    Detoxification of hemoglobin byproducts or free heme is an essential step and considered potential targets for anti-malaria drug development. However, most of anti-malaria drugs are no longer effective due to the emergence and spread of the drug resistant malaria parasites. Therefore, it is an urgent need to identify potential new targets and even for target combinations for effective malaria drug design. In this work, we reconstructed the metabolic networks of Plasmodium falciparum and human red blood cells for the simulation of steady mass and flux flows of the parasite's metabolites under the blood environment by flux balance analysis (FBA). The integrated model, namely iPF-RBC-713, was then adjusted into two stage-specific metabolic models, which first was for the pathological stage metabolic model of the parasite when invaded the red blood cell without any treatment and second was for the treatment stage of the parasite when a drug acted by inhibiting the hemozoin formation and caused high production rate of heme toxicity. The process of identifying target combinations consisted of two main steps. Firstly, the optimal fluxes of reactions in both the pathological and treatment stages were computed and compared to determine the change of fluxes. Corresponding enzymes of the reactions with zero fluxes in the treatment stage but non-zero fluxes in the pathological stage were predicted as a preliminary list of potential targets in inhibiting heme detoxification. Secondly, the combinations of all possible targets listed in the first step were examined to search for the best promising target combinations resulting in more effective inhibition of the detoxification to kill the malaria parasites. Finally, twenty-three enzymes were identified as a preliminary list of candidate targets which mostly were in pyruvate metabolism and citrate cycle. The optimal set of multiple targets for blocking the detoxification was a set of heme ligase, adenosine transporter, myo

  7. Engineering Intracellular Delivery Nanocarriers and Nanoreactors from Oxidation-Responsive Polymersomes via Synchronized Bilayer Cross-Linking and Permeabilizing Inside Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhengyu; Qian, Yinfeng; Yu, Yongqiang; Liu, Guhuan; Hu, Jinming; Zhang, Guoying; Liu, Shiyong

    2016-08-24

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, and this feature provides a vital biochemical basis for designing novel therapeutic and diagnostic nanomedicines. Among them, oxidation-responsive micelles and vesicles (polymersomes) of amphiphilic block copolymers have been extensively explored; however, in previous works, oxidation by ROS including H2O2 exclusively leads to microstructural destruction of polymeric assemblies. For oxidation-responsive polymersomes, fast release of encapsulated hydrophilic drugs and bioactive macromolecules will occur upon microstructural disintegration. Under certain application circumstances, this does not meet design requirements for sustained-release drug nanocarriers and long-acting in vivo nanoreactors. Also note that conventional polymersomes possess thick hydrophobic bilayers and compromised membrane permeability, rendering them as ineffective nanocarriers and nanoreactors. We herein report the fabrication of oxidation-responsive multifunctional polymersomes exhibiting intracellular milieu-triggered vesicle bilayer cross-linking, permeability switching, and enhanced imaging/drug release features. Mitochondria-targeted H2O2 reactive polymersomes were obtained through the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers containing arylboronate ester-capped self-immolative side linkages in the hydrophobic block, followed by surface functionalization with targeting peptides. Upon cellular uptake, intracellular H2O2 triggers cascade decaging reactions and generates primary amine moieties; prominent amidation reaction then occurs within hydrophobic bilayer membranes, resulting in concurrent cross-linking and hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of polymersome bilayers inside live cells. This process was further utilized to achieve integrated functions such as sustained drug release, (combination) chemotherapy monitored by fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR

  8. Role of heme oxygenase in modulating endothelial function in mesenteric small resistance arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteri, Enzo; Rodella, Luigi F; Rezzani, Rita; Rizzoni, Damiano; Paiardi, Silvia; de Ciuceis, Carolina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Foglio, Eleonora; Favero, Gaia; Rizzardi, Nicola; Platto, Caterina; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2009-10-01

    It has been proposed that endothelial dysfunction is due to the excessive degradation of nitric oxide (NO) by oxidative stress. The enzyme heme-oxygenase (HO) seems to exert a protective effect on oxidative stress in the vasculature, both in animal models and in humans. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of inhibition or activation of HO on endothelial function in mesenteric small resistance arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Six SHR were treated with cobalt protoporphyrin IX 50 mg/Kg (CoPP), an activator of HO; six SHR with stannous mesoporphyrin 30 mg/Kg (SnMP), an inhibitor of HO, and six SHR with saline. As controls, six Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were treated with CoPP, six WKY with SnMP, and six WKY with saline. Drugs were injected in the peritoneum once a week for 2 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured (tail cuff method) before and after treatment. Mesenteric small resistance arteries were mounted on a micromyograph. Endothelial function was evaluated as a cumulative concentration-response curve to acetylcholine (ACH), before and after preincubation with N(G)-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, inhibitor of NO synthase), and to bradykinin (BK). In SHR treatment with CoPP, improved ACH-and BK-induced vasodilatation (ANOVA p SnMP was devoid of effects on endothelial function. In WKY, both activation and inhibition of HO did not substantially affect endothelium-mediated vasodilatation. The stimulation of HO seems to induce an improvement of endothelial dysfunction in SHR by possibly reducing oxidative stress and increasing NO availability. PMID:19886854

  9. Treatment of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Glatiramer Acetate Alters Expression of Heme-Oxygenase-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Janssen

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG synergizes with the immunomodulatory agent glatiramer acetate (GA in eliciting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the relapsing-remitting EAE model. Thus, we hypothesized that mice with chronic EAE may also benefit from this combination therapy. We first assessed how a treatment with a single dose of GA together with daily application of EGCG may modulate EAE. Although single therapies with a suboptimal dose of GA or EGCG led to disease amelioration and reduced CNS inflammation, the combination therapy had no effects. While EGCG appeared to preserve axons and myelin, the single GA dose did not improve axonal damage or demyelination. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of EGCG was abolished when GA was applied in combination. To elucidate how a single dose of GA may interfere with EGCG, we focused on the anti-inflammatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant properties of EGCG. Surprisingly, we observed that while EGCG induced a downregulation of the gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in affected CNS areas, the combined therapy of GA+EGCG seems to promote an increased HO-1 expression. These data suggest that upregulation of HO-1 may contribute to diminish the neuroprotective benefits of EGCG alone in this EAE model. Altogether, our data indicate that neuroprotection by EGCG in chronic EAE may involve regulation of oxidative processes, including downmodulation of HO-1. Further investigation of the re-dox balance in chronic neuroinflammation and in particular functional studies on HO-1 are warranted to understand its role in disease progression.

  10. Detailed NMR Analysis of the Heme-Protein Interactions in Component IV Glycera dibranchiata Monomeric Hemoglobin-CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete 13C, 15N, and 1H resonance assignments have been obtained for the recombinant, ferrous CO-ligated form of component IV monomeric hemoglobin from Glycera dibranchiata. This 15642 Da myoglobin-like protein contains a large number of glycine and alanine residues (47) and a heme prosthetic group. Coupling constant information has allowed the determination of χ1 and χ2 torsion angles, backbone φ angles, as well as 43 of 81 possible assignments to Hβ2/β3 pairs. The 13Cα, 13Cβ, 13C', and 1Hα assignments yield a consensus chemical shift index (CSI) that, in combination with NOE information and backbone torsion angles, defines seven distinct helical regions for the protein's global architecture. Discrepancies between the CSI and NOE/3JHNHα-based secondary structure definitions have been attributed to heme ring current shifts on the basis of calculations from a model structure [Alam et al. (1994) J. Protein Chem., 13, 151-164]. The agreement can be improved by correcting the 1Hα chemical shifts for the ring current contributions. Because the holoprotein was assembled from isotopically enriched globin and natural isotope-abundance heme, data from 13C-filtered/13C-edited and 13C-filtered/13C-filtered 2D NOESY experiments could be used to determine complete heme proton assignments and to position the heme within the protein. The results confirm the unusual presence of Phe31(B10) and Leu58(E7) side chains near the heme ligand binding site which may alter the polarity and steric environment and thus the functional properties of this protein

  11. The role of the erythroid-specific delta-aminolevulinate synthase gene expression in erythroid heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, K; Igarashi, K; Yamamoto, M; Fujita, H; Sassa, S

    1995-08-01

    Using antisense technology, the effects of suppressed gene expression of the erythroid-specific delta-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthase (ALAS-E) on heme synthesis, expression of mRNAs encoding an erythroid-specific transcription factor NF-E2, other heme pathway enzymes, and beta-globin were examined in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. In MEL cells in which an antisense ALAS-E RNA was expressed (AS clone), sense ALAS-E mRNA levels in both untreated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-treated cells were decreased compared with their respective controls. Heme synthesis in AS clones was decreased in proportion to the suppressed levels of ALAS-E mRNA. In addition, mRNAs for ALA dehydratase, porphobilinogen deaminase, ferrochelatase (FeC), and beta-globin were also decreased in AS clones. There was a strong correlation between the level of ALAS-E mRNA and most of the mRNAs of the heme pathway enzymes and beta-globin. There was a decrease in the mRNA level of p45, but not of mafK, which are the large and the small subunits of NF-E2, respectively, in AS clones. Treatment of AS cells with hemin and ALA in the presence of DMSO partially restored the suppressed mRNA levels for beta-globin and FeC and heme content, respectively. These findings thus indicate that heme formation, which is determined by the level of ALAS-E, plays an essential role on gene expression of many proteins necessary for erythroid development. PMID:7620186

