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Sample records for affect oxidant-responsive heme

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 deletion affects stress erythropoiesis.

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    Yu-An Cao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homeostatic erythropoiesis leads to the formation of mature red blood cells under non-stress conditions, and the production of new erythrocytes occurs as the need arises. In response to environmental stimuli, such as bone marrow transplantation, myelosuppression, or anemia, erythroid progenitors proliferate rapidly in a process referred to as stress erythropoiesis. We have previously demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 deficiency leads to disrupted stress hematopoiesis. Here, we describe the specific effects of HO-1 deficiency on stress erythropoiesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a transplant model to induce stress conditions. In irradiated recipients that received hmox(+/- or hmox(+/+ bone marrow cells, we evaluated (i the erythrocyte parameters in the peripheral blood; (ii the staining intensity of CD71-, Ter119-, and CD49d-specific surface markers during erythroblast differentiation; (iii the patterns of histological iron staining; and (iv the number of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α. In the spleens of mice that received hmox(+/- cells, we show (i decreases in the proerythroblast, basophilic, and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations; (ii increases in the insoluble iron levels and decreases in the soluble iron levels; (iii increased numbers of Mac-1(+-cells expressing TNF-α; and (iv decreased levels of CD49d expression in the basophilic and polychromatophilic erythroblast populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As reflected by effects on secreted and cell surface proteins, HO-1 deletion likely affects stress erythropoiesis through the retention of erythroblasts in the erythroblastic islands of the spleen. Thus, HO-1 may serve as a therapeutic target for controlling erythropoiesis, and the dysregulation of HO-1 may be a predisposing condition for hematologic diseases.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in prostate cancer cells modulates the oxidative response in bone cells.

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    Mercedes Ferrando

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs, we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1 cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis.

  3. Dietary heme-mediated PPARa activation does not affect the heme-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and hyperplasia in mouse colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Wit, de N.J.W.; Muller, M.R.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat consumption is associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Heme, present in red meat, injures the colon surface epithelium by luminal cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. This surface injury is overcompensated by hyperproliferation and hyperplasia of crypt cells. Transcriptome anal

  4. Dietary heme adversely affects experimental colitis in rats, despite heat-shock protein induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepens, Marloes A. A.; Vink, Carolien; Schonewille, Arjan J.; Dijkstra, Gerard; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on dietary modulation of inflammatory bowel disease is in its infancy. Dietary heme, mimicking red meat, is cytotoxic to colonic epithelium and thus may aggravate colitis. Alternatively, heme-induced colonic stress might also result in potential protective heat-shock proteins (HS

  5. Measurement of heme concentration.

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    Sinclair, P R; Gorman, N; Jacobs, J M

    2001-05-01

    Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a prosthetic group for a number of hemoproteins in different tissues (e.g., hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome P-450s, mitochondrial cytochromes, catalases, and peroxidases). Mutations in the biosynthetic pathway can affect the synthesis and/or degradation of heme. Several assays are provided in this unit for quantifying heme: a spectrophotometric assay based on the characteristic absorption spectrum of oxidized and reduced form of the hemochrome formed by replacing the nitrogen ligands with pyridine; a fluorescence assay based on removal of the iron by a heated, strong oxalic acid solution to produce fluorescent protoporphyrin; a reversed-phase HPLC assay to measure heme and intermediates in the synthetic pathway; and a radiometric assay to measure newly synthesized heme in tissue culture cells.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 and its metabolites affect pancreatic tumor growth in vivo

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    Nuhn Philipp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer (PaCa is a fatal human cancer due to its exceptional resistance to all current anticancer therapies. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is significantly overexpressed in PaCa and seems to play an important role in cancer resistance to anticancer treatment. The inhibition of HO-1 sensitized PaCa cells to chemo- and radiotherapy in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HO-1 and its metabolites biliverdin, carbon monoxide and iron on PaCa cells. PaCa cell lines with divergent HO-1 expression patterns were used in a murine orthotopic cancer model. HO-1 expression and activity was regulated by zinc (inhibition and cobalt (induction protoporphyrin. Furthermore, the influence of cellular HO-1 levels and its metabolites on effects of standard chemotherapy with gemcitabine was tested in vivo and in vitro. Results High HO-1 expression in PaCa cell lines was associated with increased chemoresistance in vitro. Chemoresistance to gemcitabine was increased during HO-1 induction in PaCa cells expressing low levels of HO-1. The inhibition of HO-1 activity in pancreatic tumors with high HO-1 boosted chemotherapeutic effects in vivo significantly. Furthermore, biliverdin and iron promoted PaCa resistance to chemotherapy. Consequently, specific iron chelation by desferrioxamine revealed profound anticancerous effects. Conclusion In summary, the inhibition of HO-1 and the chelation of iron in PaCa cells were associated with increased sensitivity and susceptibility of pancreatic tumors to chemotherapy in vivo. The metabolites biliverdin and iron seem to be involved in HO-1-mediated resistance to anticancer treatment. Therefore, HO-1 inhibition or direct interference with its metabolites may evolve new PaCa treatment strategies.

  7. Disruption of a hydrogen bond network in human versus spider monkey cytochrome c affects heme crevice stability.

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    Goldes, Matthew E; Jeakins-Cooley, Margaret E; McClelland, Levi J; Mou, Tung-Chung; Bowler, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    The hypothesis that the recent rapid evolution of primate cytochromes c, which primarily involves residues in the least stable Ω-loop (Ω-loop C, residues 40-57), stabilizes the heme crevice of cytochrome c relative to other mammals, is tested. To accomplish this goal, we have compared the properties of human and spider monkey cytochrome c and a set of four variants produced in the process of converting human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability of all variants has been measured by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. The stability of the heme crevice has been assessed with the alkaline conformational transition. Structural insight into the effects of the five amino acid substitutions needed to convert human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c is provided by a 1.15Å resolution structure of spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability for all variants is near 9.0kcal/mol at 25°C and pH7, which is higher than that observed for other mammalian cytochromes c. The heme crevice stability is more sensitive to the substitutions required to produce spider monkey cytochrome c with decreases of up to 0.5 units in the apparent pKa of the alkaline conformational transition relative to human cytochrome c. The structure of spider monkey cytochrome c indicates that the Y46F substitution destabilizes the heme crevice by disrupting an extensive hydrogen bond network that connects three surface loops including Ω-loop D (residues 70-85), which contains the Met80 heme ligand.

  8. SpyB, a small heme-binding protein, affects the composition of the cell wall in Streptococcus pyogenes

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    Rebecca J Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS is a haemolytic human pathogen associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from minor skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. The cell wall of GAS consists of peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with a carbohydrate comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine side-chains. All GAS genomes contain the spyBA operon, which encodes a 35-amino-acid membrane protein SpyB, and a membrane-bound C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA. In this study we addressed the function of SpyB in GAS. Phenotypic analysis of a spyB deletion mutant revealed increased bacterial aggregation, and reduced sensitivity to β-lactams of the cephalosporin class and peptidoglycan hydrolase PlyC. Glycosyl composition analysis of cell wall isolated from the spyB mutant suggested an altered carbohydrate structure compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that SpyB associates with heme and protoporphyrin IX. Heme binding induces SpyB dimerization, which involves disulfide bond formation between the subunits. Thus, our data suggest the possibility that SpyB activity is regulated by heme.

  9. Mechanisms of heme utilization by Francisella tularensis.

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    Helena Lindgren

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent facultative intracellular pathogen causing the severe disease tularemia in mammals. As for other bacteria, iron is essential for its growth but very few mechanisms for iron acquisition have been identified. Here, we analyzed if and how F. tularensis can utilize heme, a major source of iron in vivo. This is by no means obvious since the bacterium lacks components of traditional heme-uptake systems. We show that SCHU S4, the prototypic strain of subspecies tularensis, grew in vitro with heme as the sole iron source. By screening a SCHU S4 transposon insertion library, 16 genes were identified as important to efficiently utilize heme, two of which were required to avoid heme toxicity. None of the identified genes appeared to encode components of a potential heme-uptake apparatus. Analysis of SCHU S4 deletion mutants revealed that each of the components FeoB, the siderophore system, and FupA, contributed to the heme-dependent growth. In the case of the former two systems, iron acquisition was impaired, whereas the absence of FupA did not affect iron uptake but led to abnormally high binding of iron to macromolecules. Overall, the present study demonstrates that heme supports growth of F. tularensis and that the requirements for the utilization are highly complex and to some extent novel.

  10. Evaluation of unbound free heme in plant cells by differential acetone extraction.

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    Espinas, Nino A; Kobayashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2012-07-01

    Heme functions not only as a prosthetic group of hemoproteins but also as a regulatory molecule, suggesting the presence of 'free' heme. Classically, total non-covalently bound heme is extracted from plant samples with acidic acetone after removal of pigments with basic and neutral acetone. Earlier work proposed that free heme can be selectively extracted into basic acetone. Using authentic hemoproteins, we confirmed that acidic acetone can quantitatively extract heme, while no heme was extracted into neutral acetone. Meanwhile, a certain amount of heme was extracted into basic acetone from hemoglobin and myoglobin. Moreover, basic acetone extracted loosely bound heme from bovine serum albumin, implying that the nature of hemoproteins largely influences heme extraction into basic acetone. Using a highly sensitive heme assay, we found that basic and neutral acetone can extract low levels of heme from plant samples. In addition, neutral acetone quantitatively extracted free heme when it was externally added to plant homogenates. Furthermore, the level of neutral acetone-extractable heme remained unchanged by precursor (5-aminolevulinic acid) feeding, while increased by norflurazon treatment which abolishes chloroplast biogenesis. However, changes in these heme levels did not correlate to genomes uncoupled phenotypes, suggesting that the level of unbound free heme would not affect retrograde signaling from plastids to the nucleus. The present data demonstrate that the combination of single-step acetone extraction following a sensitive heme assay is the ideal method for determining total and free heme in plants.

  11. Atorvastatin prevents hypoxia-induced inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression but does not affect heme oxygenase-1 in human microvascular endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Jazwa, Agnieszka; Jozkowicz, Alicj A.; Dorosz, Jerzy; Balla, Jozsef; Molema, Grietje; Dulak, Jozef

    2006-01-01

    Beneficial cardiovascular effects of statins, the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are particularly assigned to the modulation of inflammation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) are listed among the crucial protective, anti-i

  12. Processing of heme and heme-containing proteins by bacteria.

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    Stojiljkovic, Igor; Perkins-Balding, Donna

    2002-04-01

    An extensive amount of new knowledge on bacterial systems involved in heme processing has been accumulated in the last 10 years. We discuss common themes in heme transport across bacterial outer and inner membranes, emphasizing proteins and mechanisms involved. The processing of heme in the bacterial cytoplasm is extensively covered, and a new hypothesis about the fate of heme in the bacterial cell is presented. Auxiliary genes involved in heme utilization, i.e., TonB, proteases, proteins involved in heme storage and pigmentation, as well as genes involved in regulation of heme assimilation are reviewed.

  13. Dioxygen reactivity of meso-hydroxylated hemes: intermediates in heme degradation process catalyzed by heme oxygenase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Prasad Rath

    2006-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the only enzyme in mammals known to catalyse the physiological degradation of unwanted heme into biliverdin, Fe ion and CO. The process involves introduction of the hydroxyl group at one of its meso-positions as the first fundamental step of the heme cleavage process. It was also found that meso-amino heme undergoes similar ring-cleavage process while reacting with dioxygen in presence of pyridine as an axial ligand. The present paper briefly reviews the reactions of model meso-hydroxylated heme and its analogues with dioxygen, and their relevance in the heme degradation process.

  14. Activation of lactoperoxidase by heme-linked protonation and heme-independent iodide binding.

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    Toyama, Akira; Tominaga, Aya; Inoue, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO), a mammalian secretory heme peroxidase, catalyzes the oxidation of thiocyanate by hydrogen peroxide to produce hypothiocyanate, an antibacterial agent. Although LPO is known to be activated at acidic pH and in the presence of iodide, the structural basis of the activation is not well understood. We have examined the effects of pH and iodide concentration on the catalytic activity and the structure of LPO. Electrochemical and colorimetric assays have shown that the catalytic activity is maximized at pH 4.5. The heme Soret absorption band exhibits a small red-shift at pH 5.0 upon acidification, which is ascribable to a structural transition from a neutral to an acidic form. Resonance Raman spectra suggest that the heme porphyrin core is slightly contracted and the Fe-His bond is strengthened in the acidic form compared to the neutral form. The structural change of LPO upon activation at acidic pH is similar to that observed for myeloperoxidase, another mammalian heme peroxidase, upon activation at neutral pH. Binding of iodide enhances the catalytic activity of LPO without affecting either the optimum pH of activity or the heme structure, implying that the iodide binding occurs at a protein site away from the heme-linked protonation site.

  15. Hemolysis-induced lethality involves inflammasome activation by heme.

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    Dutra, Fabianno F; Alves, Letícia S; Rodrigues, Danielle; Fernandez, Patricia L; de Oliveira, Rosane B; Golenbock, Douglas T; Zamboni, Dario S; Bozza, Marcelo T

    2014-09-30

    The increase of extracellular heme is a hallmark of hemolysis or extensive cell damage. Heme has prooxidant, cytotoxic, and inflammatory effects, playing a central role in the pathogenesis of malaria, sepsis, and sickle cell disease. However, the mechanisms by which heme is sensed by innate immune cells contributing to these diseases are not fully characterized. We found that heme, but not porphyrins without iron, activated LPS-primed macrophages promoting the processing of IL-1β dependent on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). The activation of NLRP3 by heme required spleen tyrosine kinase, NADPH oxidase-2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and K(+) efflux, whereas it was independent of heme internalization, lysosomal damage, ATP release, the purinergic receptor P2X7, and cell death. Importantly, our results indicated the participation of macrophages, NLRP3 inflammasome components, and IL-1R in the lethality caused by sterile hemolysis. Thus, understanding the molecular pathways affected by heme in innate immune cells might prove useful to identify new therapeutic targets for diseases that have heme release.

  16. Renal failure affects the enzymatic activities of the three first steps in hepatic heme biosynthesis in the acute intermittent porphyria mouse.

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    Carmen Unzu

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is a long-term complication in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP. The pathophysiological significance of hepatic overproduction of the porphyrin precursors aminolevulinate acid (ALA and porphobilinogen (PBG in chronic kidney disease is unclear. We have investigated the effect of repetitive acute attacks on renal function and the effect of total or five-sixth nephrectomy causing renal insufficiency on hepatic heme synthesis in the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD-deficient (AIP mouse. Phenobarbital challenge in the AIP-mice increased urinary porphyrin precursor excretion. Successive attacks throughout 14 weeks led to minor renal lesions with no impact on renal function. In the liver of wild type and AIP mice, 5/6 nephrectomy enhanced transcription of the first and rate-limiting ALA synthase. As a consequence, urinary PBG excretion increased in AIP mice. The PBG/ALA ratio increased from 1 in sham operated AIP animals to over 5 (males and over 13 (females in the 5/6 nephrectomized mice. Total nephrectomy caused a rapid decrease in PBGD activity without changes in enzyme protein level in the AIP mice but not in the wild type animals. In conclusion, high concentration of porphyrin precursors had little impact on renal function. However, progressive renal insufficiency aggravates porphyria attacks and increases the PBG/ALA ratio, which should be considered a warning sign for potentially life-threatening impairment in AIP patients with signs of renal failure.

  17. How Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Heme-Induced Cell Death.

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    Lilibeth Lanceta

    Full Text Available Earlier observations indicate that free heme is selectively toxic to cells lacking heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 but how this enzyme prevents heme toxicity remains unexplained. Here, using A549 (human lung cancer and immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells incubated with exogenous heme, we find knock-down of HO-1 using siRNA does promote the accumulation of cell-associated heme and heme-induced cell death. However, it appears that the toxic effects of heme are exerted by "loose" (probably intralysosomal iron because cytotoxic effects of heme are lessened by pre-incubation of HO-1 deficient cells with desferrioxamine (which localizes preferentially in the lysosomal compartment. Desferrioxamine also decreases lysosomal rupture promoted by intracellularly generated hydrogen peroxide. Supporting the importance of endogenous oxidant production, both chemical and siRNA inhibition of catalase activity predisposes HO-1 deficient cells to heme-mediated killing. Importantly, it appears that HO-1 deficiency somehow blocks the induction of ferritin; control cells exposed to heme show ~10-fold increases in ferritin heavy chain expression whereas in heme-exposed HO-1 deficient cells ferritin expression is unchanged. Finally, overexpression of ferritin H chain in HO-1 deficient cells completely prevents heme-induced cytotoxicity. Although two other products of HO-1 activity--CO and bilirubin--have been invoked to explain HO-1-mediated cytoprotection, we conclude that, at least in this experimental system, HO-1 activity triggers the induction of ferritin and the latter is actually responsible for the cytoprotective effects of HO-1 activity.

  18. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption

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    Valerie Weinborn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study. Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control, study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05. In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05. These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  19. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

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    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  20. The Legend of Sally Hemings

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    Belz, Herman

    2012-01-01

    The part played by Sally Hemings in the life of Thomas Jefferson has been regarded as provocatively dubious since political enemy James Callender claimed in 1802 that Jefferson was the father of several of Hemings's children. Historian Merrill Peterson, observing that paternity is hard to prove, wrote in 1960 that no concrete evidence was ever…

  1. The heme-heme oxygenase system: a molecular switch in wound healing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Beurden, H.E. van; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Adema, G.J.; Figdor, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    When cells are injured they release their contents, resulting in a local accumulation of free heme proteins and heme. Here, we investigated the involvement of heme and its degrading enzyme heme oxygenase (HO) in the inflammatory process during wound healing. We observed that heme directly accumulate

  2. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

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    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling.

  3. Alteration by irradiation and storage at amount of heme iron in poultry meat; Alteracoes provocadas pela irradiacao e armazenamento nos teores de ferro heme em carne de frango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter Arthur [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2007-04-15

    Studies of irradiation and storage effects in chicken were carried out to discover the influence in iron heme, non-heme amount, color and total pigments. Chicken thighs and chicken breast were studied. These were irradiated to 0, 1 and 2 kGy stored by 14 days to 4 deg C in refrigerator. Determining the heme content and non-heme of meat was done using the colorimeter method and the Ferrozine reagent. The values of iron heme were influenced both by the irradiation and the storage, reducing the amount throughout the course of time. The iron non-heme was also influenced by the doses and the storage time, however the values increased throughout the course of time, because of the conversion of iron heme in non-heme. The color did not show that it was influenced by the studied doses, except for the storage, and the total number of pigments was affected by the irradiation and the time, reducing the values with the increase of storage. Irradiation was shown to be a good method to conserve iron. (author)

  4. Bioactive dietary polyphenols decrease heme iron absorption by decreasing basolateral iron release in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

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    Ma, Qianyi; Kim, Eun-Young; Han, Okhee

    2010-06-01

    Because dietary polyphenolic compounds have a wide range of effects in vivo and vitro, including chelation of metals such as iron, it is prudent to test whether the regular consumption of dietary bioactive polyphenols impair the utilization of dietary iron. Because our previous study showed the inhibitory effect of (-) -epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and grape seed extract (GSE) on nonheme iron absorption, we investigated whether EGCG and GSE also affect iron absorption from heme. The fully differentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells grown on microporous membrane inserts were incubated with heme (55)Fe in uptake buffer containing EGCG or GSE in the apical compartment for 7 h. Both EGCG and GSE decreased (P heme-derived iron. However, apical heme iron uptake was increased (P heme (55)Fe, the transfer of iron across the intestinal basolateral membrane was extremely low, indicating that basolateral export was impaired by GSE. In contrast, EGCG moderately decreased the cellular assimilation of heme (55)Fe, but the basolateral iron transfer was extremely low, suggesting that the basolateral efflux of heme iron was also inhibited by EGCG. Expression of heme oxygenase, ferroportin, and hephaestin protein was not changed by EGCG and GSE. The apical uptake of heme iron was temperature dependent and saturable in fully differentiated Caco-2 cells. Our data show that bioactive dietary polyphenols inhibit heme iron absorption mainly by reducing basolateral iron exit rather than decreasing apical heme iron uptake in intestinal cells.

  5. The P. aeruginosa Heme Binding Protein PhuS is a Heme Oxygenase Titratable Regulator of Heme Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa heme utilization (Phu) system encodes several proteins involved in the acquisition of heme as an iron source. Once internalized heme is degraded by the iron-regulated heme oxygenase, HemO to biliverdin (BV) IXδ and β. In vitro studies have shown holo-PhuS transfers heme to the iron-regulated HemO. This protein-protein interaction is specific for HemO as PhuS does not interact with the α-regioselective heme oxygenase, BphO. Bacterial genetics and isotopic labeling...

  6. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

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    Fabianno Ferreira Dutra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prostetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion and hemorrhage. The plasma scavanger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavange heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce ROS generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced citotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases.

  7. Structural Characterization of Heme Environmental Mutants of CgHmuT that Shuttles Heme Molecules to Heme Transporters

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    Norifumi Muraki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacteria contain a heme uptake system encoded in hmuTUV genes, in which HmuT protein acts as a heme binding protein to transport heme to the cognate transporter HmuUV. The crystal structure of HmuT from Corynebacterium glutamicum (CgHmuT reveals that heme is accommodated in the central cleft with His141 and Tyr240 as the axial ligands and that Tyr240 forms a hydrogen bond with Arg242. In this work, the crystal structures of H141A, Y240A, and R242A mutants were determined to understand the role of these residues for the heme binding of CgHmuT. Overall and heme environmental structures of these mutants were similar to those of the wild type, suggesting that there is little conformational change in the heme-binding cleft during heme transport reaction with binding and the dissociation of heme. A loss of one axial ligand or the hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr240 resulted in an increase in the redox potential of the heme for CgHmuT to be reduced by dithionite, though the wild type was not reduced under physiological conditions. These results suggest that the heme environmental structure stabilizes the ferric heme binding in CgHmuT, which will be responsible for efficient heme uptake under aerobic conditions where Corynebacteria grow.

  8. Dynamic Motion and Rearranged Molecular Shape of Heme in Myoglobin: Structural and Functional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin, a simple oxygen binding protein, was reconstituted with various types of synthetic hemes to manipulate the heme-globin interactions. From the paramagnetic NMR analysis, small heme was found to rotate rapidly about the iron-histidine bond upon. This is a novel and typical example for the fluctuation of protein. The dynamic NMR analysis indicated that the 360° rotational rate of a small heme was 1,400 s−1 at room temperature. The X-ray analyses revealed that the tertiary structure of globin containing the smallest heme was closely similar to that of native protein despite extensive destruction of the specific heme-globin interactions. The functional analyses of O2 binding showed that the loose heme-globin contacts do not significantly affect the oxygen binding. On the other hand, the rearrangement of tetrapyrrole array and the non-planar deformation in porphyrin ring significantly affect the functional properties of myoglobin. These results, taken together, indicate that the essential factors to regulate the myoglobin function are hidden under the molecular shape of prosthetic group rather than in the nonbonded heme-globin contacts.

  9. Non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not interact with heme iron absorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Diego; Olivares, Manuel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The absorption of heme iron has been described as distinctly different from that of non-heme iron. Moreover, whether heme and non-heme iron compete for absorption has not been well established. Our objective was to investigate the potential competition between heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate for absorption, when both iron forms are ingested on an empty stomach. Twenty-six healthy nonpregnant women were selected to participate in two iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We obtained the dose-response curve for absorption of 0.5, 10, 20, and 50 mg heme iron doses, as concentrated red blood cells. Then, we evaluated the absorption of the same doses, but additionally we added non-heme iron, as ferrous sulfate, at constant heme/non-heme iron molar ratio (1:1). Finally, we compare the two curves by a two-way ANOVA. Iron sources were administered on an empty stomach. One factor analysis showed that heme iron absorption was diminished just by increasing total heme iron (P heme iron as ferrous sulfate did not have any effect on heme iron absorption (P = NS). We reported evidence that heme and non-heme iron as ferrous sulfate does not compete for absorption. The mechanism behind the absorption of these iron sources is not clear.

  10. Measurement of heme efflux and heme content in isolated developing chloroplasts. [Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.; Weinstein, J.D. (Clemson Univ., SC (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Hemes destined for cytosolic hemoproteins must originate in one of the cellular compartments which have the capacity for heme synthesis, namely the chloroplast or the mitochondria. Since developing chloroplasts from greening cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv. Sumter) cotyledons are known to contain complete heme and chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways, they were tested for their capacity export hemes. Picomole quantities of heme were measured by reconstitution of the heme with apo-peroxidase and subsequent determination of peroxidase activity. The assay method was sensitive (as little as 0.7 picomole of heme could be detected in a volume of 100 microliters) and was linear with heme concentration. When intact plastids were incubated with apo-peroxidase, a steady-state rate of efflux between 0.12 and 0.45 picomole heme/minute/milligram plastid protein was measured. The efflux rate was not due to plastid breakage and could be enhanced by incubating with the heme precursor, {delta}-aminolevulinic acid. Cold acetone extraction removed 47 {plus minus} 17 picomoles heme/milligram plastid protein from the total b-type heme pool in the chloroplasts (166 {plus minus} 9 picomoles heme/milligram protein, by acid-acetone extraction). The reconstitution technique provided a similar estimate of readily exchangeable heme in the plastid, 37 {plus minus} 8 picomoles heme/milligram protein (or 6 micromolar in the plastids). These values may be indicative of a free heme pool which exists in the chloroplast.

  11. Therapeutic Approaches to Limit Hemolysis-Driven Endothelial Dysfunction: Scavenging Free Heme to Preserve Vasculature Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Vinchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemolysis results in the release of hemoglobin and heme into the bloodstream and is associated with the development of several pathologic conditions of different etiology, including hemoglobinopathies, hemolytic anemias, bacterial infections, malaria, and trauma. In addition, hemolysis is associated with surgical procedures, hemodialysis, blood transfusion, and other conditions in which mechanical forces can lead to red blood cell rupture. Free plasma hemoglobin and heme are toxic for the vascular endothelium since heme iron promotes oxidative stress that causes endothelial activation responsible for vasoocclusive events and thrombus formation. Moreover, free hemoglobin scavenges nitric oxide, reducing its bioavailability, and heme favours ROS production, thus causing oxidative nitric oxide consumption. This results in the dysregulation of the endothelium vasodilator:vasoconstrictor balance, leading to severe vasoconstriction and hypertension. Thus, endothelial dysfunction and impairment of cardiovascular function represent a common feature of pathologic conditions associated with hemolysis. In this review, we discuss how hemoglobin/heme released following hemolysis may affect vascular function and summarise the therapeutic approaches available to limit hemolysis-driven endothelial dysfunction. Particular emphasis is put on recent data showing the beneficial effects obtained through the use of the plasma heme scavenger hemopexin in counteracting heme-mediated endothelial damage in mouse models of hemolytic diseases.

  12. Mutational analysis of hemoglobin binding and heme utilization by a bacterial hemoglobin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, W G; Choudhary, N R; Council, S E; Collins, E J; Leduc, I

    2013-07-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for most living organisms. To acquire iron from their environment, Gram-negative bacteria use TonB-dependent transporters that bind host proteins at the bacterial surface and transport iron or heme to the periplasm via the Ton machinery. TonB-dependent transporters are barrel-shaped outer membrane proteins with 22 transmembrane domains, 11 surface-exposed loops, and a plug domain that occludes the pore. To identify key residues of TonB-dependent transporters involved in hemoglobin binding and heme transport and thereby locate putative protective epitopes, the hemoglobin receptor of Haemophilus ducreyi HgbA was used as a model of iron/heme acquisition from hemoglobin. Although all extracellular loops of HgbA are required by H. ducreyi to use hemoglobin as a source of iron/heme, we previously demonstrated that hemoglobin binding by HgbA only involves loops 5 and 7. Using deletion, substitution, and site-directed mutagenesis, we were able to differentiate hemoglobin binding and heme acquisition by HgbA. Deletion or substitution of the GYEAYNRQWWA region of loop 5 and alanine replacement of selected histidines affected hemoglobin binding by HgbA. Conversely, mutation of the phenylalanine in the loop 7 FRAP domain or substitution of the NRQWWA motif of loop 5 significantly abrogated utilization of heme from hemoglobin. Our findings show that hemoglobin binding and heme utilization by a bacterial hemoglobin receptor involve specific motifs of HgbA.

  13. Alterações provocadas pela irradiação e armazenamento nos teores de ferro heme em carne de frango Alteration by irradiation and storage at amount of heme iron in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Régia Marques de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre o efeito da irradiação e do armazenamento em carnes de frango foram realizados para se conhecer melhor sua influência nos teores de ferro heme, não-heme, cor e pigmentos totais. Foram estudados coxa e filé de peito de frango. Estes foram irradiados a 0, 1 e 2 kGy e armazenados por 14 dias a 4 °C em câmara refrigerada. A determinação do conteúdo de heme e não-heme de carnes foi realizada através do método colorimétrico, empregando-se o reagente Ferrozine. Os valores de ferro heme foram influenciados tanto pela irradiação quanto pelo armazenamento, diminuindo seus teores com o passar do tempo. O ferro não-heme também foi influenciado tanto pelas doses empregadas quanto pelo tempo de estocagem, porém aumentou seus valores com o passar do tempo, devido à conversão do heme em não-heme. A cor não se mostrou influenciada pelas doses estudadas, somente pela estocagem, e os pigmentos totais foram afetados tanto pela irradiação quanto pelo tempo, diminuindo seus valores com o aumento do tempo de armazenamento. A irradiação se mostrou um bom método para conservação do ferro, visto que aumentou os teores de acordo com o aumento das doses.Studies of irradiation and storage effects in chicken were carried out to discover the influence in iron heme, non-heme amount, color and total pigments. Chicken thighs and chicken breast were studied. These were irradiated to 0, 1 and 2 kGy stored by 14 days to 4 °C in refrigerator. Determining the heme content and non-heme of meat was done using the colorimeter method and the Ferrozine reagent. The values of iron heme were influenced both by the irradiation and the storage, reducing the amount throughout the course of time. The iron non-heme was also influenced by the doses and the storage time, however the values increased throughout the course of time, because of the conversion of iron heme in non-heme. The color did not show that it was influenced by the studied doses

  14. Heme Oxygenase-1 and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Protect Against Heme-induced Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Dankers, A.C.A.; Summeren, F. van; Scharstuhl, A.; Heuvel, J.J. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Pennings, S.W.C.; Russel, F.G.M.; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is the functional group of diverse hemoproteins and crucial for many cellular processes. However, heme is increasingly recognized as a culprit for a wide variety of pathologies, including sepsis, malaria, and kidney failure. Excess of free heme can be detrimental to tissues by mediating oxidati

  15. Allocation of Heme is Differentially Regulated by Ferrochelatase Isoforms in Arabidopsis Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heme is involved in various biological processes as a cofactor of hemoproteins located in various organelles. In plant cells, heme is synthesized by two isoforms of plastid-localized ferrochelatase, FC1 and FC2. In this study, by characterizing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants, we showed that the allocation of heme is differentially regulated by ferrochelatase isoforms in plant cells. Analyses of weak (fc1-1 and null (fc1-2 mutants suggest that FC1-producing heme is required for initial growth of seedling development. In contrast, weak (fc2-1 and null (fc2-2 mutants of FC2 showed pale green leaves and retarded growth, indicating that FC2-producing heme is necessary for chloroplast development. During the initial growth stage, FC2 deficiency caused reduction of plastid cytochromes. In addition, although FC2 deficiency marginally affected the assembly of photosynthetic reaction center complexes, it caused relatively larger but insufficient light-harvesting antenna to reaction centers, resulting in lower efficiency of photosynthesis. In the later vegetative growth, however, fc2-2 recovered photosynthetic growth, showing that FC1-producing heme may complement the FC2 deficiency. On the other hand, reduced level of cytochromes in microsomal fraction was discovered in fc1-1, suggesting that FC1-producing heme is mainly allocated to extraplastidic organelles. Furthermore, the expression of FC1 is induced by the treatment of an elicitor flg22 while that of FC2 was reduced, and fc1-1 abolished the flg22-dependent induction of FC1 expression and peroxidase activity. Consequently, our results clarified that FC2 produces heme for the photosynthetic machinery in the chloroplast, while FC1 is the housekeeping enzyme providing heme cofactor to the entire cell. In addition, FC1 can partly complement FC2 deficiency and is also involved in defense against stressful conditions.

  16. Heme oxygenase: evolution, structure, and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Angela

    2002-08-01

    Heme oxygenase has evolved to carry out the oxidative cleavage of heme, a reaction essential in physiological processes as diverse as iron reutilization and cellular signaling in mammals, synthesis of essential light-harvesting pigments in cyanobacteria and higher plants, and the acquisition of iron by bacterial pathogens. In all of these processes, heme oxygenase has evolved a similar structural and mechanistic scaffold to function within seemingly diverse physiological pathways. The heme oxygenase reaction is catalytically distinct from that of other hemoproteins such as the cytochromes P450, peroxidases, and catalases, but shares a hemoprotein scaffold that has evolved to generate a distinct activated oxygen species. In the following review we discuss the evolution of the structural and functional properties of heme oxygenase in light of the recent crystal structures of the mammalian and bacterial enzymes.

  17. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Amit V., E-mail: amit@pandeylab.org [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland); Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E. [Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Tiefenaustrasse 120c, CH-3004 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  18. Differential effects of heme oxygenase isoforms on heme mediation of endothelial intracellular adhesion molecule 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, F A; da Silva, J L; Farley, T; de Witte, T; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    1999-10-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), by catabolizing heme to bile pigments, down-regulates cellular hemoprotein, hemoglobin, and heme; the latter generates pro-oxidant products, including free radicals. Two HO isozymes, the products of distinct genes, have been described; HO-1 is the inducible isoform, whereas HO-2 is suggested to be constitutively expressed. We studied the inducing effect of several metal compounds (CoCl(2), stannic mesoporphyrin, and heme) on HO activity. Additionally, we studied HO-1 expression in experimental models of adhesion molecule expression produced by heme in endothelial cells, and the relationship of HO-1 expression to the induced adhesion molecules. Flow cytometry analysis showed that heme induces intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in a concentration (10-100 microM)- and time (1-24 h)-dependent fashion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment with stannic mesoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO activity, caused a 2-fold increase in heme-induced ICAM-1 expression. In contrast, HO induction by CoCl(2) decreased heme-induced ICAM-1 expression by 33%. To examine the contribution of HO-1 and HO-2 to endothelial HO activity, specific antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) of each isoform were tested for their specificity to inhibit HO activity in cells exposed to heme. Endothelial cells exposed to heme elicited increased HO activity, which was prevented (70%) by HO-1 antisense ODNs. HO-2 antisense ODN inhibited heme-induced HO activity by 21%. Addition of HO-1 antisense ODNs prevented heme degradation and resulted in elevation of microsomal heme. Western blot analysis showed that HO-1 antisense ODNs selectively inhibited HO-1 protein and failed to inhibit HO-2 protein. Incubation of endothelial cells with HO-1 antisense enhanced heme-dependent increase of ICAM-1. In contrast, addition of HO-2 antisense to endothelial cells failed to increase adhesion molecules. The role of glutathione, an important antioxidant, was examined on heme

  19. Heme sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis: a supplementary HssRS-regulated heme resistance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rachel M; Carter, Micaela M; Chu, Michelle L; Latario, Casey J; Stadler, Sarah K; Stauff, Devin L

    2016-05-01

    Several Gram-positive pathogens scavenge host-derived heme to satisfy their nutritional iron requirement. However, heme is a toxic molecule capable of damaging the bacterial cell. Gram-positive pathogens within the phylum Firmicutes overcome heme toxicity by sensing heme through HssRS, a two-component system that regulates the heme detoxification transporter HrtAB. Here we show that heme sensing by HssRS and heme detoxification by HrtAB occur in the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis We find that in B. thuringiensis, HssRS directly regulates an operon, hrmXY, encoding hypothetical membrane proteins that are not found in other Firmicutes with characterized HssRS and HrtAB systems. This novel HssRS-regulated operon or its orthologs BMB171_c3178 and BMB171_c3330 are required for maximal heme resistance. Furthermore, the activity of HrmXY is not dependent on expression of HrtAB. These results suggest that B. thuringiensis senses heme through HssRS and induces expression of separate membrane-localized systems capable of overcoming different aspects of heme toxicity.

  20. Free heme and sickle hemoglobin polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunova, Veselina V.

    This work investigates further the mechanism of one of the most interesting of the protein self-assembly systems---the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin and the role of free heme in it. Polymerization of sickle hemoglobin is the primary event in the pathology of a chronic hemolytic condition called sickle cell anemia with complex pathogenesis, unexplained variability and symptomatic treatment. Auto-oxidation develops in hemoglobin solutions exposed to room temperature and causes release of ferriheme. The composition of such solutions is investigated by mass spectrometry. Heme dimers whose amount corresponds to the initial amounts of heme released from the protein are followed. Differences in the dimer peak height are established for hemoglobin variants A, S and C and depending on the exposure duration. The effects of free heme on polymerization kinetics are studied. Growth rates and two characteristic parameters of nucleation are measured for stored Hb S. After dialysis of polymerizing solutions, no spherulites are detected at moderately high supersaturation and prolonged exposure times. The addition of 0.16-0.26 mM amounts of heme to dialyzed solutions leads to restoration of polymerization. The measured kinetic parameters have higher values compared to the ones before dialysis. The amount of heme in non-dialyzed aged solution is characterized using spectrophotometry. Three methods are used: difference in absorbance of dialyzed and non-dialyzed solutions, characteristic absorbance of heme-albumin complex and absorbance of non-dialyzed solutions with added potassium cyanide. The various approaches suggest the presence of 0.12 to 0.18 mM of free ferriheme in such solutions. Open questions are whether the same amounts of free heme are present in vivo and whether the same mechanism operates intracellulary. If the answer to those questions is positive, then removal of free heme from erythrocytes can influence their readiness to sickle.

  1. Porphyrin and heme metabolism and the porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Guo, Jun-Tao; Hou, Weihong; Li, Ting; Narang, Tarun; Thapar, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins are the key pigments of life on earth as we know it, because they include chlorophyll (a magnesium-containing metalloporphyrin) and heme (iron protoporphyrin). In eukaryotes, porphyrins and heme are synthesized by a multistep pathway that involves eight enzymes. The first and rate-controlling step is the formation of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from glycine plus succinyl CoA, catalyzed by ALA synthase. Intermediate steps occur in the cytoplasm, with formation of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen and the tetrapyrroles hydroxymethylbilane and a series of porphyrinogens, which are serially decarboxylated. Heme is utilized chiefly for the formation of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, myoglobin in muscle cells, cytochromes P-450 and mitochondrial cytochromes, and other hemoproteins in hepatocytes. The rate-controlling step of heme breakdown is catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HMOX), of which there are two isoforms, called HMOX1 and HMOX2. HMOX breaks down heme to form biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron. The porphyrias are a group of disorders, mainly inherited, in which there are defects in normal porphyrin and heme synthesis. The cardinal clinical features are cutaneous (due to the skin-damaging effects of excess deposited porphyrins) or neurovisceral attacks of pain, sometimes with weakness, delirium, seizures, and the like (probably due mainly to neurotoxic effects of ALA). The treatment of choice for the acute hepatic porphyrias is intravenous heme therapy, which repletes a critical regulatory heme pool in hepatocytes and leads to downregulation of hepatic ALA synthase, which is a biochemical hallmark of all forms of acute porphyria in relapse.