  12. A heme peroxidase with a functional role as an L-tyrosine hydroxylase in the biosynthesis of anthramycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Katherine L; Colabroy, Keri L; Gerratana, Barbara

    2011-10-18

    We report the first characterization and classification of Orf13 (S. refuineus) as a heme-dependent peroxidase catalyzing the ortho-hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA. The putative tyrosine hydroxylase coded by orf13 of the anthramycin biosynthesis gene cluster has been expressed and purified. Heme b has been identified as the required cofactor for catalysis, and maximal L-tyrosine conversion to L-DOPA is observed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Preincubation of L-tyrosine with Orf13 prior to the addition of hydrogen peroxide is required for L-DOPA production. However, the enzyme becomes inactivated by hydrogen peroxide during catalysis. Steady-state kinetic analysis of L-tyrosine hydroxylation revealed similar catalytic efficiency for both L-tyrosine and hydrogen peroxide. Spectroscopic data from a reduced-CO(g) UV-vis spectrum of Orf13 and electron paramagnetic resonance of ferric heme Orf13 are consistent with heme peroxidases that have a histidyl-ligated heme iron. Contrary to the classical heme peroxidase oxidation reaction with hydrogen peroxide that produces coupled aromatic products such as o,o'-dityrosine, Orf13 is novel in its ability to catalyze aromatic amino acid hydroxylation with hydrogen peroxide, in the substrate addition order and for its substrate specificity for L-tyrosine. Peroxygenase activity of Orf13 for the ortho-hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA by a molecular oxygen dependent pathway in the presence of dihydroxyfumaric acid is also observed. This reaction behavior is consistent with peroxygenase activity reported with horseradish peroxidase for the hydroxylation of phenol. Overall, the putative function of Orf13 as a tyrosine hydroxylase has been confirmed and establishes the first bacterial class of tyrosine hydroxylases. PMID:21919439

  13. Heme changes HIF-α, eNOS and nitrite production in HUVECs after simvastatin, HU, and ascorbic acid therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Guarda, Caroline C; Santiago, Rayra P; Pitanga, Thassila N; Santana, Sanzio S; Zanette, Dalila L; Borges, Valéria M; Goncalves, Marilda S

    2016-07-01

    The sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hemolytic genetic anemia characterized by free heme and hemoglobin release into intravascular spaces, with endothelial activation. Heme is a proinflammatory molecule able to directly activate vascular endothelium, thus, endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease are major chronic events described in SCD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrite and hypoxia inducible factor alpha (HIF-α) in HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) activated by heme in response to simvastatin, hydroxyurea (HU), and ascorbic acid therapies. eNOS and HIF-α production were evaluated by ELISA and nitrite was measured by the Griess technique. The production of HIF-α increased when the cells were stimulated by heme (p<0.01), while treatment with HU and simvastatin reduced the production (p<0.01), and treatment with ascorbic acid increased HIF-1a production by the cells (p<0.01). Heme increased eNOS production, (p<0.01) but showed a heterogeneous pattern, and the lowest concentrations of all the treatments reduced the enzyme production (p<0.01). The nitrite production by HUVECs was enhanced by stimulation with heme (p<0.001) and was reduced by treatment with HU (p<0.001), ascorbic acid (p<0.001) and simvastatin (p<0.01). In summary, our results suggest that the hemolytic vascular microenvironment in SCD requires different therapeutic approaches to promote clinical improvement, and that a combination of therapies may be a viable strategy for treating patients. PMID:27089822

  14. Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved

    OpenAIRE

    Bastide, Nadia; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2011-01-01

    Red meat and processed meat intake is associated with a risk of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that heme iron present in meat promotes colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of colon cancer reporting heme intake included 566,607 individuals and 4,734 cases of colon cancer. The summary relative risk of colon cancer was 1.18 [95%C.I.: 1.06-1.32] for subjects in the hi...

  15. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Networked Field-Effect Transistors Functionalized with Thiolated Heme for NO2 Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated. After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme, the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below 100ppb. It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. A fluorescence approach to the unfolding thermodynamics of horseradish peroxidase based on heme degradation by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Lamei; Huang, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a classical heme-containing protein which has been applied in many fields. The prosthetic group heme in HRP, especially in unfolded state, can react with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce a fluorescent product with the maximum emission wavelength at 450 nm. Utilizing this emission band as a fluorescence probe, the unfolding process of HRP in urea can be assessed quantitatively, and the calculated thermodynamic parameters are consistent with those determined by circular dichroism (CD) at 222 nm and steady-state tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence methods.

  17. [Heme oxygenase induction in rat heart and vessels and peroxidative resistance of erythrocytes during hemolytic anemia development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Pavychenko, O V

    2005-01-01

    The hemolytic anemia development caused by phenylhydrazine injection (7 mg/100 g b.w.) was shown to be caused by the decreasing of both catalase activity and glutathione content in erythrocytes, and by the increasing of spontaneouse hemolysis level of these cells in blood stream. The increasing of heme oxygenase activity and TBA-active products in rat heart and vessels were revealed 24 hrs after phenylhydrazine injection. Possible mechanisms of heme oxygenase-1 induction under hypoxia as response to the hemolytic anemia development and it's role in defense of the cells from damage are discussed. PMID:16329389

  18. Crystal structure of HutZ, a heme storage protein from Vibrio cholerae: A structural mismatch observed in the region of high sequence conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HutZ is the sole heme storage protein identified in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is required for optimal heme utilization. However, no heme oxygenase activity has been observed with this protein. Thus far, HutZ’s structure and heme-binding mechanism are unknown. Results We report the first crystal structure of HutZ in a homodimer determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The HutZ structure adopted a typical split-barrel fold. Through a docking study and site-directed mutagenesis, a heme-binding model for the HutZ dimer is proposed. Very interestingly, structural superimposition of HutZ and its homologous protein HugZ, a heme oxygenase from Helicobacter pylori, exhibited a structural mismatch of one amino acid residue in β6 of HutZ, although residues involved in this region are highly conserved in both proteins. Derived homologous models of different single point variants with model evaluations suggested that Pro140 of HutZ, corresponding to Phe215 of HugZ, might have been the main contributor to the structural mismatch. This mismatch initiates more divergent structural characteristics towards their C-terminal regions, which are essential features for the heme-binding of HugZ as a heme oxygenase. Conclusions HutZ’s deficiency in heme oxygenase activity might derive from its residue shift relative to the heme oxygenase HugZ. This residue shift also emphasized a limitation of the traditional template selection criterion for homology modeling.

  19. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  20. Effect of the heme oxygenase inducer hemin on blood haemostasis measured by high-frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochefort, Gaël Y; Libgot, Rachel; Desbuards, Nicolas; Schlecht, Deborah; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Ossant, Frederic; Eder, Veronique; Antier, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    1. Heme compounds, like hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer, are used in the treatment of acute porphyria treatment. The side-effects of hemin on haemostasis have been reported. To address those effects, in the present study we used a sensitive, high-frequency ultrasound technique to record acoustic velocity and to investigate whole blood clotting in Wistar rats treated chronically with hemin (50 mg/kg per day). 2. The hemin-induced disturbances in haemostasis measured were comparable to the heparin reference treatment, with a significant decrease in clotting velocity in both groups compared with controls (e.g. the time to clot was 40 +/- 5, 53 +/- 13 and 10 +/- 2 min, respectively; P Precautions must be taken when using high doses of hemin or in the treatment of bleeding diseases. 3. Further investigations are required to explore the effects of hemin in thrombosis models, because it could be a promising 'old drug' for the treatment of venous thrombosis in patients. PMID:17973866

  1. Heme Oxygenase-1 and 2 Common Genetic Variants and Risk for Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Elena; Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Martínez, Carmen; Zurdo, Martín; Turpín-Fenoll, Laura; Millán-Pascual, Jorge; Adeva-Bartolomé, Teresa; Cubo, Esther; Navacerrada, Francisco; Rojo-Sebastián, Ana; Rubio, Lluisa; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Pau; Calleja, Marisol; Plaza-Nieto, José Francisco; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; García-Albea, Esteban; Agúndez, José A G

    2015-08-01

    Several neurochemical, neuropathological, neuroimaging, and experimental data, suggest that iron deficiency plays an important role in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Heme-oxygenases (HMOX) are an important defensive mechanism against oxidative stress, mainly through the degradation of heme to biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide. We analyzed whether HMOX1 and HMOX2 genes are related with the risk to develop RLS.We analyzed the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of the HMOX1 rs2071746, HMOX1 rs2071747, HMOX2 rs2270363, and HMOX2 rs1051308 SNPs, as well as the presence of Copy number variations (CNVs) of these genes in 205 subjects RLS and 445 healthy controls.The frequencies of rs2071746TT genotype and rs2071746T allelic variant were significantly lower in RLS patients than that in controls, although the other 3 studied SNPs did not differ between RLS patients and controls. None of the studied polymorphisms influenced the disease onset, severity of RLS, family history of RLS, serum ferritin levels, or response to dopaminergic agonist, clonazepam or GABAergic drugs.The present study suggests a weak association between HMOX1 rs2071746 polymorphism and the risk to develop RLS in the Spanish population. PMID:26313808

  2. Surface-tuned electron transfer and electrocatalysis of hexameric tyrosine-coordinated heme protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lei; Utesch, Tillmann; Yarman, Aysu; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Steinborn, Silke; Dobbek, Holger; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Tanne, Johannes; Wollenberger, Ulla; Scheller, Frieder W

    2015-05-11

    Molecular modeling, electrochemical methods, and quartz crystal microbalance were used to characterize immobilized hexameric tyrosine-coordinated heme protein (HTHP) on bare carbon or on gold electrodes modified with positively and negatively charged self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), respectively. HTHP binds to the positively charged surface but no direct electron transfer (DET) is found due to the long distance of the active sites from the electrode surfaces. At carboxyl-terminated surfaces, the neutrally charged bottom of HTHP can bind to the SAM. For this "disc" orientation all six hemes are close to the electrode and their direct electron transfer should be efficient. HTHP on all negatively charged SAMs showed a quasi-reversible redox behavior with rate constant ks values between 0.93 and 2.86 s(-1) and apparent formal potentials ${E{{0{^{\\prime }}\\hfill \\atop {\\rm app}\\hfill}}}$ between -131.1 and -249.1 mV. On the MUA/MU-modified electrode, the maximum surface concentration corresponds to a complete monolayer of the hexameric HTHP in the disc orientation. HTHP electrostatically immobilized on negatively charged SAMs shows electrocatalysis of peroxide reduction and enzymatic oxidation of NADH. PMID:25825040

  3. Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role

  4. Vasculoprotective effects of heme oxygenase-1 in a murine model of hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Alex Mitsialis, S; Liu, Xianlan; Kourembanas, Stella

    2012-04-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by simplified alveolarization and arrested vascular development of the lung with associated evidence of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, increased oxidative damage, and iron deposition. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to be protective in the pathogenesis of diseases of inflammatory and oxidative etiology. Because HO-1 is involved in the response to oxidative stress produced by hyperoxia and is critical for cellular heme and iron homeostasis, it could play a protective role in BPD. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HO-1 in hyperoxia-induced lung injury using a neonatal transgenic mouse model with constitutive lung-specific HO-1 overexpression. Hyperoxia triggered an increase in pulmonary inflammation, arterial remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that was attenuated by HO-1 overexpression. In addition, hyperoxia led to pulmonary edema, hemosiderosis, and a decrease in blood vessel number, all of which were markedly improved in HO-1 overexpressing mice. The protective vascular response may be mediated at least in part by carbon monoxide, due to its anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and antiapoptotic properties. HO-1 overexpression, however, did not prevent alveolar simplification nor altered the levels of ferritin and lactoferrin, proteins involved in iron binding and transport. Thus the protective mechanisms elicited by HO-1 overexpression primarily preserve vascular growth and barrier function through iron-independent, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory pathways. PMID:22287607

  5. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseda, Clement A. [Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Srinivasan, Kumar [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wise, Jasen [Qiagen, Frederick, MD (United States); Catalano, Jennifer [Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  6. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  7. Tetrapyrrole binding affinity of the murine and human p22HBP heme-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micaelo, Nuno M; Macedo, Anjos L; Goodfellow, Brian J; Félix, Vítor

    2010-11-01

    We present the first systematic molecular modeling study of the binding properties of murine (mHBP) and human (hHBP) p22HBP protein (heme-binding protein) with four tetrapyrrole ring systems belonging to the heme biosynthetic pathway: iron protoporphyrin IX (HEMIN), protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), coproporphyrin III (CPIII), coproporphyrin I (CPI). The relative binding affinities predicted by our computational study were found to be similar to those observed experimentally, providing a first rational structural analysis of the molecular recognition mechanism, by p22HBP, toward a number of different tetrapyrrole ligands. To probe the structure of these p22HBP protein complexes, docking, molecular dynamics and MM-PBSA methodologies supported by experimental NMR ring current shift data have been employed. The tetrapyrroles studied were found to bind murine p22HBP with the following binding affinity order: HEMIN> PPIX> CPIII> CPI, which ranged from -22.2 to -6.1 kcal/mol. In general, the protein-tetrapyrrole complexes are stabilized by non-bonded interactions between the tetrapyrrole propionate groups and basic residues of the protein, and by the preferential solvation of the complex compared to the unbound components. PMID:20800521

  8. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection

  9. Structures of the multicomponent Rieske non-heme iron toluene 2, 3-dioxygenase enzyme system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structures of the three-component toluene 2, 3-dioxygenase system provide a model for electron transfer among bacterial Rieske non-heme iron dioxygenases. Bacterial Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases catalyze the initial hydroxylation of aromatic hydrocarbon substrates. The structures of all three components of one such system, the toluene 2, 3-dioxygenase system, have now been determined. This system consists of a reductase, a ferredoxin and a terminal dioxygenase. The dioxygenase, which was cocrystallized with toluene, is a heterohexamer containing a catalytic and a structural subunit. The catalytic subunit contains a Rieske [2Fe–2S] cluster and mononuclear iron at the active site. This iron is not strongly bound and is easily removed during enzyme purification. The structures of the enzyme with and without mononuclear iron demonstrate that part of the structure is flexible in the absence of iron. The orientation of the toluene substrate in the active site is consistent with the regiospecificity of oxygen incorporation seen in the product formed. The ferredoxin is Rieske type and contains a [2Fe–2S] cluster close to the protein surface. The reductase belongs to the glutathione reductase family of flavoenzymes and consists of three domains: an FAD-binding domain, an NADH-binding domain and a C-terminal domain. A model for electron transfer from NADH via FAD in the reductase and the ferredoxin to the terminal active-site mononuclear iron of the dioxygenase is proposed

  10. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress

  11. Oxidative Stress and Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vanella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of increased expression of HO-1 protein and increased levels of HO activity on differentiation of bone-marrow-derived human MSCs. MSCs are multipotent cells that proliferate and differentiate into many different cell types including adipocytes and osteoblasts. HO, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, plays an important role during MSCs differentiation. HO catalyzes the stereospecific degradation of heme to biliverdin, with the concurrent release of iron and carbon monoxide. Upregulation of HO-1 expression and increased HO activity are essential for MSC growth and differentiation to the osteoblast lineage consistent with the role of HO-1 in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. HO-1 participates in the MSC differentiation process shifting the balance of MSC differentiation in favor of the osteoblast lineage by decreasing PPARγ and increasing osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2. In this paper, we define HO-1 as a target molecule in the modulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis from MSCs and examine the role of the HO system in diabetes, inflammation, osteoporosis, hypertension, and other pathologies, a burgeoning area of research.

  12. Human heme oxygenase 1 is a potential host cell factor against dengue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Kai; Lin, Chun-Kuang; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Young, Kung-Chia; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection and replication induces oxidative stress, which further contributes to the progression and pathogenesis of the DENV infection. Modulation of host antioxidant molecules may be a useful strategy for interfering with DENV replication. In this study, we showed that induction or exogenous overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, effectively inhibited DENV replication in DENV-infected Huh-7 cells. This antiviral effect of HO-1 was attenuated by its inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), suggesting that HO-1 was an important cellular factor against DENV replication. Biliverdin but not carbon monoxide and ferrous ions, which are products of the HO-1 on heme, mediated the HO-1-induced anti-DENV effect by non-competitively inhibiting DENV protease, with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 8.55 ± 0.38 μM. Moreover, HO-1 induction or its exogenous overexpression, rescued DENV-suppressed antiviral interferon response. Moreover, we showed that HO-1 induction by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and andrographolide, a natural product, as evidenced by a significant delay in the onset of disease and mortality, and virus load in the infected mice's brains. These findings clearly revealed that a drug or therapy that induced the HO-1 signal pathway was a promising strategy for treating DENV infection. PMID:27553177

  13. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    , experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces...... capitalism not only changes urban life and its means of production, it specifically influences the way the city is designed and how it unfolds as events (Anderson & Harrison 2010) and affective, emotional production (Pile 2009). Through examples of urban design and events in the Carlsberg City in Copenhagen...... and The High Line in Chelsea, New York, the paper sets out to define and question these affective modes of production. Whether these productions are socio-material practices consisting of ludic designs (Stevens 2007), temporary architecture or art installations or evental practices consisting of...