  2. Heme environment in HmuY, the heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, Halina [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Wojaczynski, Jacek [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Mariusz [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Kroliczewski, Jaroslaw [Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, 50-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Latos-Grazynski, Lechoslaw [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Teresa, E-mail: Teresa.Olczak@biotech.uni.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-29

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis, acquires heme for growth by a novel mechanism composed of HmuY and HmuR proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature of heme binding to HmuY. The protein was expressed, purified and detailed investigations using UV-vis absorption, CD, MCD, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy were carried out. Ferric heme bound to HmuY may be reduced by sodium dithionite and re-oxidized by potassium ferricyanide. Heme complexed to HmuY, with a midpoint potential of 136 mV, is in a low-spin Fe(III) hexa-coordinate environment. Analysis of heme binding to several single and double HmuY mutants with the methionine, histidine, cysteine, or tyrosine residues replaced by an alanine residue identified histidines 134 and 166 as potential heme ligands.

  3. Transcriptional profile of Haemophilus influenzae: effects of iron and heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Paul W; Vanwagoner, Timothy M; Seale, Thomas W; Morton, Daniel J; Stull, Terrence L

    2006-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae requires either heme or a porphyrin and iron source for growth. Microarray studies of H. influenzae strain Rd KW20 identified 162 iron/heme-regulated genes, representing approximately 10% of the genome, with > or =1.5-fold changes in transcription in response to iron/heme availability in vitro. Eighty genes were preferentially expressed under iron/heme restriction; 82 genes were preferentially expressed under iron/heme-replete conditions.

  4. Utility of heme analogues to intentionally modify heme-globin interactions in myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neya, Saburo; Nagai, Masako; Nagatomo, Shigenori; Hoshino, Tyuji; Yoneda, Tomoki; Kawaguchi, Akira T

    2016-05-01

    Myoglobin reconstitution with various synthetic heme analogues was reviewed to follow the consequences of modified heme-globin interactions. Utility of dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent for water-insoluble hemes was emphasized. Proton NMR spectroscopy revealed that loose heme-globin contacts in the heme pocket eventually caused the dynamic heme rotation around the iron-histidine bond. The full rotational rate was estimated to be about 1400 s(-1) at room temperature for 1,4,5,8-tetramethylhemin. The X-ray analysis of the myoglobin containing iron porphine, the smallest heme without any side chains, showed that the original globin fold was well conserved despite the serious disruption of native heme-globin contacts. Comparison between the two myoglobins with static and rotatory prosthetic groups indicated that the oxygen and carbon monoxide binding profiles were almost unaffected by the heme motion. On the other hand, altered tetrapyrrole array of porphyrin dramatically changed the dissociation constant of oxygen from 0.0005 mm Hg of porphycene-myoglobin to ∞ in oxypyriporphyrin-myoglobin. Heme-globin interactions in myoglobin were also monitored with circular dichroism spectroscopy. The observation on several reconstituted protein revealed an unrecognized role of the propionate groups in protoheme. Shortening of heme 6,7-propionates to carboxylates resulted in almost complete disappearance of the positive circular dichroism band in the Soret region. The theoretical analysis suggested that the disappeared circular dichroism band reflected the cancellation effects between different conformers of the carboxyl groups directly attached to heme periphery. The above techniques were proposed to be applicable to other hemoproteins to create new biocatalysts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  5. In-Cell Enzymology To Probe His-Heme Ligation in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigala, Paul A; Morante, Koldo; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Goldberg, Daniel E

    2016-08-30

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a ubiquitous enzyme with key roles in inflammation, cell signaling, heme disposal, and iron acquisition. HO catalyzes the oxidative conversion of heme to biliverdin (BV) using a conserved histidine to coordinate the iron atom of bound heme. This His-heme interaction has been regarded as being essential for enzyme activity, because His-to-Ala mutants fail to convert heme to biliverdin in vitro. We probed a panel of proximal His mutants of cyanobacterial, human, and plant HO enzymes using a live-cell activity assay based on heterologous co-expression in Escherichia coli of each HO mutant and a fluorescent biliverdin biosensor. In contrast to in vitro studies with purified proteins, we observed that multiple HO mutants retained significant activity within the intracellular environment of bacteria. X-ray crystallographic structures of human HO1 H25R with bound heme and additional functional studies suggest that HO mutant activity inside these cells does not involve heme ligation by a proximal amino acid. Our study reveals unexpected plasticity in the active site binding interactions with heme that can support HO activity within cells, suggests important contributions by the surrounding active site environment to HO catalysis, and can guide efforts to understand the evolution and divergence of HO function.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of a higher plant heme oxygenase isoform-1 from Glycine max (soybean)--coordination structure of the heme complex and catabolism of heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohya, Tomohiko; Zhang, Xuhong; Yoshida, Tadashi; Migita, Catharina T

    2006-12-01

    Heme oxygenase converts heme into biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In plants, as well as in cyanobacteria, heme oxygenase plays a particular role in the biosynthesis of photoreceptive pigments, such as phytochromobilins and phycobilins, supplying biliverdin IX(alpha) as a direct synthetic resource. In this study, a higher plant heme oxygenase, GmHO-1, of Glycine max (soybean), was prepared to evaluate the molecular features of its heme complex, the enzymatic activity, and the mechanism of heme conversion. The similarity in the amino acid sequence between GmHO-1 and heme oxygenases from other biological species is low, and GmHO-1 binds heme with 1 : 1 stoichiometry at His30; this position does not correspond to the proximal histidine of other heme oxygenases in their sequence alignments. The heme bound to GmHO-1, in the ferric high-spin state, exhibits an acid-base transition and is converted to biliverdin IX(alpha) in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, or ascorbate. During the heme conversion, an intermediate with an absorption maximum different from that of typical verdoheme-heme oxygenase or CO-verdoheme-heme oxygenase complexes was observed and was extracted as a bis-imidazole complex; it was identified as verdoheme. A myoglobin mutant, H64L, with high CO affinity trapped CO produced during the heme degradation. Thus, the mechanism of heme degradation by GmHO-1 appears to be similar to that of known heme oxygenases, despite the low sequence homology. The heme conversion by GmHO-1 is as fast as that by SynHO-1 in the presence of NADPH/ferredoxin reductase/ferredoxin, thereby suggesting that the latter is the physiologic electron-donating system.

  7. HEME OXYGENASE: ENZYME WITH FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhawat G. S.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years role of Heme oxygenase (HO has been considered in nearly all living system including plants, animals and other organisms. The common role of heme oxygenase is the degradation of heme, although there is a diversity of additional role of HO in organisms including iron acquisition, cellular signaling, defense against stress and biosynthesis during metabolism. Likewise, the function of HO is to provide cofactors for the photosynthetic apparatus in cyanobacteria. Heme concentration is variable in different plant species and found maximum in leguminous plant root nodules. Moreover HO has diverse isoforms in plant and animal systems. The review addressed important function of HO and focused on its functional diversity.

  8. Structural mechanisms of nonplanar hemes in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective is to assess the occurrence of nonplanar distortions of hemes and other tetrapyrroles in proteins and to determine the biological function of these distortions. Recently, these distortions were found by us to be conserved among proteins belonging to a functional class. Conservation of the conformation of the heme indicates a possible functional role. Researchers have suggested possible mechanisms by which heme distortions might influence biological properties; however, no heme distortion has yet been shown conclusively to participate in a structural mechanism of hemoprotein function. The specific aims of the proposed work are: (1) to characterize and quantify the distortions of the hemes in all of the more than 300 hemoprotein X-ray crystal structures in terms of displacements along the lowest-frequency normal coordinates, (2) to determine the structural features of the protein component that generate and control these nonplanar distortions by using spectroscopic studies and molecular-mechanics calculations for the native proteins, their mutants and heme-peptide fragments, and model porphyrins, (3) to determine spectroscopic markers for the various types of distortion, and, finally, (4) to discover the functional significance of the nonplanar distortions by correlating function with porphyrin conformation for proteins and model porphyrins.

  9. Crystal structure of dimeric heme oxygenase-2 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in complex with heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugishima, Masakazu; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Zhang, Xuhong; Yoshida, Tadashi; Migita, Catharina T; Fukuyama, Keiichi

    2005-03-22

    Phycobiliproteins, light-harvesting proteins in cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptophytes, contain phycobilin pigments. Phycobilins are synthesized from biliverdin, which is produced by the oxidative cleavage of the heme porphyrin ring catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO). Two paralogs of ho (ho1 and ho2) have been identified in the genome of the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The recombinant proteins of both paralogs (Syn HO-1 and Syn HO-2) possess in vitro heme degradation activity. We have determined the crystal structures of Syn HO-2 in complex with heme (heme-Syn HO-2) and its reduced and NO bound forms. The heme-Syn HO-2 crystal was a nonmerohedral twin, and detwinned diffraction data were used to refine the structure. Although heme-Syn HO-2 shares common folding with other HOs, the C-terminal segment is ordered and turns back to the heme-binding side. Gel-filtration chromatography analysis and molecular packing in the crystal indicate that heme-Syn HO-2 forms a homodimer, in which the C-terminal ordered segments interact with each other. Because Syn HO-2 is a monomer in the apo state, the dimeric interaction may aid in the selection of the reducing partner but likely does not interfere with heme binding. The heme iron is coordinated by a water molecule in the ferric form, but the distal water is absent in the ferrous form. In all of the Syn HO-2 structures, several water molecules form a hydrogen-bond network at the distal hemepocket, which is involved in HO activity. Upon NO binding, the side-chain conformation of Tyr 156 changes. Tyr 156 is located at the hydrophobic cluster, which interrupts the possible H(+) pathway from the molecular surface to the hemepocket. Thus, Tyr 156 may function as a H(+) shuttle by changing conformation.

  10. Identification of the receptor scavenging hemopexin-heme complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Vibeke; Maniecki, Maciej B; Jacobsen, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    and is suggested to facilitate cellular heme metabolism. Using a ligand-affinity approach, we purified the human hemopexin-heme receptor and identified it as the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)/CD91, a receptor expressed in several cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, neurons......, and syncytiotrophoblasts. Binding experiments, including Biacore analysis, showed that hemopexin-heme complex formation elicits the high receptor affinity. Uptake studies of radio-labeled hemopexin-heme complex in LRP/CD91-expressing COS cells and confocal microscopy of the cellular processing of fluorescent hemopexin......-heme complex established the ability of LRP/CD91 to mediate hemopexin-heme internalization resulting in cellular heme uptake and lysosomal hemopexin degradation. Uptake of hemopexin-heme complex induced LRP/CD91-dependent heme-oxygenase 1 mRNA transcription in cultured monocytes. In conclusion, hemopexin...

  11. Heme electron transfer in peroxidases: the propionate e-pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guallar, Victor

    2008-10-23

    Computational modeling offers a new insight about the electron transfer pathway in heme peroxidases. Available crystal structures have revealed an intriguing arrangement of the heme propionate side chains in heme-heme and heme-substrate complexes. By means of mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics calculations, we study the involvement of these propionate groups into the substrate oxidation in ascorbate peroxidase and into the heme to heme electron transfer in bacterial cytochrome c peroxidase. By selectively turning on/off different quantum regions, we obtain the electron transfer pathway which directly involves the porphyrin ring and the heme propionates. Furthermore, in ascorbate peroxidase the presence of the substrate appears to be crucial for the activation of the electron transfer channel. The results might represent a general motif for electron transfer from/to the heme group and change our view for the propionate side chains as simple electrostatic binding anchors. We name the new mechanism "the propionate e-pathway".

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Stuart T; Midwinter, Robyn G; Coupland, Lucy A; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Chong, Beng H; Parish, Christopher R; Stocker, Roland

    2015-05-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119(+)-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119(+)-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes.

  13. Heme-containing dioxygenases involved in tryptophan oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Elizabeth S; Efimov, Igor; Basran, Jaswir; Handa, Sandeep; Mowat, Christopher G; Raven, Emma Lloyd

    2012-04-01

    Heme iron is often used in biology for activation of oxygen. The mechanisms of oxygen activation by heme-containing monooxygenases (the cytochrome P450s) are well known, and involve formation of a Compound I species, but information on the heme-containing dioxygenase enzymes involved in tryptophan oxidation lags far behind. In this review, we gather together information emerging recently from structural, mechanistic, spectroscopic, and computational approaches on the heme dioxygenase enzymes involved in tryptophan oxidation. We explore the subtleties that differentiate various heme enzymes from each other, and use this to piece together a developing picture for oxygen activation in this particular class of heme-containing dioxygenases.

  14. ApoHRP-based Assay to Measure Intracellular Regulatory Heme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamna, Hani; Brahmbhatt, Marmik; Atamna, Wafa; Shanower, Gregory A.; Dhahbi, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the heme-binding proteins possess a “heme-pocket” that stably binds with heme. Usually known as housekeeping heme-proteins, they participate in a variety of metabolic reactions (e.g., catalase). Heme also binds with lower affinity to the “Heme-Regulatory Motifs” (HRM) in specific regulatory proteins. This type of heme binding is known as exchangeable or regulatory heme (RH). Heme binding to HRM proteins regulates their function (e.g., Bach1). Although there are well-established methods for assaying total cellular heme (e.g., heme-proteins plus RH), currently there is no method available for measuring RH independently from the total heme (TH). The current study describes and validates a new method to measure intracellular RH. The method is based on the reconstitution of apo-horseradish peroxidase (apoHRP) with heme to form holoHRP. The resulting holoHRP activity is then measured with a colorimetric substrate. The results show that apoHRP specifically binds RH but not with heme from housekeeping heme-proteins. The RH assay detects intracellular RH. Furthermore, using conditions that create positive (hemin) or negative (N-methyl protoporphyrin IX) controls for heme in normal human fibroblasts (IMR90), the RH assay shows that RH is dynamic and independent from TH. We also demonstrated that short-term exposure to subcytotoxic concentrations of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), or amyloid-β(Aβ) significantly alters intracellular RH with little effect on TH. In conclusion the RH assay is an effective assay to investigate intracellular RH concentration and demonstrates that RH represents ~6% of total heme in IMR90 cells. PMID:25525887

  15. Regulation of intracellular heme trafficking revealed by subcellular reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Rietzschel, Nicole; Kwon, Hanna; Walter Nuno, Ana Beatriz; Hanna, David A; Phillips, John D; Raven, Emma L; Reddi, Amit R; Hamza, Iqbal

    2016-08-30

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group in proteins that reside in virtually every subcellular compartment performing diverse biological functions. Irrespective of whether heme is synthesized in the mitochondria or imported from the environment, this hydrophobic and potentially toxic metalloporphyrin has to be trafficked across membrane barriers, a concept heretofore poorly understood. Here we show, using subcellular-targeted, genetically encoded hemoprotein peroxidase reporters, that both extracellular and endogenous heme contribute to cellular labile heme and that extracellular heme can be transported and used in toto by hemoproteins in all six subcellular compartments examined. The reporters are robust, show large signal-to-background ratio, and provide sufficient range to detect changes in intracellular labile heme. Restoration of reporter activity by heme is organelle-specific, with the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum being important sites for both exogenous and endogenous heme trafficking. Expression of peroxidase reporters in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that environmental heme influences labile heme in a tissue-dependent manner; reporter activity in the intestine shows a linear increase compared with muscle or hypodermis, with the lowest heme threshold in neurons. Our results demonstrate that the trafficking pathways for exogenous and endogenous heme are distinct, with intrinsic preference for specific subcellular compartments. We anticipate our results will serve as a heuristic paradigm for more sophisticated studies on heme trafficking in cellular and whole-animal models.

  16. Role of heme-protein covalent bonds in mammalian peroxidases. Protection of the heme by a single engineered heme-protein link in horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liusheng; Wojciechowski, Grzegorz; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2006-07-14

    Oxidation of SCN-, Br-, and Cl- (X-) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and other plant and fungal peroxidases results in the addition of HOX to the heme vinyl group. This reaction is not observed with lactoperoxidase (LPO), in which the heme is covalently bound to the protein via two ester bonds between carboxylic side chains and heme methyl groups. To test the hypothesis that the heme of LPO and other mammalian peroxidases is protected from vinyl group modification by the hemeprotein covalent bonds, we prepared the F41E mutant of HRP in which the heme is attached to the protein via a covalent bond between Glu41 and the heme 3-methyl. We also examined the E375D mutant of LPO in which only one of the two normal covalent heme links is retained. The prosthetic heme groups of F41E HRP and E375D LPO are essentially not modified by the HOBr produced by these enzymes. The double E375D/D225E mutant of LPO that can form no covalent bonds is inactive and could not be examined. These results unambiguously demonstrate that a single heme-protein link is sufficient to protect the heme from vinyl group modification even in a protein (HRP) that is normally highly susceptible to this reaction. The results directly establish that one function of the covalent heme-protein bonds in mammalian peroxidases is to protect their prosthetic group from their highly reactive metabolic products.

  17. Heme and non-heme iron transporters in non-polarized and polarized cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme and non-heme iron from diet, and recycled iron from hemoglobin are important products of the synthesis of iron-containing molecules. In excess, iron is potentially toxic because it can produce reactive oxygen species through the Fenton reaction. Humans can absorb, transport, store, and recycle iron without an excretory system to remove excess iron. Two candidate heme transporters and two iron transporters have been reported thus far. Heme incorporated into cells is degraded by heme oxygenases (HOs, and the iron product is reutilized by the body. To specify the processes of heme uptake and degradation, and the reutilization of iron, we determined the subcellular localizations of these transporters and HOs. Results In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localizations of 2 isoenzymes of HOs, 4 isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, and 2 candidate heme transporters--heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1 and heme responsive gene-1 (HRG-1--in non-polarized and polarized cells. In non-polarized cells, HCP1, HRG-1, and DMT1A-I are located in the plasma membrane. In polarized cells, they show distinct localizations: HCP1 and DMT1A-I are located in the apical membrane, whereas HRG-1 is located in the basolateral membrane and lysosome. 16Leu at DMT1A-I N-terminal cytosolic domain was found to be crucial for plasma membrane localization. HOs are located in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and colocalize with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Conclusions HCP1 and DMT1A-I are localized to the apical membrane, and HRG-1 to the basolateral membrane and lysosome. These findings suggest that HCP1 and DMT1A-I have functions in the uptake of dietary heme and non-heme iron. HRG-1 can transport endocytosed heme from the lysosome into the cytosol. These localization studies support a model in which cytosolic heme can be degraded by HOs, and the resulting iron is exported into tissue fluids via the iron transporter ferroportin 1, which is

  18. Independent evolution of four heme peroxidase superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámocký, Marcel; Hofbauer, Stefan; Schaffner, Irene; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Nicolussi, Andrea; Soudi, Monika; Pirker, Katharina F; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Four heme peroxidase superfamilies (peroxidase-catalase, peroxidase-cyclooxygenase, peroxidase-chlorite dismutase and peroxidase-peroxygenase superfamily) arose independently during evolution, which differ in overall fold, active site architecture and enzymatic activities. The redox cofactor is heme b or posttranslationally modified heme that is ligated by either histidine or cysteine. Heme peroxidases are found in all kingdoms of life and typically catalyze the one- and two-electron oxidation of a myriad of organic and inorganic substrates. In addition to this peroxidatic activity distinct (sub)families show pronounced catalase, cyclooxygenase, chlorite dismutase or peroxygenase activities. Here we describe the phylogeny of these four superfamilies and present the most important sequence signatures and active site architectures. The classification of families is described as well as important turning points in evolution. We show that at least three heme peroxidase superfamilies have ancient prokaryotic roots with several alternative ways of divergent evolution. In later evolutionary steps, they almost always produced highly evolved and specialized clades of peroxidases in eukaryotic kingdoms with a significant portion of such genes involved in coding various fusion proteins with novel physiological functions.

  19. Molecular hijacking of siroheme for the synthesis of heme and d1 heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Shilpa; Lawrence, Andrew D; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Lígia M; Golding, Bernard T; Palmer, David J; Howard, Mark J; Ferguson, Stuart J; Warren, Martin J

    2011-11-08

    Modified tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, vitamin B(12), coenzyme F(430), and heme d(1) underpin a wide range of essential biological functions in all domains of life, and it is therefore surprising that the syntheses of many of these life pigments remain poorly understood. It is known that the construction of the central molecular framework of modified tetrapyrroles is mediated via a common, core pathway. Herein a further branch of the modified tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway is described in denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as the Archaea. This process entails the hijacking of siroheme, the prosthetic group of sulfite and nitrite reductase, and its processing into heme and d(1) heme. The initial step in these transformations involves the decarboxylation of siroheme to give didecarboxysiroheme. For d(1) heme synthesis this intermediate has to undergo the replacement of two propionate side chains with oxygen functionalities and the introduction of a double bond into a further peripheral side chain. For heme synthesis didecarboxysiroheme is converted into Fe-coproporphyrin by oxidative loss of two acetic acid side chains. Fe-coproporphyrin is then transformed into heme by the oxidative decarboxylation of two propionate side chains. The mechanisms of these reactions are discussed and the evolutionary significance of another role for siroheme is examined.

  20. Heme Binding by Corynebacterium diphtheriae HmuT: Function and Heme Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Elizabeth B; Akbas, Neval; Adrian, Seth A; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S; Collins, Daniel P; Dawson, John H; Allen, Courtni E; Schmitt, Michael P; Rodgers, Kenton R; Dixon, Dabney W

    2015-11-03

    The heme uptake pathway (hmu) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes multiple proteins to bind and transport heme into the cell. One of these proteins, HmuT, delivers heme to the ABC transporter HmuUV. In this study, the axial ligation of the heme in ferric HmuT is probed by examination of wild-type (WT) HmuT and a series of conserved heme pocket residue mutants, H136A, Y235A, and M292A. Characterization by UV-visible, resonance Raman, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies indicates that H136 and Y235 are the axial ligands in ferric HmuT. Consistent with this assignment of axial ligands, ferric WT and H136A HmuT are difficult to reduce while Y235A is reduced readily in the presence of dithionite. The FeCO Raman shifts in WT, H136A, and Y235A HmuT-CO complexes provide further evidence of the axial ligand assignments. Additionally, these frequencies provide insight into the nonbonding environment of the heme pocket. Ferrous Y235A and the Y235A-CO complex reveal that the imidazole of H136 exists in two forms, one neutral and one with imidazolate character, consistent with a hydrogen bond acceptor on the H136 side of the heme. The ferric fluoride complex of Y235A reveals the presence of at least one hydrogen bond donor on the Y235 side of the heme. Hemoglobin utilization assays showed that the axial Y235 ligand is required for heme uptake in HmuT.

  1. Non-heme induction of heme oxygenase-1 does not alter cellular iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftel, Alex D; Kim, Sangwon F; Ponka, Prem

    2007-04-06

    The catabolism of heme is carried out by members of the heme oxygenase (HO) family. The products of heme catabolism by HO-1 are ferrous iron, biliverdin (subsequently converted to bilirubin), and carbon monoxide. In addition to its function in the recycling of hemoglobin iron, this microsomal enzyme has been shown to protect cells in various stress models. Implicit in the reports of HO-1 cytoprotection to date are its effects on the cellular handling of heme/iron. However, the limited amount of uncommitted heme in non-erythroid cells brings to question the source of substrate for this enzyme in non-hemolytic circumstances. In the present study, HO-1 was induced by either sodium arsenite (reactive oxygen species producer) or hemin or overexpressed in the murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7. Both of the inducers elicited an increase in active HO-1; however, only hemin exposure caused an increase in the synthesis rate of the iron storage protein, ferritin. This effect of hemin was the direct result of the liberation of iron from heme by HO. Cells stably overexpressing HO-1, although protected from oxidative stress, did not display elevated basal ferritin synthesis. However, these cells did exhibit an increase in ferritin synthesis, compared with untransfected controls, in response to hemin treatment, suggesting that heme levels, and not HO-1, limit cellular heme catabolism. Our results suggest that the protection of cells from oxidative insult afforded by HO-1 is not due to the catabolism of significant amounts of cellular heme as thought previously.

  2. Kidney injury and heme oxygenase-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xing MAI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available     Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is one of the main pathways to degrade heme in mammals, and the main degradation products are free iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO, and bilirubin. Heme plays an important role in promoting cell survival, circulation of intracellular substrates, and immune regulation. Previous studies suggest that HO-1 pathway is an important internal factor in determining the susceptibility and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. The induction of HO-1 expression can attenuate the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI, and the inhibition of HO-1 expression will aggravate IRI. The present article summarizes the latest advances in research abroad and at home on protective mechanism by which HO-1 prevents AKI to further deepen our understanding of the role of HO-1 in the treatment of AKI.   

  3. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme to

  4. Molecular Simulations of Porphyrins and Heme Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-01-18

    An overview of the use of classical mechanical molecular simulations of porphyrins, hydroporphyrins, and heme proteins is given. The topics cover molecular mechanics calculations of structures and conformer energies of porphyrins, energies of barriers for interconversion between stable conformers, molecular dynamics of porphyrins and heme proteins, and normal-coordinate structural analysis of experimental and calculated porphyrin structures. Molecular mechanics and dynamics are currently a fertile area of research on porphyrins. In the future, other computational methods such as Monte Carlo simulations, which have yet to be applied to porphyrins, will come into use and open new avenues of research into molecular simulations of porphyrins.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie; CM; Lin; Hsiangfu; Kung

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) system catabolizes heme into three products:carbon monoxide,biliverdin/bilirubin and free iron.It is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes.A great deal of data has demonstrated the roles of HO-1 in the formation,growth and metastasis of tumors.The interest in this system by investigators involved in gastrointestinal tumors is fairly recent,and few papers on HO-1 have touched upon this subject.This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiologic...

  6. Analysis of Heme oxygenase isomers in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-ZhuLi; Wen-JunCui; Xue-HongZhang; Qing-XiangShen; JianWang; She

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To purify and identify heme oxygenase(HO) isomers which exist in rat liver,spleen and brain treated with hematin and phenylhydrazine and in untrated rat liver and to investigate the characteristics of HO isomers,to isolate and confirm the rat HO-1 cDNA that actually encodes HO-1 by expressing cDNA in monkey Kidney cells(COS-1 cells),to prepare the rat heme oxygenase-1(HO-1)mutant and to detect inhibition of HO-1 mutated enzyme.

  7. Molecular hijacking of siroheme for the synthesis of heme and d1 heme

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Shilpa; Lawrence, Andrew D.; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Golding, Bernard T.; Palmer, David J.; Mark J. Howard; Ferguson, Stuart J.; Warren, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Modified tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, vitamin B12, coenzyme F430, and heme d1 underpin a wide range of essential biological functions in all domains of life, and it is therefore surprising that the syntheses of many of these life pigments remain poorly understood. It is known that the construction of the central molecular framework of modified tetrapyrroles is mediated via a common, core pathway. Herein a further branch of the modified tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway i...

  8. Inhibition of Heme Peroxidases by Melamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattaraporn Vanachayangkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 melamine-contaminated infant formula and dairy products in China led to over 50,000 hospitalizations of children due to renal injuries. In North America during 2007 and in Asia during 2004, melamine-contaminated pet food products resulted in numerous pet deaths due to renal failure. Animal studies have confirmed the potent renal toxicity of melamine combined with cyanuric acid. We showed previously that the solubility of melamine cyanurate is low at physiologic pH and ionic strength, provoking us to speculate how toxic levels of these compounds could be transported through the circulation without crystallizing until passing into the renal filtrate. We hypothesized that melamine might be sequestered by heme proteins, which could interfere with heme enzyme activity. Four heme peroxidase enzymes were selected for study: horseradish peroxidase (HRP, lactoperoxidase (LPO, and cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2. Melamine exhibited noncompetitive inhibition of HRP (9.5±0.7mM, and LPO showed a mixed model of inhibition (14.5±4.7mM. The inhibition of HRP and LPO was confirmed using a chemiluminescent peroxidase assay. Melamine also exhibited COX-1 inhibition, but inhibition of COX-2 was not detected. Thus, our results demonstrate that melamine inhibits the activity of three heme peroxidases.

  9. Lessons from bloodless worms: heme homeostasis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for proteins involved in diverse biological processes such as oxygen transport, electron transport, and microRNA processing. Free heme is hydrophobic and cytotoxic, implying that specific trafficking pathways must exist for the delivery of heme to target hemoproteins which reside in various subcellular locales. Although heme biosynthesis and catabolism have been well characterized, the pathways for trafficking heme within and between cells remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a unique animal model for uncovering these pathways because, unlike vertebrates, the worm lacks enzymes to synthesize heme and therefore is crucially dependent on dietary heme for sustenance. Using C. elegans as a genetic animal model, several novel heme trafficking molecules have been identified. Importantly, these proteins have corresponding homologs in vertebrates underscoring the power of using C. elegans, a bloodless worm, in elucidating pathways in heme homeostasis and hematology in humans. Since iron deficiency and anemia are often exacerbated by parasites such as helminths and protozoa which also rely on host heme for survival, C. elegans will be an ideal model to identify anti-parasitic drugs that target heme transport pathways unique to the parasite.

  10. Identification of essential histidine residues involved in heme binding and Hemozoin formation in heme detoxification protein from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Haruto; Aono, Shigetoshi; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2014-08-20

    Malaria parasites digest hemoglobin within a food vacuole to supply amino acids, releasing the toxic product heme. During the detoxification, toxic free heme is converted into an insoluble crystalline form called hemozoin (Hz). Heme detoxification protein (HDP) in Plasmodium falciparum is one of the most potent of the hemozoin-producing enzymes. However, the reaction mechanisms of HDP are poorly understood. We identified the active site residues in HDP using a combination of Hz formation assay and spectroscopic characterization of mutant proteins. Replacement of the critical histidine residues His122, His172, His175, and His197 resulted in a reduction in the Hz formation activity to approximately 50% of the wild-type protein. Spectroscopic characterization of histidine-substituted mutants revealed that His122 binds heme and that His172 and His175 form a part of another heme-binding site. Our results show that the histidine residues could be present in the individual active sites and could be ligated to each heme. The interaction between heme and the histidine residues would serve as a molecular tether, allowing the proper positioning of two hemes to enable heme dimer formation. The heme dimer would act as a seed for the crystal growth of Hz in P. falciparum.

  11. Role of Heme and Heme-Proteins in Trypanosomatid Essential Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina E. J. Tripodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Around the world, trypanosomatids are known for being etiological agents of several highly disabling and often fatal diseases like Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi, leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp., and African trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei. Throughout their life cycle, they must cope with diverse environmental conditions, and the mechanisms involved in these processes are crucial for their survival. In this review, we describe the role of heme in several essential metabolic pathways of these protozoans. Notwithstanding trypanosomatids lack of the complete heme biosynthetic pathway, we focus our discussion in the metabolic role played for important heme-proteins, like cytochromes. Although several genes for different types of cytochromes, involved in mitochondrial respiration, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and sterol biosynthesis, are annotated at the Tritryp Genome Project, the encoded proteins have not yet been deeply studied. We pointed our attention into relevant aspects of these protein functions that are amenable to be considered for rational design of trypanocidal agents.

  12. Isocyanides Inhibit Human Heme Oxygenases at the Verdoheme Stage†

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, John P.; Kandel, Sylvie; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HO) catalyze the oxidative cleavage of heme to generate biliverdin, CO, and free iron. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is overexpressed in tumor tissues, where it helps to protect cancer cells from anticancer agents, while HOs in fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, function as the primary means of iron acquisition. Thus, HO can be considered a potential therapeutic target for certain diseases. In this study, we have examined the equilibrium binding of three isocya...

  13. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  14. Mechanisms of peroxynitrite interactions with heme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jia; Groves, John T

    2010-07-19

    Oxygenated heme proteins are known to react rapidly with nitric oxide (NO) to produce peroxynitrite (PN) at the heme site. This process could lead either to attenuation of the effects of NO or to nitrosative protein damage. PN is a powerful nitrating and oxidizing agent that has been implicated in a variety of cell injuries. Accordingly, it is important to delineate the nature and variety of reaction mechanisms of PN interactions with heme proteins. In this Forum, we survey the range of reactions of PN with heme proteins, with particular attention to myoglobin and cytochrome c. While these two proteins are textbook paradigms for oxygen binding and electron transfer, respectively, both have recently been shown to have other important functions that involve NO and PN. We have recently described direct evidence that ferrylmyolgobin (ferrylMb) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) are both produced during the reaction of PN and metmyolgobin (metMb) (Su, J.; Groves, J. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 12979-12988). Kinetic evidence indicates that these products evolve from the initial formation of a caged radical intermediate [Fe(IV) horizontal lineO.NO(2)]. This caged pair reacts mainly via internal return with a rate constant k(r) to form metMb and nitrate in an oxygen-rebound scenario. Detectable amounts of ferrylMb are observed by stopped-flow spectrophotometry, appearing at a rate consistent with the rate, k(obs), of heme-mediated PN decomposition. Freely diffusing NO(2), which is liberated concomitantly from the radical pair (k(e)), preferentially nitrates myoglobin Tyr103 and added fluorescein. For cytochrome c, Raman spectroscopy has revealed that a substantial fraction of cytochrome c converts to a beta-sheet structure, at the expense of turns and helices at low pH (Balakrishnan, G.; Hu, Y.; Oyerinde, O. F.; Su, J.; Groves, J. T.; Spiro, T. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 504-505). It is proposed that a short beta-sheet segment, comprising residues 37-39 and 58

  15. Study on the Gas Phase Stability of Heme-binding Pocket in Cytochrome Tb5 and Its Mutants by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU,Chong-Tian(余翀天); GUO,Yin-Long(郭寅龙); L(U),Long(吕龙); WANG,Yun-Hua(王韵华); YAO,Ping(姚萍); HUANG,Zhong-Xian(黄仲贤)

    2002-01-01

    To ehucidate the effect of various amino acid residues on the heme-binding pocket in cytochrome Tbs, several residues were chosen for replacement by means of site-directed mutagenesis.Comparison of the mass spectrmn between the F35Y mutant and the wild type shows that the relative abundance of holoprotein ion of F35Y is lower than that of the wild type in gas phase. It is concluded that mutation from Phe35 residue to tyrosine decreases the hydrophobic character of cytochrome Tbs heme pocket, which decreases the stability of heme-binding pocket. ESI-MS spectra of the mutants V61E, V61K, V61H and V61Y show various contribution of amino acid to the stability of heme-binding pocket. The small and non-polar residue Vat61 was replaced with large or polar residues, resulting in enhancing the trend of heme leaving from the pocket. In addition, comparison of the mass relative abundance of bolo-proteins among all the Va161-mutants, shows that their stability in gas phase appropriately submit the following order: wild type > V61H > V61E > V61K ≈ V61Y. The extra great stability of quadruple sites mutant E44/48/56A/D60A shows that reduction of electrostatic or hydrogen bond interactions among the residues locating in the outside region of the heme edge remarkably affect the stability of heme. The results of analyzing the oxidation states of heme iron in Tbs and its mutants by insource-CAD experiment suggest that the charge states of heme iron maintain inflexible in mutation process.

  16. Involvement of heme biosynthesis in control of sterol uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, T A; Taylor, F R; Parks, L W

    1985-01-01

    Wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not accumulate exogenous sterols under aerobic conditions, and a mutant allele conferring sterol auxotrophy (erg7) could be isolated only in strains with a heme deficiency. delta-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) fed to a hem1 (ALA synthetase-) erg7 (2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase-) sterol-auxotrophic strain of S. cerevisiae inhibited sterol uptake, and growth was negatively affected when intracellular sterol was depleted. The inhibition of sterol uptake (and growth o...

  17. Activation of heme oxygenase and consequent carbon monoxide formation inhibits the release of arginine vasopressin from rat hypothalamic explants. Molecular linkage between heme catabolism and neuroendocrine function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C; Kostoglou-Athanassiou, I; Forsling, M L; Grossman, A B; Preziosi, P; Navarra, P; Minotti, G

    1997-10-15

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-catalyzed degradation of cellular heme moieties generates biliverdin and equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide (CO), which has been implicated as a possible modulator of neural function. Technical difficulties preclude direct measurements of CO within intact nervous tissues; hence, alternative procedures are needed to monitor the formation and possible biologic functions of this gas. In the present study rat hypothalamic explants were found to generate 114 +/- 5 or 127 +/- 11 pmol biliverdin/hypothalamus/1 h (n = 3) upon incubation with 1 or 10 microM hemin, respectively. Ten micromolar zinc-protoporphyrin IX (Zn-PP-IX), a known inhibitor of HO, significantly decreased the degradation of 10 microM hemin from 127 +/- 11 to 26 +/- 11 pmol biliverdin/hypothalamus/1 h (n = 3; P tin-mesoporphyrin IX, which is even more selective in inhibiting HO; it was also attenuated in the presence of the gaseous scavenger ferrous hemoglobin. Furthermore, the inhibition of AVP release could be reproduced by omitting hemin and by incubating hypothalami under CO, whereas treatment with biliverdin had no effect. This suggested that the release of AVP was suppressed by HO degradation of hemin, yielding CO as a modulator of hypothalamic function. These observations may be relevant to diseases characterized by inappropriate secretion of AVP and enzymatic disturbances affecting the synthesis of heme and the formation of CO through the HO pathway (e.g., acute intermittent porphyria or lead intoxication).