  14. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties Efeito da irradiação e processo térmico na concentração do ferro heme e nas propriedades de cor da carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Perazzini Furtado Mistura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 ºC for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L*, a*, and b* values.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da irradiação e de processos térmicos na concentração do ferro heme (Fe heme e nas propriedades de cor da carne do gado brasileiro. As amostras da carne (hambúrgueres e bifes foram irradiadas com 0-10 kGy e foram cozidas em um forno combinado a 250 ºC por 9 minutes com umidade de 70%. As concentrações de ferro total e de ferro heme foram determinadas. Os dados foram comparados por comparações múltiplas e por efeitos fixos, ANOVA. Irradiação em doses mais altas do que 5 kGy alteraram significativamente a concentração de Fe heme. Entretanto, as condições de preparo da amostra, interferiram muito mais na quantidade de Fe heme do que a irradiação. Dependendo da espécie animal, os níveis do ferro heme da carne estão entre 35 e 52% do ferro total e são usados para cálculos dietéticos. Em nosso estudo, a porcentagem de ferro heme foi em média, 70% do ferro total, mostrando que a umidade é um fator

  15. CALCIUM-INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION IS MEDIATED BY RHODNIUS HEME-BINDING PROTEIN (RHBP) AND PREVENTED BY VITELLIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Marcia C; Silveira, Alan B; Ventura-Martins, Guilherme; Luciano, Monalisa; Coelho, Marsen G P; Todeschini, Adriane R; Bianconi, M Lucia; Atella, Georgia C; Silva-Neto, Mário A C

    2015-10-01

    Lipid peroxidation is promoted by the quasi-lipoxygenase (QL) activity of heme proteins and enhanced by the presence of free calcium. Unlike mammalian plasma, the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, contains both a free heme-binding protein (RHBP) and circulating lipoproteins. RHBP binds and prevents the heme groups of the proteins from participating in lipid peroxidation reactions. Herein, we show that despite being bound to RHBP, heme groups promote lipid peroxidation through a calcium-dependent QL reaction. This reaction is readily inhibited by the presence of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene or micromolar levels of the main yolk phosphoprotein vitellin (Vt). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation is eliminated by the in vitro dephosphorylation of Vt, indicating that this reaction depends on the interaction of free calcium ions with negatively charged phosphoamino acids. Our results demonstrate that calcium chelation mediated by phosphoproteins occurs via an antioxidant mechanism that protects living organisms from lipid peroxidation. PMID:26111116

  16. The role of Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase and Ferrochelatase genes in heme biosynthesis and regulation in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, P.J.; Weert, S. de; Ram, A.F.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Lokman, Christien; Haas, H.; Werner, E.R.; Franken, A.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a suggested limiting factor in peroxidase production by Aspergillus spp., which are well-known suitable hosts for heterologous protein production. In this study, the role of genes coding for coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (hemF) and ferrochelatase (hemH) was analyzed by means of deletion and

  17. The role of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase and ferrochelatase genes in heme biosynthesis and regulation in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.C.W.; Werner, E.R.; Haas, H.; Lokman, B.C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Ram, A.F.J.; Weert, S. de; Punt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a suggested limiting factor in peroxidase production by Aspergillus spp., which are well-known suitable hosts for heterologous protein production. In this study, the role of genes coding for coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (hemF) and ferrochelatase (hemH) was analyzed by means of deletion and

  18. Molecular Modeling of Heme Proteins Using MOE: Bio-Inorganic and Structure-Function Activity for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gigi B.; Cook, J. Whitney

    2005-01-01

    A biochemical molecular modeling project on heme proteins suitable for an introductory Biochemistry I class has been designed with a 2-fold objective: i) to reinforce the correlation between protein three-dimensional structure and function through a discovery oriented project, and ii) to introduce students to the fields of bioinorganic and…

  19. 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase enzymes : Rieske non-heme monooxygenases essential for bacterial steroid degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusma, Mirjan; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Various micro-organisms are able to use sterols/steroids as carbon- and energy sources for growth. 3-Ketosteroid 9 alpha-hydroxylase (KSH), a two component Rieske non-heme monooxygenase comprised of the oxygenase KshA and the reductase KshB, is a key-enzyme in bacterial steroid degradation. It initi

  20. Single-WalledCarbon Nanotube Networked Field-Effect Transistors Functionalized with Thiolated Heme for NO2 Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏昂; 李维维; 汪静霞; 龙庆; 王钊; 熊莉; 董晓臣; 黄维

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated. After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme, the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below Woppb. It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.%The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated.After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme,the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below 100ppb.It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.

  1. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  2. Myeloperoxidase Oxidized LDL Interferes with Endothelial Cell Motility through miR-22 and Heme Oxygenase 1 Induction: Possible Involvement in Reendothelialization of Vascular Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Daher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease linked to atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is mainly linked to dysfunction in vascular endothelial cells and subendothelial accumulation of oxidized forms of LDL. In the present study, we investigated the role of myeloperoxidase oxidized LDL (Mox-LDL in endothelial cell dysfunction. We studied the effect of proinflammatory Mox-LDL treatment on endothelial cell motility, a parameter essential for normal vascular processes such as angiogenesis and blood vessel repair. This is particularly important in the context of an atheroma plaque, where vascular wall integrity is affected and interference with its repair could contribute to progression of the disease. We investigated in vitro the effect of Mox-LDL on endothelial cells angiogenic properties and we also studied the signalling pathways that could be affected by analysing Mox-LDL effect on the expression of angiogenesis-related genes. We report that Mox-LDL inhibits endothelial cell motility and tubulogenesis through an increase in miR-22 and heme oxygenase 1 expression. Our in vitro data indicate that Mox-LDL interferes with parameters associated with angiogenesis. They suggest that high LDL levels in patients would impair their endothelial cell capacity to cope with a damaged endothelium contributing negatively to the progression of the atheroma plaque.

  3. 藏羊血液中血红素的制备%Extract Technology of Tibetan Sheep Heme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳义超; 吴海玥; 胡凯; 贾濮华

    2011-01-01

    To establish a new extract method of Tibetan sheep heme.The crude extracts of Tibetan sheep blood as the raw material,acetone and acid acetone as solvent,was purified.Infrared spectroscopy was applied for qualitative analysis of heme,and ultraviolet spectrophotometry was utilized for quantitative determination of heme.By single-factor test to determine that the dosage of acetone is blood volume of 1 times and centrifugation time is 15min,which is the optimal preparation conditions of Tibetan sheep heme.The method of preparation of heme makes the low-cost,simple operation,short production cycle,purity and yield can reach respectively 98.60% and(87.91±9.04)%.%建立一种新型藏羊血红素的提取方法。以藏羊血为原料,丙酮和酸性丙酮为提取溶剂,所得粗提物进行纯化后,采用红外光谱法对血红素进行定性分析,并用紫外分光光度法进行定量测定。通过进行单因素试验,可确定丙酮添加量为血液体积1倍、离心时间为15min是制备藏羊血红素的最优条件,该法制备血红素成本低,操作过程简便,生产周期短,纯度可达98.60%,且收率达到(87.91±9.04)%。

  4. The Investigation of Behavior of Heme in Ordered Molecular Films%血红素在有序分子膜中的行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳健明

    2001-01-01

    The monolayer formation and the deposition of Langmuir-Blodgett films of the mixtures of Heme and stearic acid with different molar ratio were investigated. The result shows that they can form stable monolayer on pure water subphase. When xHeme<0. 3, Heme lies on a‘face on 'position in the monolayer. When xHeme≥0.3, Heme lies on an‘edge on'position. The Langmuir-Blodgett(LB)films of Heme and its mixtures with stearic acid were deposited on the hydrophilic quartz plates.Some information about the orientation of Heme in LB films were obtained from the UV-visible and polarized UV-visible spectra, low angle X-ray diffraction, and fluorescent spectra. The absorbance of the mixed LB films of Heme-SA is greatly increased with the increase of deposition pressure or the molar fraction of Heme. Although the increase of absorbance may be resulted from the increase of the Heme concentration in LB films at higher surface pressure, most of the increase was resulted from the ordered arrangement of Heme molecules. These results provide a good guidance for the further research and applications of Heme derivatives.%本文研究了血红素(Heme)在硬脂酸(SA)单分子膜和Langmuir-B1odgett(LB)膜中的行为。Heme及其与SA的混合物均能在纯水亚相形成稳定的单分子膜。当摩尔分数xHeme<0.3时,Heme以“面接触亚相”的方式平躺在SA所形成的单分子膜中;而当xHeme≥0.3时,Heme以其“边接触亚相”的方式自身成膜。通过在不同表面压 和不同摩尔比下沉积的Heme-SA混合LB膜的紫外-可见光谱、偏振紫外-可见光谱、小角X-射线衍射和荧光光谱,表征了血红素在有序分子膜中的排列取向和形态,为日后进一步研究血红素在生物系统中的化学物理机制提供了有价值的信息。

  5. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  6. Inflammatory conditions and cytokines and their roles in the regulation of heme and drug metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoshT

    2002-01-01

    It has been well known that inflammation leads to the decreased ability of drug metabolism in human and animals.Since many inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced under the inflammatory conditions,their possible roles in the regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes,specifically cytochrome P450s(CYPs),have been examined to date.Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces many cryokines and decreases drug medabolism.LPS is also a potent inducer of heme oxygenase(HO-1).We found that LPS produced the induction of HO-1 via TNFα rather than IL-1,be employing each cytokine knockout mice.Additionally,arthritis model mice exhibited the increase in HO-1 without any changes in total CYP content.Effects of chemicals on HO-1 and CYPs in cytokine knockout mice will also be discussed.