  18. Heme Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus IsdE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.L.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-03

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen and a leading cause of hospital acquired infections. Because the free iron concentration in the human body is too low to support growth, S. aureus must acquire iron from host sources. Heme iron is the most prevalent iron reservoir in the human body and a predominant source of iron for S. aureus. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system removes heme from host heme proteins and transfers it to IsdE, the cognate substrate-binding lipoprotein of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, for import and subsequent degradation. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the soluble portion of the IsdE lipoprotein in complex with heme. The structure reveals a bi-lobed topology formed by an N- and C-terminal domain bridged by a single {alpha}-helix. The structure places IsdE as a member of the helical backbone metal receptor superfamily. A six-coordinate heme molecule is bound in the groove established at the domain interface, and the heme iron is coordinated in a novel fashion for heme transporters by Met{sup 78} and His{sup 229}. Both heme propionate groups are secured by H-bonds to IsdE main chain and side chain groups. Of these residues, His{sup 299} is essential for IsdE-mediated heme uptake by S. aureus when growth on heme as a sole iron source is measured. Multiple sequence alignments of homologues from several other Gram-positive bacteria, including the human pathogens pyogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes, suggest that these other systems function equivalently to S. aureus IsdE with respect to heme binding and transport.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1, oxidation, inflammation and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Araujo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process of the vascular wall characterized by the infiltration of lipids and inflammatory cells. Oxidative modifications of infiltrating low density lipoproteins and induction of oxidative stress play a major role in lipid retention in the vascular wall, uptake by macrophages and generation of foam cells, a hallmark of this disorder. The vasculature has a plethora of protective resources against oxidation and inflammation, many of them regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a Nrf2-regulated gene that plays a critical role in the prevention of vascular inflammation. It is the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, responsible for the oxidative cleavage of heme groups leading to the generation of biliverdin, carbon monoxide and release of ferrous iron. HO-1 has important antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiapoptotic, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects in vascular cells, most of which play a significant role in the protection against atherogenesis. HO-1 may also be an important feature in macrophage differentiation and polarization to certain subtypes. The biological effects of HO-1 are largely attributable to its enzymatic activity, which can be conceived as a system with three arms of action, corresponding to its three enzymatic byproducts. HO-1 mediated vascular protection may be due to a combination of systemic and vascular local effects. It is usually expressed at low levels but can be highly upregulated in the presence of several proatherogenic stimuli. The HO-1 system is amenable for use in the development of new therapies, some of them currently under experimental and clinical trials. Interestingly, in contrast to the HO-1 antiatherogenic actions, the expression of its transcriptional regulator Nrf2 leads to proatherogenic effects instead. This article reviews the evidence that supports the antiatherogenic role of HO-1, potential pathways and mechanisms mediating

  20. Targeting heme oxygenase-1 in vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, William

    2010-12-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to generate carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. Biliverdin is subsequently metabolized to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of vascular disease. Pharmacological induction or gene transfer of HO-1 ameliorates vascular dysfunction in animal models of atherosclerosis, post-angioplasty restenosis, vein graft stenosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and hypertension, while inhibition of HO-1 activity or gene deletion exacerbates these disorders. The vasoprotection afforded by HO-1 is largely attributable to its end products: CO and the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin. These end products exert potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-thrombotic actions. In addition, CO and bile pigments act to preserve vascular homeostasis at sites of arterial injury by influencing the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or leukocytes. Several strategies are currently being developed to target HO-1 in vascular disease. Pharmacological induction of HO-1 by heme derivatives, dietary antioxidants, or currently available drugs, is a promising near-term approach, while HO-1 gene delivery is a long-term therapeutic goal. Direct administration of CO via inhalation or through the use of CO-releasing molecules and/or CO-sensitizing agents provides an attractive alternative approach in targeting HO-1. Furthermore, delivery of bile pigments, either alone or in combination with CO, presents another avenue for protecting against vascular disease. Since HO-1 and its products are potentially toxic, a major challenge will be to devise clinically effective therapeutic modalities that target HO-1 without causing any adverse effects.

  1. Bone marrow: its contribution to heme catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähönen, Y; Anttinen, M; Vuopio, P; Tenhunen, R

    1976-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) and biliverdin reductase (BR), the two NADPH-dependent enzymes involved in the degradation of hemoglobin and its derivatives, were measured in bone marrow aspirates from 5 hematologically normal persons, 4 patients with chronic leucemia (CL), 11 patients with acute leucemia (AL), 8 patients with refractory sideroblastic anemia (RA), 7 patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IA), 5 patients with hemolytic anemia (HA), and 7 patients with secondary anemia (SA) to determine the enzymatic capacity of the bone marrow in different hematologic disorders for heme catabolism. HO activity in the bone marrow of normal persons was 0.42 +/- 0.28 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 2.15 +/- 1.34; in AL, 0.39 +/- 0.25; in RA, 0.58 +/- 0.37; in IA, 0.41 +/- 0.28; in HA, 2.56 +/- 1.40; and in SA, 1.72 +/- 1.06. BR activity, respectively, was in normal persons 8.7 +/- 2.4 (SD) nmoles bilirubin/10 mg protein/min; in CL, 13.6 +/- 9.1; in AL, 3.8 +/- 3.1 in RA, 5.1 +/- 2.7; in IA, 5.5 +/- 3.7; in HA, 17.0 +/- 7.2; and in SA, 10.5 +/- 4.2. On the basis of these findings it seems evident that both oxygenase and biliverdin reductase activities of the bone marrow are capable of adaptive regulation. The physiologic role of bone marrow in heme catabolism seems to be of significant importance.

  2. Gas-phase spectroscopy of ferric heme-NO complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, J.A.; Jørgensen, Anders; Pedersen, Bjarke;

    2013-01-01

    Weakly bound complexes between ferric heme cations and NO were synthesised in the gas phase from ion-molecule reactions, and their absorption measured based on photodissociation yields. The Soret band, which serves as an important marker band for heme-protein spectroscopy, is maximal at 357±5 nm...

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, DJ; Ryter, SW; Choi, AMK

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-i

  4. Spectroscopy of Ferric Heme and Protoporphyrin IX Ions In Vacuo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with gas-phase spectroscopy of protoporphyrin IX and heme ions, two important biochromophores in nature. These ions strongly absorb blue and green light, which accounts for e.g. the red colour of blood. We present absorption spectra of four-coordinate ferric heme cations at room...

  5. Extracellular heme uptake and the challenges of bacterial cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron D; Wilks, Angela

    2012-01-01

    In bacteria, the fine balance of maintaining adequate iron levels while preventing the deleterious effects of excess iron has led to the evolution of sophisticated cellular mechanisms to obtain, store, and regulate iron. Iron uptake provides a significant challenge given its limited bioavailability and need to be transported across the bacterial cell wall and membranes. Pathogenic bacteria have circumvented the iron-availability issue by utilizing the hosts' heme-containing proteins as a source of iron. Once internalized, iron is liberated from the porphyrin enzymatically for cellular processes within the bacterial cell. Heme, a lipophilic and toxic molecule, poses a significant challenge in terms of transport given its chemical reactivity. As such, pathogenic bacteria have evolved sophisticated membrane transporters to coordinate, sequester, and transport heme. Recent advances in the biochemical and structural characterization of the membrane-bound heme transport proteins are discussed in the context of ligand coordination, protein-protein interaction, and heme transfer.

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans ATAD-3 modulates mitochondrial iron and heme homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ecker, Daniela; Hoffmann, Michael; Müting, Gesine; Maglioni, Silvia; Herebian, Diran; Mayatepek, Ertan; Ventura, Natascia; Distelmaier, Felix

    2015-11-13

    ATAD3 (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 3) is a mitochondrial protein, which is essential for cell viability and organismal development. ATAD3 has been implicated in several important cellular processes such as apoptosis regulation, respiratory chain function and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Moreover, altered expression of ATAD3 has been associated with several types of cancer. However, the exact mechanisms underlying ATAD3 effects on cellular metabolism remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Caenorhabditis elegans ATAD-3 is involved in mitochondrial iron and heme homeostasis. Knockdown of atad-3 caused mitochondrial iron- and heme accumulation. This was paralleled by changes in the expression levels of several iron- and heme-regulatory genes as well as an increased heme uptake. In conclusion, our data indicate a regulatory role of C. elegans ATAD-3 in mitochondrial iron and heme metabolism.

  7. Multi-heme proteins: nature's electronic multi-purpose tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Kathryn D; Ellis, Katie E; Firer-Sherwood, Mackenzie A; Elliott, Sean J

    2013-01-01

    While iron is often a limiting nutrient to Biology, when the element is found in the form of heme cofactors (iron protoporphyrin IX), living systems have excelled at modifying and tailoring the chemistry of the metal. In the context of proteins and enzymes, heme cofactors are increasingly found in stoichiometries greater than one, where a single protein macromolecule contains more than one heme unit. When paired or coupled together, these protein associated heme groups perform a wide variety of tasks, such as redox communication, long range electron transfer and storage of reducing/oxidizing equivalents. Here, we review recent advances in the field of multi-heme proteins, focusing on emergent properties of these complex redox proteins, and strategies found in Nature where such proteins appear to be modular and essential components of larger biochemical pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems.

  8. A Novel Redox State Heme a Marker in Cytochrome c Oxidase Revealed by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, C.; Perna, G.; Scrima, R.; Cela, O.; Rinaldi, R.; Boffoli, D.; Capozzi, V.; Capitanio, N.

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed to characterize by Raman spectroscopy (excitation line 633 nm) different redox states of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. The results obtained from a systematic analysis carried out on the mitochondrial enzyme prepared under redox conditions, differently affecting the valence state of the metal prosthetic groups, and a comparison with homologous bacterial heme-copper oxidases, cytochrome c and pyridine hemo-chrome extract revealed a novel redox state marker specifically linked to the redox transition of heme a, peaking at 1645 cm-1, and tentatively assigned to the C=C and/or C=N streching mode of the imidazole ring of a proxymal histidine ligand. The possible involvment of this redox-linked conformational change in the catalytic activity of cytochrome oxidase is discussed.

  9. Electrochemical determination of heme-linked pKa values and the importance of using fluoride binding in heme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Jose F; Roeder, Margaret H; Houchins, Danielle N; Guzman, Carmen X; Amendola, Emily J; Castorino, Jacquelyn D; Fritz, Andrea L

    2013-12-01

    The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroelectrochemical measurements of heme proteins in the presence of a heme-bound fluoride ion can be used as a probe for heme-linked ionizations of acid-base groups in the heme pocket. A detailed study of the pH dependence of the midpoint potential of skeletal horse myoglobin (Mb) with a heme-bound fluoride ion (Mb-F) reveals how protonation of the distal histidine (H64) changes the redox properties of the protein with a determined pKa of 5.3. In addition, fluoride binding in myoglobin provides a stabilization of -1.9 kcal/mol of the ferric Mb-F relative to ferric Mb without fluoride.

  10. Heme binding properties of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Collins, Daniel; Brassard, Julie; Chakravarti, Ritu; Vempati, Rajesh; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Dawson, John H; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2012-10-30

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that also functions in transcriptional regulation, oxidative stress, vesicular trafficking, and apoptosis. Because GAPDH is required for the insertion of cellular heme into inducible nitric oxide synthase [Chakravarti, R., et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 18004-18009], we extensively characterized the heme binding properties of GAPDH. Substoichiometric amounts of ferric heme bound to GAPDH (one heme per GAPDH tetramer) to form a low-spin complex with UV-visible maxima at 362, 418, and 537 nm and when reduced to ferrous gave maxima at 424, 527, and 559 nm. Ferric heme association and dissociation rate constants at 10 °C were as follows: k(on) = 17800 M(-1) s(-1), k(off1) = 7.0 × 10(-3) s(-1), and k(off2) = 3.3 × 10(-4) s(-1) (giving approximate affinities of 19-390 nM). Ferrous heme bound more poorly to GAPDH and dissociated with a k(off) of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). Magnetic circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic data on the ferric, ferrous, and ferrous-CO complexes of GAPDH showed that the heme is bis-ligated with His as the proximal ligand. The distal ligand in the ferric complex was not displaced by CN(-) or N(3)(-) but in the ferrous complex could be displaced by CO at a rate of 1.75 s(-1) (for >0.2 mM CO). Studies with heme analogues revealed selectivity toward the coordinating metal and porphyrin ring structure. The GAPDH-heme complex was isolated from bacteria induced to express rabbit GAPDH in the presence of δ-aminolevulinic acid. Our finding of heme binding to GAPDH expands the protein's potential roles. The strength, selectivity, reversibility, and redox sensitivity of heme binding to GAPDH are consistent with it performing heme sensing or heme chaperone-like functions in cells.

  11. Increase on the initial soluble heme levels in acidic conditions is an important mechanism for spontaneous heme crystallization in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stiebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal that represents a vital pathway for heme disposal in several blood-feeding organisms. Recent evidence demonstrated that β-hematin (βH (the synthetic counterpart of Hz formation occurs under physiological conditions near synthetic or biological hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces. This seems to require a heme dimer acting as a precursor of Hz crystals that would be formed spontaneously in the absence of the competing water molecules bound to the heme iron. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of medium polarity on spontaneous βH formation in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the effect of water content on spontaneous βH formation by using the aprotic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO and a series of polyethyleneglycols (PEGs. We observed that both DMSO and PEGs (3.350, 6.000, 8.000, and 22.000 increased the levels of soluble heme under acidic conditions. These compounds were able to stimulate the production of βH crystals in the absence of any biological sample. Interestingly, the effects of DMSO and PEGs on βH formation were positively correlated with their capacity to promote previous heme solubilization in acidic conditions. Curiously, a short chain polyethyleneglycol (PEG 300 caused a significant reduction in both soluble heme levels and βH formation. Finally, both heme solubilization and βH formation strongly correlated with reduced medium water activity provided by increased DMSO concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The data presented here support the notion that reduction of the water activity is an important mechanism to support spontaneous heme crystallization, which depends on the previous increase of soluble heme levels.

  12. Heme oxygenase reveals its strategy for catalyzing three successive oxygenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshitaka; Unno, Masaki; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    2010-02-16

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the regiospecific conversion of heme to biliverdin IXalpha, CO, and free iron. In mammals, HO has a variety of physiological functions, including heme catabolism, iron homeostasis, antioxidant defense, cellular signaling, and O(2) sensing. The enzyme is also found in plants (producing light-harvesting pigments) and in some pathogenic bacteria, where it acquires iron from the host heme. The HO-catalyzed heme conversion proceeds through three successive oxygenations, a process that has attracted considerable attention because of its reaction mechanism and physiological importance. The HO reaction is unique in that all three O(2) activations are affected by the substrate itself. The first step is the regiospecific self-hydroxylation of the porphyrin alpha-meso carbon atom. The resulting alpha-meso-hydroxyheme reacts in the second step with another O(2) to yield verdoheme and CO. The third O(2) activation, by verdoheme, cleaves its porphyrin macrocycle to release biliverdin and free ferrous iron. In this Account, we provide an overview of our current understanding of the structural and biochemical properties of the complex self-oxidation reactions in HO catalysis. The first meso-hydroxylation is of particular interest because of its distinct contrast with O(2) activation by cytochrome P450. Although most heme enzymes oxidize exogenous substrates by high-valent oxo intermediates, HO was proposed to utilize the Fe-OOH intermediate for the self-hydroxylation. We have succeeded in preparing and characterizing the Fe-OOH species of HO at low temperature, and an analysis of its reaction, together with mutational and crystallographic studies, reveals that protonation of Fe-OOH by a distal water molecule is critical in promoting the unique self-hydroxylation. The second oxygenation is a rapid, spontaneous auto-oxidation of the reactive alpha-meso-hydroxyheme; its mechanism remains elusive, but the HO enzyme has been shown not to

  13. Effect of endurance training and cinnamon supplementation on post-exercise oxidative responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Dehghan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the preventative and therapeutic effects of regular exercise, exhaustive exercise may be harmful to health. The present study aimed to determine the protective effect of endurance training and cinnamon bark extract (CBE supplementation on oxidative responses induced by an exhaustive exercise schedule in rats. The rats were randomly divided into the following five groups of 6; control sedentary (Con/Sed, control exercised (Con/Ex, trained exercised (Tr/Ex, supplemented exercised (Sup/Ex, and trained, supplemented and exercised (Tr/Sup/Ex. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill for an 8-week endurance training program. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and (MDA and total thiol (TT levels were measured in plasma. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in soleus muscles. Results showed significant increases in SOD activity and malondealdehyde (MDA levels in the soleus muscles and serum of exercised rats fed with the normal diet. The exhaustive exercise also induced a decrease in serum total thiol level and GPX activity. Elevated levels of total thiol and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reduced serum MDA levels were found in the Sup/Ex and Tr/Sup/Ex groups. CAT and GPX activities increased by CBE treatment in trained rats. Regular training increased CAT and GPX activities in the Tr/Sup/Ex group. CAT, GPX and SOD activities were not affected by the CBE treatment in untrained rats. Results suggest that additional use of regular training and CBE supplementation increase TAC and protect healthy male rats against oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

  14. Cooperative coupling and role of heme a in the proton pump of heme-copper oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, S; Capitanio, N; Villani, G; Capitanio, G; Bizzoca, A; Palese, L L; Carlino, V; De Nitto, E

    1998-10-01

    In the last few years, evidence has accumulated supporting the applicability of the cooperative model of proton pumps in cytochrome systems, vectorial Bohr mechanisms, to heme-copper oxidases. The vectorial Bohr mechanism is based on short- and long-range protonmotive cooperative effects linked to redox transitions of the metal centers. The crystal structure of oxidized and reduced bovine-heart cytochrome c oxidase reveals, upon reduction, the occurrence of long-range conformational changes in subunit I of the oxidase. Analysis of the crystal structure of cytochrome c oxidase shows the existence of hydrogen-bonded networks of amino acid residues which could undergo redox-linked pK shifts resulting in transmembrane proton translocation. Our group has identified four proteolytic groups undergoing reversible redox-linked pK shifts. Two groups result in being linked to redox transitions of heme a3. One group is apparently linked to CuB. The fourth group is linked to oxido-reduction of heme a. We have shown that the proton transfer resulting from the redox Bohr effects linked to heme a and CuB in the bovine oxidase displays membrane vectorial asymmetry, i.e., protons are taken up from the inner aqueous space (N), upon reduction, and released in the external space (P), upon oxidation of the metals. This direction of proton uptake and release is just what is expected from the vectorial Bohr mechanism. The group linked to heme a, which can transfer up to 0.9 H+/e- at pHs around neutrality, can provide the major contribution to the proton pump. It is proposed that translocation of pumped protons, linked to electron flow through heme a, utilizes a channel (channel D) which extends from a conserved aspartate at the N entrance to a conserved glutamate located between heme a and the binuclear center. The carboxylic group of this glutamic acid, after having delivered, upon electron flow through heme a, pumped protons towards the P phase, once reprotonated from the N phase, moves

  15. Heme synthase (ferrochelatase) catalyzes the removal of iron from heme and demetalation of metalloporphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Shigeru; Ishigaki, Mutsumi; Mizutani, Atsushi; Uebayashi, Masashi; Numata, Masahiro; Ohgari, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Sakihito

    2007-12-25

    The red pigments in meat products, including cooked cured ham, arise from the reaction of myoglobin with nitric oxide generated from exogenous nitrite. Since carcinogenic nitrosoamines may be generated by the treatment of meats with nitrite, the production of nitrite-free meat products is an attractive alternative. Raw dry-cured (Parma) hams are produced by the treatment of meats with salts other than nitrite. Analysis of pigments in raw dry-cured hams reveals that the main pigment is zinc protoporphyrin, suggesting that the conversion of heme to zinc protoporphyrin occurs via an iron-removal reaction from myoglobin heme during the processing of raw hams. Purification of the iron-removal enzyme showed that it was identical to ferrochelatase. Recombinant ferrochelatase in combination with NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase catalyzed NADH-dependent iron-removal reaction from hemin and hemoproteins. Metal ions such as zinc and cobalt were also removed from the corresponding metalloporphyrins. The addition of zinc ions led to the formation of zinc protoporphyrin. In cultured cells, the conversion of zinc mesoporphyrin to mesoheme was observed to be dependent on ferrochelatase and could be markedly induced during erythroid differentiation. This is the first demonstration of a new enzyme reaction, the reverse reaction of ferrochelatase, which may contribute to a new route of the recycling of protoporphyrin and heme in cells.

  16. Magnetic and structural characterization of transition metal porphyrin complexes and the heme sites of heme peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Four studies of heme and heme model systems are described. The first study involves low temperature solution structural characterization of high-valent porphinatomanganese complexes via {sup 2}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR, and ESR spectroscopies. The reactive species were generated by low temperature reaction with chlorine (0) and chlorine(I) reagents. The implications of these species are discussed in terms of the relative reactivity of other +4 first row transition metal complexes and in terms of the catalytic effectiveness of porphinatomanganese (III) complexes in oxo-transfer reactions. The second study involved the analysis of isotropic {sup 2}H-NMR shifts observed for specifically deuterated chloro-N-methylporphinatomanganese(II) complexes. An ESR spectroscopic study of several ferrous heme peroxidase/NO complexes is presented. The {sup 14}N and {sup 15}N hyperfine splitting patterns and coupling constants in the ESR spectra clearly demonstrate the presence of a nitrogen-bound proximal ligand in lactoperoxidase. Finally, a catalytic autoxidation system involving cyclohexene and/or propanal as substrates is described. This reaction is catalyzed by high spin tetraarylporphinatoiron (III) complexes and evolves CO{sub 2}.

  17. Absorption by Isolated Ferric Heme Nitrosyl Cations In Vacuo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted

    2012-01-01

    Keywords:biophysics;gas-phase spectroscopy;heme proteins;mass spectrometry;nitric oxide Almost innocent: In photobiophysical studies of ferric heme nitrosyl complexes, the absorption spectra of six-coordinate complexes with NO and Met or Cys are similar to that of the five-coordinate complex ion ......(heme)(NO)+. Since the absorption spectra of related proteins with histidine as the proximal ligand are similar to those of the gaseous complexes, the protein microenvironment has little effect on the lowest-energy transition of the porphyrin macrocycle....

  18. Do pH and flavonoids influence hypochlorous acid-induced catalase inhibition and heme modification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), highly reactive oxidizing and chlorinating species, is formed in the immune response to invading pathogens by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride catalyzed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Catalase, an important antioxidant enzyme, catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, hampers in vitro HOCl formation, but is also one of the main targets for HOCl. In this work we have investigated HOCl-induced catalase inhibition at different pH, and the influence of flavonoids (catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin) on this process. It has been shown that HOCl-induced catalase inhibition is independent on pH in the range 6.0-7.4. Preincubation of catalase with epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin before HOCl treatment enhances the degree of catalase inhibition, whereas catechin does not affect this process. Our rapid kinetic measurements of absorption changes around the heme group have revealed that heme modification by HOCl is mainly due to secondary, intramolecular processes. The presence of flavonoids, which reduce active catalase intermediate, Compound I to inactive Compound II have not influenced the kinetics of HOCl-induced heme modification. Possible mechanisms of the reaction of hypochlorous acid with catalase are proposed and the biological consequences are discussed.

  19. Nitrite attenuated hypochlorous acid-mediated heme degradation in hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Naihao; Li, Jiayu; Ren, Xiaoming; Tian, Rong; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2015-08-05

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is elevated in many inflammatory diseases and causes the accumulation of free iron. Through the Fenton reaction, free iron has the ability to generate free radicals and subsequently is toxic. Recent studies have demonstrated that HOCl participates in heme destruction of hemoglobin (Hb) and free iron release. In this study, it was showed that nitrite (NO2(-)) could prevent HOCl-mediated Hb heme destruction and free iron release. Also, NO2(-) prevented HOCl-mediated loss of Hb peroxidase activity. After the NO2(-)/HOCl treatment, Tyr 42 in α-chain was found to be nitrated in Hb, attenuating the electron transferring abilities of phenolic compounds. The protective effects of NO2(-) on HOCl-induced heme destruction were attributed to its reduction of ferryl Hb and/or direct scavenging of HOCl. Therefore, NO2(-) could show protective effects in some inflammatory diseases by preventing HOCl-mediated heme destruction of hemoproteins and free iron release.

  20. Immunolocalization of heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study is an increasing evidence of involvement of antioxidant enzymes like heme oxygenase-1 in periodontal inflammation and their implication for treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  1. Heme crystallization in the midgut of triatomine insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcus F; Gandara, Ana Caroline P; Braga, Cláudia M S; Silva, José R; Mury, Flavia B; Dansa-Petretski, Marílvia; Menezes, Diego; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2007-01-01

    Hemozoin (Hz) is a heme crystal produced by several blood-feeding organisms in order to detoxify free heme released upon hemoglobin (Hb) digestion. Here we show that heme crystallization also occurs in three species of triatomine insects. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared light absorption spectra of insoluble pigments isolated from the midgut of three triatomine species Triatoma infestans, Dipetalogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus indicated that all produce Hz. Morphological analysis of T. infestans and D. maximus midguts revealed the close association of Hz crystals to perimicrovillar membranes and also as multicrystalline assemblies, forming nearly spherical structures. Heme crystallization was promoted by isolated perimicrovillar membranes from all three species of triatomine bugs in vitro in heat-sensitive reactions. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that Hz formation is an ancestral adaptation of Triatominae to a blood-sucking habit and that the presence of perimicrovillar membranes plays a central role in this process.

  2. Cytochrome c peroxidase activity of heme bound amyloid β peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Manas; Ghosh, Chandradeep; Basu, Olivia; Dey, Somdatta Ghosh

    2016-09-01

    Heme bound amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), can catalytically oxidize ferrocytochrome c (Cyt c(II)) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The rate of catalytic oxidation of Cyt(II) c has been found to be dependent on several factors, such as concentration of heme(III)-Aβ, Cyt(II) c, H2O2, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and peptide chain length of Aβ. The above features resemble the naturally occurring enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) which is known to catalytically oxidize Cyt(II) c in the presence of H2O2. In the absence of heme(III)-Aβ, the oxidation of Cyt(II) c is not catalytic. Thus, heme-Aβ complex behaves as CCP.

  3. Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: Current questions and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Iron is a critical micronutrient, and iron derived from heme contributes a large proportion of the total iron absorbed in a typical Western diet. Heine iron is absorbed by different mechanisms than non-heine iron, but despite considerable study over many years these mechanisms remain poorly understood. This review provides an overview of the importance of heme iron in the diet and discusses the two prevailing hypotheses of heine absorption; namely receptor mediated endocytosis of heme, and direct transport into the intestinal enterocyte by recently discovered heine transporters. A specific emphasis is placed on the questions surrounding the site of heme catabolism and the identity of the enzyme that performs this task. Additionally, we present the hypothesis that a nonheme iron transport protein may be required for heine iron absorption and discuss the experiences of our laboratory in examining this hypothesis.

  4. Structure of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme and enzymatic inactivation by mutation of the heme coordinating residue His-193

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suits,M.; Jaffer, N.; Jia, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Heme oxygenases catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. For pathogenic microorganisms, heme uptake and degradation are critical mechanisms for iron acquisition that enable multiplication and survival within hosts they invade. Here we report the first crystal structure of the pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 heme oxygenase ChuS in complex with heme at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution. When compared with other heme oxygenases, ChuS has a unique fold, including structural repeats and a {beta}-sheet core. Not surprisingly, the mode of heme coordination by ChuS is also distinct, whereby heme is largely stabilized by residues from the C-terminal domain, assisted by a distant arginine from the N-terminal domain. Upon heme binding, there is no large conformational change beyond the fine tuning of a key histidine (His-193) residue. Most intriguingly, in contrast to other heme oxygenases, the propionic side chains of heme are orientated toward the protein core, exposing the {alpha}-meso carbon position where O{sub 2} is added during heme degradation. This unique orientation may facilitate presentation to an electron donor, explaining the significantly reduced concentration of ascorbic acid needed for the reaction. Based on the ChuS-heme structure, we converted the histidine residue responsible for axial coordination of the heme group to an asparagine residue (H193N), as well as converting a second histidine to an alanine residue (H73A) for comparison purposes. We employed spectral analysis and CO measurement by gas chromatography to analyze catalysis by ChuS, H193N, and H73A, demonstrating that His-193 is the key residue for the heme-degrading activity of ChuS.

  5. Genome-wide analysis reveals novel genes essential for heme homeostasis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Severance

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Heme is a cofactor in proteins that function in almost all sub-cellular compartments and in many diverse biological processes. Heme is produced by a conserved biosynthetic pathway that is highly regulated to prevent the accumulation of heme--a cytotoxic, hydrophobic tetrapyrrole. Caenorhabditis elegans and related parasitic nematodes do not synthesize heme, but instead require environmental heme to grow and develop. Heme homeostasis in these auxotrophs is, therefore, regulated in accordance with available dietary heme. We have capitalized on this auxotrophy in C. elegans to study gene expression changes associated with precisely controlled dietary heme concentrations. RNA was isolated from cultures containing 4, 20, or 500 microM heme; derived cDNA probes were hybridized to Affymetrix C. elegans expression arrays. We identified 288 heme-responsive genes (hrgs that were differentially expressed under these conditions. Of these genes, 42% had putative homologs in humans, while genomes of medically relevant heme auxotrophs revealed homologs for 12% in both Trypanosoma and Leishmania and 24% in parasitic nematodes. Depletion of each of the 288 hrgs by RNA-mediated interference (RNAi in a transgenic heme-sensor worm strain identified six genes that regulated heme homeostasis. In addition, seven membrane-spanning transporters involved in heme uptake were identified by RNAi knockdown studies using a toxic heme analog. Comparison of genes that were positive in both of the RNAi screens resulted in the identification of three genes in common that were vital for organismal heme homeostasis in C. elegans. Collectively, our results provide a catalog of genes that are essential for metazoan heme homeostasis and demonstrate the power of C. elegans as a genetic animal model to dissect the regulatory circuits which mediate heme trafficking in both vertebrate hosts and their parasites, which depend on environmental heme for survival.

  6. HmuS and HmuQ of Ensifer/Sinorhizobium meliloti degrade heme in vitro and participate in heme metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarelle, Vanesa; Rosconi, Federico; Lázaro-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Buldain, Graciela; Noya, Francisco; O'Brian, Mark R; Fabiano, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Ensifer meliloti is a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the alfalfa legume able to use heme as an iron source. The transport mechanism involved in heme acquisition in E. meliloti has been identified and characterized, but the fate of heme once inside the cell is not known. In silico analysis of E. meliloti 1021 genome revealed no canonical heme oxygenases although two genes encoding putative heme degrading enzymes, smc01518 and hmuS, were identified. SMc01518 is similar to HmuQ of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which is weakly homologous to the Staphylococcus aureus IsdG heme-degrading monooxygenase, whereas HmuS is homolog to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PhuS, a protein reported as a heme chaperone and as a heme degrading enzyme. Recombinant HmuQ and HmuS were able to bind hemin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and displayed a Kd value of 5 and 4 µM, respectively. HmuS degrades heme in vitro to the biliverdin isomers IX-β and IX-δ in an equimolar ratio. The HmuQ recombinant protein degrades heme to biliverdin IX-δ only. Additionally, in this work we demonstrate that humS and hmuQ gene expression is regulated by iron and heme in a RirA dependent manner and that both proteins are involved in heme metabolism in E. meliloti in vivo.

  7. TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yien, Yvette Y.; Robledo, Raymond F.; Schultz, Iman J.; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel E.; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J.; Cooney, Jeffrey D.; Pierce, Eric L.; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A.; Miyata, Non; Kingsley, Paul D.; Garone, Caterina; Hattangadi, Shilpa M.; Huang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Keenan, Ellen M.; Shah, Dhvanit I.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Orkin, Stuart H.; Cantor, Alan B.; Palis, James; Koehler, Carla M.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M.; Dailey, Harry A.; Phillips, John D.; Peters, Luanne L.; Paw, Barry H.

    2014-01-01

    The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias. PMID:25157825

  8. Decreased Heme Oxygenase Activity in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkay Cataloglu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized with progressive im-pairment of cognitive functions. Heme oxygenase is an enzyme that degrades the heme molecule resulting in equimolar amounts of the carbon monoxide, ferrous iron, and bili-verdin. Up to now, heme oxygenase activity and its metabolic effects in Alzheimer's dis-ease have been investigated in so many studies; most of them were performed in post-mortem brain tissues of Alzheimer's disease patients or in animal models. Therefore, we aimed to investigate heme oxygenase activity in leukocytes of Alzheimer's disease pa-tients as a peripheral sample. Mean heme oxygenase activity was significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (0.53 +/- 0.32 nmol/h/mg protein compared to control sucjects (1.19 +/- 0.84 nmol/h/mg protein (p= 0.001. We think that reduction in leukocyte heme oxygenase activity may limit disease progression through preserving peripheral mitochondrial function by reducing the formation of free iron and carbon monoxide. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(2.000: 31-34

  9. Alterations in renal heme biosynthesis during metal nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, A; Fowler, B A

    1987-01-01

    The regulation of the heme biosynthetic pathway in the kidney by various metals has been reviewed. In addition, a study on the effects of lead on renal heme biosynthesis after acute treatment of rats has been reported. Chronic low-level lead exposure in rats results in relatively small effects on renal heme biosynthetic pathway enzymes. After acute treatment of rats with lead, no effects on ALAD or UROS and mild, transitory effects on ALAS and ferrochelatase are observed. The intracellular binding of lead within intranuclear inclusion bodies in the proximal tubule cells and to high-affinity cytosolic lead-binding proteins probably protects sensitive subcellular systems, such as the heme pathway, from lead toxicity. Chronic exposure to methyl mercury results in increased urinary excretion of uro- and coproporphyrins in rats, mediated via inhibition of ferrochelatase and UROS and stimulation of ALAS. A tissue-specific inhibition of ALAD occurs in the kidney after treatment of rats with indium. Acute treatment of rats with nickel, platinum, tin, antimony, bismuth, and cobalt results in induction of heme oxygenase, followed by decreased microsomal heme content and ALAS stimulation in the kidney.

  10. TMEM14C is required for erythroid mitochondrial heme metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yien, Yvette Y; Robledo, Raymond F; Schultz, Iman J; Takahashi-Makise, Naoko; Gwynn, Babette; Bauer, Daniel E; Dass, Abhishek; Yi, Gloria; Li, Liangtao; Hildick-Smith, Gordon J; Cooney, Jeffrey D; Pierce, Eric L; Mohler, Kyla; Dailey, Tamara A; Miyata, Non; Kingsley, Paul D; Garone, Caterina; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Huang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Keenan, Ellen M; Shah, Dhvanit I; Schlaeger, Thorsten M; DiMauro, Salvatore; Orkin, Stuart H; Cantor, Alan B; Palis, James; Koehler, Carla M; Lodish, Harvey F; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M; Dailey, Harry A; Phillips, John D; Peters, Luanne L; Paw, Barry H

    2014-10-01

    The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias.

  11. The effect of proteins from animal source foods on heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Valenzuela, Carolina; Brito, Alex; Weinborn, Valerie; Flores, Sebastián; Arredondo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Forty-five women (35-45 year) were randomly assigned to three iron (Fe) absorption sub-studies, which measured the effects of dietary animal proteins on the absorption of heme Fe. Study 1 was focused on heme, red blood cell concentrate (RBCC), hemoglobin (Hb), RBCC+beef meat; study 2 on heme, heme+fish, chicken, and beef; and study 3 on heme and heme+purified animal protein (casein, collagen, albumin). Study 1: the bioavailability of heme Fe from Hb was similar to heme only (∼13.0%). RBCC (25.0%) and RBCC+beef (21.3%) were found to be increased 2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, when compared with heme alone (pheme alone (10.3%) was reduced (pheme Fe absorption.

  12. A heme-binding domain controls regulation of ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark J; Kapetanaki, Sofia M; Chernova, Tatyana; Jamieson, Andrew G; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Moody, Peter C E; Mitcheson, John S; Davies, Noel W; Schmid, Ralf; Raven, Emma L; Storey, Nina M

    2016-04-01

    Heme iron has many and varied roles in biology. Most commonly it binds as a prosthetic group to proteins, and it has been widely supposed and amply demonstrated that subtle variations in the protein structure around the heme, including the heme ligands, are used to control the reactivity of the metal ion. However, the role of heme in biology now appears to also include a regulatory responsibility in the cell; this includes regulation of ion channel function. In this work, we show that cardiac KATP channels are regulated by heme. We identify a cytoplasmic heme-binding CXXHX16H motif on the sulphonylurea receptor subunit of the channel, and mutagenesis together with quantitative and spectroscopic analyses of heme-binding and single channel experiments identified Cys628 and His648 as important for heme binding. We discuss the wider implications of these findings and we use the information to present hypotheses for mechanisms of heme-dependent regulation across other ion channels.

  13. Analysis of Heme oxygenase isomers in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Wei Xia; Wen-Jun Cui; Xue-Hong Zhang; Qing-Xiang Shen; Jian Wang; Yun-Zhu Li; Shen-Nian Chen; Shan-Chang Yu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To purify and identify heme oxygenase (HO) isomers which exist in rat liver, spleen and brain treated with hematin and phenylhydrazine and in untreated rat liver and to investigate the characteristics of HO isomers, to isolate and confirm the rat HO-1 cDNA that actually encodes HO-1 by expressing cDNA in monkey kidney cells (COS-1 cells), to prepare the rat heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mutant and to detect inhibition of HO-1 mutated enzyme.METHODS: First, rat liver, spleen and brain microsomal fi-actions were purified by DEAE-Sephacel and hydroxylapatite. The characteristics including activity, immunity and inducibility of two isomers (HO-1 and HO-2), and their apparent molecular weight were measured by detecting enzymatic activities, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Second, plasmid pcDNA3HO1 containing native rat HO-1 cDNA and pcDNA3HO1D25 carrying mutated rat HO-1 cDNA (His25Ala) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. COS-1 cells transfected with pcDNA3HO1 and pcDNA3HO1D25 were collected and disrupted by sonication, the microsomes were prepared by ultracentrifugation. Third, the inhibition of rat HO-1 mutant was analyzed.RESULTS: Two isomers were purified and identified in treated rat liver, spleen, brain and untreated rat liver. HO-1 was the predominant form with a ratio of 2.0:1 and 3.2:1 of HO-1 and HO-2 in liver and spleen, respectively, but only the activity of HO-2 in the brain and untreated liver could be detected. The apparent molecular weights of HO-1 and HO-2 were about Mr 30 000 and Mr 36 000 under reducing conditions, respectively. The antiserum against liver HO-2 was employed in Western blotting analysis, the reactivity of HO-1 in the liver was not observed. The plasmid pcDNA3HO1 was highly expressed in endoplasmic reticulum of transfected COS-1 cells. The specific activity was ≈5-fold higher than that of the control. However, the enzyme activity of mutated HO-1 declined. While

  14. Heme Degradation by Heme Oxygenase Protects Mitochondria but Induces ER Stress via Formed Bilirubin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Müllebner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, in conjunction with biliverdin reductase, degrades heme to carbon monoxide, ferrous iron and bilirubin (BR; the latter is a potent antioxidant. The induced isoform HO-1 has evoked intense research interest, especially because it manifests anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects relieving acute cell stress. The mechanisms by which HO mediates the described effects are not completely clear. However, the degradation of heme, a strong pro-oxidant, and the generation of BR are considered to play key roles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of BR on vital functions of hepatocytes focusing on mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The affinity of BR to proteins is a known challenge for its exact quantification. We consider two major consequences of this affinity, namely possible analytical errors in the determination of HO activity, and biological effects of BR due to direct interaction with protein function. In order to overcome analytical bias we applied a polynomial correction accounting for the loss of BR due to its adsorption to proteins. To identify potential intracellular targets of BR we used an in vitro approach involving hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria. After verification that the hepatocytes possess HO activity at a similar level as liver tissue by using our improved post-extraction spectroscopic assay, we elucidated the effects of increased HO activity and the formed BR on mitochondrial function and the ER stress response. Our data show that BR may compromise cellular metabolism and proliferation via induction of ER stress. ER and mitochondria respond differently to elevated levels of BR and HO-activity. Mitochondria are susceptible to hemin, but active HO protects them against hemin-induced toxicity. BR at slightly elevated levels induces a stress response at the ER, resulting in a decreased proliferative and metabolic activity of hepatocytes. However, the proteins that are targeted

  15. Heme-binding plasma membrane proteins of K562 erythroleukemia cells: Adsorption to heme-microbeads, isolation with affinity chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majuri, R. (Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    Heme-microbeads attached themselves to the surface of viable K562 cells in a manner inhibitable by free hemin, indicating heme-recptor interaction. The microbeads were at first evenly distributed, but after prolonged incubation at 37 deg. C they formed a cap on one pole of the cells indicating clustering of the membrane heme receptors. Membrane proteins were labeled by culturing the cells in the presence of {sup 35}S-methionine and were then solubilized with Triton X-114. The hydrophobic proteins contained about 20% of the total bound label. The solubilized membrane proteins were subsequently adsorbed to a heme-Sepharose affinity gel. According to SDS-electrophorsis and subsequent autoradiography, the immobilized heme captures two proteins or a protein with two polypeptides of 20 000 and 32 000 daltons. The larger of these was only wekly labeled with {sup 35}S. The same two bands were observed if the cell surface proteins were labeled with {sup 125}I by the lactoperoxidase method and the subsequently solubilized membrane proteins were isolated with heme-Sepharose. (author).