  7. A catalytic approach to estimate the redox potential of heme-peroxidases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox potential of heme-peroxidases varies according to a combination of structural components within the active site and its vicinities. For each peroxidase, this redox potential imposes a thermodynamic threshold to the range of oxidizable substrates. However, the instability of enzymatic intermediates during the catalytic cycle precludes the use of direct voltammetry to measure the redox potential of most peroxidases. Here we describe a novel approach to estimate the redox potential of peroxidases, which directly depends on the catalytic performance of the activated enzyme. Selected p-substituted phenols are used as substrates for the estimations. The results obtained with this catalytic approach correlate well with the oxidative capacity predicted by the redox potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple

  8. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection

  9. Human Serum Albumin Hybrid Incorporating Synthetic Hemes :A Novel O2-Carrying Hemoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Incorporation of synthetic heme (FeP) into recombinant human serum albumin(rHSA) provides an artificial hemoprotein(rHSA-FeP) which can bind and release oxygenreversibly under physiological conditions(in aqueous media, pH 7.3, 37 ℃) like hemoglobin(Hb) and myoglobin. An rHSA host absorbs maximally eight FeP molecules, and thesolution properties are almost identical to those of rHSA itself. The second-order structureand surface charge distribution of rHSA were always constant independent of the bindingnumbers of FeP. Its O2-binding ability satisfies the initial clinical requirements for red cellsubstitute. Although the NO-binding affinity is 8-fold high compared to the Hb's,administration of this fluid into rats showed negligible change in the blood pressure.Physiological responses to exchange transfusion with this rHSA-FeP into anaesthetized ratshave also been evaluated.

  10. Towards an understanding of quantum factors in small ligand geminate recombination to heme proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial number of points on the doublet potential energy surfaces of the model of ferrous heme proteins were probed with quantum chemical ab initio restricted open shell Hartree-Fock method calculations. The nitric oxide binding curves (dependence of the total energy of the system on the NO-Fe distance), calculated within different atomic basis sets (MINI, SBK) show similar features: rather low dissociation energy (1-5 kCal/mole) and an unusually long iron - nitric oxide bond length (minima were found in the region of 2-3 angstroms). In the majority of systems studied the single unpaired electron occupies the NO π * orbital and the NO-Fe bond has a π character. (authors)

  11. Manipulation of the heme electronic structure by external stimuli and ligand field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes the switching behaviors of the electronic structure, which were observed in iron(III) porphyrinoids, by the addition of external stimuli. The combined analysis by various methods, such as EPR, Mössbauer, SQUID, single crystal X-ray structure analysis, revealed a wide variety of electronic structures of the heme related complexes. This paper focuses in particular on the spin-crossover phenomenon in the solid state. An overview of spin-crossover phenomena found in iron(III) porphyrinoids between (i) S = 5/2 and S = 1/2, (ii) S = 3/2 and S = 1/2, (iii) S = 5/2 and S = 3/2, will be described.

  12. Temperature dependence of Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of nitrosyl heme proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Marco; Wajnberg, Eliane; Bemski, George

    1997-11-01

    The Q-band (35 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin (Hb N O) and nitrosyl myoglobin (Mb NO) were studied as a function of temperature between 19 K and 200 K. The spectra of both heme proteins show classes of variations as a function of temperature. The first one has previously been associated with the existence of two paramagnetic species, one with rhombic and the other with axial symmetry. The second one manifests itself in changes in the g-factors and linewidths of each species. These changes are correlated with the conformational substates model and associate the variations of g-values with changes in the angle of the N(his)-Fe-N (NO) bond in the rhombic species and with changes in the distance between Fe and N of the proximal (F8) histidine in the axial species. (author) 24 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Alkene Cleavage Catalysed by Heme and Nonheme Enzymes: Reaction Mechanisms and Biocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco G. Mutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative cleavage of alkenes is classically performed by chemical methods, although they display several drawbacks. Ozonolysis requires harsh conditions (−78°C, for a safe process and reducing reagents in a molar amount, whereas the use of poisonous heavy metals such as Cr, Os, or Ru as catalysts is additionally plagued by low yield and selectivity. Conversely, heme and nonheme enzymes can catalyse the oxidative alkene cleavage at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in an aqueous buffer, showing excellent chemo- and regioselectivities in certain cases. This paper focuses on the alkene cleavage catalysed by iron cofactor-dependent enzymes encompassing the reaction mechanisms (in case where it is known and the application of these enzymes in biocatalysis.

  14. PECAM-1-dependent heme oxygenase-1 regulation via an Nrf2-mediated pathway in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Hendry; Zilian, Eva; Jaimes, Yarúa; Paine, Ananta; Figueiredo, Constanca; Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Blasczyk, Rainer; Larmann, Jan; Theilmeier, Gregor; Burg-Roderfeld, Monika; Andrei-Selmer, Luminita-Cornelia; Becker, Jan Ulrich; Santoso, Sentot; Immenschuh, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase (HO)-1, which catalyses the first and rate-limiting step of heme degradation, has major anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via its cell-type-specific functions in the endothelium. In the current study, we investigated whether the key endothelial adhesion and signalling receptor PECAM-1 (CD31) might be involved in the regulation of HO-1 gene expression in human endothelial cells (ECs). To this end PECAM-1 expression was down-regulated in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) by an adenoviral vector-based knockdown approach. PECAM-1 knockdown markedly induced HO-1, but not the constitutive HO isoform HO-2. Nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which is a master regulator of the inducible antioxidant cell response, and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased in PECAM-1-deficient HUVECs, respectively. PECAM-1-dependent HO-1 regulation was also examined in PECAM-1 over-expressing Chinese hamster ovary and murine L-cells. Endogenous HO-1 gene expression and reporter gene activity of transiently transfected luciferase HO-1 promoter constructs with Nrf2 target sequences were decreased in PECAM-1 over-expressing cells. Moreover, a regulatory role of ROS for HO-1 regulation in these cells is demonstrated by studies with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and exogenous hydrogenperoxide. Finally, direct interaction of PECAM-1 with a native complex of its binding partner NB1 (CD177) and serine proteinase 3 (PR3) from human neutrophils, markedly induced HO-1 expression in HUVECs. Taken together, we demonstrate a functional link between HO-1 gene expression and PECAM-1 in human ECs, which might play a critical role in the regulation of inflammation. PMID:24500083

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 prevents non-alcoholic steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Na

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant properties. However, the role of HO-1 on hepatocyte apoptosis remains unclear. We aim to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on oxidative stress related hepatocellular apoptosis in nutritional steatohepatitis in mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD diet for four weeks to induce hepatic steatohepatitis. HO-1 chemical inducer (hemin, HO-1 chemical inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX and/or adenovirus carrying HO-1 gene (Ad-HO-1 were administered to mice, respectively. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, the mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis related genes were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Results Hepatocyte signs of oxidative related apoptotic injury were presented in mice fed with MCD diet for 4 weeks. Induction of HO-1 by hemin or Ad-HO-1 significantly attenuated the severity of liver histology, which was associated with decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation content, reduced number of apoptotic cells by TUNEL staining, down-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes including Fas/FasL, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, reduced expression of cytochrome p4502E1 (CYP2E1, inhibited cytochrome c (Cyt-c release, and up-regulated expression of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl-2. Whereas, inhibition of HO-1 by ZnPP-IX caused oxidative stress related hepatic injury, which concomitant with increased number of TUNEL positive cells and up-regulated expression of pro-apoptosis related genes. Conclusions The present study provided evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in preventing nutritional steatohepatitis through suppressing hepatocyte apoptosis in mice.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 induction prevents neuronal damage triggered during mitochondrial inhibition: role of CO and bilirubin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Ibarra, Marisol; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Massieu, Lourdes; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José

    2009-06-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin, the latter being further reduced to bilirubin (BR). A protective role of the inducible isoform, HO-1, has been described in pathological conditions associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HO-1 in the neurotoxicity induced by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Toxicity of 3-NP is associated with ROS production, and this metabolic toxin has been used to mimic pathological conditions such as Huntington's disease. We found that cell death caused by 3-NP exposure was exacerbated by inhibition of HO with tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP). In addition, HO-1 up-regulation induced by the exposure to cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) before the incubation with 3-NP, prevented the cell death and the increase in ROS induced by 3-NP. Interestingly, addition of SnMP to CoPP-pretreated CGNs exposed to 3-NP, abolished the protective effect of CoPP suggesting that HO activity was responsible for this protective effect. This was additionally supported by the fact that CORM-2, a CO-releasing molecule, and BR, were able to protect against cell death and the increase in ROS induced by 3-NP. Our data clearly show that HO-1 elicits in CGNs a neuroprotective action against the neurotoxicity of 3-NP and that CO and BR may be involved, at least in part, in this protective effect. The present results increase our knowledge about the role of HO-1 in neuropathological conditions. PMID:19063990

  17. Renal Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction with Hemin Augments Renal Hemodynamics, Renal Autoregulation, and Excretory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botros, Fady T.; Dobrowolski, Leszek; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO-1; HO-2) catalyze conversion of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin/bilirubin. To determine the effects of renal HO-1 induction on blood pressure and renal function, normal control rats (n = 7) and hemin-treated rats (n = 6) were studied. Renal clearance studies were performed on anesthetized rats to assess renal function; renal blood flow (RBF) was measured using a transonic flow probe placed around the left renal artery. Hemin treatment significantly induced renal HO-1. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were not different (115 ± 5 mmHg versus 112 ± 4 mmHg and 331 ± 16 versus 346 ± 10 bpm). However, RBF was significantly higher (9.1 ± 0.8 versus 7.0 ± 0.5 mL/min/g, P < 0.05), and renal vascular resistance was significantly lower (13.0 ± 0.9 versus 16.6 ± 1.4 [mmHg/(mL/min/g)], P < 0.05). Likewise, glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated (1.4 ± 0.2 versus 1.0 ± 0.1 mL/min/g, P < 0.05), and urine flow and sodium excretion were also higher (18.9 ± 3.9 versus 8.2 ± 1.0 μL/min/g, P < 0.05 and 1.9 ± 0.6 versus 0.2 ± 0.1 μmol/min/g, P < 0.05, resp.). The plateau of the autoregulation relationship was elevated, and renal vascular responses to acute angiotensin II infusion were attenuated in hemin-treated rats reflecting the vasodilatory effect of HO-1 induction. We conclude that renal HO-1 induction augments renal function which may contribute to the antihypertensive effects of HO-1 induction observed in hypertension models. PMID:22518281