  16. The Role of the Cytoplasmic Heme-binding Protein (PhuS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Intracellular Heme Trafficking and Iron Homeostasis*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The cytoplasmic heme-binding protein PhuS, encoded within the Fur-regulated Pseudomonas heme utilization (phu) operon, has previously been shown to traffic heme to the iron-regulated heme oxygenase (HO). We further investigate the role of PhuS in heme trafficking to HO on disruption of the phuS and hemO genes in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa siderophore-deficient and wild-type background. Previous studies have shown that deletion of hemO prevents the cells from utilizin...

  17. Homologues of Neisserial Heme Oxygenase in Gram-Negative Bacteria: Degradation of Heme by the Product of the pigA Gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The oxidative cleavage of heme to release iron is a mechanism by which some bacterial pathogens can utilize heme as an iron source. The pigA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is shown to encode a heme oxygenase protein, which was identified in the genome sequence by its significant homology (37%) with HemO of Neisseria meningitidis. When the gene encoding the neisserial heme oxygenase, hemO, was replaced with pigA, we demonstrated that pigA could functionally replace hemO and allow for heme util...

  18. Facile heme vinyl posttranslational modification in a hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preimesberger, Matthew R; Wenke, Belinda B; Gilevicius, Lukas; Pond, Matthew P; Lecomte, Juliette T J

    2013-05-21

    Iron-protoporphyrin IX, or b heme, is utilized as such by a large number of proteins and enzymes. In some cases, notably the c-type cytochromes, this group undergoes a posttranslational covalent attachment to the polypeptide chain, which adjusts the physicochemical properties of the holoprotein. The hemoglobin from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (GlbN), contrary to the archetypical hemoglobin, modifies its b heme covalently. The posttranslational modification links His117, a residue that does not coordinate the iron, to the porphyrin 2-vinyl substituent and forms a hybrid b/c heme. The reaction is an electrophilic addition that occurs spontaneously in the ferrous state of the protein. This apparently facile type of heme modification has been observed in only two cyanobacterial GlbNs. To explore the determinants of the reaction, we examined the behavior of Synechocystis GlbN variants containing a histidine at position 79, which is buried against the porphyrin 4-vinyl substituent. We found that L79H/H117A GlbN bound the heme weakly but nevertheless formed a cross-link between His79 Nε2 and the heme 4-Cα. In addition to this linkage, the single variant L79H GlbN also formed the native His117-2-Cα bond yielding an unprecedented bis-alkylated protein adduct. The ability to engineer the doubly modified protein indicates that the histidine-heme modification in GlbN is robust and could be engineered in different local environments. The rarity of the histidine linkage in natural proteins, despite the ease of reaction, is proposed to stem from multiple sources of negative selection.

  19. Ultrafast Spectroscopy Evidence for Picosecond Ligand Exchange at the Binding Site of a Heme Protein: Heme-Based Sensor YddV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Stranava, Martin; Lobato, Laura; Martinkova, Marketa; Shimizu, Toru; Liebl, Ursula; Vos, Marten H

    2016-01-07

    An important question for the functioning of heme proteins is whether different ligands present within the protein moiety can readily exchange with heme-bound ligands. Studying the dynamics of the heme domain of the Escherichia coli sensor protein YddV upon dissociation of NO from the ferric heme by ultrafast spectroscopy, we demonstrate that when the hydrophobic leucine residue in the distal heme pocket is mutated to glycine, in a substantial fraction of the protein water replaces NO as an internal ligand in as fast as ∼4 ps. This process, which is near-barrierless and occurs orders of magnitude faster than the corresponding process in myoglobin, corresponds to a ligand swap of NO with a water molecule present in the heme pocket, as corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings provide important new insight into ligand exchange in heme proteins that functionally interact with different external ligands.

  20. Calcium does not inhibit the absorption of 5 milligrams of nonheme or heme iron at doses less than 800 milligrams in nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Diego; Flores, Sebastián; Saavedra, Pía; Miranda, Constanza; Olivares, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel; López de Romaña, Daniel; Lönnerdal, Bo; Pizarro, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Calcium is the only known component in the diet that may affect absorption of both nonheme and heme iron. However, the evidence for a calcium effect on iron absorption mainly comes from studies that did not isolate the effect of calcium from that of other dietary components, because it was detected in single-meal studies. Our objective was to establish potential effects of calcium on absorption of nonheme and heme iron and the dose response for this effect in the absence of a meal. Fifty-four healthy, nonpregnant women were selected to participate in 4 iron absorption studies using iron radioactive tracers. We evaluated the effects of calcium doses between 200 and 1500 mg on absorption of 5 mg nonheme iron (as ferrous sulfate). We also evaluated the effects of calcium doses between 200 and 800 mg on absorption of 5 mg heme iron [as concentrated RBC (CRBC)]. Calcium was administered as calcium chloride in all studies and minerals were ingested on an empty stomach. Calcium doses ≥1000 mg diminished nonheme iron absorption by an average of 49.6%. A calcium dose of 800 mg diminished absorption of 5 mg heme iron by 37.7%. In conclusion, we demonstrated an isolated effect of calcium (as chloride) on absorption of 5 mg of iron provided as nonheme (as sulfate) and heme (as CRBC) iron. This effect was observed at doses higher than previously reported from single-meal studies, starting at ~800 mg of calcium.

  1. Porphyrin-Cored Polymer Nanoparticles: Macromolecular Models for Heme Iron Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Kyle J; Hanlon, Ashley M; Lyon, Christopher K; Cole, Justin P; Tuten, Bryan T; Tooley, Christian A; Berda, Erik B; Pazicni, Samuel

    2016-10-03

    Porphyrin-cored polymer nanoparticles (PCPNs) were synthesized and characterized to investigate their utility as heme protein models. Created using collapsible heme-centered star polymers containing photodimerizable anthracene units, these systems afford model heme cofactors buried within hydrophobic, macromolecular environments. Spectroscopic interrogations demonstrate that PCPNs display redox and ligand-binding reactivity similar to that of native systems and thus are potential candidates for modeling biological heme iron coordination.

  2. Effect of Growth Conditions on Yield and Heme Content of Vitreoscilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Parveen; Webster, Dale A.

    1980-01-01

    Vitreoscilla, a gliding bacterium in the Beggiatoaceae, is an obligate aerobe in which cytochrome o functions as the terminal oxidase. Protoheme IX is the only heme type present in this organism. The yield and heme content of Vitreoscilla cells grown in yeast extract, peptone, and acetate were dependent on growth conditions. Cells harvested in early stationary phase contained roughly three times as much heme as cells in early log phase. There was an optimal shaking rate for maximum heme conte...

  3. Heme-Scavenging Role of alpha1-Microglobulin in Chronic Ulcers.

    OpenAIRE

    Allhorn, Maria; Lundqvist, Katarina; Schmidtchen, Artur; Åkerström, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Chronic venous ulcers are characterized by chronic inflammation. Heme and iron, originating from blood cell hemolysis as well as extravascular necrosis, have been implicated as important pathogenic factors due to their promotion of oxidative stress. It was recently reported that the plasma and tissue protein alpha1-microglobulin is involved in heme metabolism. The protein binds heme, and a carboxy-terminally processed form, truncated alpha1-microglobulin, also degrades heme. Here, we show the...

  4. Dysfunction of the heme recycling system in heme oxygenase 1-deficient mice: effects on macrophage viability and tissue iron distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Eckhaus, Michael A; Ghosh, Manik C; Ollivierre-Wilson, Hayden; Rouault, Tracey A

    2010-12-23

    To better understand the tissue iron overload and anemia previously reported in a human patient and mice that lack heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), we studied iron distribution and pathology in HO-1(Hmox1)(-/-) mice. We found that resident splenic and liver macrophages were mostly absent in HO-1(-/-) mice. Erythrophagocytosis caused the death of HO-1(-/-) macrophages in in vitro experiments, supporting the hypothesis that HO-1(-/-) macrophages died of exposure to heme released on erythrophagocytosis. Rupture of HO-1(-/-) macrophages in vivo and release of nonmetabolized heme probably caused tissue inflammation. In the spleen, initial splenic enlargement progressed to red pulp fibrosis, atrophy, and functional hyposplenism in older mice, recapitulating the asplenia of an HO-1-deficient patient. We postulate that the failure of tissue macrophages to remove senescent erythrocytes led to intravascular hemolysis and increased expression of the heme and hemoglobin scavenger proteins, hemopexin and haptoglobin. Lack of macrophages expressing the haptoglobin receptor, CD163, diminished the ability of haptoglobin to neutralize circulating hemoglobin, and iron overload occurred in kidney proximal tubules, which were able to catabolize heme with HO-2. Thus, in HO-1(-/-) mammals, the reduced function and viability of erythrophagocytosing macrophages are the main causes of tissue damage and iron redistribution.

  5. Degradation of heme in gram-negative bacteria: the product of the hemO gene of Neisseriae is a heme oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W; Wilks, A; Stojiljkovic, I

    2000-12-01

    A full-length heme oxygenase gene from the gram-negative pathogen Neisseria meningitidis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Expression of the enzyme yielded soluble catalytically active protein and caused accumulation of biliverdin within the E. coli cells. The purified HemO forms a 1:1 complex with heme and has a heme protein spectrum similar to that previously reported for the purified heme oxygenase (HmuO) from the gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae and for eukaryotic heme oxygenases. The overall sequence identity between HemO and these heme oxygenases is, however, low. In the presence of ascorbate or the human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase system, the heme-HemO complex is converted to ferric-biliverdin IXalpha and carbon monoxide as the final products. Homologs of the hemO gene were identified and characterized in six commensal Neisseria isolates, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria flava, Neisseria polysacchareae, Neisseria kochii, and Neisseria cinerea. All HemO orthologs shared between 95 and 98% identity in amino acid sequences with functionally important residues being completely conserved. This is the first heme oxygenase identified in a gram-negative pathogen. The identification of HemO as a heme oxygenase provides further evidence that oxidative cleavage of the heme is the mechanism by which some bacteria acquire iron for further use.

  6. Giardia intestinalis incorporates heme into cytosolic cytochrome b₅.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrih, Jan; Harant, Karel; Martincová, Eva; Sutak, Robert; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Hrdý, Ivan; Tachezy, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic intestinal pathogen Giardia intestinalis does not possess enzymes for heme synthesis, and it also lacks the typical set of hemoproteins that are involved in mitochondrial respiration and cellular oxygen stress management. Nevertheless, G. intestinalis may require heme for the function of particular hemoproteins, such as cytochrome b5 (cytb5). We have analyzed the sequences of eukaryotic cytb5 proteins and identified three distinct cytb5 groups: group I, which consists of C-tail membrane-anchored cytb5 proteins; group II, which includes soluble cytb5 proteins; and group III, which comprises the fungal cytb5 proteins. The majority of eukaryotes possess both group I and II cytb5 proteins, whereas three Giardia paralogs belong to group II. We have identified a fourth Giardia cytb5 paralog (gCYTb5-IV) that is rather divergent and possesses an unusual 134-residue N-terminal extension. Recombinant Giardia cytb5 proteins, including gCYTb5-IV, were expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited characteristic UV-visible spectra that corresponded to heme-loaded cytb5 proteins. The expression of the recombinant gCYTb5-IV in G. intestinalis resulted in the increased import of extracellular heme and its incorporation into the protein, whereas this effect was not observed when gCYTb5-IV containing a mutated heme-binding site was expressed. The electrons for Giardia cytb5 proteins may be provided by the NADPH-dependent Tah18-like oxidoreductase GiOR-1. Therefore, GiOR-1 and cytb5 may constitute a novel redox system in G. intestinalis. To our knowledge, G. intestinalis is the first anaerobic eukaryote in which the presence of heme has been directly demonstrated.

  7. The heme oxygenase system and its functions in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, M D

    2000-05-01

    The heme oxygenase (HO) system was identified in the early 1970s as a distinct microsomal enzyme system that catalyzes formation of bile pigments (Maines and Kappas, 1974). Up to the early 1990s the system was considered only as a "molecular wrecking ball" (Lane, 1998) for degradation of the heme molecule and production of toxic waste products, CO and bile pigments. For those years, the HO system remained relatively unknown to the research community. In a rather short span of the past 10 years following the discovery of high levels of a second form of the enzyme, HO-2, in the brain, suggesting that "heme oxygenase in the brain has functions aside from heme degradation" (Sun et al., 1990); concomitant with finding that another toxic gas, NO, is a signal molecule for generation of cGMP (Ignarro et al., 1982), the system was propelled into main stream research. This propulsion was fueled by the realization of the multiple and diverse functions of heme degradation products. Heme oxygenase has now found relevance in all kinds of human pathophysiology ranging from stroke, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and malaria to transplantation and immune response. As it turns out, its potential benefits are mesmerizing investigators in diverse fields (Lane, 1998). The most recent findings with HO-2 being a hemoprotein and potentially an intracellular "sink" for NO (McCoubrey et al., 1997a; Ding et al., 1999), together with the discovery of the third form of the enzyme, HO-3 (McCoubrey et al., 1997b), are likely to insure the widespread interest in the enzyme system in the coming years. The present review is intended to highlight molecular properties of HO isozymes and their likely functions in the brain. Extended reviews of the system are found in Maines (1992, 1997).

  8. Developmental expression of heme oxygenase in the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennery, Phyllis A; Lee, Christen S; Ford, Berendera S; Weng, Yi-Hao; Yang, Guang; Rodgers, Pamela A

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of bilirubin, is expressed in the lung and may serve as an antioxidant. This enzyme results in the formation of antioxidant bile pigments and the degradation of pro-oxidant heme. We wanted to evaluate the differences in expression of HO-1, the inducible form, and HO-2, the constitutive isoenzyme, during lung maturation and document whether lung HO expression was similar to that of other antioxidant enzymes. Lung total HO activity and HO-1 and HO-2 proteins as well as HO-1 and HO-2 mRNA were evaluated in animals from 16 d of gestation (e(16.5)) to 2 mo of age. Heme content was also evaluated because heme is the substrate of the reaction. HO-1 mRNA was maximal at e(19.5) and e(20.5), whereas HO-2 mRNA was not changed throughout maturation. Lung HO-1 protein was highest on the first days of life and lowest in adults, whereas HO-2 protein was maximally expressed at postnatal d 5 and then declined to reach adult values. As to HO activity, there was a prenatal peak at e(20.5), a second lesser peak at d 5, and thereafter a decline to adult values. Lung heme content was inversely correlated with HO activity or protein as the highest heme values were seen in adults with the lowest HO activity. In response to hyperoxia, HO-1 mRNA was induced only in the adult lungs. A better understanding of the maturational regulation of lung HO will define a role for HO in newborns at risk for oxygen toxicity.

  9. Genetic analyses of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in different forms of pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weis, S.; Jesinghaus, M.; Kovacs, P.; Schleinitz, D.; Schober, R.; Ruffert, C.; Herms, M.; Wittenburg, H.; Stumvoll, M.; Blüher, M.; Grützmann, R.; Schulz, H.U.; Keim, V.; Mössner, J.; Bugert, P.; Witt, H.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Krohn, K.; Rosendahl, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) is the rate limiting enzyme in heme degradation and a key regulator of inflammatory processes. In animal models the course of pancreatitis was ameliorated by up-regulation of HMOX1 expression. Additionally, carbon monoxide released during heme breakdown inhibited

  10. Heme uptake by Leishmania amazonensis is mediated by the transmembrane protein LHR1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Huynh

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid protozoan parasites lack a functional heme biosynthetic pathway, so must acquire heme from the environment to survive. However, the molecular pathway responsible for heme acquisition by these organisms is unknown. Here we show that L. amazonensis LHR1, a homolog of the C. elegans plasma membrane heme transporter HRG-4, functions in heme transport. Tagged LHR1 localized to the plasma membrane and to endocytic compartments, in both L. amazonensis and mammalian cells. Heme deprivation in L. amazonensis increased LHR1 transcript levels, promoted uptake of the fluorescent heme analog ZnMP, and increased the total intracellular heme content of promastigotes. Conversely, deletion of one LHR1 allele reduced ZnMP uptake and the intracellular heme pool by approximately 50%, indicating that LHR1 is a major heme importer in L. amazonensis. Viable parasites with correct replacement of both LHR1 alleles could not be obtained despite extensive attempts, suggesting that this gene is essential for the survival of promastigotes. Notably, LHR1 expression allowed Saccharomyces cerevisiae to import heme from the environment, and rescued growth of a strain deficient in heme biosynthesis. Syntenic genes with high sequence identity to LHR1 are present in the genomes of several species of Leishmania and also Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, indicating that therapeutic agents targeting this transporter could be effective against a broad group of trypanosomatid parasites that cause serious human disease.

  11. XAFS Debye-Waller factors for deformed hemes and metal substituted hemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, N; Mion, T; Ramirez, C [Department of Physics and Geology, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539 (United States); Bunker, G, E-mail: dimakis@utpa.ed [Department of Biological Chemical and Physical Sciences, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We present an efficient and accurate method for calculating XAFS Debye-Waller factors for deformed active sites of hemoproteins and metal substituted hemes. Based on the Normal Coordinate Structural Decomposition scheme, the deformation of the porphyrin macrocycle is expressed as a linear combination of the normal modes of the planar species. In our approach, we identify the modes that contribute most to the deformation. Small metal-porphyrin structures which match the macrocycle structural deformation of the deformed hemoprotein site are used to calculate the Debye-Waller parameters at sample's temperature. The Debye-Waller factors are directly obtained by calculating the normal mode spectrum of the corresponding metal-porphyrin structure using Density Functional Theory. Our method is tested on Ni-tetraadamantyl porphyrin and cytochrome c structures with more than 500 available scattering paths.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1 system and gastrointestinal inflammation: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Fan, Wen-Guo; Li, Dong-Pei; Kung, Hsiangfu; Lin, Marie Cm

    2011-10-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) system catalyzes heme to biologically active products: carbon monoxide, biliverdin/bilirubin and free iron. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that HO-1 activation may play an important protective role in acute and chronic inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. This review focuses on the current understanding of the physiological significance of HO-1 induction and its possible roles in the gastrointestinal inflammation studied to date. The ability to upregulate HO-1 by pharmacological means or using gene therapy may offer therapeutic strategies for gastrointestinal inflammation in the future.

  13. Peroxo-Type Intermediates in Class I Ribonucleotide Reductase and Related Binuclear Non-Heme Iron Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Bell, Caleb B.; Clay, MIchael D.;

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study of chemically possible peroxo-type intermediates occurring in the non-heme di-iron enzyme class la ribonucleotide reductase, using spectroscopically calibrated computational chemistry. Density functional computations of equilibrium structures, Fe-O and O...... in carboxylate conformations occurring during the O-2 reaction of this class of non-heme iron enzymes. Our procedure identifies and characterizes various possible candidates for peroxo intermediates experimentally observed along the ribonucleotide reductase dioxygen activation reaction. The study explores how...... water or a proton can bind to the di-iron site of ribonucleotide reductase and facilitate changes that affect the electronic structure of the iron sites and activate the site for further reaction. Two potential reaction pathways are presented: one where water adds to Fe1 of the cis-mu-1,2 peroxo...

  14. Arsenite alters heme synthesis in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-González, M G; Hernández, A; López, M L; Mendoza-Figueroa, T; Albores, A

    1999-06-01

    Arsenite (As[III]) effects on the intermediate steps of heme biosynthesis were studied in adult rat hepatocytes seeded on a feeder layer of 3T3 cells (3T3-hepatocytes) and maintained for 2 weeks with culture medium non-supplemented or supplemented with 150 microM 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). The activities of the intracellular enzymes porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D), uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROIII-S), and uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase (URO-D), and the intermediary uroporphyrins (URO), coproporphyrins (COPRO) and protoporphyrin IX (PROTO) were determined in these cultures. The 3T3-hepatocytes maintained the activities of PBG-D, UROIII-S and URO-D during 2 weeks and ALA addition to the culture medium increased PBG-D (2-3-fold) and UROIII-S (50%) activities and porphyrin production, which accumulated as PROTO. Exposure to 3.9 microM As(III) inhibited UROIII-S activity (down to 34%), and PBG-D and URO-D activities to a lower extent; these effects were magnified by ALA supplementation. As(III) also produced an intracellular accumulation and a decreased excretion of PROTO, and a 31% reduction of the COPRO/URO ratio in the culture medium. Additionally, As(III) caused cytoplasmic vacuolization and lipid accumulation. Our results show that As(III) exposure selectively inhibits several intermediary enzymes of heme metabolism and affects the intra- and extracellular content of porphyrins and their ratio in the culture medium. They also confirm that 3T3-hepatocytes are a suitable in vitro model to study hepatic heme metabolism and its alterations by hepatotoxic chemicals.

  15. 血红素氧合酶与血压%Heme Oxygenase and Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦; 贾友宏

    2011-01-01

    血红素氧台酶(Heme oxygenase,HO)是血红素代谢过程中的限速酶,可降解血红素生成一氧化碳(CO),胆绿素和铁.HO-1产生的血管保护作用大部分归因于它的代谢终产物所具有的抗炎、抗氧化、抗凋亡、抗血栓形成作用.此外,CO和胆汁酸还可通过影响血管平滑肌细胞、内皮细胞、内皮祖细胞和白细胞等的增殖、迁移、粘附,维持血管损伤后的稳态,避免管壁增生肥厚.本文综述了HO及其代谢产物对血压的影响.%Hcme oxygenasc (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme which could metabolize heme lo generate carbon monoxide (CO ), biliverdin and iron. Biliverdin is subsequently metabolized to billrubin by bilivcrdin rcductase . The vasoprotection afforded by HO-1 is largely attributable to its End products: CO and the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin. These end products exert potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant. Anti-apoptotic. And antj-lhrombotic actions. In addition, CO and bile pigments act to preserve vascular homeostasis at sites of arterial injury by influencing the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs), cndothclial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, or leukocytes. The proliferation ,migration and adhesion of VSMCsplay a pivotal role in the development of hypertension. The article has focused not only on heme oxygenase itself but also its metabolic products as well as endogenous compounds involve in vast number of genetic and metabolic processes, that affect blood pres-

  16. Analysis of Heme Iron Coordination in DGCR8: The Heme-Binding Component of the Microprocessor Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Hazel M; Bradley, Justin M; Cheesman, Myles R; Kincaid, James R; Liu, Yilin; Czarnecki, Kazimierz; Fisher, Karl; Leys, David; Rigby, Stephen E J; Munro, Andrew W

    2016-09-13

    DGCR8 is the RNA-binding partner of the nuclease Drosha. Their complex (the "Microprocessor") is essential for processing of long, primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) in the nucleus. Binding of heme to DGCR8 is essential for pri-miRNA processing. On the basis of the split Soret ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum of ferric DGCR8, bis-thiolate sulfur (cysteinate, Cys(-)) heme iron coordination of DGCR8 heme iron was proposed. We have characterized DGCR8 heme ligation using the Δ276 DGCR8 variant and combined electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), electron nuclear double resonance, resonance Raman, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. These studies indicate DGCR8 bis-Cys heme iron ligation, with conversion from bis-thiolate (Cys(-)/Cys(-)) axial coordination in ferric DGCR8 to bis-thiol (CysH/CysH) coordination in ferrous DGCR8. Pri-miRNA binding does not perturb ferric DGCR8's optical spectrum, consistent with the axial ligand environment being separated from the substrate-binding site. UV-vis absorption spectra of the Fe(II) and Fe(II)-CO forms indicate discrete species exhibiting peaks with absorption coefficients substantially larger than those for ferric DGCR8 and that previously reported for a ferrous form of DGCR8. Electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy data exclude histidine or water as axial ligands for ferric DGCR8 and favor bis-thiolate coordination in this form. UV-vis MCD and near-infrared MCD provide data consistent with this conclusion. UV-vis MCD data for ferrous DGCR8 reveal features consistent with bis-thiol heme iron coordination, and resonance Raman data for the ferrous-CO form are consistent with a thiol ligand trans to the CO. These studies support retention of DGCR8 cysteine coordination upon reduction, a conclusion distinct from those of previous studies of a different ferrous DGCR8 isoform.

  17. Malaria parasite-synthesized heme is essential in the mosquito and liver stages and complements host heme in the blood stages of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Arun Nagaraj

    Full Text Available Heme metabolism is central to malaria parasite biology. The parasite acquires heme from host hemoglobin in the intraerythrocytic stages and stores it as hemozoin to prevent free heme toxicity. The parasite can also synthesize heme de novo, and all the enzymes in the pathway are characterized. To study the role of the dual heme sources in malaria parasite growth and development, we knocked out the first enzyme, δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS, and the last enzyme, ferrochelatase (FC, in the heme-biosynthetic pathway of Plasmodium berghei (Pb. The wild-type and knockout (KO parasites had similar intraerythrocytic growth patterns in mice. We carried out in vitro radiolabeling of heme in Pb-infected mouse reticulocytes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected human RBCs using [4-(14C] aminolevulinic acid (ALA. We found that the parasites incorporated both host hemoglobin-heme and parasite-synthesized heme into hemozoin and mitochondrial cytochromes. The similar fates of the two heme sources suggest that they may serve as backup mechanisms to provide heme in the intraerythrocytic stages. Nevertheless, the de novo pathway is absolutely essential for parasite development in the mosquito and liver stages. PbKO parasites formed drastically reduced oocysts and did not form sporozoites in the salivary glands. Oocyst production in PbALASKO parasites recovered when mosquitoes received an ALA supplement. PbALASKO sporozoites could infect mice only when the mice received an ALA supplement. Our results indicate the potential for new therapeutic interventions targeting the heme-biosynthetic pathway in the parasite during the mosquito and liver stages.

  18. Kinetic Analysis of a Globin-Coupled Histidine Kinase, AfGcHK: Effects of the Heme Iron Complex, Response Regulator, and Metal Cations on Autophosphorylation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Veronika; Stranava, Martin; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula; Hranicek, Jakub; Kitanishi, Kenichi; Shimizu, Toru; Martinkova, Marketa

    2015-08-18

    The globin-coupled histidine kinase, AfGcHK, is a part of the two-component signal transduction system from the soil bacterium Anaeromyxobacter sp. Fw109-5. Activation of its sensor domain significantly increases its autophosphorylation activity, which targets the His183 residue of its functional domain. The phosphate group of phosphorylated AfGcHK is then transferred to the cognate response regulator. We investigated the effects of selected variables on the autophosphorylation reaction's kinetics. The kcat values of the heme Fe(III)-OH(-), Fe(III)-cyanide, Fe(III)-imidazole, and Fe(II)-O2 bound active AfGcHK forms were 1.1-1.2 min(-1), and their Km(ATP) values were 18.9-35.4 μM. However, the active form bearing a CO-bound Fe(II) heme had a kcat of 1.0 min(-1) but a very high Km(ATP) value of 357 μM, suggesting that its active site structure differs strongly from the other active forms. The Fe(II) heme-bound inactive form had kcat and Km(ATP) values of 0.4 min(-1) and 78 μM, respectively, suggesting that its low activity reflects a low affinity for ATP relative to that of the Fe(III) form. The heme-free form exhibited low activity, with kcat and Km(ATP) values of 0.3 min(-1) and 33.6 μM, respectively, suggesting that the heme iron complex is essential for high catalytic activity. Overall, our results indicate that the coordination and oxidation state of the sensor domain heme iron profoundly affect the enzyme's catalytic activity because they modulate its ATP binding affinity and thus change its kcat/Km(ATP) value. The effects of the response regulator and different divalent metal cations on the autophosphorylation reaction are also discussed.

  19. Heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion attenuates oxidative stress in neurons exposed to extracellular hemin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenisti-Zarom Luna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas and is a potent oxidant. Growing evidence suggests that it contributes to delayed injury to surrounding tissue, and that this process is affected by the heme oxygenase enzymes. In a prior study, heme oxygenase-2 gene deletion increased the vulnerability of cultured cortical astrocytes to hemin. The present study tested the effect of HO-2 gene deletion on protein oxidation, reactive oxygen species formation, and cell viability after mixed cortical neuron/astrocyte cultures were incubated with neurotoxic concentrations of hemin. Results Continuous exposure of wild-type cultures to 1–10 μM hemin for 14 h produced concentration-dependent neuronal death, as detected by both LDH release and fluorescence intensity after propidium iodide staining, with an EC50 of 1–2 μM; astrocytes were not injured by these low hemin concentrations. Cell death was consistently reduced by at least 60% in knockout cultures. Exposure to hemin for 4 hours, a time point that preceded cell lysis, increased protein oxidation in wild-type cultures, as detected by staining of immunoblots for protein carbonyl groups. At 10 μM hemin, carbonylation was increased 2.3-fold compared with control sister cultures subjected to medium exchanges only; this effect was reduced by about two-thirds in knockout cultures. Cellular reactive oxygen species, detected by fluorescence intensity after dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR staining, was markedly increased by hemin in wild-type cultures and was localized to neuronal cell bodies and processes. In contrast, DHR fluorescence intensity in knockout cultures did not differ from that of sham-washed controls. Neuronal death in wild-type cultures was almost completely prevented by the lipid-soluble iron chelator phenanthroline; deferoxamine had a weaker but significant effect. Conclusions These results suggest that HO-2 gene deletion protects neurons in mixed

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  2. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.; Smit, B.; Santos, dos F.; Riel, van J.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. RES

  3. Heme and HO-1 inhibition of HCV, HBV, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren N Schmidt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis B virus are chronic viral infections that cause considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In the decades following the identification and sequencing of these viruses, in vitro experiments demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1, its oxidative products, and related compounds of the heme oxygenase system are virucidal for all three viruses. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate and summarize the seminal studies that described and characterized this remarkable behavior. It will also discuss more recent work that discovered the antiviral mechanisms and target sites of these unique antiviral agents. In spite of the fact that these viruses are diverse pathogens with quite profound differences in structure and life cycle, it is significant that heme and related compounds show striking similarity for viral target sites across all three species. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that we should move forward and develop heme and related tetrapyrroles into versatile antiviral agents that could be used therapeutically in patients with single or multiple viral infections.

  4. The Heme Connection: Linking Erythrocytes and Macrophage Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Zahidul; Devalaraja, Samir; Haldar, Malay

    2017-01-01

    Erythroid function and development is intimately linked to macrophages. The primary function of erythrocytes is oxygen delivery, which is mediated by iron-containing hemoglobin. The major source of this iron is a recycling pathway where macrophages scavenge old and damaged erythrocytes to release iron contained within the heme moiety. Macrophages also promote erythropoiesis by providing a supportive niche in the bone marrow as an integral component of “erythorblastic islands.” Importantly, inflammation leads to alterations in iron handling by macrophages with significant impact on iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis. The importance of macrophages in erythropoiesis and iron homeostasis is well established and has been extensively reviewed. However, this developmental relationship is not one way, and erythrocytes can also regulate macrophage development and function. Erythrocyte-derived heme can induce the development of iron-recycling macrophages from monocytes, engage pattern recognition receptors to activate macrophages, and act as ligand for specific nuclear receptors to modulate macrophage function. Here, we discuss the role of heme as a signaling molecule impacting macrophage homeostasis. We will review these actions of heme within the framework of our current understanding of the role of micro-environmental factors in macrophage development and function. PMID:28167947

  5. Mechanism of reaction of chlorite with mammalian heme peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopitsch, Christa; Pirker, Katharina F; Flemmig, Jörg; Hofbauer, Stefan; Schlorke, Denise; Furtmüller, Paul G; Arnhold, Jürgen; Obinger, Christian

    2014-06-01

    This study demonstrates that heme peroxidases from different superfamilies react differently with chlorite. In contrast to plant peroxidases, like horseradish peroxidase (HRP), the mammalian counterparts myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by chlorite in the micromolar concentration range. Chlorite acts as efficient one-electron donor for Compound I and Compound II of MPO and LPO and reacts with the corresponding ferric resting states in a biphasic manner. The first (rapid) phase is shown to correspond to the formation of a MPO-chlorite high-spin complex, whereas during the second (slower) phase degradation of the prosthetic group was observed. Cyanide, chloride and hydrogen peroxide can block or delay heme bleaching. In contrast to HRP, the MPO/chlorite system does not mediate chlorination of target molecules. Irreversible inactivation is shown to include heme degradation, iron release and decrease in thermal stability. Differences between mammalian peroxidases and HRP are discussed with respect to differences in active site architecture and heme modification.

  6. Structural and spectroscopic characterisation of a heme peroxidase from sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamchi, Chukwudi I; Parkin, Gary; Efimov, Igor; Basran, Jaswir; Kwon, Hanna; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Agirre, Jon; Okolo, Bartholomew N; Moneke, Anene; Nwanguma, Bennett C; Moody, Peter C E; Raven, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    A cationic class III peroxidase from Sorghum bicolor was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme contains a high-spin heme, as evidenced by UV-visible spectroscopy and EPR. Steady state oxidation of guaiacol was demonstrated and the enzyme was shown to have higher activity in the presence of calcium ions. A Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential of -266 mV vs NHE was determined. Stopped-flow experiments with H2O2 showed formation of a typical peroxidase Compound I species, which converts to Compound II in the presence of calcium. A crystal structure of the enzyme is reported, the first for a sorghum peroxidase. The structure reveals an active site that is analogous to those for other class I heme peroxidase, and a substrate binding site (assigned as arising from binding of indole-3-acetic acid) at the γ-heme edge. Metal binding sites are observed in the structure on the distal (assigned as a Na(+) ion) and proximal (assigned as a Ca(2+)) sides of the heme, which is consistent with the Ca(2+)-dependence of the steady state and pre-steady state kinetics. It is probably the case that the structural integrity (and, thus, the catalytic activity) of the sorghum enzyme is dependent on metal ion incorporation at these positions.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.

  8. Degradation of Heme in Gram-Negative Bacteria: the Product of the hemO Gene of Neisseriae Is a Heme Oxygenase

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    A full-length heme oxygenase gene from the gram-negative pathogen Neisseria meningitidis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Expression of the enzyme yielded soluble catalytically active protein and caused accumulation of biliverdin within the E. coli cells. The purified HemO forms a 1:1 complex with heme and has a heme protein spectrum similar to that previously reported for the purified heme oxygenase (HmuO) from the gram-positive pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae and for eukar...

  9. Mechanism of horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed heme oxidation and polymerization (beta-hematin formation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Vishal; Chand, Prem; Maulik, Prakas R; Bandyopadhyay, Uday

    2005-05-25

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the polymerization of free heme (beta-hematin formation) through its oxidation. Heme when added to HRP compound II (FeIV=O) causes spectral shift from 417 nm (Compound II) to 402 nm (native, FeIII) indicating that heme may be oxidized via one-electron transfer. Direct evidence for one-electron oxidation of heme by HRP intermediates is provided by the appearance of an E.s.r signal of a 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (spin trap)-heme radical adduct (a1H=14.75 G, a2H=4.0 G) in E.s.r studies. Heme-polymerization by HRP is inhibited by spin trap indicating that one-electron oxidation product of heme ultimately leads to the formation of heme-polymer. HRP, when incubated with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), a histidine specific reagent, shows concentration dependent loss of heme-polymerization indicating the role of histidine residues in the process. We suggest that HRP catalyzes the formation of heme-polymer through one-electron oxidation of free heme.

  10. Haemoproteus and Schistosoma synthesize heme polymers similar to Plasmodium hemozoin and beta-hematin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M M; Shi, L; Sullivan, D J

    2001-03-01

    Many parasites digest hemoglobin as an amino acid source, but only a few produce heme polymer pigment instead of catabolizing heme via heme oxygenase. This work compares purified heme polymers produced by Haemoproteus columbae and Schistosoma mansoni to that of Plasmodium falciparum hemozoin and synthetic beta-hematin. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy identifies the signature peaks of the common iron-carboxylate bond characteristic in all four heme polymers. However, all pigments could be distinguished by quite different three-dimensional structure visualized by Field Emission Inlens Scanning Electron Microscopy. Both P. falciparum and H. columbae heme polymers had a symmetrical shape unlike the amorphous S. mansoni heme polymer and beta-hematin. All four heme pigments serve as templates for heme polymer extension, which was inhibitable by chloroquine and other quinoline antimalarials. The polymers showed different levels of resistance to hydrogen peroxide degradation. This work identifies another genus, Haemoproteus, capable of intracellular heme polymer formation. The different three-dimensional structures of each pigment implicate genus specific formation of heme polymer, variation of inhibition of polymer extension by the quinolines and degradation by hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Identification and characterization of a heme periplasmic-binding protein in Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Melissa; Sonier, Brigitte; Robinson, Renée; Scott, Fraser W; Cameron, D William; Lee, B Craig

    2011-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi, a gram-negative and heme-dependent bacterium, is the causative agent of chancroid, a genital ulcer sexually transmitted infection. Heme acquisition in H. ducreyi proceeds via a receptor mediated process in which the initial event involves binding of hemoglobin and heme to their cognate outer membrane proteins, HgbA and TdhA, respectively. Following this specific interaction, the fate of the periplasmic deposited heme is unclear. Using protein expression profiling of the H. ducreyi periplasmic proteome, a periplasmic-binding protein, termed hHbp, was identified whose expression was enhanced under heme-limited conditions. The gene encoding this protein was situated in a locus displaying genetic characteristics of an ABC transporter. The purified protein bound heme in a dose-dependent and saturable manner and this binding was specifically competitively inhibited by heme. The hhbp gene functionally complemented an Escherichia coli heme uptake mutant. Expression of the heme periplasmic-binding protein was detected in a limited survey of H. ducreyi and H. influenzae clinical strains. These results indicate that the passage of heme into the cytoplasm of H. ducreyi involves a heme dedicated ABC transporter.