  18. Antioxidant role of heme oxygenase-1 in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soledad Gonzales; María Julia Pérez; Juan C Perazzo; María Luján Tomaro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of bilirubin on the oxidative liver status and the activity and expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat liver injury induced by prehepatic portal hypertension.METHODS: Wistar male rats, weighing 200-250 g, were divided at random into two groups: one group with prehepatic portal hypertension (PH) induced by regulated prehepatic portal vein ligation (PPVL) and the other group corresponded to sham operated rats. Portal pressure, oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant enzymes,HO-1 activity and expression and hepatic sinusoidal vasodilatation were measured.RESULTS: In PPVL rats oxidative stress was evidenced by a marked increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. The activities of liver antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also diminished while activity and expression of HO-1 were enhanced. Administration of bilirubin (5 μmol/kg body weight) 24 h before the end of the experiment entirely prevented ali these effects. Pretreatment with Sn-protoporphyrin Ⅸ (Sn-PPIX) (100 μg/kg body weight, i.p.),a potent inhibitor of HO, completely abolished the oxidative stress and provoked a slight decrease in liver GSH levels as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation. Besides,carbon monoxide, another heme catabolic product, induced a significant increase in sinusoidal hepatic areas in PPVL group. Pretreatment of PPVL rats with Sn-PPIX totally prevented this effect.CONCLUSION: These results suggest a beneficial role of HO-1 overexpression in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats.

  19. Alpha7 nicotinic receptor activation protects against oxidative stress via heme-oxygenase I induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Elisa; Buendia, Izaskun; Parada, Esther; León, Rafael; Jansen-Duerr, Pidder; Pircher, Haymo; Egea, Javier; Lopez, Manuela G

    2015-10-15

    Subchronic oxidative stress and inflammation are being increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. This study was designed to evaluate the potential protective role of α7 nicotinic receptor activation in an in vitro model of neurodegeneration based on subchronic oxidative stress. Rat organotypic hippocampal cultures (OHCs) were exposed for 4 days to low concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the complex III mitochondrial blocker, antimycin-A. Antimycin-A (0.1μM) and lipopolysaccharide (1ng/ml) caused low neurotoxicity on their own, measured as propidium iodide fluorescence in CA1 and CA3 regions. However, their combination (LPS/AA) caused a greater detrimental effect, in addition to mitochondrial depolarization, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Nox4 overexpression. Antimycin-A per se increased ROS and mitochondrial depolarization, although these effects were significantly higher when combined with LPS. More interesting was the finding that exposure of OHCs to the combination of LPS/AA triggered aberrant protein aggregation, measured as thioflavin S immunofluorescence. The α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, PNU282987, prevented the neurotoxicity and the pathological hallmarks observed in the LPS/AA subchronic toxicity model (oxidative stress and protein aggregates); these effects were blocked by α-bungarotoxin and tin protoporphyrin, indicating the participation of α7 nAChRs and heme-oxygenase I induction. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of OHCs to low concentration of antimycin-A plus LPS reproduced pathological features of neurodegenerative disorders. α7 nAChR activation ameliorated these alterations by a mechanism involving heme-oxygenase I induction. PMID:26212551

  20. Hypoxia stimulates urokinase receptor expression through a heme protein-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, C H; Fitzpatrick, T E; McCrae, K R

    1998-05-01

    Hypoxia underlies a number of biologic processes in which cellular migration and invasion occur. Because earlier studies have shown that the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) may facilitate such events, we studied the effect of hypoxia on the expression of uPAR by first trimester human trophoblasts (HTR-8/SVneo) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Compared with control cells cultured under standard conditions (20% O2), HTR-8/SVneo cells and HUVEC cultured in 1% O2 expressed more uPAR, as determined by flow cytometric and [125I]-prourokinase ligand binding analyses. Increased uPAR expression paralleled increases in uPAR mRNA. The involvement of a heme protein in the hypoxia-induced expression of uPAR was suggested by the observations that culture of cells with cobalt chloride, or sodium 4, 5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron), an iron-chelating agent, also stimulated uPAR expression, and that the hypoxia-induced uPAR expression was inhibited by adding carbon monoxide to the hypoxic atmosphere. Culture of HTR-8/SVneo cells with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) did not increase uPAR mRNA levels, suggesting that the hypoxia-mediated effect on uPAR expression by these cells did not occur through a VEGF-dependent mechanism. The functional importance of these findings is suggested by the fact that HTR-8/SVneo cells cultured under hypoxia displayed higher levels of cell surface plasminogen activator activity and greater invasion through a reconstituted basement membrane. These results suggest that hypoxia may promote cellular invasion by stimulating the expression of uPAR through a heme protein-dependent pathway. PMID:9558386

  1. A comparison of monocyte oxidative responses in leprosy patients and healthy subjects as influenced by mycobacterial lipid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachula, M; Worobec, S; Andersen, B R

    1990-09-01

    Superoxide anion (O2-) release by monocytes from leprosy patients in a paired study was lower than that released by monocytes from healthy controls. Pretreatment of healthy control monocytes with phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I) of Mycobacterium leprae resulted in the release of less O2- than released by buffer-treated cells or cells pretreated with structurally similar lipids. However, pretreatment of patient monocytes with PGL-I did not affect the O2- generation, perhaps because the cells already had a lower capacity to produce O2-. Upon further examination of the data from the patient population, monocytes from lepromatous patients released significantly less O2- than cells from normal controls, while tuberculoid patient cells released O2- in amounts similar to that generated by cells from normal controls. In addition, monocytes from patients with a high bacterial index had a lower capacity to generate O2- when compared to cells from healthy individuals. PMID:2169513

  2. Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression by dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) through the AMPK–Nrf2 dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghun; Kim, Sunyoung, E-mail: sunyoung@snu.ac.kr

    2014-11-15

    Oxidative stress is induced by the accumulation of free radicals, resulting in an imbalanced cellular redox state, which has been implicated in a variety of human diseases. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA), a lignan compound isolated from Cucurbita moschata, has previously been reported to contain anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effects on 3T3-L1 cells and primary MEFs (Abraham and Kappas, 2008). In this study, it was tested whether DHCA could affect the expression of HO-1, using Raw264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. DHCA increased the protein and RNA levels of HO-1 and upregulated its promoter activity. Data from transient transfection assays indicated that ARE located in the E1 region of the HO-1 promoter are important in this DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1 expression. DHCA was also shown to enhance the nuclear translocation and binding of Nrf2 to the respective DNA sequences. The upregulation of HO-1 expression by DHCA was also observed in primary macrophages derived from wild type animals, but not in those from Nrf2 KO mice. Effects of DHCA on HO-1 and Nrf2 were reduced when cells were treated with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C, but not by PI3K/Akt or MAPK inhibitors. Data from an experiment using a specific siRNA or chemical inhibitor for HO-1 suggested that the DHCA-mediated induction of the HO-1 protein could suppress the LPS-stimulated production of NO. Taken together, our data suggest that DHCA induces the expression of HO-1 by controlling its promoter activity through the AMPK–Nrf2 pathway, eventually leading to the reduction of NO production, and may thus have potential as an effective antioxidant. - Highlights: • Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DHCA) induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. • The AMPK–Nrf2 pathway is critically involved in the DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1. • DHCA increased the expression of HO-1, Gclc and Gclm in primary macrophages. • DHCA-mediated induction of HO-1 contributed to the suppression of NO production.