  12. Structural basis of heme binding in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töro, Imre; Petrutz, Cristiana; Pacello, Francesca; D'Orazio, Melania; Battistoni, Andrea; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2009-02-20

    The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase from Haemophilus ducreyi is characterized by the unique ability to bind heme at its dimer interface. Here we report the high-resolution crystal structures of this protein in the heme-loaded (holo) and heme-free (apo) forms. Heme is asymmetrically bound between the two enzyme subunits, where heme iron is coordinated by two histidine residues, His64 and His 124, provided by the two subunits. Moreover, the binding of heme to the protein is ensured by stabilizing contacts between the prosthetic group and a limited number of other residues, most of which are not present in other bacterial enzyme variants. We show that the introduction of only three mutations at the dimer interface of the enzyme from Haemophilus parainfluenzae, a closely related bacterial species, is sufficient to induce heme-binding ability by this enzyme variant. Heme binding does not alter protein activity. Moreover, the binding of the prosthetic group does not induce any significant structural perturbation at the subunit level and requires only limited local structural rearrangements that widen the cleft at the dimer interface and cause a limited shift in the relative orientation between the subunits. The presence of a preformed heme-binding pocket and the significant solvent exposure of the cofactor to the solvent are compatible with the suggested protective role of the enzyme against heme toxicity or with its involvement in heme trafficking in the periplasmic space.

  13. Regulatory Fe(II/III) heme: the reconstruction of a molecule's biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Toni; Imhof, Diana

    2014-09-22

    More than 20 years of research on heme as a temporary effector molecule of proteins have revealed its widespread impact on virtually all primary functions in the human organism. As our understanding of this influence is still growing, a comprehensive overview of compiled data will give fresh impetus for creativity and developing new strategies in heme-related research. From known data concerning heme-regulated proteins and their involvement in the development of diseases, we provide concise information of Fe(II/III) heme as a regulator and the availability of "regulatory heme". The latter is dependent on the balance between free and bound Fe(II/III) heme, here termed "hemeostasis". Imbalance of this system can lead to the development of diseases that were not always attributed to this small molecule. Diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease highlight the reawakened interest in heme, whose function was previously believed to be completely understood.

  14. Heme oxygenase 1 defects lead to reduced chlorophyll in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Yang, Zonghui; Zeng, Xinhua; Gao, Jie; Liu, Jie; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We previously described a Brassica napus chlorophyll-deficient mutant (ygl) with yellow-green seedling leaves and mapped the related gene, BnaC.YGL, to a 0.35 cM region. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this chlorophyll defect are still unknown. In this study, the BnaC07.HO1 gene (equivalent to BnaC.YGL) was isolated by the candidate gene approach, and its function was confirmed by genetic complementation. Comparative sequencing analysis suggested that BnaC07.HO1 was lost in the mutant, while a long noncoding-RNA was inserted into the promoter of the homologous gene BnaA07.HO1. This insert was widely present in B. napus cultivars and down-regulated BnaA07.HO1 expression. BnaC07.HO1 was highly expressed in the seedling leaves and encoded heme oxygenase 1, which was localized in the chloroplast. Biochemical analysis showed that BnaC07.HO1 can catalyze heme conversion to form biliverdin IXα. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the loss of BnaC07.HO1 impaired tetrapyrrole metabolism, especially chlorophyll biosynthesis. According, the levels of chlorophyll intermediates were reduced in the ygl mutant. In addition, gene expression in multiple pathways was affected in ygl. These findings provide molecular evidences for the basis of the yellow-green leaf phenotype and further insights into the crucial role of HO1 in B. napus.

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide suppress the pathogenesis of experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Ana; Ferreira, Ana; Balla, József; Jeney, Viktória; Balla, György; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Chora, Angelo; Rodrigues, Cristina D; Gregoire, Isabel Pombo; Cunha-Rodrigues, Margarida; Portugal, Silvia; Soares, Miguel P; Mota, Maria M

    2007-06-01

    Cerebral malaria claims more than 1 million lives per year. We report that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA upregulated HO-1 expression and activity and did not develop ECM. Deletion of Hmox1 and inhibition of HO activity increased ECM incidence to 83% and 78%, respectively. HO-1 upregulation was lower in infected C57BL/6 compared to BALB/c mice, and all infected C57BL/6 mice developed ECM (100% incidence). Pharmacological induction of HO-1 and exposure to the end-product of HO-1 activity, carbon monoxide (CO), reduced ECM incidence in C57BL/6 mice to 10% and 0%, respectively. Whereas neither HO-1 nor CO affected parasitemia, both prevented blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, brain microvasculature congestion and neuroinflammation, including CD8(+) T-cell brain sequestration. These effects were mediated by the binding of CO to hemoglobin, preventing hemoglobin oxidation and the generation of free heme, a molecule that triggers ECM pathogenesis.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 in Alzheimer disease: a tribute to Moussa Youdim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Hyman M

    2011-03-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a 32 kDa stress protein mediating the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin/bilirubin, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. In AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), immunoreactive HO-1 protein is over-expressed in astrocytes and neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex and co-localizes to neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques and corpora amylacea. Astroglial induction of the Hmox1 gene by β-amyloid, pro-inflammatory cytokines and hydrogen peroxide promotes mitochondrial sequestration of non-transferrin iron and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergy failure amply documented in AD-affected neural tissues. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact cell survival and neuroplasticity in AD by modulating brain sterol/oxysterol metabolism and the degradation of tau by the proteasome. Suppression of glial HO-1 activity by pharmacological or other means may confer neuroprotection in AD by curtailing iron-mediated neurotoxicity.

  17. Inhibitory effects of a novel Val to Thr mutation on the distal heme of human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Zahra; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    True catalases efficiently breakdown hydrogen peroxide, whereas the catalase-related enzyme allene oxide synthase (cAOS) is completely unreactive and instead metabolizes a fatty acid hydroperoxide. In cAOS a Thr residue adjacent to the distal His restrains reaction with H2O2 (Tosha et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:12610; De Luna et al. (2013) J. Phys. Chem. B 117: 14635) and its mutation to the consensus Val of true catalases permits the interaction. Here we investigated the effects of the reciprocal experiment in which the Val74 of human catalase is mutated to Thr, Ser, Met, Pro, or Ala. The Val74Thr substitution decreased catalatic activity by 3.5-fold and peroxidatic activity by 3-fold. Substitution with Ser had similar negative effects (5- and 3-fold decreases). Met decreased catalatic activity 2-fold and eliminated peroxidatic activity altogether, whereas the Val74Ala substitution was well tolerated. (The Val74Pro protein lacked heme). We conclude that the conserved Val74 of true catalases helps optimize catalysis. There are rare substitutions of Val74 with Ala, Met, or Pro, but not with Ser of Thr, possibly due their hydrogen bonding affecting the conformation of His75, the essential distal heme residue for activity in catalases.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Alam, Jawed; Choi, Augustine M K

    2006-04-01

    The heme oxygenases, which consist of constitutive and inducible isozymes (HO-1, HO-2), catalyze the rate-limiting step in the metabolic conversion of heme to the bile pigments (i.e., biliverdin and bilirubin) and thus constitute a major intracellular source of iron and carbon monoxide (CO). In recent years, endogenously produced CO has been shown to possess intriguing signaling properties affecting numerous critical cellular functions including but not limited to inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptotic cell death. The era of gaseous molecules in biomedical research and human diseases initiated with the discovery that the endothelial cell-derived relaxing factor was identical to the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO). The discovery that endogenously produced gaseous molecules such as NO and now CO can impart potent physiological and biological effector functions truly represented a paradigm shift and unraveled new avenues of intense investigations. This review covers the molecular and biochemical characterization of HOs, with a discussion on the mechanisms of signal transduction and gene regulation that mediate the induction of HO-1 by environmental stress. Furthermore, the current understanding of the functional significance of HO shall be discussed from the perspective of each of the metabolic by-products, with a special emphasis on CO. Finally, this presentation aspires to lay a foundation for potential future clinical applications of these systems.

  19. Enzymes of heme metabolism in the kidney: regulation by trace metals which do not form heme complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, M D; Kappas, A

    1977-11-01

    The in vivo regulation by metal ions of the enzymes of heme metabolism in kidney-particularly of ALAS, the rate-limiting enzyme in heine formation- was investigated. Ni(2+) and Pt(4+), metals which do not enzymatically form metalloporphyrins, were found to regulate ALAS in kidney as they do in liver. The pattern of this regulation was generally similar to that observed with heme and metal ions in liver, i.e., a late increase in enzyme activity after an early period in which ALAS activity was unaltered or inhibited. The metals did not interact with the enzyme in vitro to alter its activity. In this study no direct reciprocal relationship between ALAS activity and total cellular heine content was demonstrated. The metal ions, particularly Pt(4+), also altered the activity of other enzymes of heme biosynthesis in kidney. Pt(4+) severely inhibited the activity of ALAD and UROS. Ni(2+) and Pt(4+) were potent inducers of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heine degradation. It is proposed that the physiological regulation of ALAS is mediated through the action of metal ions, rather than by the cellular content of heine, and that the regulation of ALAS by heine reflects the action of the central metal ion of heme rather than that of the entire metalloporphyrin complex. In this proposed mechanism for metal ion regulation of ALAS, the tetrapyrrole moiety of heine is considered to function principally as an efficient carrier of metal to the regulatory site for ALAS production, inasmuch as the tetrapyrrole ring itself has been shown in earlier studies not to have any effect on ALAS activity. The production of heine oxygenase is believed to be similarly regulated.

  20. The dppBCDF gene cluster of Haemophilus influenzae: Role in heme utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Daniel J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae requires a porphyrin source for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient. This porphyrin requirement may be satisfied by either heme alone, or protoporphyrin IX in the presence of an iron source. One protein involved in heme acquisition by H. influenzae is the periplasmic heme binding protein HbpA. HbpA exhibits significant homology to the dipeptide and heme binding protein DppA of Escherichia coli. DppA is a component of the DppABCDF peptide-heme permease of E. coli. H. influenzae homologs of dppBCDF are located in the genome at a point distant from hbpA. The object of this study was to investigate the potential role of the H. influenzae dppBCDF locus in heme utilization. Findings An insertional mutation in dppC was constructed and the impact of the mutation on the utilization of both free heme and various proteinaceous heme sources as well as utilization of protoporphyrin IX was determined in growth curve studies. The dppC insertion mutant strain was significantly impacted in utilization of all tested heme sources and protoporphyin IX. Complementation of the dppC mutation with an intact dppCBDF gene cluster in trans corrected the growth defects seen in the dppC mutant strain. Conclusion The dppCBDF gene cluster constitutes part of the periplasmic heme-acquisition systems of H. influenzae.

  1. Heme degrading protein HemS is involved in oxidative stress response of Bartonella henselae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe³⁺ uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress.

  2. High throughput heme assay by detection of chemiluminescence of reconstituted horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Masuda, Tatsuru

    2009-06-01

    In living organisms, heme is an essential molecule for various biological functions. Recent studies also suggest that heme functions as organelle-derived signal that regulates fundamental cell processes. Furthermore, estimation of heme is widely used for studying various blood disorders. In this regard, development of a rapid, sensitive, and high throughput heme assay has been sought. The most frequently used method of measuring heme by pyridine hemochrome is time, labor, and material intensive, and therefore limiting in its utility for large scale, high throughput analysis. Recently, we reported alternative method that is sensitive and specific to heme, which is based on the ability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) apo-enzyme to reconstitute with heme to form an active holo-enzyme. Here, we developed high throughput heme assay by performing reactions on multi-well plate with highly sensitive chemiluminescence detection reagents. Detection of chemiluminescence in charged coupled device (CCD)-based gel doc apparatus enables simultaneous measurement of multiple samples. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of this assay allowed a direct measurement of heme in solvent extracts after dilution. This assay is sensitive, quick, provides a large dynamic range, and is well suited for large-scale analysis of heme extracted from minute amount of samples.

  3. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Robert H; Vidrio, Edgar A; Kumfer, Benjamin M; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H; Kennedy, Ian M; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-10-30

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate-buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate-buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an antioxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals.

  4. Challenging Density Functional Theory Calculations with Hemes and Porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam P. de Visser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review recent advances in computational chemistry and specifically focus on the chemical description of heme proteins and synthetic porphyrins that act as both mimics of natural processes and technological uses. These are challenging biochemical systems involved in electron transfer as well as biocatalysis processes. In recent years computational tools have improved considerably and now can reproduce experimental spectroscopic and reactivity studies within a reasonable error margin (several kcal·mol−1. This paper gives recent examples from our groups, where we investigated heme and synthetic metal-porphyrin systems. The four case studies highlight how computational modelling can correctly reproduce experimental product distributions, predicted reactivity trends and guide interpretation of electronic structures of complex systems. The case studies focus on the calculations of a variety of spectroscopic features of porphyrins and show how computational modelling gives important insight that explains the experimental spectra and can lead to the design of porphyrins with tuned properties.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency: the first autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Oda, Yoshio; Yachie, Akihiro; Koizumi, Shoichi; Nakanishi, Isao

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the first autopsy case of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 deficiency. A 6-year-old boy who presented with growth retardation; anemia; leukocytosis; thrombocytosis; coagulation abnormality; elevated levels of haptoglobin, ferritin, and heme in serum; a low serum bilirubin concentration; and hyperlipidemia was diagnosed as HO-1 deficient by gene analysis several months before death. Autopsy showed amyloid deposits in the liver and adrenal glands and mesangioproliferative glomerular changes in kidneys, in addition to an irregular distribution of foamy macrophages with iron pigments. Fatty streaks and fibrous plaques were noted in the aorta. Compared with HO-1--targeted mice, the present case seems to more severely involve endothelial cells and the reticuloendothelial system, resulting in intravascular hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and amyloidosis with a short survival. This contrasts to the predominant iron metabolic disorders of HO-1--targeted mice with a long survival.

  6. Heme oxygenase-1 induction by dieldrin in dopaminergic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun; Lee, Jung-Sup; Kim, Dae-Joong; Son, Jin H; Chun, Hong Sung

    2005-04-04

    We investigated the transcriptional events and signaling pathways involved in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by dieldrin, an environmental risk factor of Parkinson's disease, in a dopaminergic neuronal cells (SN4741). Dieldrin exposure caused dose-dependent and time-dependent induction of heme oxygenase activity and HO-1 protein expression. Deletional and mutational analyses showed that the 5' distal enhancers, E1 and E2, mediate dieldrin-induced HO-1 gene transcription, and the AP-1 DNA binding sites in the E2 enhancer are critical for E2-mediated HO-1 gene activation. Furthermore, both the p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are utilized for HO-1 transcriptional activation by dieldrin. HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP IX reduced the expression of HO-1 but enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by dieldrin.

  7. Cyanide binding to human plasma heme-hemopexin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Laboratorio Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Leboffe, Loris [Istituto Nazionale di Biostrutture e Biosistemi, Roma (Italy); Polticelli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Roma Tre, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferric HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to ferrous HHPX-heme-Fe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dithionite-mediated reduction of ferric HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe is limited by ligand deprotonation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyanide dissociation from HHPX-heme-Fe-cyanide is limited by ligand protonation. -- Abstract: Hemopexin (HPX) displays a pivotal role in heme scavenging and delivery to the liver. In turn, heme-Fe-hemopexin (HPX-heme-Fe) displays heme-based spectroscopic and reactivity properties. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of cyanide binding to ferric and ferrous hexa-coordinate human plasma HPX-heme-Fe (HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II), respectively), and for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex, at pH 7.4 and 20.0 Degree-Sign C, are reported. Values of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for cyanide binding to HHPX-heme-Fe(III) and HHPX-heme-Fe(II) are K = (4.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M, k{sub on} = (6.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and k{sub off} = 2.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}; and H = (6 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M, h{sub on} = 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and h{sub off} = (7.1 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The value of the rate constant for the dithionite-mediated reduction of the HHPX-heme-Fe(III)-cyanide complex is l = 8.9 {+-} 0.8 M{sup -1/2} s{sup -1}. HHPX-heme-Fe reactivity is modulated by proton acceptor/donor amino acid residue(s) (e.g., His236) assisting the deprotonation and protonation of the incoming and outgoing ligand, respectively.

  8. Functional Importance of Tyrosine 294 and the Catalytic Selectivity for the Bis-Fe(IV) State of MauG Revealed by Replacement of This Axial Heme Ligand with Histidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarboush, Nafez Abu; Jensen, Lyndal M.R.; Feng, Manliang; Tachikawa, Hiroyasu; Wilmot, Carrie M.; Davidson, Victor L. (UMMC); (UMM); (Jackson)

    2010-12-07

    The diheme enzyme MauG catalyzes the posttranslational modification of a precursor protein of methylamine dehydrogenase (preMADH) to complete the biosynthesis of its protein-derived tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor. It catalyzes three sequential two-electron oxidation reactions which proceed through a high-valent bis-Fe(IV) redox state. Tyr294, the unusual distal axial ligand of one c-type heme, was mutated to His, and the crystal structure of Y294H MauG in complex with preMADH reveals that this heme now has His-His axial ligation. Y294H MauG is able to interact with preMADH and participate in interprotein electron transfer, but it is unable to catalyze the TTQ biosynthesis reactions that require the bis-Fe(IV) state. This mutation affects not only the redox properties of the six-coordinate heme but also the redox and CO-binding properties of the five-coordinate heme, despite the 21 {angstrom} separation of the heme iron centers. This highlights the communication between the hemes which in wild-type MauG behave as a single diheme unit. Spectroscopic data suggest that Y294H MauG can stabilize a high-valent redox state equivalent to Fe(V), but it appears to be an Fe(IV)=O/{pi} radical at the five-coordinate heme rather than the bis-Fe(IV) state. This compound I-like intermediate does not catalyze TTQ biosynthesis, demonstrating that the bis-Fe(IV) state, which is stabilized by Tyr294, is specifically required for this reaction. The TTQ biosynthetic reactions catalyzed by wild-type MauG do not occur via direct contact with the Fe(IV)=O heme but via long-range electron transfer through the six-coordinate heme. Thus, a critical feature of the bis-Fe(IV) species may be that it shortens the electron transfer distance from preMADH to a high-valent heme iron.

  9. Mosaic origin of the heme biosynthesis pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborník, Miroslav; Green, Beverley R

    2005-12-01

    Heme biosynthesis represents one of the most essential metabolic pathways in living organisms, providing the precursors for cytochrome prosthetic groups, photosynthetic pigments, and vitamin B(12). Using genomic data, we have compared the heme pathway in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae to those of green algae and higher plants, as well as to those of heterotrophic eukaryotes (fungi, apicomplexans, and animals). Phylogenetic analyses showed the mosaic character of this pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Although most of the algal and plant enzymes showed the expected plastid (cyanobacterial) origin, at least one of them (porphobilinogen deaminase) appears to have a mitochondrial (alpha-proteobacterial) origin. Another enzyme, glutamyl-tRNA synthase, obviously originated in the eukaryotic nucleus. Because all the plastid-targeted sequences consistently form a well-supported cluster, this suggests that genes were either transferred from the primary endosymbiont (cyanobacteria) to the primary host nucleus shortly after the primary endosymbiotic event or replaced with genes from other sources at an equally early time, i.e., before the formation of three primary plastid lineages. The one striking exception to this pattern is ferrochelatase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step to heme and bilin pigments. In this case, two red algal sequences do not cluster either with the other plastid sequences or with cyanobacterial sequences and appear to have a proteobacterial origin like that of the apicomplexan parasites Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Although the heterokonts also acquired their plastid via secondary endosymbiosis from a red alga, the diatom has a typical plastid-cyanobacterial ferrochelatase. We have not found any remnants of the plastidlike heme pathway in the nonphotosynthetic heterokonts Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae.

  10. A role for Haemophilus ducreyi Cu,ZnSOD in resistance to heme toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negari, Shahin; Sulpher, Jeff; Pacello, Francesca; Ingrey, Keely; Battistoni, Andrea; Lee, B Craig

    2008-06-01

    The Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) from Haemophilus ducreyi is the only enzyme of this class which binds a heme molecule at its dimer interface. To explore the role of the enzyme in this heme-obligate bacterium, a sodC mutant was created by insertional inactivation. No difference in growth rate was observed during heme limitation. In contrast, under heme rich conditions growth of the sodC mutant was impaired compared to the wild type strain. This growth defect was abolished by supplementation of exogenous catalase. Genetic complementation of the sodC mutant in trans demonstrated that the enzymatic property or the heme-binding activity of the protein could repair the growth defect of the sodC mutant. These results indicate that Cu,ZnSOD protects Haemophilus ducreyi from heme toxicity.

  11. Protective role of heme oxygenase-1 against inflammation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, William

    2011-06-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the metabolism of free heme into equimolar amounts of ferrous iron, carbon monoxide (CO), and biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. HO-1 has recently been identified as a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of vascular inflammatory disease, including atherosclerosis. HO-1 represses inflammation by removing the pro-inflammatory molecule heme and by generating CO and the bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin. These HO-1 reaction products are capable of blocking innate and adaptive immune responses by modifying the activation, differentiation, maturation, and/or polarization of numerous immune cells, including endothelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T lymphocytes, mast cells, and platelets. These cellular actions by CO and bile pigments result in diminished leukocyte recruitment and infiltration, and pro-inflammatory mediator production within atherosclerotic lesions. This review highlights the mechanisms by which HO-1 suppresses vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis, and explores possible therapeutic modalities by which HO-1 and its reaction products can be employed to ameliorate vascular inflammatory disease.

  12. Nitric oxide heme interactions in nitrophorin from Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, R.; Auerbach, H.; Berry, R. E.; Walker, F. A.; Schünemann, V.

    2016-12-01

    The nitrophorin from the bedbug Cimex lectularius (cNP) is a nitric oxide (NO) carrying protein. Like the nitrophorins (rNPs) from the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus, cNP forms a stable heme Fe(III)-NO complex, where the NO can be stored reversibly for a long period of time. In both cases, the NPs are found in the salivary glands of blood-sucking bugs. The insects use the nitrophorins to transport the NO to the victim's tissues, resulting in vasodilation and reduced blood coagulation. However, the structure of cNP is significantly different to those of the rNPs from Rhodnius prolixus. Furthermore, the cNP can bind a second NO molecule to the proximal heme cysteine when present at higher concentrations. High field Mössbauer spectroscopy on 57Fe enriched cNP complexed with NO shows reduction of the heme iron and formation of a ferrous nitric oxide (Fe(II)-NO) complex. Density functional theory calculations reproduce the experimental Mössbauer parameters and confirm this observation.

  13. Heme metabolism in stress regulation and protein production: from Cinderella to a key player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, J. L.; Petranovic, D.; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    . Based on our recent findings and other recent reports, we here illustrate that heme is more than a co-factor. We also discuss the necessity to gain more insight into the heme biosynthesis pathway regulation, as this interacts closely with overall stress control. Understanding heme biosynthesis and its...... regulation could impact our ability to develop more efficient yeast cell factories for heterologous protein production....

  14. Clinically Important Features of Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias

    OpenAIRE

    Siddesh Besur; Wehong Hou; Paul Schmeltzer; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute p...

  15. Porphyrin-induced photodynamic cross-linking of hepatic heme-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S H; Holeman, B; Cully, B C; Muller-Eberhard, U

    1986-01-27

    Three types of hepatic proteins, a heme-binding Z protein, a mixture of the glutathione S-transferases and a cytochrome P450 isozyme, were shown to be susceptible to photodynamic cross-linking and loss in antigenicity by naturally occurring porphyrins. At 50 microM, uroporphyrin caused the most and protoporphyrin the least photodecomposition. Hemopexin, a specific serum heme carrier, was photodecomposed but no cross-linking was detected. Heme and scavengers of singlet oxygen partially prevented protein photodecomposition.

  16. Irradiation of bovine meat: effect of heme-iron concentration.; Irradiacao de carne bovina: efeito na concentracao de ferro heme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado

    2002-07-01

    The irradiation is often used, nowadays, for meat conservation and it is important to know how much this process interferes with the nutritional quality of the meat. In this study round cut meat, ground and steaks (from a local supermarket) was irradiated with doses of O; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy (JS-7500 Nordium Inc -Canada) and the interference of irradiation and the process of food preparation on heme-iron (H Fe) content was determined. Half of the sample was kept raw and the other half was grilled in a pre-warmed oven at 250 deg C for 9 min and a controlled humidity of 70%. The chemical composition, the total iron (T Fe) (EM) and the heme iron concentration were determined (Hornsey,1956) and the sensorial quality evaluated. The average T Fe concentration of raw and ground , ground and grilled, raw steaks and grilled steak meat, on dry and degreased basis was 113 mug/g, 121 mug/g , 91 mug/g and 77 mug/g; and the H Fe concentration 105 mug/g (93% of T Fe) , 88 mug/g (73% of T Fe), 90 mug/g (99% of T Fe) and 52 mug/g (68% of T Fe) respectively. Data were evaluated by ANOVA with fixed effects and multiple comparisons. The irradiation neither altered the chemical composition nor the proportion of heme iron of meat. The preparation conditions (temperature, cooking time, environment humidity, meat presentation) of the sample interfered more with the heme iron content than the irradiation. With the sensorial analysis we verified that meats irradiated with doses of 3 kGy were better evaluated in softness and succulency attributes than the others. Meat submitted to irradiation doses up to 3 kGy were accepted by the specialists' panel. (author)

  17. Heme mediates cytotoxicity from artemisinin and serves as a general anti-proliferation target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Zhang

    Full Text Available Heme (Fe2+ protoporphyrin IX is an essential molecule that has been implicated the potent antimalarial action of artemisinin and its derivatives, although the source and nature of the heme remain controversial. Artemisinins also exhibit selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that intracellular heme is the physiologically relevant mediator of the cytotoxic effects of artemisinins. Increasing intracellular heme synthesis through the addition of aminolevulinic acid, protoporphyrin IX, or transferrin-bound iron increased the cytotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin, while decreasing heme synthesis through the addition of succinyl acetone decreased its cytotoxic activity. A simple and robust high throughput assay was developed to screen chemical compounds that were capable of interacting with heme. A natural products library was screened which identified the compound coralyne, in addition to artemisinin, as a heme interacting compound with heme synthesis dependent cytotoxic activity. These results indicate that cellular heme may serve a general target for the development of both anti-parasitic and anti-cancer therapeutics.

  18. A Novel Approach for Identifying the Heme-Binding Proteins from Mouse Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolei Li; Rong Wang; Zhongsheng Sun; Zuyuan Xu; Jingyue Bao; Xiuqing Zhang; Xiaoli Feng; Siqi Liu; Xiaoshan Wang; Kang Zhao; Zhengfeng Zhou; Caifeng Zhao; Ren Yan; Liang Lin; Tingting Lei; Jianning Yin

    2003-01-01

    Heme is a key cofactor in aerobic life, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Because of the high reactivity of ferrous protoporphyrin IX, the reactions of heme in cells are often carried out through heme-protein complexes. Traditionally studies of hemebinding proteins have been approached on a case by case basis, thus there is a limited global view of the distribution of heme-binding proteins in different cells or tissues. The procedure described here is aimed at profiling hemne-binding proteins in mouse tissues sequentially by 1) purification of heme-binding proteins by hemeagarose, an affinity chromatographic resin; 2) isolation of heme-binding proteins by SDS-PAGE or two-dimensional electrophoresis; 3) identification of heme-binding proteins by mass spectrometry. In five mouse tissues, over 600 protein spots were visualized on 2DE gel stained by Commassie blue and 154 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF, in which most proteins belong to heme related. This methodology makes it possible to globally characterize the heme-binding proteins in a biological system.

  19. Nitrosylation of c heme in cd(1)-nitrite reductase is enhanced during catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Serena; Giardina, Giorgio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2014-08-29

    The reduction of nitrite into nitric oxide (NO) in denitrifying bacteria is catalyzed by nitrite reductase. In several species, this enzyme is a heme-containing protein with one c heme and one d1 heme per monomer (cd1NiR), encoded by the nirS gene. For many years, the evidence of a link between NO and this hemeprotein represented a paradox, given that NO was known to tightly bind and, possibly, inhibit hemeproteins, including cd1NiRs. It is now established that, during catalysis, cd1NiRs diverge from "canonical" hemeproteins, since the product NO rapidly dissociates from the ferrous d1 heme, which, in turn, displays a peculiar "low" affinity for NO (KD=0.11 μM at pH 7.0). It has been also previously shown that the c heme reacts with NO at acidic pH but c heme nitrosylation was not extensively investigated, given that in cd1NiR it was considered a side reaction, rather than a genuine process controlling catalysis. The spectroscopic study of the reaction of cd1NiR and its semi-apo derivative (containing the sole c heme) with NO reported here shows that c heme nitrosylation is enhanced during catalysis; this evidence has been discussed in order to assess the potential of c heme nitrosylation as a regulatory process, as observed for cytochrome c nitrosylation in mammalian mitochondria.

  20. Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vogel, Johan; Jonker-Termont, Denise S M L; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof

    2005-08-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced effects. Chlorophyllin is a water-soluble hydrolysis product of chlorophyll that inhibits the toxicity of many planar aromatic compounds. The present study investigated whether chlorophyllins could inhibit the heme-induced luminal cytotoxicity and colonic hyperproliferation as natural chlorophyll does. Rats were fed a purified control diet, the control diet supplemented with heme, or a heme diet with 1.2 mmol/kg diet of chlorophyllin, copper chlorophyllin, or natural chlorophyll for 14 d (n = 8/group). The cytotoxicity of fecal water was determined with an erythrocyte bioassay and colonic epithelial cell proliferation was quantified in vivo by [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation into newly synthesized DNA. Exfoliation of colonocytes was measured as the amount of rat DNA in feces using quantitative PCR analysis. Heme caused a >50-fold increase in the cytotoxicity of the fecal water, a nearly 100% increase in proliferation, and almost total inhibition of exfoliation of the colonocytes. Furthermore, the addition of heme increased TBARS in fecal water. Chlorophyll, but not the chlorophyllins, completely prevented these heme-induced effects. In conclusion, inhibition of the heme-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial cell turnover is specific for natural chlorophyll and cannot be mimicked by water-soluble chlorophyllins.

  1. Benfang Lei’s research on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and bacterial pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS)and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi(S.equi). His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S.equi pathogenesis.Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens.Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS,demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another,demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system,elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism,and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction.These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Grampositive pathogens.Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins,and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors.Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination.These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.

  2. In vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation catalyzed by heme enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Pedro S.; Brustad, Eric M.; Arnold, Frances H.; Wang, Zhan; Lewis, Jared C.

    2016-11-15

    The present invention provides methods for catalyzing the conversion of an olefin to any compound containing one or more cyclopropane functional groups using heme enzymes. In certain aspects, the present invention provides a method for producing a cyclopropanation product comprising providing an olefinic substrate, a diazo reagent, and a heme enzyme; and admixing the components in a reaction for a time sufficient to produce a cyclopropanation product. In other aspects, the present invention provides heme enzymes including variants and fragments thereof that are capable of carrying out in vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation reactions. Expression vectors and host cells expressing the heme enzymes are also provided by the present invention.

  3. In vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation catalyzed by heme enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Pedro S; Brustad, Eric M; Arnold, Frances H; Wang, Zhan; Lewis, Jared C

    2015-03-31

    The present invention provides methods for catalyzing the conversion of an olefin to any compound containing one or more cyclopropane functional groups using heme enzymes. In certain aspects, the present invention provides a method for producing a cyclopropanation product comprising providing an olefinic substrate, a diazo reagent, and a heme enzyme; and admixing the components in a reaction for a time sufficient to produce a cyclopropanation product. In other aspects, the present invention provides heme enzymes including variants and fragments thereof that are capable of carrying out in vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation reactions. Expression vectors and host cells expressing the heme enzymes are also provided by the present invention.

  4. Calcium-Dependent Conformation of a Heme and Fingerprint Peptide of the Di-Heme Cytochrome c Peroxidase from Paracoccus Pantotrophus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAULETA,SOFIA R.; LU,YI; GOODHEW,CELIA F.; MOURA,ISABEL; PETTIGREW,GRAHAM W.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-12-18

    The structural changes in the heme macrocycle and substituents caused by binding of Ca{sup 2+} to the diheme cytochrome c peroxidase from Paracoccuspantotrophus were clarified by resonance Raman spectroscopy of the inactive filly oxidized form of the enzyme. The changes in the macrocycle vibrational modes are consistent with a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent increase in the out-of-plane distortion of the low-potential heme, the proposed peroxidatic heme. Most of the increase in out-of-plane distortion occurs when the high affinity site I is occupied, but a small further increase in distortion occurs when site II is also occupied by Ca{sup 2+}or Mg{sup 2+}. This increase in the heme distortion also explains the red shift in the Soret absorption band that occurs upon Ca{sup 2+} binding. Changes also occur in the low frequency substituent modes of the heme, indicating that a structural change in the covalently attached fingerprint pentapeptide of the LP heme occurs upon CM{sup 2+} binding to site I. These structural changes, possibly enhanced in the semi-reduced form of the enzyme, may lead to loss of the sixth ligand at the peroxidatic heme and activation of the enzyme.

  5. O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. ' Lazzaro Spallanzani' , Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma (Italy); Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-87100 Bari (Italy); Fasano, Mauro [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via Alberto da Giussano 12a, I-21052 Busto Arsizio, VA (Italy)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. {yields} O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. {yields} Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10{sup -5} and 8.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, and h = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 {sup o}C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O{sub 2} does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  6. Rapid induction of heme oxygenase 1 mRNA and protein by hyperthermia in rat brain: heme oxygenase 2 is not a heat shock protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, J F; Maines, M D

    1991-01-01

    Catalytic activity of heme oxygenase (heme, hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.99.3) isozymes, HO-1 and HO-2, permits production of physiologic isomers of bile pigments. In turn, bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin are effective antioxidants in biological systems. In the rat brain we have identified only the HO-1 isozyme of heme oxygenase as a heat shock protein and defined hyperthermia as a stimulus that causes an increase in brain HO-1 protein. Exposure of male rats to 42 degr...

  7. Reciprocal allosteric modulation of carbon monoxide and warfarin binding to ferrous human serum heme-albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Bocedi

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in human plasma, could be considered as a prototypic monomeric allosteric protein, since the ligand-dependent conformational adaptability of HSA spreads beyond the immediate proximity of the binding site(s. As a matter of fact, HSA is a major transport protein in the bloodstream and the regulation of the functional allosteric interrelationships between the different binding sites represents a fundamental information for the knowledge of its transport function. Here, kinetics and thermodynamics of the allosteric modulation: (i of carbon monoxide (CO binding to ferrous human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe(II by warfarin (WF, and (ii of WF binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II by CO are reported. All data were obtained at pH 7.0 and 25°C. Kinetics of CO and WF binding to the FA1 and FA7 sites of HSA-heme-Fe(II, respectively, follows a multi-exponential behavior (with the same relative percentage for the two ligands. This can be accounted for by the existence of multiple conformations and/or heme-protein axial coordination forms of HSA-heme-Fe(II. The HSA-heme-Fe(II populations have been characterized by resonance Raman spectroscopy, indicating the coexistence of different species characterized by four-, five- and six-coordination of the heme-Fe atom. As a whole, these results suggest that: (i upon CO binding a conformational change of HSA-heme-Fe(II takes place (likely reflecting the displacement of an endogenous ligand by CO, and (ii CO and/or WF binding brings about a ligand-dependent variation of the HSA-heme-Fe(II population distribution of the various coordinating species. The detailed thermodynamic and kinetic analysis here reported allows a quantitative description of the mutual allosteric effect of CO and WF binding to HSA-heme-Fe(II.

  8. Cellular iron depletion weakens induction of heme oxygenase-1 by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chengzhi; Loo, George

    2011-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is an inducible cytoprotective gene, although its induction by environmental factors is not completely understood. This study aimed to ascertain if specific nutritive factors or related compounds influence heme oxygenase-1 expression. In HCT-116 cells, cadmium increased heme oxygenase-1 enzymatic activity. This effect of cadmium was weaker in cells made iron-deficient with the iron chelator, desferrioxamine, which was associated with repression of heme oxygenase-1 protein and mRNA expression. The repression by desferrioxamine of cadmium-induced heme oxygenase-1 upregulation was reversed upon iron replenishment of the cells. Additionally, it was found that thiol antioxidants inhibited the heme oxygenase-1 upregulation caused by cadmium and also by ethacrynic acid, which each decreased intracellular glutathione as did buthionine sulfoxamine. Interestingly, cadmium and ethacrynic acid increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and subsequent heme oxygenase-1 expression, but buthionine sulfoxamine did not. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase inhibitors (diphenyleneiodonium and apocynin, and a superoxide scavenger (Tiron) inhibited cadmium-induced upregulation of heme oxygenase-1. Diphenyleneiodonium was the most potent and inhibited NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase as well, whereas apocynin and Tiron did not. It is concluded that adequate amounts of iron, which at the atomic level can serve as the pivotal element of heme in NADPH oxidase, must be present in cells to permit what appears to be thiol redox-sensitive, NADPH oxidase-dependent upregulation of heme oxygenase-1. Thus, these findings are significant because they suggest that cells without adequate iron would be unable to fully express the stress gene, heme oxygenase-1, when confronted with the toxic metal, cadmium.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1-derived carbon monoxide is an autocrine inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, Kelly J; Reyna, Sylvia V; Chapman, Gary B; Ensenat, Diana; Liu, Xiao-ming; Wang, Hong; Schafer, Andrew I; Durante, William

    2002-06-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) generate carbon monoxide (CO) via the catabolism of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO). In the present study, we found that serum stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the levels of HO-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in vascular SMCs. The induction of HO-1 expression by serum was inhibited by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. In addition, serum stimulated HO activity, as reflected by an increase in the concentration of bilirubin in the culture media. Treatment of vascular SMCs with serum stimulated DNA synthesis and this was potentiated by the HO inhibitors, zinc and tin protoporphyrin-IX as well as by the CO scavenger, hemoglobin. The iron chelator desferrioxamine had no effect on DNA synthesis. However, exposure of vascular SMCs to exogenous CO inhibited serum-stimulated SMC proliferation and the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In addition, CO arrested SMCs at the G(1)/S transition phase of the cell cycle and selectively blocked the serum-stimulated expression of cyclin A mRNA and protein without affecting the expression of cyclin D1 and E. CO also inhibited the serum-stimulated activation of cyclin A-associated kinase activity and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity. These results demonstrate that serum stimulates HO-1 gene expression and CO synthesis. Furthermore, they show that CO acts in a negative feedback fashion to inhibit vascular SMC growth by regulating specific components of the cell cycle machinery. The capacity of vascular mitogens to induce CO synthesis may provide a novel mechanism by which these agents modulate cell growth.

  10. Catalytic inactive heme oxygenase-1 protein regulates its own expression in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing S; Weis, Sebastian; Yang, Guang; Zhuang, Tiangang; Abate, Aida; Dennery, Phyllis A

    2008-03-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the degradation of heme and forms antioxidant bile pigments as well as the signaling molecule carbon monoxide. HO-1 is inducible in response to a variety of chemical and physical stress conditions to function as a cytoprotective molecule. Therefore, it is important to maintain the basal level of HO-1 expression even when substrate availability is limited. We hypothesized that the HO-1 protein itself could regulate its own expression in a positive feedback manner, and that this positive feedback was important in the HO-1 gene induction in response to oxidative stress. In cultured NIH 3T3 cells, transfection of HO-1 cDNA or intracellular delivery of pure HO-1 protein resulted in activation of a 15-kb HO-1 promoter upstream of luciferase as visualized by bioluminescent technology and increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. These effects were independent of HO activity because an enzymatically inactive mutant form of HO-1 similarly activated the HO-1 promoter and incubation with HO inhibitor metalloporphyrin SnPP did not affect the promoter activation. In addition, HO-1-specific siRNA significantly reduced hemin and cadmium chloride-mediated HO-1 induction. Furthermore, deletion analyses demonstrated that the E1 and E2 distal enhancers of the HO-1 promoter are required for this HO-1 autoregulation. These experiments document feed-forward autoregulation of HO-1 in oxidative stress and suggest that HO-1 protein has a role in the induction process. We speculate that this mechanism may be useful for maintaining HO-1 expression when substrate is limited and may also serve to up-regulate other genes to promote cytoprotection and to modulate cell proliferation.

  11. Embryo Microinjection of Selenomethionine Reduces Hatchability and Modifies Oxidant Responsive Gene Expression in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. K.; Janz, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated that exposure to selenomethionine (SeMet) causes developmental toxicities in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The objectives of this study were to establish a dose-response relationship for developmental toxicities in zebrafish after embryo microinjection of Se (8, 16 or 32 μg/g dry mass of eggs) in the form of SeMet, and to investigate potential underlying mechanism(s) of SeMet-induced developmental toxicities. A dose-dependent increase in frequencies of mortality and total deformities, and reduced hatchability were observed in zebrafish exposed to excess Se via embryo microinjection. The egg Se concentration causing 20% mortality was then used to investigate transcript abundance of proteins involved in antioxidant protection and methylation. Excess Se exposure modified gene expression of oxidant-responsive transcription factors (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor nrf2a and nrf2b), and enzymes involved in cellular methylation (methionine adenosyltransferase mat1a and mat2ab) in zebrafish larvae. Notably, excess Se exposure up-regulated transcript abundance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (ahr2), a signalling pathway involved in the toxicity of dioxin-related compounds. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress or modification of methylation, or a combination of these mechanisms, might be responsible for Se-induced developmental toxicities in fishes.

  12. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME`s) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (HEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These fiberglass filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these filters will be dissolved in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The contaminated fiberglass is converted to an aqueous stream which will be transferred to the waste tanks. The filter metal structure will be rinsed with process water before its disposal as low-level solid waste. The pilot-scale study reported here successfully demonstrated a simple one step process using 5 wt% NaOH solution. The proposed process requires the installation of a new water spray ring with 30 nozzles. In addition to the reduced waste generated, the total process time is reduced to 48 hours only (66% saving in time). The pilot-scale tests clearly demonstrated that the dissolution process of HEMEs has two stages - chemical digestion of the filter and mechanical erosion of the digested filter. The digestion is achieved by a boiling 5 wt% caustic solutions, whereas the mechanical break down of the digested filter is successfully achieved by spraying process water on the digested filter. An alternate method of breaking down the digested filter by increased air sparging of the solution was found to be marginally successful are best. The pilot-scale tests also demonstrated that the products of dissolution are easily pumpable by a centrifugal pump.

  13. EPR of Mononuclear Non-Heme Iron Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Betty J.

    2009-01-01

    Flexible geometry of three- to six-protein side-chain ligands to non-heme iron in proteins is the basis for widely diverse reactivites ranging from iron transport to redox chemistry. The gap between fixed states determined by x-ray analysis can be filled by spectroscopic study of trapped intermediates. EPR is a versatile and relatively quick approach to defining intermediate states in terms of the geometry and electronic structures of iron. A number of examples in which the iron chemistry of ...

  14. Long-term dietary heme iron and red meat intake in relation to endometrial cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Friberg, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Wolk, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Heme and total iron, present in meat, have been hypothesized to promote carcinogenesis. Few prospective studies have examined the associations between intakes of heme and total iron, types of meat, and endometrial cancer risk. Objective: We evaluated the associations between intakes of h

  15. Detection, characterization, and screening of heme-binding molecules by mass spectrometry for malaria drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Durango, K.; Maciuk, A.; Harfouche, A.; Torijano-Gutierrez, S.; Jullian, J.C.; Quintin, J.; Spelman, K.; Mouray, E.; Grellier, P.; Figadere, B.

    2012-01-01

    Drug screening for antimalarials uses heme biocrystallization inhibition methods as an alternative to parasite cultures, but they involve complex processes and cannot detect artemisinin-like molecules. The described method detects heme-binding compounds by mass spectrometry, using dissociation of th

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 polymorphism is not associated with risk of colorectal cancer: a Danish prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Andersen, Vibeke; Christensen, Jane;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intake of red and processed meat confers risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We wanted to test whether heme in meat promotes carcinogenesis. Methods: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, HMOX1) A-413T (rs2071746) was assessed in a nested case–cohort study of 383 CRC cases and 763 randomly selected...

  17. Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced

  18. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  19. Crystal structure of the heme-IsdC complex, the central conduit of the Isd iron/heme uptake system in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Katherine H; Schneider, Sabine; Cockayne, Alan; Paoli, Max

    2007-04-06

    Pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus require iron to survive and have evolved specialized proteins to steal heme from their host. IsdC is the central conduit of the Isd (iron-regulated surface determinant) multicomponent heme uptake machinery; staphylococcal cell-surface proteins such as IsdA, IsdB, and IsdH are thought to funnel their molecular cargo to IsdC, which then mediates the transfer of the iron-containing nutrient to the membrane translocation system IsdDEF. The structure of the heme-IsdC complex reveals a novel heme site within an immunoglobulin-like domain and sheds light on its binding mechanism. The folding topology is reminiscent of the architecture of cytochrome f, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and ethylbenzene dehydrogenase; in these three proteins, the heme is bound in an equivalent position, but interestingly, IsdC features a distinct binding pocket with the ligand located next to the hydrophobic core of the beta-sandwich. The iron is coordinated with a tyrosine surrounded by several non-polar side chains that cluster into a tightly packed proximal side. On the other hand, the distal side is relatively exposed with a short helical peptide segment that acts as a lip clasping onto almost half of the porphyrin plane. This structural feature is argued to play a role in the mechanism of binding and release by switching to an open conformation and thus loosening the interactions holding the heme. The structure of the heme-IsdC complex provides a template for the understanding of other proteins, such as IsdA, IsdB, and IsdH, that contain the same heme-binding module as IsdC, known as the NEAT (near transporter) domain.

  20. Induced fit on heme binding to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytoplasmic protein (PhuS) drives interaction with heme oxygenase (HemO)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability, requires specialized cellular mechanisms for uptake. Although iron uptake into the cytoplasm in the form of heme has been well characterized in many bacteria, the subsequent trafficking is poorly understood. The cytoplasmic heme-binding proteins belong to a structurally related family thought to have evolved as “induced fit” ligand-binding macromolecules. One member, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytoplasmic protein (PhuS), has previously bee...

  1. Serum iron increases with acute induction of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Volker; Nakayama, Akihiro; Austin, Lori M; Levander, Ximena A; Ferris, Christopher D; Hill, Kristina E; Burk, Raymond F

    2007-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is induced by oxidative stress and protects against oxidant injury. We examined the effect of rapid induction of hepatic HO-1 on serum iron level. Serum iron was approximately doubled within 6 h when HO-1 was induced by phenobarbital treatment of selenium-deficient mice. Blocking heme synthesis with diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (DDC) prevented the induction of HO-1 and the rise in serum iron. DDC did not block HO-1 induction by hemin. Inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin prevented a rise in serum iron that occurred following phorone treatment. These results indicate that heme synthesis or an exogenous source of heme is needed to allow induction of HO-1. Further, they link HO-1 induction with a rise in serum iron, suggesting that the iron resulting from catabolism of heme by HO-1 is released by the liver.

  2. Hemoglobin fructation promotes heme degradation through the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, M.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A.; Habibi-Rezaei, M.; Shourian, M.; Ghourchian, H.; Ahmad, F.; Farhadi, M.; Saboury, A. A.; Sheibani, N.

    2014-09-01

    Protein glycation is a cascade of nonenzymatic reactions between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins. It is referred to as fructation when the reducing monosaccharide is fructose. Some potential mechanisms have been suggested for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by protein glycation reactions in the presence of glucose. In this state, glucose autoxidation, ketoamine, and oxidative advance glycation end products (AGEs) formation are considered as major sources of ROS and perhaps heme degradation during hemoglobin glycation. However, whether fructose mediated glycation produces ROS and heme degradation is unknown. Here we report that ROS (H2O2) production occurred during hemoglobin fructation in vitro using chemiluminescence methods. The enhanced heme exposure and degradation were determined using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Following accumulation of ROS, heme degradation products were accumulated reaching a plateau along with the detected ROS. Thus, fructose may make a significant contribution to the production of ROS, glycation of proteins, and heme degradation during diabetes.

  3. Unsaturated Glycerophospholipids Mediate Heme Crystallization: Biological Implications for Hemozoin Formation in the Kissing Bug Rhodnius prolixus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiebler, R.; Majerowicz, D.; Knudsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Hemozoin (Hz) is a heme crystal produced by some blood-feeding organisms, as an efficient way to detoxify heme derived from hemoglobin digestion. In the triatomine insect Rhodnius prolixus, Hz is essentially produced by midgut extracellular phospholipid membranes known as perimicrovillar membranes...... (PMVM). Here, we investigated the role of commercial glycerophospholipids containing serine, choline and ethanolamine as headgroups and R. prolixus midgut lipids (RML) in heme crystallization. All commercial unsaturated forms of phospholipids, as well as RML, mediated fast and efficient beta...... induced by uPE, and the other largely represented by crystals with numerous sharp edges and tapered ends. Heme crystallization reactions induced by RML were efficient, with a heme to beta-hematin conversion rate higher than 70%, but clearly slower (t1/2 of 9.9-17.7 minutes) than those induced by uPC and u...

  4. Heme in intestinal epithelial cell turnover, differentiation,detoxification, inflammation, carcinogenesis, absorption and motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S Oates; Adrian R West

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a simple epithelium that undergoes constant renewal involving cell division,differentiation and cell death. In addition, the epithelial lining separates the hostile processes of digestion and absorption that occur in the intestinal lumen from the aseptic environment of the internal milieu by defensive mechanisms that protect the epithelium from being breached. Central to these defensive processes is the synthesis of heme and its catabolism by heme oxygenase (HO). Dietary heme is also an important source of iron for the body which is taken up intact by the enterocyte.This review describes the recent literature on the diverse properties of heme/HO in the intestine tract.The roles of heme/HO in the regulation of the cell cycle/apoptosis, detoxification of xenobiotics, oxidative stress,inflammation, development of colon cancer, hemeiron absorption and intestinal motility are specifically examined.

  5. Hemoglobin fructation promotes heme degradation through the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, M; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Shourian, M; Ghourchian, H; Ahmad, F; Farhadi, M; Saboury, A A; Sheibani, N

    2014-09-15

    Protein glycation is a cascade of nonenzymatic reactions between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins. It is referred to as fructation when the reducing monosaccharide is fructose. Some potential mechanisms have been suggested for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by protein glycation reactions in the presence of glucose. In this state, glucose autoxidation, ketoamine, and oxidative advance glycation end products (AGEs) formation are considered as major sources of ROS and perhaps heme degradation during hemoglobin glycation. However, whether fructose mediated glycation produces ROS and heme degradation is unknown. Here we report that ROS (H2O2) production occurred during hemoglobin fructation in vitro using chemiluminescence methods. The enhanced heme exposure and degradation were determined using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Following accumulation of ROS, heme degradation products were accumulated reaching a plateau along with the detected ROS. Thus, fructose may make a significant contribution to the production of ROS, glycation of proteins, and heme degradation during diabetes.

  6. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, Abhinav [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Venkatachalam, Avanthika [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India); Gideon, Daniel Andrew [Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014 India (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [REDOx Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Avinashi Road, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004 (India)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  7. Duodenal Absorption and Tissue Utilization of Dietary Heme and Nonheme Iron Differ in Rats123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang; Thomas, Carrie E.; Insogna, Karl L.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary heme contributes to iron intake, yet regulation of heme absorption and tissue utilization of absorbed heme remains undefined. Objectives: In a rat model of iron overload, we used stable iron isotopes to examine heme- and nonheme-iron absorption in relation to liver hepcidin and to compare relative utilization of absorbed heme and nonheme iron by erythroid (RBC) and iron storage tissues (liver and spleen). Methods: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups for injections of either saline or iron dextran (16 or 48 mg Fe over 2 wk). After iron loading, rats were administered oral stable iron in the forms of 57Fe-ferrous sulfate and 58Fe-labeled hemoglobin. Expression of liver hepcidin and duodenal iron transporters and tissue stable iron enrichment was determined 10 d postdosing. Results: High iron loading increased hepatic hepcidin by 3-fold and reduced duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) by 76%. Nonheme-iron absorption was 2.5 times higher than heme-iron absorption (P = 0.0008). Absorption of both forms of iron was inversely correlated with hepatic hepcidin expression (heme-iron absorption: r = −0.77, P = 0.003; nonheme-iron absorption: r = −0.80, P = 0.002), but hepcidin had a stronger impact on nonheme-iron absorption (P = 0.04). Significantly more 57Fe was recovered in RBCs (P = 0.02), and more 58Fe was recovered in the spleen (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated hepcidin significantly decreased heme- and nonheme-iron absorption but had a greater impact on nonheme-iron absorption. Differential tissue utilization of heme vs. nonheme iron was evident between erythroid and iron storage tissues, suggesting that some heme may be exported into the circulation in a form different from that of nonheme iron. PMID:25332470

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Pyo [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of); Pae, Hyun-Ock [Department of Immunology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Je Moon [Department of Opthalmology, Ulasn University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Son, Yong [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hun-Taeg, E-mail: chung@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Biological Sciences, Ulsan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  9. Endogenous Estrogen-Mediated Heme Oxygenase Regulation in Experimental Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of age-associated diseases in the cardiovascular system. Female Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: pharmacologically ovariectomized, surgically ovariectomized, and 24-month-old intact aging animals were compared with a control group. The activity and expression of heme oxygenases (HO in the cardiac left ventricle, the concentrations of cardiac interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in the cardiac left ventricle, and the effects of heme oxygenase blockade (by 24-hour and 1-hour pretreatment with tin-protoporphyrin IX, SnPP on the epinephrine and phentolamine-induced electrocardiogram ST segment changes in vivo were investigated. The cardiac HO activity and the expression of HO-1 and HO-2 were significantly decreased in the aged rats and after ovariectomy. Estrogen depletion was accompanied by significant increases in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The aged and ovariectomized animals exhibited a significantly elevated MPO activity and a significant ST segment depression. After pretreatment with SnPP augmented ST segment changes were determined. These findings demonstrate that the sensitivity to cardiac ischemia in estrogen depletion models is associated with suppression of the activity and expression of the HO system and increases in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Young; Park, Eunhee; Lee, Seon-Jin; Chung, Su Wol

    2015-09-15

    The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule Erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon the production of intracellular iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not other metals. However, key regulators remain unknown. The heme oxygenase (HO) is a major intracellular source of iron. In this study, the role of heme oxygenase in Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death has been investigated. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a HO-1 inhibitor, prevented Erastin-triggered ferroptotic cancer cell death. Furthermore, Erastin induced the protein and mRNA levels of HO-1 in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. HO-1+/+ and HO-1-/- fibroblast, HO-1 overexpression, and chycloheximide-treated experiments revealed that the expression of HO-1 has a decisive effects in Erastin-triggered cell death. Hemin and CO-releasing molecules (CORM) promote Erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death, not by biliverdin and bilirubin. In addition, hemin and CORM accelerate the HO-1 expression in the presence of Erastin and increase membranous lipid peroxidation. Thus, HO-1 is an essential enzyme for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation during ferroptotic cell death.

  11. Modulation of Antiviral Immunity by Heme Oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Janyra A; González, Pablo A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-03-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective enzyme expressed in most cell types in the organism. Under several stress stimuli, HO-1 expression and activity is up-regulated to catalyze the rate-limiting enzymatic step of heme degradation into carbon monoxide, free iron, and biliverdin. Besides its effects on cell metabolism, HO-1 is also capable of modulating host innate and adaptive immune responses in response to sepsis, transplantation, and autoimmunity, and preventing oxidative damage associated with inflammation. In addition, recent studies have reported that HO-1 can exert a significant antiviral activity against a wide variety of viruses, including HIV, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, enterovirus 71, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, dengue virus, and Ebola virus, among others. Herein, we address the current understanding of the functional significance of HO-1 against a variety of viruses and its potential as a therapeutic strategy to prevent and control viral infections. Furthermore, we review the most important features of the immunoregulatory functions for this enzyme.

  12. Studies of multi-heme cytochromes from Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokkuluri, P. Raj; Londer, Yuri, Y.; Orshonsky, Valerie; Orshonsky, Lisa; Duke, Norma; Schiffer, Marianne

    2006-04-05

    The Geobacteraceae family predominates in the reduction of uranium in subsurface environments. We are focusing on the model organism, Geobacter sulfurreducens; its genome contains a large number (>100) of cytochromes c that function in metal reduction pathways. Intensive functional genomics and physiological studies are in progress in Prof. Derek Lovley's laboratory, and the complete genome sequence of this organism has been determined by Methe et al. 2003. We are studying cytochromes from the c{sub 7} family that are required for the reduction of Fe(III). Previously, we expressed in E. coli (Londer et al., 2002) and determined the three-dimensional structure at 1.45 {angstrom} resolution (Pokkuluri et al., 2004a) of the three-heme cytochrome c{sub 7} (PpcA, coded by ORF01023) characterized by Lloyd et al., 2003. Further we identified in the G. sulfurreducens genome ORFs for several of its homologs (Pokkuluri et al., 2004a). Four of the ORFs are the same size as PpcA; three other ORFs are polymers of c7-type domains, two of which consist of four domains and one of nine domains, that contain 12 and 27 hemes respectively.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 against vascular insufficiency: roles of atherosclerotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), an enzyme essential for heme degradation, shows anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties via the production of bile pigments, carbon monoxide (CO) and ferritin induction under various pathophysiological conditions. A number of recent studies have shown biological effects of HO reaction in cardiovascular disorders. An inducible form of HO, HO-1, is induced by a variety of stresses such as oxidized lipoproteins, cytokines, hemodynamic changes, angiotensin II and nitric oxide (NO) in vascular wall. HO-1 induction seems to function as an adaptive response against these injurious stimuli. HO-1 induction in artery wall scavenges reactive oxygen species, which leads to the attenuation of monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis. HO-1 induction also reduces lipid peroxidation in plasma and artery wall. These properties of HO-1 suggest anti-atherogenic roles of this enzyme. In this review, roles of endothelial HO-1 expression and bilirubin in atherogenesis are also discussed. HO-1 also seems to play a significant role in restenosis after angioplasty, which is a major clinical problem associated with atherosclerosis. Recent progress in human HO-1 genetics supports these experimental results. This review aims to reaffirm current problems in the biological aspects of HO and suggest future research direction and clinical application.

  14. The non-canonical functions of the heme oxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Luca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Tibullo, Daniele; Forte, Stefano; Zappalà, Agata; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2016-10-18

    Heme oxygenase (HO) isoforms catalyze the conversion of heme to carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin with a concurrent release of iron, which can drive the synthesis of ferritin for iron sequestration. Most of the studies so far were directed at evaluating the protective effect of these enzymes because of their ability to generate antioxidant and antiapoptotic molecules such as CO and bilirubin. Recent evidences are suggesting that HO may possess other important physiological functions, which are not related to its enzymatic activity and for which we would like to introduce for the first time the term "non canonical functions". Recent evidence suggest that both HO isoforms may form protein-protein interactions (i.e. cytochrome P450, adiponectin, CD91) thus serving as chaperone-like protein. In addition, truncated HO-1 isoform was localized in the nuclear compartment under certain experimental conditions (i.e. excitotoxicity, hypoxia) regulating the activity of important nuclear transcription factors (i.e. Nrf2) and DNA repair. In the present review, we discuss three potential signaling mechanisms that we refer to as the non-canonical functions of the HO isoforms: protein-protein interaction, intracellular compartmentalization, and extracellular secretion. The aim of the present review is to describe each of this mechanism and all the aspects warranting additional studies in order to unravel all the functions of the HO system.

  15. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Filipe

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. Conclusion We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species.

  16. HRG1 is essential for heme transport from the phagolysosome of macrophages during erythrophagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carine; Yuan, Xiaojing; Schmidt, Paul J; Bresciani, Erica; Samuel, Tamika K; Campagna, Dean; Hall, Caitlin; Bishop, Kevin; Calicchio, Monica L; Lapierre, Ariane; Ward, Diane M; Liu, Paul; Fleming, Mark D; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-02-05

    Adult humans have about 25 trillion red blood cells (RBCs), and each second we recycle about 5 million RBCs by erythrophagocytosis (EP) in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Despite the central role for EP in mammalian iron metabolism, the molecules and pathways responsible for heme trafficking during EP remain unknown. Here, we show that the mammalian homolog of HRG1, a transmembrane heme permease in C. elegans, is essential for macrophage iron homeostasis and transports heme from the phagolysosome to the cytoplasm during EP. HRG1 is strongly expressed in macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system and specifically localizes to the phagolysosomal membranes during EP. Depletion of Hrg1 in mouse macrophages causes attenuation of heme transport from the phagolysosomal compartment. Importantly, missense polymorphisms in human HRG1 are defective in heme transport. Our results reveal HRG1 as the long-sought heme transporter for heme-iron recycling in macrophages and suggest that genetic variations in HRG1 could be modifiers of human iron metabolism.

  17. Effects of heme iron enriched peptide on iron deficiency anemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Chen, Le-qun; Zhuang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether a daily intake of heme iron enriched peptide obtained from bovine hemoglobin is effective in alleviating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: a control group, an anemic group not treated, and anemic groups treated with FeSO4 or with the heme iron enriched peptide at low, moderate or high doses. The rats in the anemic groups were fed on a low-iron diet to establish the iron deficiency anemia model. After the model had been established, different doses of heme iron enriched peptide were given to the rats once a day via intragastric administration. After the iron supplement administration, it was observed that heme iron enriched peptide had effective restorative action returning the hemoglobin, red blood cells, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and serum iron in IDA animals to normal values or better. In addition, compared with FeSO4, higher Fe bioavailability and fewer side effects were observed. The rats in the moderate dose group had the highest apparent Fe absorption. Moreover, in vivo antioxidant activity was also observed, enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde levels in IDA rats. Furthermore, the heme iron enriched peptide also exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activities. In conclusion, heme iron enriched peptide significantly alleviated iron deficiency anemia, and exhibited strong in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. This suggests that heme iron enriched peptide might be exploited as a safe, efficient new iron supplement.

  18. Elucidating second coordination sphere effects in heme proteins using low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Nicolai

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews recent findings on how the second coordination sphere of heme proteins fine-tunes the properties of the heme active site via hydrogen bonding. This insight is obtained from low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. In the case of high-spin ferric hemes, MCD spectroscopy allows for the identification of a multitude of charge-transfer (CT) transitions. Using optically-detected magnetic saturation curves, out-of-plane polarized CT transitions between the heme and its axial ligand(s) can be identified. In the case of ferric Cytochrome P450cam, the corresponding S(σ)→Fe(III) CT transition can be used as a probe for the {Fe(III)-axial ligand} interaction, indicating that the hydrogen bonding network of the proximal Cys only plays a limited role for fine-tuning the Fe(III)-S(Cys) interaction. In the case of high-spin ferrous hemes with axial His/imidazole coordination, our MCD-spectroscopic investigations have uncovered a direct correlation between the strength of the hydrogen bond to the proximal imidazole ligand and the ground state of the complexes. With neutral imidazole coordination, the doubly occupied d-orbital of high-spin iron(II) is of d(π) character, located orthogonal to the heme plane. As the strength of the hydrogen bond increases, this orbital rotates into the heme plane, changing the ground state of the complex.

  19. Heme-induced Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation is mediated by CaM kinase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, C.F. [Laboratorio de Imunomodulacao e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz (Brazil); Carneiro, A.B.; Silveira, A.B. [Laboratorio de Sinalizacao Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, UFRJ (Brazil); Laranja, G.A.T. [Laboratorio de Interacao Tripanosomatideos e Vetores, Departamento de Bioquimica, IBRAG, UERJ, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva-Neto, M.A.C. [Laboratorio de Sinalizacao Celular, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, UFRJ (Brazil); INCT, Entomologia Molecular (Brazil); Costa, S.C. Goncalves da [Laboratorio de Imunomodulacao e Protozoologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz (Brazil); Paes, M.C., E-mail: mcpaes@uerj.br [Laboratorio de Interacao Tripanosomatideos e Vetores, Departamento de Bioquimica, IBRAG, UERJ, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); INCT, Entomologia Molecular (Brazil)

    2009-12-18

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted through triatomine vectors during their blood-meal on vertebrate hosts. These hematophagous insects usually ingest approximately 10 mM of heme bound to hemoglobin in a single meal. Blood forms of the parasite are transformed into epimastigotes in the crop which initiates a few hours after parasite ingestion. In a previous work, we investigated the role of heme in parasite cell proliferation and showed that the addition of heme significantly increased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner . To investigate whether the heme effect is mediated by protein kinase signalling pathways, parasite proliferation was evaluated in the presence of several protein kinase (PK) inhibitors. We found that only KN-93, a classical inhibitor of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), blocked heme-induced cell proliferation. KN-92, an inactive analogue of KN-93, was not able to block this effect. A T. cruzi CaMKII homologue is most likely the main enzyme involved in this process since parasite proliferation was also blocked when Myr-AIP, an inhibitory peptide for mammalian CaMKII, was included in the cell proliferation assay. Moreover, CaMK activity increased in parasite cells with the addition of heme as shown by immunological and biochemical assays. In conclusion, the present results are the first strong indications that CaMKII is involved in the heme-induced cell signalling pathway that mediates parasite proliferation.

  20. Proinflammatory Responses of Heme in Alveolar Macrophages: Repercussion in Lung Hemorrhagic Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L. Simões

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental observations have supported the notion that free heme released during hemorrhagic and hemolytic episodes may have a major role in lung inflammation. With alveolar macrophages (AM being the main line of defense in lung environments, the influence of free heme on AM activity and function was investigated. We observed that heme in a concentration range found during hemolytic episodes (3–30 μM elicits AM to present a proinflammatory profile, stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation and inducing IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion. ROS production is NADPH oxidase-dependent, being inhibited by DPI and apocynin, and involves p47 subunit phosphorylation. Furthermore, heme induces NF-κB nuclear translocation, iNOS, and also HO-1 expression. Moreover, AM stimulated with free heme show enhanced phagocytic and bactericidal activities. Taken together, the data support a dual role for heme in the inflammatory response associated with lung hemorrhage, acting as a proinflammatory molecule that can either act as both an adjuvant of the innate immunity and as an amplifier of the inflammatory response, leading tissue injury. The understanding of heme effects on pulmonary inflammatory processes can lead to the development of new strategies to ameliorate tissue damage associated with hemorrhagic episodes.

  1. XAS study of the active site of a bacterial heme-sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Longa, S [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Universita dell' Aquila via Vetoio, loc. Coppito II 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Arcovito, A [Istituto di Biochimica e Biochimica Clinica, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Roma (Italy); Brunori, M; Castiglione, N; Cutruzzola, F; Giardina, G; Rinaldo, S [Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche ' A. Rossi Fanelli' , Sapienza Universit/a di Roma, P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); D' Angelo, P, E-mail: dlonga@caspur.i [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, P. le A.Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Denitrifying bacteria control NO and NO{sub 2} cytosolic levels by regulating the expression of denitrification gene clusters via REDOX signalling of specific transcriptional factors that may act as NO sensors in vivo. A protein belonging to the subclass DNR (dissimilative nitrate respiration regulator) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recently suggested to be a heme containing protein. Very recently the three dimensional structure of the apo-form of DNR (in the absence of heme) has been determined by X-Ray crystallography, whereas the holo-form (in the presence of heme) has not yet been crystallized. We have investigated the heme local structure in solution of ferric and ferrous holo-DNR by XAS. The Fe K-edge XANES spectrum of the ferric adduct displays typical features of a low-spin hexacoordinate Fe-heme complex, having two histidines ligated. After chemical reduction, relevant changes of the XANES fingerprints suggest a repositioning of the heme inside the hydrophobic core of the protein in agreement with previously reported structural and spectroscopic evidence. Partial release of the axial ligands leaves the Fe(II)heme available, and very reactive, to bind exogenous ligands like NO, thus supporting its role as the cofactor involved in NO sensing activity.

  2. Distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by myoglobin with a designed heme active center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Du, Ke-Jie; Gao, Shu-Qin; He, Bo; Wen, Ge-Bo; Tan, Xiangshi; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2016-03-01

    Heme proteins perform diverse biological functions, of which myoglobin (Mb) is a representative protein. In this study, the O2 carrier Mb was shown to cleave double stranded DNA upon aerobic dithiothreitol-induced reduction, which is fine-tuned by an additional distal histidine, His29 or His43, engineered in the heme active center. Spectroscopic (UV-vis and EPR) and inhibition studies suggested that free radicals including singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are responsible for efficient DNA cleavage via an oxidative cleavage mechanism. On the other hand, L29E Mb, with a distinct heme active center involving three water molecules in the met form, was found to exhibit an excellent DNA cleavage activity that was not depending on O2. Inhibition and ligation studies demonstrated for the first time that L29E Mb cleaves double stranded DNA into both the nicked circular and linear forms via a hydrolytic cleavage mechanism, which resembles native endonucleases. This study provides valuable insights into the distinct mechanisms for DNA cleavage by heme proteins, and lays down a base for creating artificial DNA endonucleases by rational design of heme proteins. Moreover, this study suggests that the diverse functions of heme proteins can be fine-tuned by rational design of the heme active center with a hydrogen-bonding network.

  3. Heme as a danger molecule in pathogen recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hauser, Carl J; Otterbein, Leo E

    2015-12-01

    Appropriate control of redox mechanisms are critical for and effective innate immune response, which employs multiple cell types, receptors and molecules that recognize danger signals when they reach the host. Recognition of pathogen-associated pattern molecules (PAMPs) is a fundamental host survival mechanism for efficient elimination of invading pathogens and resolution of the infection and inflammation. In addition to PAMPs, eukaryotic cells contain a plethora of intracellular molecules that are normally secured within the confines of the plasma membrane, but if liberated and encountered in the extracellular milieu can provoke rapid cell activation. These are known as Alarmins or Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) and can be released actively by cells or passively as a result of sterile cellular injury after trauma, ischemia, or toxin-induced cell rupture. Both PAMPs and DAMPs are recognized by a series of cognate receptors that increase the generation of free radicals and activate specific signaling pathways that result in regulation of a variety of stress response, redox sensitive genes. Multiple mediators released, as cells die include, but are not limited to ATP, hydrogen peroxide, heme, formyl peptides, DNA or mitochondria provide the second signal to amplify immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how sterile and infective stimuli activate the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1, HO-1), a master gene critical to an appropriate host response that is now recognized as one with enormous therapeutic potential. HO-1 gene expression is regulated in large part by redox-sensitive proteins including but not limited to nrf2. Both PAMPs and DAMPs increase the activation of nrf2 and HO-1. Heme is a powerful pro-oxidant and as such should be qualified as a DAMP. With its degradation by HO-1a molecule of carbon monoxide (CO) is generated that in turn serves as a bioactive signaling molecule. PAMPs such as bacterial endotoxin activate HO-1

  4. A simple method for the determination of reduction potentials in heme proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Igor; Parkin, Gary; Millett, Elizabeth S; Glenday, Jennifer; Chan, Cheuk K; Weedon, Holly; Randhawa, Harpreet; Basran, Jaswir; Raven, Emma L

    2014-03-03

    We describe a simple method for the determination of heme protein reduction potentials. We use the method to determine the reduction potentials for the PAS-A domains of the regulatory heme proteins human NPAS2 (Em=-115 mV ± 2 mV, pH 7.0) and human CLOCK (Em=-111 mV ± 2 mV, pH 7.0). We suggest that the method can be easily and routinely applied to the determination of reduction potentials across the family of heme proteins.

  5. Heme oxygenase 1 transgenic mice as a model to study neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maines, Mahin D

    2002-01-01

    Bile pigments and CO are formed in the course of heme degradation by the isozymes and are biologically active moieties. In the course of heme degradation the chelated iron is also released. Heme and iron are prooxidants, whereas bile pigments are antioxidants. In addition, CO functions as a signal molecule and HO-2 may serve as an intracellular "sink" for NO. In the balance, the published data suggest that the HO system functions in cellular defense mechanisms. The methods described in this chapter can be used to assess the tissue/cell toxicity of chemicals in general, and as pertains to the defense activity of HO-1, specifically.

  6. Glucocorticoid treatment skews human monocyte differentiation into a hemoglobin-clearance phenotype with enhanced heme-iron recycling and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallelian, Florence; Schaer, Christian A; Kaempfer, Theresa; Gehrig, Peter; Duerst, Elena; Schoedon, Gabriele; Schaer, Dominik J

    2010-12-09

    Glucocorticoids are used extensively to treat autoimmune hemolytic anemias. Some beneficial effects of glucocorticoid pulse therapy have also been reported in sickle cell disease and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Based on established concepts of hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity and physiologic Hb scavenger systems, we evaluated whether glucocorticoids could support an adaptive response to extracellular Hb independently of their immunosuppressive activities. Using global proteome and transcriptome analysis with mass-spectrometry (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and gene-array experiments, we found that glucocorticoid treatment in vitro and in patients on glucocorticoid-pulse therapy polarized monocytes into a M2/alternatively activated phenotype with high Hb-scavenger receptor (CD163) expression and enhanced Hb-clearance and detoxification capability. Monocytes concurrently exposed to the interactive activity of glucocorticoids and extracellular Hb were characterized by high expression of a group of antioxidant enzymes known to be regulated by the conserved oxidative response transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor. Further, suppressed transferrin receptor, together with high ferroportin expression, pointed to a shift in iron homeostasis directed toward an increased cellular export of heme-derived iron. Therefore, stimulating Hb-endocytosis by CD163 and enhancing antioxidative homeostasis and iron recycling may be an essential activity of glucocorticoids that helps alleviate the adverse effects of extracellular Hb.

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, MsHO1, which is pro-oxidants-regulated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Han, Bin; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Wang, Ren

    2011-07-01

    It has been documented that plant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; EC 1.14.99.3) is both development- and stress-regulated, thus it plays a vital role in light signalling and stress responses. In this study, an alfalfa (Medica sativa L.) HO-1 gene MsHO1 was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns within genomic DNA sequence and encodes a polypeptide with 283 amino acids. MsHO1 had a conserved HO signature sequence and showed high similarity to other HOs in plants, especially HO-1 isoform. The MsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Further biochemical activity analysis of mature MsHO1, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, showed that the Vmax was 48.78 nmol biliverdin-IXα (BV) h⁻¹ nmol⁻¹ protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 2.33 μM, and the optimum Tm and pH were 37 °C and 7.2, respectively. Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot showed that the expressions of MsHO1 were higher in alfalfa stems and leaves than those in germinating seeds and roots. Importantly, MsHO1 gene expression and protein level were induced significantly by some pro-oxidant compounds, including hemin and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In conclusion, MsHO1 may play an important role in oxidative responses.

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Ying; Wang, Guo-Guang; Li, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Zhou, Ping-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  9. Heme Oxygenase-1 Promotes Delayed Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ulcers are one of the most serious and costly chronic complications for diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may play an important role in diabetes and its complications. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of heme oxygenase-1 on wound closure in diabetic rats. Diabetic wound model was prepared by making an incision with full thickness in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Wounds from diabetic rats were treated with 10% hemin ointment for 21 days. Increase of HO-1 protein expression enhanced anti-inflammation and antioxidant in diabetic rats. Furthermore, HO-1 increased the levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and expressions of CBS and CSE protein. In summary, HO-1 promoted the wound closure by augmenting anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and angiogenesis in diabetic rats.

  10. Modulation of ligand-heme reactivity by binding pocket residues demonstrated in cytochrome c' over the femtosecond-second temporal range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Henry J; Hardman, Samantha J O; Heyes, Derren J; Hough, Michael A; Greetham, Gregory M; Towrie, Michael; Hay, Sam; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2013-12-01

    The ability of hemoproteins to discriminate between diatomic molecules, and the subsequent affinity for their chosen ligand, is fundamental to the existence of life. These processes are often controlled by precise structural arrangements in proteins, with heme pocket residues driving reactivity and specificity. One such protein is cytochrome c', which has the ability to bind nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) on opposite faces of the heme, a property that is shared with soluble guanylate cycle. Like soluble guanylate cyclase, cytochrome c' also excludes O2 completely from the binding pocket. Previous studies have shown that the NO binding mechanism is regulated by a proximal arginine residue (R124) and a distal leucine residue (L16). Here, we have investigated the roles of these residues in maintaining the affinity for NO in the heme binding environment by using various time-resolved spectroscopy techniques that span the entire femtosecond-second temporal range in the UV-vis spectrum, and the femtosecond-nanosecond range by IR spectroscopy. Our findings indicate that the tightly regulated NO rebinding events following excitation in wild-type cytochrome c' are affected in the R124A variant. In the R124A variant, vibrational and electronic changes extend continuously across all time scales (from fs-s), in contrast to wild-type cytochrome c' and the L16A variant. Based on these findings, we propose a NO (re)binding mechanism for the R124A variant of cytochrome c' that is distinct from that in wild-type cytochrome c'. In the wider context, these findings emphasize the importance of heme pocket architecture in maintaining the reactivity of hemoproteins towards their chosen ligand, and demonstrate the power of spectroscopic probes spanning a wide temporal range.