  3. Heme oxygenase is the major 32-kDa stress protein induced in human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have shown that UVA (320-380 nm) radiation, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium arsenite induce a stress protein of approximately 32 kDa in human skin fibroblasts. The synthesis and cloning of cDNA from arsenite-induced mRNA populations have now allowed us to unequivocally identify the 32-kDa protein as heme oxygenase. By mRNA analysis we have shown that the heme oxygenase gene is also induced in cultured human skin fibroblasts by UVA radiation, hydrogen peroxide, cadmium chloride, iodoacetamide, and menadione. The known antioxidant properties of heme catabolites taken together with the observation of a high level of induction of the enzyme in cells from an organ not involved in hemoglobin breakdown strongly supports the proposal that the induction of heme oxygenase may be a general response to oxidant stress and constitutes an important cellular defense mechanism against oxidative damage

  4. The heme biosynthetic pathway of the obligate Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi as a potential anti-filarial drug target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Filarial parasites (e.g., Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus, and Wuchereria bancrofti are causative agents of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are among the most disabling of neglected tropical diseases. There is an urgent need to develop macro-filaricidal drugs, as current anti-filarial chemotherapy (e.g., diethylcarbamazine [DEC], ivermectin and albendazole can interrupt transmission predominantly by killing microfilariae (mf larvae, but is less effective on adult worms, which can live for decades in the human host. All medically relevant human filarial parasites appear to contain an obligate endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia. This alpha-proteobacterial mutualist has been recognized as a potential target for filarial nematode life cycle intervention, as antibiotic treatments of filarial worms harboring Wolbachia result in the loss of worm fertility and viability upon antibiotic treatments both in vitro and in vivo. Human trials have confirmed this approach, although the length of treatments, high doses required and medical counter-indications for young children and pregnant women warrant the identification of additional anti-Wolbachia drugs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genome sequence analysis indicated that enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis might constitute a potential anti-Wolbachia target set. We tested different heme biosynthetic pathway inhibitors in ex vivo B. malayi viability assays and report a specific effect of N-methyl mesoporphyrin (NMMP, which targets ferrochelatase (FC, the last step. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates evolutionarily significant divergence between Wolbachia heme genes and their human homologues. We therefore undertook the cloning, overexpression and analysis of several enzymes of this pathway alongside their human homologues, and prepared proteins for drug targeting. In vitro enzyme assays revealed a approximately 600-fold difference in drug sensitivities to succinyl acetone (SA between

  5. CYB5D2 requires heme-binding to regulate HeLa cell growth and confer survival from chemotherapeutic agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bruce

    Full Text Available The cytochrome b5 domain containing 2 (CYB5D2; Neuferricin protein has been reported to bind heme, however, the critical residues responsible for heme-binding are undefined. Furthermore, the relationship between heme-binding and CYB5D2-mediated intracellular functions remains unknown. Previous studies examining heme-binding in two cytochrome b5 heme-binding domain-containing proteins, damage-associated protein 1 (Dap1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, have revealed that conserved tyrosine (Y 73, Y79, aspartic acid (D 86, and Y127 residues present in human CYB5D2 may be involved in heme-binding. CYB5D2 binds to type b heme, however, only the substitution of glycine (G at D86 (D86G within its cytochrome b5 heme-binding (cyt-b5 domain abolished its heme-binding ability. Both CYB5D2 and CYB5D2(D86G localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ectopic CYB5D2 expression inhibited cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony growth of HeLa cells. Conversely, CYB5D2 knockdown and ectopic CYB5D2(D86G expression increased cell proliferation and colony growth. As PGRMC1 has been reported to regulate the expression and activities of cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs, we examined the role of CYB5D2 in regulating the activities of CYPs involved in sterol synthesis (CYP51A1 and drug metabolism (CYP3A4. CYB5D2 co-localizes with cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR, while CYB5D2 knockdown reduced lanosterol demethylase (CYP51A1 levels and rendered HeLa cells sensitive to mevalonate. Additionally, knockdown of CYB5D2 reduced CYP3A4 activity. Lastly, CYB5D2 expression conferred HeLa cell survival from chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin, with its ability to promote survival being dependent on its heme-binding ability. Taken together, this study provides evidence that heme-binding is critical for CYB5D2 in regulating HeLa cell growth and survival, with endogenous CYB5D2 being required to

  6. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  7. Hydride Attack on a Coordinated Ferric Nitrosyl: Experimental and DFT Evidence for the Formation of a Heme Model-HNO Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abucayon, Erwin G; Khade, Rahul L; Powell, Douglas R; Zhang, Yong; Richter-Addo, George B

    2016-01-13

    Heme-HNO species are crucial intermediates in several biological processes. To date, no well-defined Fe heme-HNO model compounds have been reported. Hydride attack on the cationic ferric [(OEP)Fe(NO)(5-MeIm)]OTf (OEP = octaethylporphyrinato dianion) generates an Fe-HNO product that has been characterized by IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Results of DFT calculations reveal a direct attack of the hydride on the N atom of the coordinated ferric nitrosyl. PMID:26678216

  8. Detergent-Mediated Formation of β-Hematin: Heme Crystallization Promoted by Detergents Implicates Nanostructure Formation for Use as a Biological Mimic

    OpenAIRE

    Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Kim Y. Fong; Stiebler, Renata; Gulka, Christopher P.; Nesbitt, Jenny E.; Oliveira, Matheus P.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; David W. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Hemozoin is a unique biomineral that results from the sequestration of toxic free heme liberated as a consequence of hemoglobin degradation in the malaria parasite. Synthetic neutral lipid droplets (SNLDs) and phospholipids were previously shown to support the rapid formation of β-hematin, abiological hemozoin, under physiologically relevant pH and temperature, though the mechanism by which heme crystallization occurs remains unclear. Detergents are particularly interesting as a template beca...

  9. Human mesenchymal stem cells elevate CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells of asthmatic patients via heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-guo; Zhuan-sun, Yong-xun; Wen, Bing; Wu, Hao; Huang, Feng-ting; Ghimire, Hridaya bibhu; Ran, Pi-xin

    2013-09-01

    Up-regulation of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a new target in the treatment of asthma. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can up-regulate CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells in vitro, meanwhile, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. However the mechanism has not yet been adequately understood. Hence, we wondered what effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 made on regulation of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells mediated by mesenchymal stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from asthmatic patients and healthy controls were co-cultured with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells which were pretreated with Hemin (the revulsive of Heme Oxygenase-1), Protoporphyrin Ⅸ zinc (the inhibitor of Heme Oxygenase-1) and saline. The expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 in MSCs was enhanced by Hemin and inhibited by Protoporphyrin  zinc in vitro. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 elevated the proportion of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells in CD4+ T cells, meanwhile, inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1 decreased the proportion of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells in CD4+ T cells as compared with mesenchymal stem cells alone. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Heme Oxygenase-1 contributed to the up-regulation of CD4+CD25+CD127low/- regulatory T cells mediated by mesenchymal stem cells in asthma.  PMID:23893806

  10. Subpicosecond oxygen trapping in the heme pocket of the oxygen sensor FixL observed by time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglik, Sergei G; Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Yamashita, Taku; Liebl, Ursula; Martin, Jean-Louis; Vos, Marten H

    2007-05-01

    Dissociation of oxygen from the heme domain of the bacterial oxygen sensor protein FixL constitutes the first step in hypoxia-induced signaling. In the present study, the photodissociation of the heme-O2 bond was used to synchronize this event, and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopy with subpicosecond time resolution was implemented to characterize the heme configuration of the primary photoproduct. TR(3) measurements on heme-oxycomplexes are highly challenging and have not yet been reported. Whereas in all other known six-coordinated heme protein complexes with diatomic ligands, including the oxymyoglobin reported here, heme iron out-of-plane motion (doming) occurs faster than 1 ps after iron-ligand bond breaking; surprisingly, no sizeable doming is observed in the oxycomplex of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum FixL sensor domain (FixLH). This assessment is deduced from the absence of the iron-histidine band around 217 cm(-1) as early as 0.5 ps. We suggest that efficient ultrafast oxygen rebinding to the heme occurs on the femtosecond time scale, thus hindering heme doming. Comparing WT oxy-FixLH, mutant proteins FixLH-R220H and FixLH-R220Q, the respective carbonmonoxy-complexes, and oxymyoglobin, we show that a hydrogen bond of the terminal oxygen atom with the residue in position 220 is responsible for the observed behavior; in WT FixL this residue is arginine, crucially implicated in signal transmission. We propose that the rigid O2 configuration imposed by this residue, in combination with the hydrophobic and constrained properties of the distal cavity, keep dissociated oxygen in place. These results uncover the origin of the "oxygen cage" properties of this oxygen sensor protein. PMID:17446273

  11. In vivo genotoxic effects of dietary heme iron on rat colon mucosa and ex vivo effects on colon cells monitored by an optimized alkaline comet assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Océane, C Martin

    2015-04-01

    In conclusion, our results offer a suitable protocol to evaluate genotoxicity on in vivo cryopreserved colon mucosa and on in vitro murine colonic cells, with a middle throughput capacity. This protocol confirms the increase of genotoxicity in rat colon mucosa after an heme-iron diet. Moreover, this protocol enables the demonstration that aldehydes from heme-induced lipoperoxidation are responsible for this increase of genotoxicity.

  12. Enzymatic preparation and protection technology of heme%亚铁血红素的酶法制备及其保护工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄红; 朱媛媛; 张婷; 陈乐群; 刘静波

    2011-01-01

    选用碱性和风味酶对血红蛋白进行复合酶解制取亚铁血红素,分别利用单因素、正交和回归试验优化水解条件,且采用单一抗氧化剂、还原剂及抗氧化剂/还原剂组合保护亚铁血红素中的二价铁.试验结果表明:在碱性蛋白酶底物质量分数为7%,酶质量分数为1%,pH值为8,酶解2 h,二次酶解风味酶pH值为6.5,酶质量分数为2%,继续酶解2 h,亚铁血红素得率可达到11.18 mg/mL;保护剂亚硫酸钠(0.03%)/L-抗坏血酸棕榈酸酯(0.03%)的亚铁保护性能最强,可使亚铁血红素得率达到12.60 mg/mL,提高了11.27%.%Alkaline and flavorzyme were used for the enzymolysis of hemoglobin to obtain heme. Single factor,orthogonal and regression experiment were employed to optimize hydrolysis conditions, which affect the two enzymes. Single antioxidant, single reductant, composite antioxidants, antioxidant and reductant composition were added to protect ferrous iron. The optimal conditions were: first, the substrate concentration of 7%,alkaline concentration of 10%, pH of 8, hydrolysis time 2 hours; then flavor enzyme concentration of 2 %, pH of 6%, another two hours hydrolysis time; the yield of heme of 11.18%was achieved. The best ferrous iron protective performance was achieved with protective agents anhydrous sodium sulfite of 0.03 % and l-ascorbyl palmitate 0.03%; the yield of ferroprotoporhyrin reached 12.60 mg/ml, which was raised by 11.27%.