  11. The Role of Heme and Reactive Oxygen Species in Proliferation and Survival of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Paes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle comprehending two distinct hosts and a series of morphological and functional transformations. Hemoglobin degradation inside the insect vector releases high amounts of heme, and this molecule is known to exert a number of physiological functions. Moreover, the absence of its complete biosynthetic pathway in T. cruzi indicates heme as an essential molecule for this trypanosomatid survival. Within the hosts, T. cruzi has to cope with sudden environmental changes especially in the redox status and heme is able to increase the basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can be also produced as byproducts of the parasite aerobic metabolism. In this regard, ROS sensing is likely to be an important mechanism for the adaptation and interaction of these organisms with their hosts. In this paper we discuss the main features of heme and ROS susceptibility in T. cruzi biology.

  12. The roles of cysteines in the heme domain of human soluble guanylate cyclase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Fang Zhong; Xiao Xiao Liu; Jie Pan; Zhong Xian Huang; Xiang Shi Tan

    2012-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a critical heme-containing enzyme involved in NO signaling.The dimerization of sGC subunits is necessary for its bioactivity and its mechanism is a striiking and an indistinct issue.The roles of heme domain cysteines of the sGC on the dimerization and heme binding were investigated herein.The site-directed mutations of three conserved cysteines (C78A,C 122A and C 174S) were studied systematically and the three mutants were characterized by gel filtration analysis,UV-vis spectroscopy and heime transfer examination.Cys78 was involved in heme binding but not referred to the dimerization,while Cys174 was demonstrated to be involved in the homodimerization.These results provide new insights into the cysteine-related dimerization regulation of sGC.

  13. A switch in the electron transfer from heme a to binuclear centre of cytochrome c oxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敖金; 徐建兴

    2002-01-01

    New experimental evidence that a switch controls the reduction of the heme a3-CuB binuclear centre has beenobserved in the N2-dried thin film of purified cytochrome oxidase. When immersing the enzyme film into the acidphosphate buffer with extremely low concentration of dithionite, a spectrum was given to show a reduction of heme awith no electrons resting on CuA. By increasing dithionite, electrons could be accumulated gradually on CuA, but thebinuclear centre still remains in the oxidized state. When the accumulation of electrons on CuA and/or heme a exceededa threshold, a turnover of reduction of the binuclear centre and oxidation of heme a occurred abruptly. This switch-likeaction is pH-dependent.

  14. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M P Alves

    Full Text Available It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont in the flagellate's cytoplasm. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remained obscure. In this work, we sequence and phylogenetically analyze the heme pathway genes from the symbionts and from their hosts, as well as from a number of heme synthesis-deficient Kinetoplastida. Our results show that the enzymes responsible for synthesis of heme are encoded on the symbiont genomes and produced in close cooperation with the flagellate host. Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae.

  15. APPLICATION OF 129I MOSSBAUER EFFECT TO BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: STUDIES WITH HEME MODELS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, M.; Debrunner, Peter G.; DePasquali, G.; Hager, Lowell P.; Yeoman, L.

    1970-01-01

    The Mossbauer effect associated with 129I, 125Te, and 57Fe has been applied to investigate structural properties of the axial ligands in ferric-high spin hematoheme-I, hematoheme-Te, and hematoheme-histidine-iodide. The magnitude and sign of the 129I quadrupole coupling constant (e2qQ) and the isomer shift, as deduced from the Mossbauer effect spectra, are consistent with an axial, s-p hybridized bond of overwhelming σ-character. Identical coupling constant (e2qQ(127I) = -1826 ± 3 MHz) were measured for both heme-I and hematoheme-histidine-iodide. Implications of this result to the nature of ferric-high spin heme-histidine complexing are discussed. A stable heme 125Te species formed in the electron-capture decay of heme-125I is observed, and structural properties of this singly bonded telluride ligand are discussed. PMID:16591848

  16. Electrochemical and spectroscopic investigations of immobilized de novo designed heme proteins on metal electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, WW; Ulstrup, Jens;

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of rational design principles, template-assisted four-helix-bundle proteins that include two histidines for coordinative binding of a heme were synthesized. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the proteins in solution reveals the expected bis-histidine coordinated heme...... methods. For all proteins, immobilization causes a decrease in protein stability and a loosening of the helix packing, as reflected by a partial dissociation of a histidine ligand in the ferrous state and very low redox potentials. For the covalently attached MOP-C, the overall interfacial redox process...... involves the coupling of electron transfer and heme ligand dissociation, which was analyzed by time-resolved SERR spectroscopy. Electron transfer was found to be significantly slower for the mono-histidine-coordinated than for the bis-histidine-coordinated heme. For the latter, the formal heterogeneous...

  17. Synthesis and Evaluation of Amyloid β Derived and Amyloid β Independent Enhancers of the Peroxidase-like Activity of Heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wißbrock, Amelie; Kühl, Toni; Silbermann, Katja; Becker, Albert J; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Imhof, Diana

    2017-01-12

    Labile heme has been suggested to have an impact in several severe diseases. In the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, decreased levels of free heme have been reported. Therefore, we were looking for an assay system that can be used for heme concentration determination. From a biochemical point of view the peroxidase activity of the Aβ-heme complex seemed quite attractive to pursue this goal. As a consequence, a peptide that is able to increase the readout even in the case of a low heme concentration is favorable. The examination of Aβ- and non-Aβ-derived peptides in complex with heme revealed that the peroxidase-like activity significantly depends on the peptide sequence and length. A 23mer His-based peptide derived from human fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 in complex with heme exhibited a significantly higher peroxidase activity than Aβ(40)-heme. Structural modeling of both complexes demonstrated that heme binding via a histidine can be supported by hydrogen bond interactions of a basic residue near the propionate carboxyl function of protoporphyrin IX. Furthermore, the interplay of Aβ-heme and the lipoprotein LDL as a potential physiological effector of Aβ was examined.

  18. Hemopexin and haptoglobin: allies against heme toxicity from hemoglobin not contenders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eSmith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal here is to describe our current understanding of heme metabolism and the deleterious effects of free heme on immunological processes, endothelial function, systemic inflammation, and various end-organ tissues (e.g. kidney, lung, liver, etc., with particular attention paid to the role of hemopexin (HPX. Because heme toxicity is the impetus for much of the pathology in sepsis, sickle cell disease, and other hemolytic conditions, the biological importance and clinical relevance of HPX, the predominant heme binding protein, is reinforced. A perspective on the function of HPX and haptoglobin (Hp is presented, updating how these two proteins and their respective receptors act simultaneously to protect the body in clinical conditions that entail hemolysis and/or systemic intravascular inflammation. Evidence from longitudinal studies in patients supports that HPX plays a Hp-independent role in genetic and non-genetic hemolytic diseases without the need for global Hp depletion. Evidence also supports that HPX has an important role in the prognosis of complex illnesses characterized predominantly by the presence of hemolysis, such as sickle cell disease, sepsis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and conditions involving intravascular and extravascular hemolysis, such as that generated by extracorporeal circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and from blood transfusions. We propose that quantitating the amounts of plasma heme, HPX, Hb-Hp, heme-HPX and heme-albumin levels in various disease states may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of the above-mentioned conditions, which is crucial to developing targeted plasma protein supplementation (i.e. replenishment therapies for patients with heme toxicity due to HPX depletion.

  19. Decoupling Activation of Heme Biosynthesis from Anaerobic Toxicity in a Molecule Active in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Dutter, Brendan F.; Mike, Laura A.; Reid, Paul R.; Chong, Katherine M.; Ramos-Hunter, Susan J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Sulikowski, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Small molecules active in the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are valuable tools for the study of its basic biology and pathogenesis, and many molecules may provide leads for novel therapeutics. We have previously reported a small molecule, 1, which activates endogenous heme biosynthesis in S. aureus, leading to an accumulation of intracellular heme. In addition to this novel activity, 1 also exhibits toxicity towards S. aureus growing under fermentative conditions. To determine if...

  20. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Bastide, Nadia; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle; Tache, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte; Kuhnle, Gunter; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Francoise; Corpet, Denis; Pierre, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 ...

  1. Interaction Study of Ferrocene Derivatives and Heme by UV-Vis Spectroscopy%紫外-可见光谱法研究二茂铁衍生物与血红素的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国成; 冯小珍; 梁晋涛; 肖文香; 陈真诚

    2016-01-01

    derivatives are fixed,the absorbance of Fc(COOH)2 and Fc(Cys)also increases with the increase of heme concentration,the absorbance of Fc(OBt)2 almost keep the same when heme concentration increase.It is demonstrated that the hydrogen bonding interac-tions happen between Fc(COOH)2 ,Fc(Cys)and heme,none of Fc(OBt)2 ,the formation of hydrogen bonding lead to the growth of molecular chain,the bigger molecule can absorb more energy and increase the absor-bance.Meanwhile,the stability of molecule is affected by the formation of hydrogen bonding,when the reac-tion time increases from 0.5 h to 18 h and 48 h,the absorbance atλmax=384 nm change from 2.64 to 2.53 and 2.51 with fixed concentration of Fc(COOH)2 ,the absorbance atλmax=384 nm change from 1.76 to 1.72 and 1.68 with fixed concentration of heme,the absorbance atλmax=397 nm change from 2.74 to 2.63 and 2.55 with fixed concentration of Fc(Cys),and the absorbance atλmax=397 nm change from 1.82 to 1.58 and 1.49 with fixed concentration of heme,respectively.

  2. A novel field transplantation technique reveals intra-specific metal-induced oxidative responses in strains of Ectocarpus siliculosus with different pollution histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Claudio A; González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Moody, A John; Moenne, Alejandra; Brown, Murray T

    2015-04-01

    A novel field transplantation technique, in which seaweed material is incorporated into dialysis tubing, was used to investigate intra-specific responses to metals in the model brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus. Metal accumulation in the two strains was similar, with higher concentrations in material deployed to the metal-contaminated site (Ventanas, Chile) than the pristine site (Quintay, Chile). However, the oxidative responses differed. At Ventanas, strain Es147 (from low-polluted site) underwent oxidative damage whereas Es524 (from highly polluted site) was not affected. Concentrations of reduced ascorbate (ASC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly higher in Es524. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) all increased in Es524, whereas only SOD increased in Es147. For the first time, employing a field transplantation technique, we provide unambiguous evidence of inter-population variation of metal-tolerance in brown algae and establish that antioxidant defences are, in part, responsible.

  3. Trypanosoma brucei brucei: effects of ferrous iron and heme on ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Milane S; Thomaz, Rachel; Oliveira, José Henrique M; Oliveira, Pedro L; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei is the causative agent of animal African trypanosomiasis, also called nagana. Procyclic vector form resides in the midgut of the tsetse fly, which feeds exclusively on blood. Hemoglobin digestion occurs in the midgut resulting in an intense release of free heme. In the present study we show that the magnesium-dependent ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) activity of procyclic T. brucei brucei is inhibited by ferrous iron and heme. The inhibition of E-NTPDase activity by ferrous iron, but not by heme, was prevented by pre-incubation of cells with catalase. However, antioxidants that permeate cells, such as PEG-catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine prevented the inhibition of E-NTPDase by heme. Ferrous iron was able to induce an increase in lipid peroxidation, while heme did not. Therefore, both ferrous iron and heme can inhibit E-NTPDase activity of T. brucei brucei by means of formation of reactive oxygen species, but apparently acting through distinct mechanisms.

  4. Melatonin attenuates hypochlorous acid-mediated heme destruction, free iron release, and protein aggregation in hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Dhiman; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2012-09-01

    In inflammatory diseases, where hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is elevated, iron homeostasis is disturbed, resulting in accumulation of free iron. Free iron is toxic by virtue of its ability to generate free radicals through the Fenton reaction. HOCl is generated by myeloperoxidase, (MPO) using chloride and hydrogen peroxide as substrates. Recent studies demonstrate that HOCl binds to the heme moiety of hemoglobin (Hb), which generates a transient ferric species whose formation and decay kinetics indicate it participates in protein aggregation, heme destruction, and free iron release. Here, we show that melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated Hb heme destruction and protein aggregation, using a combination of UV-vis spectrophotometry, ferrozine colorimetric assay, and in-gel heme staining. We also show that melatonin treatment prevents HOCl-mediated loss of red blood cell (RBC) viability, indicating biologic relevance of this finding. The mechanism by which melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated Hb heme destruction is by direct scavenging of HOCl and/or through the destabilization of the higher Hb oxidative states intermediates, ferryl porphyrin radical cation Hb-Fe(IV)=O(+π•) and Hb-Fe(IV)=O, which are formed through the reaction of HOCl with Hb. Our work establishes a direct mechanistic link between melatonin and its protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and as a MPO inhibitor, melatonin can also exert its protective effect by inhibiting HOCl-mediated heme destruction of hemoproteins and subsequent free iron release.

  5. Binding Modes of Aromatic Ligands to Mammalian Heme Peroxidases with Associated Functional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.; Singh, Nagendra; Sinha, Mau; Bhushan, Asha; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2009-01-01

    The binding and structural studies of bovine lactoperoxidase with three aromatic ligands, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), salicylhydoxamic acid (SHA), and benzylhydroxamic acid (BHA) show that all the three compounds bind to lactoperoxidase at the substrate binding site on the distal heme side. The binding of ASA occurs without perturbing the position of conserved heme water molecule W-1, whereas both SHA and BHA displace it by the hydroxyl group of their hydroxamic acid moieties. The acetyl group carbonyl oxygen atom of ASA forms a hydrogen bond with W-1, which in turn makes three other hydrogen-bonds, one each with heme iron, His-109 Nϵ2, and Gln-105 Nϵ2. In contrast, in the complexes of SHA and BHA, the OH group of hydroxamic acid moiety in both complexes interacts with heme iron directly with Fe-OH distances of 3.0 and 3.2Å respectively. The OH is also hydrogen bonded to His-109 Nϵ2 and Gln-105Nϵ2. The plane of benzene ring of ASA is inclined at 70.7° from the plane of heme moiety, whereas the aromatic planes of SHA and BHA are nearly parallel to the heme plane with inclinations of 15.7 and 6.2°, respectively. The mode of ASA binding provides the information about the mechanism of action of aromatic substrates, whereas the binding characteristics of SHA and BHA indicate the mode of inhibitor binding. PMID:19465478

  6. The Alternative Route to Heme in the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kühner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In living organisms heme is formed from the common precursor uroporphyrinogen III by either one of two substantially different pathways. In contrast to eukaryotes and most bacteria which employ the so-called “classical” heme biosynthesis pathway, the archaea use an alternative route. In this pathway, heme is formed from uroporphyrinogen III via the intermediates precorrin-2, sirohydrochlorin, siroheme, 12,18-didecarboxysiroheme, and iron-coproporphyrin III. In this study the heme biosynthesis proteins AhbAB, AhbC, and AhbD from Methanosarcina barkeri were functionally characterized. Using an in vivo enzyme activity assay it was shown that AhbA and AhbB (Mbar_A1459 and Mbar_A1460 together catalyze the conversion of siroheme into 12,18-didecarboxysiroheme. The two proteins form a heterodimeric complex which might be subject to feedback regulation by the pathway end-product heme. Further, AhbC (Mbar_A1793 was shown to catalyze the formation of iron-coproporphyrin III in vivo. Finally, recombinant AhbD (Mbar_A1458 was produced in E. coli and purified indicating that this protein most likely contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters. Using an in vitro enzyme activity assay it was demonstrated that AhbD catalyzes the conversion of iron-coproporphyrin III into heme.

  7. Protein Machineries Involved in the Attachment of Heme to Cytochrome c: Protein Structures and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Travaglini-Allocatelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes c (Cyt c are ubiquitous heme-containing proteins, mainly involved in electron transfer processes, whose structure and functions have been and still are intensely studied. Surprisingly, our understanding of the molecular mechanism whereby the heme group is covalently attached to the apoprotein (apoCyt in the cell is still largely unknown. This posttranslational process, known as Cyt c biogenesis or Cyt c maturation, ensures the stereospecific formation of the thioether bonds between the heme vinyl groups and the cysteine thiols of the apoCyt heme binding motif. To accomplish this task, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have evolved distinctive protein machineries composed of different proteins. In this review, the structural and functional properties of the main maturation apparatuses found in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells will be presented, dissecting the Cyt c maturation process into three functional steps: (i heme translocation and delivery, (ii apoCyt thioreductive pathway, and (iii apoCyt chaperoning and heme ligation. Moreover, current hypotheses and open questions about the molecular mechanisms of each of the three steps will be discussed, with special attention to System I, the maturation apparatus found in gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Multi-heme Cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Structures, functions and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen; Butt, Julea N.

    2014-11-05

    Multi-heme cytochromes are employed by a range of microorganisms to transport electrons over distances of up to tens of nanometers. Perhaps the most spectacular utilization of these proteins is in the reduction of extracellular solid substrates, including electrodes and insoluble mineral oxides of Fe(III) and Mn(III/IV), by species of Shewanella and Geobacter. However, multi-heme cytochromes are found in numerous and phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes where they participate in electron transfer and redox catalysis that contributes to biogeochemical cycling of N, S and Fe on the global scale. These properties of multi-heme cytochromes have attracted much interest and contributed to advances in bioenergy applications and bioremediation of contaminated soils. Looking forward there are opportunities to engage multi-heme cytochromes for biological photovoltaic cells, microbial electrosynthesis and developing bespoke molecular devices. As a consequence it is timely to review our present understanding of these proteins and we do this here with a focus on the multitude of functionally diverse multi-heme cytochromes in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We draw on findings from experimental and computational approaches which ideally complement each other in the study of these systems: computational methods can interpret experimentally determined properties in terms of molecular structure to cast light on the relation between structure and function. We show how this synergy has contributed to our understanding of multi-heme cytochromes and can be expected to continue to do so for greater insight into natural processes and their informed exploitation in biotechnologies.

  9. Heme-mediated apoptosis and fusion damage in BeWo trophoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingli; Hassana, Salifu; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) is a complication associated with malaria infection during pregnancy that often leads to abortion, premature delivery, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Increased levels of circulating free heme, a by-product of Plasmodium-damaged erythrocytes, is a major contributor to inflammation, tissue damage and loss of blood brain barrier integrity associated with fatal experimental cerebral malaria. However, the role of heme in PM remains unknown. Proliferation and apoptosis of trophoblasts and fusion of the mononucleated state to the syncytial state are of major importance to a successful pregnancy. In the present study, we examined the effects of heme on the viability and fusion of a trophoblast-derived cell line (BeWo). Results indicate that heme induces apoptosis in BeWo cells by activation of the STAT3/caspase-3/PARP signaling pathway. In the presence of forskolin, which triggers trophoblast fusion, heme inhibits BeWo cell fusion through activation of STAT3. Understanding the effects of free plasma heme in pregnant women either due to malaria, sickle cell disease or other hemolytic diseases, will enable identification of high-risk women and may lead to discovery of new drug targets against associated adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27796349

  10. The Fowler syndrome-associated protein FLVCR2 is an importer of heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Simon P; Shing, Jennifer; Saraon, Punit; Berger, Lloyd C; Eiden, Maribeth V; Wilde, Andrew; Tailor, Chetankumar S

    2010-11-01

    Mutations in FLVCR2, a cell surface protein related by homology and membrane topology to the heme exporter/retroviral receptor FLVCR1, have recently been associated with Fowler syndrome, a vascular disorder of the brain. We previously identified FLVCR2 to function as a receptor for FY981 feline leukemia virus (FeLV). However, the cellular function of FLVCR2 remains unresolved. Here, we report the cellular function of FLVCR2 as an importer of heme, based on the following observations. First, FLVCR2 binds to hemin-conjugated agarose, and binding is competed by free hemin. Second, mammalian cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing FLVCR2 display enhanced heme uptake. Third, heme import is reduced after the expression of FLVCR2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) or after the binding of the FY981 FeLV envelope protein to the FLVCR2 receptor. Finally, cells overexpressing FLVCR2 are more sensitive to heme toxicity, a finding most likely attributable to enhanced heme uptake. Tissue expression analysis indicates that FLVCR2 is expressed in a broad range of human tissues, including liver, placenta, brain, and kidney. The identification of a cellular function for FLVCR2 will have important implications in elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of Fowler syndrome and of phenotypically associated disorders.

  11. A Comparative Study of O2, CO and CN Binding to Heme IX Protein Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Parametrization of a molecular-mechanics program to include terms specificfor five- and six-coordinate transition metal complexes results in computer-simulatedstructures of heme complexes. The principal new feature peculiar to five and sixcoordination is a term that measures the effect of electron-pair repulsion modified by theligand electronegativity and takes into account the different structural possibilities. Themodel system takes into account the structural differences of the fixing centre in thehaemoglobin subunits. The customary proximal histidine is added. The prosthetic groupheme IX is wholly considered in our model. The calculations show clearly that certainconformations are much more favourable that others for fixing O2. From the O2 bindingin haemoglobin, myoglobin and simple Fe porphyrin models it is concluded that the bentO2 ligand is best viewed as bound superoxide O2–. Axial ligands are practically free-rotating. A small modification of the model in both crystal and protein matrix affects theorientation of the ligands in experimental systems.

  12. Deltamethrin inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and NFATc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Eiko; Fumimoto, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    Deltamethrin is a widely used pyrethroid pesticide. Although the cytotoxicity of deltamethrin has been reported, especially in neuronal cells, there is no information concerning the effects of deltamethrin on osteoclasts (OCLs). In this study, we showed that deltamethrin inhibited OCL differentiation in vitro. The effects of deltamethrin on OCL differentiation by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were investigated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) or the murine monocytic cell line RAW-D. Treatment with deltamethrin inhibited OCL formation and bone resorption and up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an anti-oxidative stress enzyme. Deltamethrin also decreased the protein levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a master regulator for OCL differentiation, and concomitantly reduced the expression levels of Src and cathepsin K, which are transcriptionally regulated by NFATc1. The effects of deltamethrin on intracellular signaling during the OCL differentiation of BMMs indicated that deltamethrin-treated OCLs displayed impaired phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and Akt, and slightly delayed phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha (IκBα) compared with untreated OCLs. Thus, deltamethrin possibly affects bone metabolism by inhibiting OCL differentiation.

  13. Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression and Cutaneous Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels A. J. Cremers

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Skin wounds may lead to scar formation and impaired functionality. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC can induce the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and protect against tissue injury. We aim to improve cutaneous wound repair by RIPC treatment via induction of HO-1. RIPC was applied to HO-1-luc transgenic mice and HO-1 promoter activity and mRNA expression in skin and several other organs were determined in real-time. In parallel, RIPC was applied directly or 24h prior to excisional wounding in mice to investigate the early and late protective effects of RIPC on cutaneous wound repair, respectively. HO-1 promoter activity was significantly induced on the dorsal side and locally in the kidneys following RIPC treatment. Next, we investigated the origin of this RIPC-induced HO-1 promoter activity and demonstrated increased mRNA in the ligated muscle, heart and kidneys, but not in the skin. RIPC did not change HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in the wound 7 days after cutaneous injury. Both early and late RIPC did not accelerate wound closure nor affect collagen deposition. RIPC induces HO-1 expression in several organs, but not the skin, and did not improve excisional wound repair, suggesting that the skin is insensitive to RIPC-mediated protection.

  14. Effects of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression and Cutaneous Wound Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Wever, Kimberley E.; Wong, Ronald J.; van Rheden, René E. M.; Vermeij, Eline A.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Carels, Carine E.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2017-01-01

    Skin wounds may lead to scar formation and impaired functionality. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can induce the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and protect against tissue injury. We aim to improve cutaneous wound repair by RIPC treatment via induction of HO-1. RIPC was applied to HO-1-luc transgenic mice and HO-1 promoter activity and mRNA expression in skin and several other organs were determined in real-time. In parallel, RIPC was applied directly or 24h prior to excisional wounding in mice to investigate the early and late protective effects of RIPC on cutaneous wound repair, respectively. HO-1 promoter activity was significantly induced on the dorsal side and locally in the kidneys following RIPC treatment. Next, we investigated the origin of this RIPC-induced HO-1 promoter activity and demonstrated increased mRNA in the ligated muscle, heart and kidneys, but not in the skin. RIPC did not change HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in the wound 7 days after cutaneous injury. Both early and late RIPC did not accelerate wound closure nor affect collagen deposition. RIPC induces HO-1 expression in several organs, but not the skin, and did not improve excisional wound repair, suggesting that the skin is insensitive to RIPC-mediated protection. PMID:28218659

  15. Pressure effects reveal that changes in the redox states of the heme iron complexes in the sensor domains of two heme-based oxygen sensor proteins, EcDOS and YddV, have profound effects on their flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzenbacher, Pavel; Marchal, Stéphane; Palacký, Jan; Anzenbacherová, Eva; Domaschke, Thomas; Lange, Reinhard; Shimizu, Toru; Kitanishi, Kenichi; Stranava, Martin; Stiborová, Marie; Martinkova, Marketa

    2014-12-01

    The catalytic activity of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (EcDOS) towards cyclic diGMP is regulated by the redox state of the heme iron complex in the enzyme's sensing domain and the association of external ligands with the iron center. Specifically, the Fe(II) complex is more active towards cyclic diGMP than the Fe(III) complex, and its activity is further enhanced by O2 or CO binding. In order to determine how the redox state and coordination of the heme iron atom regulate the catalytic activity of EcDOS, we investigated the flexibility of its isolated N-terminal heme-binding domain (EcDOS-heme) by monitoring its spectral properties at various hydrostatic pressures. The most active form of the heme-containing domain, i.e. the Fe(II)-CO complex, was found to be the least flexible. Conversely, the oxidized Fe(III) forms of EcDOS-heme and its mutants had relatively high flexibilities, which appeared to be linked to the low catalytic activity of the corresponding intact enzymes. These findings corroborate the suggestion, made on the basis of crystallographic data, that there is an inverse relationship between the flexibility of the heme-containing domain of EcDOS and its catalytic activity. The Fe(II)-CO form of the heme domain of a second heme-based oxygen sensor, diguanylate cyclase (YddV), was also found to be quite rigid. Interestingly, the incorporation of a water molecule into the heme complex of YddV caused by mutation of the Leu65 residue reduced the flexibility of this heme domain. Conversely, mutation of the Tyr43 residue increased its flexibility.

  16. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    albumin, indicating that the tertiary structure of the target protein plays an important role in determining the rate of radical transfer and/or the stability of the resultant species. These results are consistent with a mechanism for the HRP/H2O2/no free tyrosine system involving radical transfer...... to the albumin via the heme edge of the peroxidase. In contrast, albumin radical formation by the HRP/H2O2/free tyrosine system was only marginally affected by proteolysis, consistent with free tyrosine phenoxyl radicals being the mediators of radical transfer, without significant protein-protein interaction......Incubation of Fe(III)myoglobin (Fe(III)Mb) with H2O2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been shown previously to give albumin-derived radicals as a result of radical transfer from myoglobin to BSA. In this study the occurrence of similar processes with peroxidases has been...

  17. Characterization of a Heme-Regulated Non-Coding RNA Encoded by the prrF Locus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G.; Vasil, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, requires iron for virulence and can obtain this nutrient via the acquisition of heme, an abundant source of iron in the human body. A surplus of either iron or heme can lead to oxidative stress; thus, the Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein blocks expression of genes required for iron and heme uptake in iron-replete environments. Fur also represses expression of two nearly identical genes encoding the 116- and 114-nucleotide (nt) long PrrF1...

  18. Electron Flow in Multiheme Bacterial Cytochromes is a Balancing Act Between Heme Electronic Interaction and Redox Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently microorganisms have adapted multi-heme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Angstroms. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces effciently, remains a mystery so far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive computer simulations to calculate Marcus theory quantities for electron transfer along the ten heme cofactors in the recently crystallized outer membrane cytochrome MtrF. The combination of electronic coupling matrix elements with free energy calculations of heme redox potentials and reorganization energies for heme-to-heme electron transfer allows the step-wise and overall electron transfer rate to be estimated and understood in terms of structural and dynamical characteristics of the protein. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104-105 s-1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related MtrCAB protein complex. Intriguingly, this flux must navigate thermodynamically uphill steps past low potential hemes. Our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: Thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well connected stacked heme pairs. This suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low potential

  19. Linear, Star, and Comb Oxidation-Responsive Polymers: Effect of Branching Degree and Topology on Aggregation and Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcy, Richard; Gennari, Arianna; Donno, Roberto; Tirelli, Nicola

    2016-12-01

    Families of amphiphilic oxidation-responsive polymers (poly(ethylene glycol)-polysulfides) with different architectures (linear, 4, 6, and 8-armed stars and 10, 15, and 20-armed combs) and compositions (variable ethylene sulfide/propylene sulfide ratio) are prepared. In water, all the polymers assemble in spherical micelles, with critical micellar concentrations <0.01 mg mL(-1) for all the branched polymers. Triple-detection gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and asymmetric field flow fractionation (AFFF) with dynamic and static light scattering detection, respectively, show an increasing compaction of the polymeric coil and a strong reduction of the aggregation number with increasing degree of branching. The key finding of this study is that the kinetics of the oxidative response sharply depend on the branching; in particular, it is highlighted that the degree of branching influences the lag time before a response can be observed rather than the speed of the response itself, a phenomenon that is attributed to a branching-dependent solubility of the oxidant in the polysulfide matrix.

  20. The heme a synthase Cox15 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates during Cox1 maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareth, Bettina; Dennerlein, Sven; Mick, David U; Nikolov, Miroslav; Urlaub, Henning; Rehling, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Cox1, the core subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase, receives two heme a cofactors during assembly of the 13-subunit enzyme complex. However, at which step of the assembly process and how heme is inserted into Cox1 have remained an enigma. Shy1, the yeast SURF1 homolog, has been implicated in heme transfer to Cox1, whereas the heme a synthase, Cox15, catalyzes the final step of heme a synthesis. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates containing Shy1. Our analyses suggest that Cox15 displays a role in cytochrome c oxidase assembly, which is independent of its functions as the heme a synthase. Cox15 forms protein complexes with Shy1 and also associates with Cox1-containing complexes independently of Shy1 function. These findings indicate that Shy1 does not serve as a mobile heme carrier between the heme a synthase and maturing Cox1 but rather cooperates with Cox15 for heme transfer and insertion in early assembly intermediates of cytochrome c oxidase.

  1. Use of Heme Compounds as Iron Sources by Pathogenic Neisseriae Requires the Product of the hemO Gene

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Heme compounds are an important source of iron for neisseriae. We have identified a neisserial gene, hemO, that is essential for heme, hemoglobin (Hb), and haptoglobin-Hb utilization. The hemO gene is located 178 bp upstream of the hmbR Hb receptor gene in Neisseria meningitidis isolates. The product of the hemO gene is homologous to enzymes that degrade heme; 21% of its amino acid residues are identical, and 44% are similar, to those of the human heme oxygenase-1. DNA sequences homologous to...

  2. Identification of residues in the heme domain of soluble guanylyl cyclase that are important for basal and stimulated catalytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmamalini Baskaran

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide signals through activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, a heme-containing heterodimer. NO binds to the heme domain located in the N-terminal part of the β subunit of sGC resulting in increased production of cGMP in the catalytic domain located at the C-terminal part of sGC. Little is known about the mechanism by which the NO signaling is propagated from the receptor domain (heme domain to the effector domain (catalytic domain, in particular events subsequent to the breakage of the bond between the heme iron and Histidine 105 (H105 of the β subunit. Our modeling of the heme-binding domain as well as previous homologous heme domain structures in different states point to two regions that could be critical for propagation of the NO activation signal. Structure-based mutational analysis of these regions revealed that residues T110 and R116 in the αF helix-β1 strand, and residues I41 and R40 in the αB-αC loop mediate propagation of activation between the heme domain and the catalytic domain. Biochemical analysis of these heme mutants allows refinement of the map of the residues that are critical for heme stability and propagation of the NO/YC-1 activation signal in sGC.

  3. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  4. Engineering Non-Heme Mono- and Dioxygenases for Biocatalysis

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    Adi Dror

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygenases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the introduction of one or two oxygen atoms to unreactive chemical compounds. They require reduction equivalents from NADH or NADPH and comprise metal ions, metal ion complexes, or coenzymes in their active site. Thus, for industrial purposes, oxygenases are most commonly employed using whole cell catalysis, to alleviate the need for co-factor regeneration. Biotechnological applications include bioremediation, chiral synthesis, biosensors, fine chemicals, biofuels, pharmaceuticals, food ingredients and polymers. Controlling activity and selectivity of oxygenases is therefore of great importance and of growing interest to the scientific community. This review focuses on protein engineering of non-heme monooxygenases and dioxygenases for generating improved or novel functionalities. Rational mutagenesis based on x-ray structures and sequence alignment, as well as random methods such as directed evolution, have been utilized. It is concluded that knowledge-based protein engineering accompanied with targeted libraries, is most efficient for the design and tuning of biocatalysts towards novel substrates and enhanced catalytic activity while minimizing the screening efforts.

  5. Mammalian heme peroxidases: from molecular mechanisms to health implications.

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    Davies, Michael J; Hawkins, Clare L; Pattison, David I; Rees, Martin D

    2008-07-01

    A marked increase in interest has occurred over the last few years in the role that mammalian heme peroxidase enzymes, primarily myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, and lactoperoxidase, may play in both disease prevention and human pathologies. This increased interest has been sparked by developments in our understanding of polymorphisms that control the levels of these enzymes, a greater understanding of the basic chemistry and biochemistry of the oxidants formed by these species, the development of specific biomarkers that can be used in vivo to detect damage induced by these oxidants, the detection of active forms of these peroxidases at most, if not all, sites of inflammation, and a correlation between the levels of these enzymes and a number of major human pathologies. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of the enzymology, chemistry, biochemistry and biologic roles of mammalian peroxidases and the oxidants that they generate, the potential role of these oxidants in human disease, and the use of the levels of these enzymes in disease prognosis.

  6. Oxidative stability of a heme iron-fortified bakery product: Effectiveness of ascorbyl palmitate and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Mercedes; Bou, Ricard; Tres, Alba; Polo, Javier; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1year of storage.

  7. Heme oxygenase, inflammation, and fibrosis: the good, the bad, and the ugly?

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    Ditte M. S. Lundvig

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Upon injury, prolonged inflammation and oxidative stress may cause pathological wound healing and fibrosis, leading to formation of excessive scar tissue. Fibrogenesis can occur in most organs and tissues and may ultimately lead to organ dysfunction and failure. The underlying mechanisms of pathological wound healing still remains unclear, but are considered to have a multifactoral pathogenesis, and so far, no efficient anti-fibrotic therapies exists.Extra- and intracellular levels of free heme may be increased in a variety of pathological conditions due to heme-release from hemoproteins. Free heme possesses pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects, and may act as a danger signal, which counteracted by protein scavenging via various heme-binding proteins and by heme degradation. Heme is degraded by heme oxygenase (HO that exists as two isoforms: inducible HO-1 and constitutively expressed HO-2. This generates the effector molecules biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. HO deficiency in mouse and man leads to exaggerated inflammation upon insults, and still accumulating epidemiological and preclinical studies support the widely recognized notion of the cytoprotective, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects of the activity of the HO system and the generated effector molecules. In this review, we address the potential applications of targeted HO-1 induction or administration of its effector molecules as therapeutic targets in fibrotic and inflammatory conditions to counteract inflammatory and oxidative insults. This is shown in various clinically relevant conditions, such as hypertrophic scarring, chronic inflammatory liver disease, chronic pancreatitis, and chronic graft rejection in transplantation.

  8. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

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    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  9. Chemistry and Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Heme b-HemQ and Coproheme-HemQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Stefan; Dalla Sega, Marco; Scheiblbrandner, Stefan; Jandova, Zuzana; Schaffner, Irene; Mlynek, Georg; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Furtmüller, Paul G; Oostenbrink, Chris; Obinger, Christian

    2016-09-27

    Recently, a novel pathway for heme b biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria has been proposed. The final poorly understood step is catalyzed by an enzyme called HemQ and includes two decarboxylation reactions leading from coproheme to heme b. Coproheme has been suggested to act as both substrate and redox active cofactor in this reaction. In the study presented here, we focus on HemQs from Listeria monocytogenes (LmHemQ) and Staphylococcus aureus (SaHemQ) recombinantly produced as apoproteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate the rapid and two-phase uptake of coproheme by both apo forms and the significant differences in thermal stability of the apo forms, coproheme-HemQ and heme b-HemQ. Reduction of ferric high-spin coproheme-HemQ to the ferrous form is shown to be enthalpically favored but entropically disfavored with standard reduction potentials of -205 ± 3 mV for LmHemQ and -207 ± 3 mV for SaHemQ versus the standard hydrogen electrode at pH 7.0. Redox thermodynamics suggests the presence of a pronounced H-bonding network and restricted solvent mobility in the heme cavity. Binding of cyanide to the sixth coproheme position is monophasic but relatively slow (∼1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). On the basis of the available structures of apo-HemQ and modeling of both loaded forms, molecular dynamics simulation allowed analysis of the interaction of coproheme and heme b with the protein as well as the role of the flexibility at the proximal heme cavity and the substrate access channel for coproheme binding and heme b release. Obtained data are discussed with respect to the proposed function of HemQ in monoderm bacteria.