  13. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses heat shock protein 90 and the proliferation of human breast cancer cells through its byproduct carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wen-Ying [Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Chou [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chwen-Ming; Lin, Chun-Mao; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei, E-mail: cwlin@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an oxidative stress-response enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme into bilirubin, ferric ion, and carbon monoxide (CO). Induction of HO-1 was reported to have antitumor activity; the inhibitory mechanism, however, is still unclear. In the present study, we found that treatment with [Ru(CO){sub 3}Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2} (RuCO), a CO-releasing compound, reduced the growth of human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Analysis of growth-related proteins showed that treatment with RuCO down-regulated cyclinD1, CDK4, and hTERT protein expressions. Interestingly, RuCO treatment resulted in opposite effects on wild-type and mutant p53 proteins. These results were similar to those of cells treated with geldanamycin (a heat shock protein (HSP)90 inhibitor), suggesting that RuCO might affect HSP90 activity. Moreover, RuCO induced mutant p53 protein destabilization accompanied by promotion of ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. The induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) showed consistent results, while the addition of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, diminished the RuCO-mediated effect. RuCO induction of HO-1 expression was reduced by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Additionally, treatment with a chemopreventive compound, curcumin, induced HO-1 expression accompanied with reduction of HSP90 client protein expression. The induction of HO-1 by curcumin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-elicited matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and tumor invasion. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence underlying HO-1's antitumor mechanism. CO, a byproduct of HO-1, suppresses HSP90 protein activity, and the induction of HO-1 may possess potential as a cancer therapeutic. - Highlights: • CO and HO-1 inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells. • CO and HO-1 attenuated HSP90 and its client proteins expression. • CO induced mutant p53 protein

  14. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses heat shock protein 90 and the proliferation of human breast cancer cells through its byproduct carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an oxidative stress-response enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme into bilirubin, ferric ion, and carbon monoxide (CO). Induction of HO-1 was reported to have antitumor activity; the inhibitory mechanism, however, is still unclear. In the present study, we found that treatment with [Ru(CO)3Cl2]2 (RuCO), a CO-releasing compound, reduced the growth of human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Analysis of growth-related proteins showed that treatment with RuCO down-regulated cyclinD1, CDK4, and hTERT protein expressions. Interestingly, RuCO treatment resulted in opposite effects on wild-type and mutant p53 proteins. These results were similar to those of cells treated with geldanamycin (a heat shock protein (HSP)90 inhibitor), suggesting that RuCO might affect HSP90 activity. Moreover, RuCO induced mutant p53 protein destabilization accompanied by promotion of ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. The induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) showed consistent results, while the addition of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, diminished the RuCO-mediated effect. RuCO induction of HO-1 expression was reduced by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Additionally, treatment with a chemopreventive compound, curcumin, induced HO-1 expression accompanied with reduction of HSP90 client protein expression. The induction of HO-1 by curcumin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-elicited matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and tumor invasion. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence underlying HO-1's antitumor mechanism. CO, a byproduct of HO-1, suppresses HSP90 protein activity, and the induction of HO-1 may possess potential as a cancer therapeutic. - Highlights: • CO and HO-1 inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells. • CO and HO-1 attenuated HSP90 and its client proteins expression. • CO induced mutant p53 protein ubiquitination and degradation.

  15. Physical exercise-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 in human leukocytes: effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, A M; Sommer, M; Schneider, M; Angres, C; Tschositsch, K; Golly, I C; Battenfeld, N; Northoff, H; Biesalski, H K; Dickhuth, H H; Fehrenbach, E

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (500 IU/day, 8 days) on in vivo cytokine response and cytoplasmic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the antioxidant stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human leukocytes after exhaustive exercise. Thirteen men were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with a wash-out period of 28 days. The exercise procedure consisted of an incremental treadmill test followed by a continuous run until exhaustion at 110% of the individual anaerobic threshold (total duration 28.5 +/- 0.8 min). HO-1 and iNOS protein were assessed in mono- (M), lympho-, and granulocytes (G) using flow cytometry. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. IL-6 rose significantly whereas IL-8 did not exhibit significant changes after exercise. Changes of IL-6 were not affected by RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Exercise induced an increase of iNOS protein primarily in M and G. A small, but significant, increase of HO-1 protein was measured in M and G. RRR-alpha-Tocopherol did not show any significant effects on cytoplasmic expression of iNOS and HO-1 at rest and after exercise. In conclusion, exhaustive exercise induces expression of iNOS and HO-1 in human leukocytes by a mechanism that is not sensitive to RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation. PMID:11232592

  16. Heme oxygenase: the physiological role of one of its metabolites, carbon monoxide and interactions with zinc protoporphyrin, cobalt protoporphyrin and other metalloporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, G S

    1994-11-01

    In 1991, we postulated that carbon monoxide, which is formed endogenously from heme catabolism catalyzed by heme oxygenase and shares some of the chemical and biological properties of nitric oxide, may play a role similar to that of nitric oxide as a widespread signal transduction mechanism for the regulation of cell function and communication. We review the experimental evidence that tests this postulate. Carbon monoxide appears to be involved in the neurophysiological phenomenon of long-term potentiation, which appears to play a key role in memory and learning. Zinc protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase, prevents induction of long-term potentiation. Zinc protoporphyrin is an endogenous substance, the levels of which are increased in iron deficiency states and in lead poisoning, and by inhibiting heme oxygenase may modulate long-term potentiation and memory. It has been shown that, when cobalt protoporphyrin is injected into the medial nuclei of the rat hypothalamus, weight loss occurs. These nuclei contain heme oxygenase, and we postulate that weight loss is due to cobalt protoporphyrin induction of heme oxygenase and increased formation of carbon monoxide, which serves as a signal transduction mechanism in the medial hypothalamus to suppress appetite. PMID:7849553

  17. Purification and Characterization of a New Heme-Binding Protein (HBP59) from the Mutant Strain DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Min Bian; Huang-Ping Wang; Hui-Na Zhou; Ying Zhao; Jian-Feng Zhao; Ju-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    A new protein, an approximately 59-kDa monomer containing iron atoms, was first isolated from the mutant strain DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandli Lipmann. After analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorptlon ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, the protein was identified as the product of a predicted gene. Thus, the protein was tentatively called HBP59. Its absorption spectra (ABS) in the reduced state exhibited three peaks at 421,517, and 556nm and the maximal peak was shifted from 421 to 413 nm after exposure of HBP59 to air. The Soret circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of HBP59 in the reduced state displayed four positive peaks at 364, 382, 406, and 418 nm and two negative peaks at 398 and 433 nm; the Δε (CD extinction coefficient) values of these peaks were found to be 0.92, 0.58, 0.87, 0.72, -0.65 and -1.12 L/mol per cm, respectively. Titration with heme showed that the protein has 0.1 heme molecules/protein molecule. After HBP59 had fully interacted with heme, its maximal ABS value and Soret CD intensity were increased by approximately 10-fold compared with values before interaction. Therefore, it seems that one molecule of HBP59 can be interacted with only one heme. These results indicate that HBP59 contains heme with iow spin and may be involved in heme utilization or adhesion.

  18. Surf1, Associated with Leigh Syndrome in Humans, Is a Heme-binding Protein in Bacterial Oxidase Biogenesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Bundschuh, Freya A.; Hannappel, Achim; Anderka, Oliver; Ludwig, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) relies on a large number of assembly factors, among them the transmembrane protein Surf1. The loss of human Surf1 function is associated with Leigh syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by severe COX deficiency. In the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, two homologous proteins, Surf1c and Surf1q, were identified, which we characterize in the present study. When coexpressed in Escherichia coli together with enzymes for heme ...

  19. A functional link between heme oxygenase-1 and tristetraprolin in the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Joe, Yeonsoo; Zheng, Min; Blackshear, Perry J.; Stefan W. Ryter; Park, Jeong Woo; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and prevents excessive inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory cytokines from macrophages. We have previously reported that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and tristetraprolin (TTP) are induced by nicotine and mediate the anti-inflammatory function of nicotine in macrophages. However, it was not clear whether two molecules are functionally linked. In this study, we sought to determine whether HO-1 associates with TTP to medi...

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 protects donor livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury:The role of Kupffer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To examine whether heme oxygenase (HO)-1 overexpression would exert direct or indirect effects on Kupffer cells activation, which lead to aggravation of reperfusion injury.METHODS: Donors were pretreated with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), HO-1 inducer and antagonist, respectively. Livers were stored at 4℃ for 24 h before transplantation. Kupffer cells were isolated and cultured for 6 h after liver reperfusion.RESULTS: Postoperatively, serum transaminases were significantly ...