  10. Nitric oxide generation from heme/copper assembly mediated nitrite reductase activity.

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    Hematian, Shabnam; Siegler, Maxime A; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a cellular signaling molecule and vasodilator regulates a range of physiological and pathological processes. Nitrite (NO2 (-)) is recycled in vivo to generate nitric oxide, particularly in physiologic hypoxia and ischemia. The cytochrome c oxidase binuclear heme a 3/CuB active site is one entity known to be responsible for conversion of cellular nitrite to nitric oxide. We recently reported that a partially reduced heme/copper assembly reduces nitrite ion, producing nitric oxide; the heme serves as the reductant and the cupric ion provides a Lewis acid interaction with nitrite, facilitating nitrite (N-O) bond cleavage (Hematian et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134:18912-18915, 2012). To further investigate this nitrite reductase chemistry, copper(II)-nitrito complexes with tridentate and tetradentate ligands were used in this study, where either O,O'-bidentate or O-unidentate modes of nitrite binding to the cupric center are present. To study the role of the reducing ability of the ferrous heme center, two different tetraarylporphyrinate-iron(II) complexes, one with electron-donating para-methoxy peripheral substituents and the other with electron-withdrawing 2,6-difluorophenyl substituents, were used. The results show that differing modes of nitrite coordination to the copper(II) ion lead to differing kinetic behavior. Here, also, the ferrous heme is in all cases the source of the reducing equivalent required to convert nitrite to nitric oxide, but the reduction ability of the heme center does not play a key role in the observed overall reaction rate. On the basis of our observations, reaction mechanisms are proposed and discussed in terms of heme/copper heterobinuclear structures.

  11. Molecular dynamics study on the solvent dependent heme cooling following ligand photolysis in carbonmonoxy myoglobin.

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    Zhang, Yong; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Straub, John E

    2007-03-29

    The time scale and mechanism of vibrational energy relaxation of the heme moiety in myoglobin was studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Five different solvent models, including normal water, heavy water, normal glycerol, deuterated glycerol and a nonpolar solvent, and two forms of the heme, one native and one lacking acidic side chains, were studied. Structural alteration of the protein was observed in native myoglobin glycerol solution and native myoglobin water solution. The single-exponential decay of the excess kinetic energy of the heme following ligand photolysis was observed in all systems studied. The relaxation rate depends on the solvent used. However, this dependence cannot be explained using bulk transport properties of the solvent including macroscopic thermal diffusion. The rate and mechanism of heme cooling depends upon the detailed microscopic interaction between the heme and solvent. Three intermolecular energy transfer mechanisms were considered: (i) energy transfer mediated by hydrogen bonds, (ii) direct vibration-vibration energy transfer via resonant interaction, and (iii) energy transfer via vibration-translation or vibration-rotation interaction, or in other words, thermal collision. The hydrogen bond interaction and vibration-vibration interaction between the heme and solvent molecules dominates the energy transfer in native myoglobin aqueous solution and native myoglobin glycerol solutions. For modified myoglobin, the vibration-vibration interaction is also effective in glycerol solution, different from aqueous solution. Thermal collisions form the dominant energy transfer pathway for modified myoglobin in water solution, and for both native myoglobin and modified myoglobin in a nonpolar environment. For native myoglobin in a nonpolar solvent solution, hydrogen bonds between heme isopropionate side chains and nearby protein residues, absent in the modified myoglobin nonpolar solvent solution, are key interactions influencing the

  12. PPE Surface Proteins Are Required for Heme Utilization by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Mitra, Avishek; Speer, Alexander; Lin, Kan; Ehrt, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron is essential for replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but iron is efficiently sequestered in the human host during infection. Heme constitutes the largest iron reservoir in the human body and is utilized by many bacterial pathogens as an iron source. While heme acquisition is well studied in other bacterial pathogens, little is known in M. tuberculosis. To identify proteins involved in heme utilization by M. tuberculosis, a transposon mutant library was screened for resistance to the toxic heme analog gallium(III)-porphyrin (Ga-PIX). Inactivation of the ppe36, ppe62, and rv0265c genes resulted in resistance to Ga-PIX. Growth experiments using isogenic M. tuberculosis deletion mutants showed that PPE36 is essential for heme utilization by M. tuberculosis, while the functions of PPE62 and Rv0265c are partially redundant. None of the genes restored growth of the heterologous M. tuberculosis mutants, indicating that the proteins encoded by the genes have separate functions. PPE36, PPE62, and Rv0265c bind heme as shown by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and are associated with membranes. Both PPE36 and PPE62 proteins are cell surface accessible, while the Rv0265c protein is probably located in the periplasm. PPE36 and PPE62 are, to our knowledge, the first proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) proteins of M. tuberculosis that bind small molecules and are involved in nutrient acquisition. The absence of a virulence defect of the ppe36 deletion mutant indicates that the different iron acquisition pathways of M. tuberculosis may substitute for each other during growth and persistence in mice. The emerging model of heme utilization by M. tuberculosis as derived from this study is substantially different from those of other bacteria. PMID:28119467

  13. Heme oxygenase and the immune system in normal and pathological pregnancies

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    Maide eOzen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is an immunotolerant state. Many factors, including environmental, socioeconomic, genetic, and immunologic changes by infection and/or other causes of inflammation, may contribute to inter-individual differences resulting in a normal or pathologic pregnancy. In particular, imbalances in the immune system can cause many pregnancy-related diseases, such as infertility, abortions, pre-eclampsia, and preterm labor, which result in maternal/fetal death, prematurity, or small-for-gestational age newborns. New findings imply that myeloid regulatory cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs may mediate immunotolerance during normal pregnancy. Effector T cells (Teffs have, in contrast, been implicated to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, feto-maternal tolerance affects the developing fetus. It has been shown that the Treg/Teff balance affects litter size and adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced Tregs can prevent fetal rejection in the mouse. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has a protective role in many conditions through its anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, and anti-proliferative actions. HO-1 is highly expressed in the placenta and plays a role in angiogenesis and placental vascular development and in regulating vascular tone in pregnancy. In addition, HO-1 is a major regulator of immune homeostasis by mediating crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems. Moreover, HO-1 can inhibit inflammation-induced phenotypic maturation of immune effector cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and promote anti-inflammatory cytokine production. HO-1 may also be associated with T-cell activation and can limit immune-based tissue injury by promoting Treg suppression of effector responses. Thus, HO-1 and its byproducts may protect against pregnancy complications by its immunomodulatory effects, and the regulation of HO-1 or its downstream effects has the potential to prevent or treat pregnancy complications and

  14. Therapeutic roles of heme oxygenase-1 in metabolic diseases: curcumin and resveratrol analogues as possible inducers of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yong; Lee, Ju Hwan; Chung, Hun-Taeg; Pae, Hyun-Ock

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress), oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate these stress responses are emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has been recognized that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in cellular protection. Because HO-1 can reduce inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress, in part by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 has been suggested to play important roles in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In the present review, we will explore our current understanding of the protective mechanisms of HO-1 in metabolic diseases and present some emerging therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating metabolic diseases, together with the therapeutic potential of curcumin and resveratrol analogues that have their ability to induce HO-1 expression.

  15. Therapeutic Roles of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Metabolic Diseases: Curcumin and Resveratrol Analogues as Possible Inducers of Heme Oxygenase-1

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    Yong Son

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and obesity, are associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. Because the integration of these stresses is critical to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, agents and cellular molecules that can modulate these stress responses are emerging as potential targets for intervention and treatment of metabolic diseases. It has been recognized that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays an important role in cellular protection. Because HO-1 can reduce inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, and ER stress, in part by exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, HO-1 has been suggested to play important roles in pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. In the present review, we will explore our current understanding of the protective mechanisms of HO-1 in metabolic diseases and present some emerging therapeutic options for HO-1 expression in treating metabolic diseases, together with the therapeutic potential of curcumin and resveratrol analogues that have their ability to induce HO-1 expression.

  16. Dietary heme iron and the risk of colorectal cancer with specific mutations in KRAS and APC.

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    Gilsing, Anne M J; Fransen, Fiona; de Kok, Theo M; Goldbohm, Alexandra R; Schouten, Leo J; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; van Engeland, Manon; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2013-12-01

    Red meat intake has been linked to increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, experimental studies suggest a role for dietary heme iron. Because heme iron was shown to promote specific mutations, it would be insightful to link heme iron data to CRC with mutations in key genes in an observational, population-based study. We investigated the association between dietary heme iron intake and risk of CRC with mutations in APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and KRAS (Kirsten ras) and P53 overexpression in the Netherlands Cohort Study. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years due to incomplete coverage of the pathology registry and to avoid preclinical disease, adjusted hazard ratios (including adjustment for total meat) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, using 4026 subcohort members (aged 55-69 years at baseline), 435 colon and 140 rectal cancer patients. When comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of intake, heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of CRC harboring activating mutations in KRAS (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-2.57; P for trend = 0.03) and CRC without truncating mutations in APC (hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-2.60; P for trend = 0.003). We observed a positive association between heme iron intake and the risk of CRC with activating G>A mutations in KRAS (P for trend = 0.01) and overall G>A mutations in APC (P for trend = 0.005). No associations were found with CRC harboring G>T mutations in KRAS/APC. Heme iron intake was positively associated with the risk of P53 overexpressed tumors but not with tumors without P53 overexpression (Pheterogeneity = 0.12). Heme iron intake was associated with an increased risk of colorectal tumors harboring G>A transitions in KRAS and APC and overexpression of P53. These novel findings suggest that alkylating rather than oxidative DNA-damaging mechanisms are involved in heme

  17. Curcumin-induced heme oxygenase-1 expression prevents H2O2-induced cell death in wild type and heme oxygenase-2 knockout adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Niels A J; Lundvig, Ditte M S; van Dalen, Stephanie C M; Schelbergen, Rik F; van Lent, Peter L E M; Szarek, Walter A; Regan, Raymond F; Carels, Carine E; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2014-10-08

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO) generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) from wild type (WT) and HO-2 knockout (KO) mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2) significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.

  18. Curcumin-Induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Prevents H2O2-Induced Cell Death in Wild Type and Heme Oxygenase-2 Knockout Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Niels A. J. Cremers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC administration is a promising adjuvant therapy to treat tissue injury. However, MSC survival after administration is often hampered by oxidative stress at the site of injury. Heme oxygenase (HO generates the cytoprotective effector molecules biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide (CO and iron/ferritin by breaking down heme. Since HO-activity mediates anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects, we hypothesized that modulation of the HO-system affects MSC survival. Adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs from wild type (WT and HO-2 knockout (KO mice were isolated and characterized with respect to ASC marker expression. In order to analyze potential modulatory effects of the HO-system on ASC survival, WT and HO-2 KO ASCs were pre-treated with HO-activity modulators, or downstream effector molecules biliverdin, bilirubin, and CO before co-exposure of ASCs to a toxic dose of H2O2. Surprisingly, sensitivity to H2O2-mediated cell death was similar in WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. However, pre-induction of HO-1 expression using curcumin increased ASC survival after H2O2 exposure in both WT and HO-2 KO ASCs. Simultaneous inhibition of HO-activity resulted in loss of curcumin-mediated protection. Co-treatment with glutathione precursor N-Acetylcysteine promoted ASC survival. However, co-incubation with HO-effector molecules bilirubin and biliverdin did not rescue from H2O2-mediated cell death, whereas co-exposure to CO-releasing molecules-2 (CORM-2 significantly increased cell survival, independently from HO-2 expression. Summarizing, our results show that curcumin protects via an HO-1 dependent mechanism against H2O2-mediated apoptosis, and likely through the generation of CO. HO-1 pre-induction or administration of CORMs may thus form an attractive strategy to improve MSC therapy.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus uses a novel multidomain receptor to break apart human hemoglobin and steal its heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Thomas; Malmirchegini, G Reza; Zhang, Jiang; Robson, Scott A; Sjodt, Megan; Liu, Mengyao; Krishna Kumar, Kaavya; Dickson, Claire F; Gell, David A; Lei, Benfang; Loo, Joseph A; Clubb, Robert T

    2013-01-11

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections in the United States. It requires iron to grow, which must be actively procured from its host to successfully mount an infection. Heme-iron within hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant source of iron in the human body and is captured by S. aureus using two closely related receptors, IsdH and IsdB. Here we demonstrate that each receptor captures heme using two conserved near iron transporter (NEAT) domains that function synergistically. NMR studies of the 39-kDa conserved unit from IsdH (IsdH(N2N3), Ala(326)-Asp(660)) reveals that it adopts an elongated dumbbell-shaped structure in which its NEAT domains are properly positioned by a helical linker domain, whose three-dimensional structure is determined here in detail. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and heme transfer measurements indicate that IsdH(N2N3) extracts heme from Hb via an ordered process in which the receptor promotes heme release by inducing steric strain that dissociates the Hb tetramer. Other clinically significant Gram-positive pathogens capture Hb using receptors that contain multiple NEAT domains, suggesting that they use a conserved mechanism.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Uses a Novel Multidomain Receptor to Break Apart Human Hemoglobin and Steal Its Heme*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Thomas; Malmirchegini, G. Reza; Zhang, Jiang; Robson, Scott A.; Sjodt, Megan; Liu, Mengyao; Krishna Kumar, Kaavya; Dickson, Claire F.; Gell, David A.; Lei, Benfang; Loo, Joseph A.; Clubb, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of life-threatening infections in the United States. It requires iron to grow, which must be actively procured from its host to successfully mount an infection. Heme-iron within hemoglobin (Hb) is the most abundant source of iron in the human body and is captured by S. aureus using two closely related receptors, IsdH and IsdB. Here we demonstrate that each receptor captures heme using two conserved near iron transporter (NEAT) domains that function synergistically. NMR studies of the 39-kDa conserved unit from IsdH (IsdHN2N3, Ala326–Asp660) reveals that it adopts an elongated dumbbell-shaped structure in which its NEAT domains are properly positioned by a helical linker domain, whose three-dimensional structure is determined here in detail. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and heme transfer measurements indicate that IsdHN2N3 extracts heme from Hb via an ordered process in which the receptor promotes heme release by inducing steric strain that dissociates the Hb tetramer. Other clinically significant Gram-positive pathogens capture Hb using receptors that contain multiple NEAT domains, suggesting that they use a conserved mechanism. PMID:23132864

  1. Obtaining the magnetic susceptibility of the heme complex from DFT calculations

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    L. M. O. Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field interactions with particles, as observed in magnetophoresis, are becoming important tool to understand the nature of the iron role in heme molecular complex, besides other useful applications. Accurate estimations of some macroscopic magnetic properties from quantum mechanical calculations, such as the magnetic susceptibility, can also check the reliability of the heme microscopic models. In this work we report, by using the Stoner criterion, a simple way to obtain the magnetic susceptibility of the heme complex from Density Functional Theory calculations. Some of our calculated structural properties and electronic structure show good agreement with both the available experimental and theoretical data, and the results show that its groundstate is a triplet 3A state. From the obtained results, we have evaluated the exchange interaction energy, J = 0.98 eV, the associated magnetic energy gain, ΔEM=−0.68 eV, and the magnetic susceptibility, χ0=1.73×10−6 cm3/mol for the heme alone (with uncompleted Fe ligands. If we consider the heme complex with the two histidine residues (completing the Fe ligands, we have then obtained χ0=5.27×10−12 cm3/g, which is in good agreement with experimental magnetophoresis data.

  2. Clinically Important Features of Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias

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    Besur, Siddesh; Hou, Weihong; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2014-01-01

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther’s disease) and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow). We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria. PMID:25372274

  3. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 inhibits the monocyte transmigration induced by mildly oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, K; Navab, M; Leitinger, N; Fogelman, A M; Lusis, A J

    1997-09-01

    Heme catabolic processes produce the antioxidants biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as the potent prooxidant free iron. Since these products have opposing effects on oxidative stress, it is not clear whether heme catabolism promotes or inhibits inflammatory processes, including atherosclerotic lesion formation. Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of heme catabolism. We used cocultures of human aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells to examine the possible role of HO in early atherosclerosis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the inducible isoform of HO, was highly induced by mildly oxidized LDL, and augmented induction was observed with hemin pretreatment. This augmented HO-1 induction resulted in the reduction of monocyte chemotaxis in response to LDL oxidation. Conversely, inhibition of HO by a specific inhibitor, Sn-protoporphyrin IX, enhanced chemotaxis. Furthermore, pretreatment with biliverdin or bilirubin, the products of HO, reduced chemotaxis. Oxidized phospholipids in the mildly oxidized LDL appear to be responsible for HO-1 induction, since oxidized but not native arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids also induced HO-1. These results suggest that HO-1 induced by mildly oxidized LDL may protect against the induction of inflammatory responses in artery wall cells through the production of the antioxidants biliverdin and bilirubin.

  4. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  5. Role of peroxidation and heme catalysis in coloration of raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shleikin, Alexander G; Medvedev, Yaroslav V

    2014-01-01

    It is known, that lipid peroxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meat and other animal tissues. The current data concerning connection of heme and peroxidation were summarized and analysed here. The muscle food compounds that are most influenced by oxidative processes include unsaturated fatty acids of lipids, amino acids of proteins and heme groups of pigments. Heme proteins and particularly myoglobin are abundant in muscle tissues. Meat colour is primarily influenced by the concentration and chemical State of heme pigments, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Oxygenated myoglobin oxidized to the brown metmyoglobin form and its accumulation is highly correlated with progress of lipid peroxidation. Heme proteins such as hemoglobin or myoglobin accelerate the decomposition of hydroperoxides to free radicals. Metmyoglobin possesses «pseudoperoxidase» activity and catalyzes the oxidation of various compounds following the reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The reaction between hydrogen peroxide and metmyoglobin results in the formation of two active hypervalent myoglobin species, perferrylmyoglobin (·MbFe(IV)=0) and ferrylmyoglobin (MbFe(IV)=0), which participate in lipid oxidation catalysis. Both MbFe(IV)=0 and ·MbFe(IV)=0 are deactivated in the presence of reducing agents, whose nature determines the overall effect of the pseudoperoxidase cycle. Hypothesis can be put forward that loss of cellular antioxidants might precede the rise of peroxidase-like activity, thus being a sign of incipient discoloration of meats and muscle components of foods.

  6. Heme degradation and human disease: diversity is the soul of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Shigeki; Kitamuro, Tomomi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2002-08-01

    We all depend on molecular oxygen and heme for our life, as evident from the pigments in blood and daily wastes. About 80% of serum bilirubin is derived from hemoglobin of senescent erythrocytes, which have finished their mission of 120 days and have been phagocytized by macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system. Here we present an overview of the heme degradation processes and relevant disorders by focusing on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a key enzyme in heme catabolism. HO-1 cleaves the porphyrin macrocycle of heme at the expense of molecular oxygen to release a linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and ferrous iron; biliverdin is rapidly reduced to bilirubin. Bilirubin is transported to the liver (hepatocytes), conjugated with glucuronic acid by bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and excreted into bile. Genetic diversity, a strategy in the host defense, is seen in the human ho-1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase genes. Moreover, striking interspecies variations are noted in the regulation of HO-1 expression by hypoxia, heat shock, or interferon-gamma, each of which mainly represses HO-1 expression in human cells. Implications of such a variety are discussed in relevance to the pathogenesis of severe malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most ancient foe of humans.

  7. Role of peroxidation and heme catalysis in coloration of raw meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Shleikin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known, that lipid peroxidation is one of the main factors limiting the ąuality and acceptability of meat and other animal tissues. The current data conceming connection of heme and peroxidation were summarized and analysed here. The muscle food compounds that are most influenced by oxidative processes include unsaturated fatty acids of lipids, amino acids of proteins and heme groups of pigments. Heme proteins and particularly myoglobin are abundant in muscle tissues. Meat colour is primarily influenced by the concentration and chemical State of heme pigments, myoglobin and hemoglobin. Oxygenated myoglobin oxidized to the brown metmyoglobin form and its accumulation is highly correlated with progress of lipid peroxidation. Heme proteins such as hemoglobin or myoglobin accelerate the decomposition of hydroperoxides to free radicals. Metmyoglobin possesses «pseudoperoxidase» activity and catalyzes the oxidation of various compounds following the reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The reaction between hydrogen peroxide and metmyoglobin results in the formation of two active hypervalent myoglobin species, perferrylmyoglobin (*MbFelv=0 and ferrylmyoglobin (MbFelv=0, which participate in lipid oxidation catalysis. Both MbFeIV=0 and *MbFelv=0 are deactivated in the presence of reducing agents, whose naturę determines the overall effect of the pseudoperoxidase cycle. Hypothesis can be put forward that loss of cellular antioxidants might precede the rise of peroxidase-like activity, thus being a sign of incipient discoloration of meats and muscle components of foods.  

  8. Clinically important features of porphyrin and heme metabolism and the porphyrias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besur, Siddesh; Hou, Wehong; Schmeltzer, Paul; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2014-11-03

    Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias) and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), porphobilinogen and porphyrins) are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther's disease) and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow). We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria.

  9. Clinically Important Features of Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddesh Besur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heme, like chlorophyll, is a primordial molecule and is one of the fundamental pigments of life. Disorders of normal heme synthesis may cause human diseases, including certain anemias (X-linked sideroblastic anemias and porphyrias. Porphyrias are classified as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias based on the organ system in which heme precursors (5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, porphobilinogen and porphyrins are chiefly overproduced. The hepatic porphyrias are further subdivided into acute porphyrias and chronic hepatic porphyrias. The acute porphyrias include acute intermittent, hereditary copro-, variegate and ALA dehydratase deficiency porphyria. Chronic hepatic porphyrias include porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria. The erythropoietic porphyrias include congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gűnther’s disease and erythropoietic protoporphyria. In this review, we summarize the key features of normal heme synthesis and its differing regulation in liver versus bone marrow. In both organs, principal regulation is exerted at the level of the first and rate-controlling enzyme, but by different molecules (heme in the liver and iron in the bone marrow. We also describe salient clinical, laboratory and genetic features of the eight types of porphyria.

  10. Obtaining the magnetic susceptibility of the heme complex from DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L. M. O.; Resende, S. M.; Leite Alves, H. W.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic field interactions with particles, as observed in magnetophoresis, are becoming important tool to understand the nature of the iron role in heme molecular complex, besides other useful applications. Accurate estimations of some macroscopic magnetic properties from quantum mechanical calculations, such as the magnetic susceptibility, can also check the reliability of the heme microscopic models. In this work we report, by using the Stoner criterion, a simple way to obtain the magnetic susceptibility of the heme complex from Density Functional Theory calculations. Some of our calculated structural properties and electronic structure show good agreement with both the available experimental and theoretical data, and the results show that its groundstate is a triplet 3A state. From the obtained results, we have evaluated the exchange interaction energy, J = 0.98 eV, the associated magnetic energy gain, Δ EM =-0.68 eV, and the magnetic susceptibility, χ0=1.73 ×10-6 cm3/mol for the heme alone (with uncompleted Fe ligands). If we consider the heme complex with the two histidine residues (completing the Fe ligands), we have then obtained χ0=5.27 ×10-12 cm3/g, which is in good agreement with experimental magnetophoresis data.

  11. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes the persistence of Leishmania chagasi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Nívea F; Andrade, Bruno B; Feijó, Daniel F; Araújo-Santos, Théo; Carvalho, Graziele Q; Andrade, Daniela; Abánades, Daniel R; Melo, Enaldo V; Silva, Angela M; Brodskyn, Cláudia I; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Soares, Rodrigo P; Almeida, Roque P; Bozza, Marcelo T; Borges, Valéria M

    2012-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a major public health problem worldwide. This disease is highly associated with chronic inflammation and a lack of the cellular immune responses against Leishmania. It is important to identify major factors driving the successful establishment of the Leishmania infection to develop better tools for the disease control. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key enzyme triggered by cellular stress, and its role in VL has not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the role of HO-1 in the infection by Leishmania infantum chagasi, the causative agent of VL cases in Brazil. We found that L. chagasi infection or lipophosphoglycan isolated from promastigotes triggered HO-1 production by murine macrophages. Interestingly, cobalt protoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inductor, increased the parasite burden in both mouse and human-derived macrophages. Upon L. chagasi infection, macrophages from Hmox1 knockout mice presented significantly lower parasite loads when compared with those from wild-type mice. Furthermore, upregulation of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX diminished the production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species by infected murine macrophages and increased Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression in human monocytes. Finally, patients with VL presented higher systemic concentrations of HO-1 than healthy individuals, and this increase of HO-1 was reduced after antileishmanial treatment, suggesting that HO-1 is associated with disease susceptibility. Our data argue that HO-1 has a critical role in the L. chagasi infection and is strongly associated with the inflammatory imbalance during VL. Manipulation of HO-1 pathways during VL could serve as an adjunctive therapeutic approach.

  12. Natural heme oxygenase-1 inducers in hepatobiliary function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Li Volti; Raul Abella; Alessandro Frigiola; Fabio Galvano; David Sacerdoti; Claudia Di Giacomo; Maria Luisa Barcellona; Antonio Scacco; Paolo Murabito; Antonio Biondi; Francesco Basile; Diego Gazzolo

    2008-01-01

    Many physiological effects of natural antioxidants, their extracts or their major active components, have been reported in recent decades. Most of these compounds are characterized by a phenolic structure, similar to that of a-tocopherol, and present antioxidant proper-ties that have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Polyphenols may increase the capacity of endog-enous antioxidant defences and modulate the cellular redox state. Changes in the cellular redox state may have wide-ranging consequences for cellular growth and differentiation. The majority of in vitro and in vivo studies conducted so far have attributed the protective effect of bioactive polyphenols to their chemical reac-tivity toward free radicals and their capacity to prevent the oxidation of important intracellular components. However, in recent years a possible novel aspect in the mode of action of these compounds has been sug-gested; that is, the ultimate stimulation of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is likely to account for the established and powerful antioxidant/anti-inflam-matory properties of these polyphenols. The products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly carbon mon-oxide (CO) and biliverdin/bilirubin have been shown to exert protective effects in several organs against oxidative and other noxious stimuli. In this context, it is interesting to note that induction of HO-1 expression by means of natural compounds contributes to protec-tion against liver damage in various experimental mod-els. The focus of this review is on the significance of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against various stressors in several pathological conditions.

  13. Oxidation Responsive Polymers with a Triggered Degradation via Arylboronate Self-Immolative Motifs on a Polyphosphazene Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Oxidation responsive polymers with triggered degradation pathways have been prepared via attachment of self-immolative moieties onto a hydrolytically unstable polyphosphazene backbone. After controlled main-chain growth, postpolymerization functionalization allows the preparation of hydrolytically stable poly(organo)phosphazenes decorated with a phenylboronic ester caging group. In oxidative environments, triggered cleavage of the caging group is followed by self-immolation, exposing the unstable glycine-substituted polyphosphazene which subsequently undergoes to backbone degradation to low-molecular weight molecules. As well as giving mechanistic insights, detailed GPC and 1H and 31P NMR analysis reveal the polymers to be stable in aqueous solutions, but show a selective, fast degradation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide containing solutions. Since the post-polymerization functionalization route allows simple access to polymer backbones with a broad range of molecular weights, the approach of using the inorganic backbone as a platform significantly expands the toolbox of polymers capable of stimuli-responsive degradation.

  14. The Haptoglobin-CD163-Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathway for Hemoglobin Scavenging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Haugbølle; Etzerodt, Anders; Svendsen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The haptoglobin- (Hp-) CD163-heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is an efficient captor-receptor-enzyme system to circumvent the hemoglobin (Hb)/heme-induced toxicity during physiological and pathological hemolyses. In this pathway, Hb tightly binds to Hp leading to CD163-mediated uptake of the complex...... in macrophages followed by lysosomal Hp-Hb breakdown and HO-1-catalyzed conversion of heme into the metabolites carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin, and iron. The plasma concentration of Hp is a limiting factor as evident during accelerated hemolysis, where the Hp depletion may cause serious Hb-induced toxicity...... and put pressure on backup protecting systems such as the hemopexin-CD91-HO pathway. The Hp-CD163-HO-1 pathway proteins are regulated by the acute phase mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6), but other regulatory factors indicate that this upregulation is a counteracting anti-inflammatory response during...

  15. Proton nuclear Overhauser effect study of the heme active site structure of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugad, L B; Goff, H M

    1992-07-13

    Proton nuclear Overhauser effect and paramagnetic relaxation measurements have been used to define more extensively the heme active site structure of Coprinus macrorhizus peroxidase, CMP (previously known as Coprinus cinereus peroxidase), as the ferric low-spin cyanide ligated complex. The results are compared with other well-characterized peroxidase enzymes. The NMR spectrum of CMPCN shows changes in the paramagnetically shifted resonances as a function of time, suggesting a significant heme disorder for CMP. The presence of proximal and distal histidine amino acid residues are common to the heme environments of both CMPCN and HRPCN. However, the upfield distal arginine signals of HRPCN are not evident in the 1H-NMR spectra of CMPCN.

  16. Heme biomolecule as redox mediator and oxygen shuttle for efficient charging of lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Gittleson, Forrest S.; Thomsen, Julianne M.; Li, Jinyang; Schwab, Mark J.; Brudvig, Gary W.; Taylor, André D.

    2016-10-01

    One of the greatest challenges with lithium-oxygen batteries involves identifying catalysts that facilitate the growth and evolution of cathode species on an oxygen electrode. Heterogeneous solid catalysts cannot adequately address the problematic overpotentials when the surfaces become passivated. However, there exists a class of biomolecules which have been designed by nature to guide complex solution-based oxygen chemistries. Here, we show that the heme molecule, a common porphyrin cofactor in blood, can function as a soluble redox catalyst and oxygen shuttle for efficient oxygen evolution in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries. The heme's oxygen binding capability facilitates battery recharge by accepting and releasing dissociated oxygen species while benefiting charge transfer with the cathode. We reveal the chemical change of heme redox molecules where synergy exists with the electrolyte species. This study brings focus to the rational design of solution-based catalysts and suggests a sustainable cross-link between biomolecules and advanced energy storage.

  17. Observing heme doming in myoglobin with femtosecond X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Levantino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report time-resolved X-ray absorption measurements after photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin performed at the LCLS X-ray free electron laser with nearly 100 fs (FWHM time resolution. Data at the Fe K-edge reveal that the photoinduced structural changes at the heme occur in two steps, with a faster (∼70 fs relaxation preceding a slower (∼400 fs one. We tentatively attribute the first relaxation to a structural rearrangement induced by photolysis involving essentially only the heme chromophore and the second relaxation to a residual Fe motion out of the heme plane that is coupled to the displacement of myoglobin F-helix.

  18. Characterization of a heme oxygenase of Clostridium tetani and its possible role in oxygen tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Bauer, Rosalie; Raffestin, Stéphanie; Gottschalk, Gerhard

    2004-10-01

    In order to colonize mammalian wounds, the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani must presumably cope with temporary oxic conditions. Therefore, the recently decoded genome sequence was searched for genes which could confer oxygen tolerance. A few identified systems such as superoxide dismutases and peroxidases are probably responsible for this protection against toxic oxygen species. Another system was detected, a heme oxygenase which could have a role in establishing or maintaining an anoxic microenvironment in the process of wound colonization. The hemT gene encoding the heme oxygenase is expressed in C. tetani, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the enzyme converts heme to biliverdin under strict oxic conditions.

  19. Dietary heme injures surface epithelium resulting in hyperproliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vogel, Johan; van-Eck, Wytske Boersma; Sesink, Aloys L. A.; Jonker-Termont, Denise S. M. L.; Kleibeuker, Jan; van der Meer, Roelof

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that a high intake of heme, present in red meat, is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of dietary heme on colonic cell homeostasis in rats. Rats were fed a purified, humanized, control

  20. Dimerization and heme binding are conserved in amphibian and starfish homologues of the microRNA processing protein DGCR8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Senturia

    Full Text Available Human DiGeorge Critical Region 8 (DGCR8 is an essential microRNA (miRNA processing factor that is activated via direct interaction with Fe(III heme. In order for DGCR8 to bind heme, it must dimerize using a dimerization domain embedded within its heme-binding domain (HBD. We previously reported a crystal structure of the dimerization domain from human DGCR8, which demonstrated how dimerization results in the formation of a surface important for association with heme. Here, in an attempt to crystallize the HBD, we search for DGCR8 homologues and show that DGCR8 from Patiria miniata (bat star also binds heme. The extinction coefficients (ε of DGCR8-heme complexes are determined; these values are useful for biochemical analyses and allow us to estimate the heme occupancy of DGCR8 proteins. Additionally, we present the crystal structure of the Xenopus laevis dimerization domain. The structure is very similar to that of human DGCR8. Our results indicate that dimerization and heme binding are evolutionarily conserved properties of DGCR8 homologues not only in vertebrates, but also in at least some invertebrates.

  1. Nitrosamines and Heme Iron and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakszyn, Paula G.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Key, Timothy J.; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Tjonneland, Anne; Fons-Johnsen, Nina; Overvad, Kim; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Huerta, Jose M.; Ardanaz, Eva; Arguelles, Marcial V.; Molina-Montes, Esther; Larranaga, Nerea; Wirfaelt, Elisabet; Wallstrom, Peter; Johansson, Mattias; Stattin, Paer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Riboli, Elio

    2012-01-01

    Background: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer a

  2. Interactions between 4-aminoquinoline and heme: Promising mechanism against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Guilherme Curty; Borges, Júlio Cesar; Calvet, Claudia Magalhães; de Araújo, Humberto Pinheiro; Zuma, Aline Araujo; do Nascimento, Samara Braga; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Bernardino, Alice Maria Rolim; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Bourguignon, Saulo Cabral

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The current drugs used to treat this disease have limited efficacy and produce severe side effects. Quinolines, nitrogen heterocycle compounds that form complexes with heme, have a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal activity and are a promising class of new compounds for Chagas disease chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the activity of a series of 4-arylaminoquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives against all forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. Compound 1g showed promising activity against epimastigote forms when combined with hemin (IC50<1 μM), with better performance than benznidazole, the reference drug. This compound also inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The potency of 1g in combination with heme was enhanced against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, suggesting a similar mechanism of action that occurs in Plasmodium spp. The addition of hemin to the culture medium increased trypanocidal activity of analog 1g without changing the cytotoxicity of the host cell, reaching an IC50 of 11.7 μM for trypomastigotes. The mechanism of action was demonstrated by the interaction of compound 1g with hemin in solution and prevention of heme peroxidation. Compound 1g and heme treatment induced alterations of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and also, accumulation of electron-dense deposits in amastigotes as visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The trypanocidal activity of 4-aminoquinolines and the elucidation of the mechanism involving interaction with heme is a neglected field of research, given the parasite's lack of heme biosynthetic pathway and the importance of this cofactor for parasite survival and growth. The results of this study can improve and guide rational drug development and combination treatment strategies.

  3. Interactions between 4-aminoquinoline and heme: Promising mechanism against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Curty Lechuga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The current drugs used to treat this disease have limited efficacy and produce severe side effects. Quinolines, nitrogen heterocycle compounds that form complexes with heme, have a broad spectrum of antiprotozoal activity and are a promising class of new compounds for Chagas disease chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the activity of a series of 4-arylaminoquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives against all forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. Compound 1g showed promising activity against epimastigote forms when combined with hemin (IC50<1 μM, with better performance than benznidazole, the reference drug. This compound also inhibited the viability of trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. The potency of 1g in combination with heme was enhanced against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, suggesting a similar mechanism of action that occurs in Plasmodium spp. The addition of hemin to the culture medium increased trypanocidal activity of analog 1g without changing the cytotoxicity of the host cell, reaching an IC50 of 11.7 μM for trypomastigotes. The mechanism of action was demonstrated by the interaction of compound 1g with hemin in solution and prevention of heme peroxidation. Compound 1g and heme treatment induced alterations of the mitochondrion-kinetoplast complex in epimastigotes and trypomastigotes and also, accumulation of electron-dense deposits in amastigotes as visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The trypanocidal activity of 4-aminoquinolines and the elucidation of the mechanism involving interaction with heme is a neglected field of research, given the parasite's lack of heme biosynthetic pathway and the importance of this cofactor for parasite survival and growth. The results of this study can improve and guide rational drug development and combination treatment strategies.

  4. Unsaturated glycerophospholipids mediate heme crystallization: biological implications for hemozoin formation in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stiebler

    Full Text Available Hemozoin (Hz is a heme crystal produced by some blood-feeding organisms, as an efficient way to detoxify heme derived from hemoglobin digestion. In the triatomine insect Rhodnius prolixus, Hz is essentially produced by midgut extracellular phospholipid membranes known as perimicrovillar membranes (PMVM. Here, we investigated the role of commercial glycerophospholipids containing serine, choline and ethanolamine as headgroups and R. prolixus midgut lipids (RML in heme crystallization. All commercial unsaturated forms of phospholipids, as well as RML, mediated fast and efficient β-hematin formation by means of two kinetically distinct mechanisms: an early and fast component, followed by a late and slow one. The fastest reactions observed were induced by unsaturated forms of phosphatidylethanolamine (uPE and phosphatidylcholine (uPC, with half-lives of 0.04 and 0.7 minutes, respectively. β-hematin crystal morphologies were strikingly distinct among groups, with uPE producing homogeneous regular brick-shaped crystals. Interestingly, uPC-mediated reactions resulted in two morphologically distinct crystal populations: one less representative group of regular crystals, resembling those induced by uPE, and the other largely represented by crystals with numerous sharp edges and tapered ends. Heme crystallization reactions induced by RML were efficient, with a heme to β-hematin conversion rate higher than 70%, but clearly slower (t1/2 of 9.9-17.7 minutes than those induced by uPC and uPE. Interestingly, crystals produced by RML were homogeneous in shape and quite similar to those mediated by uPE. Thus, β-hematin formation can be rapidly and efficiently induced by unsaturated glycerophospholipids, particularly uPE and uPC, and may play a role on biological heme crystallization in R. prolixus midgut.

  5. Heme protein-induced tubular cytoresistance: expression at the plasma membrane level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zager, R A

    1995-05-01

    Following experimental rhabdomyolysis, animals become resistant to heme protein-induced acute renal failure (ARF). The goals of this study were to: (a) ascertain whether this resistance, previously documented only in vivo, is expressed directly at the proximal tubular cell level; (b) determine whether heme proteinuria (vs. other consequences of rhabdomyolysis) is its trigger; and (c) ascertain some of its subcellular determinants. Rats were injected with a borderline toxic dose of glycerol and 24 hours later proximal tubular segments (PTS) were isolated for study. Their vulnerability to diverse forms of injury (FeSO4-induced oxidant stress, hypoxia, Ca2+ ionophore, cytochalasin D, PLA2) was compared to that found in normal PTS. Post-glycerol PTS manifested significant resistance to each insult (decreased lactate dehydrogenase +/- N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase release). Protection against FeSO4 was virtually complete and it was associated with a 50% decrease in membrane lipid peroxidation. No decrease in hydroxyl radical generation was noted during the FeSO4 challenge (salicylate trap assessment), suggesting a primary increase in membrane resistance to attack. That PLA2 addition caused less deacylation, plasma membrane enzyme (alanine aminopeptidase) release, and LDH leakage from post-glycerol versus normal tubules supported this hypothesis. To test whether cytoresistance was specifically triggered by heme proteins (vs. being a non-specific filtered protein effect, or a result of endotoxin cascade activation), rats were injected with purified myoglobin, non-heme containing filterable proteins, or endotoxin. Only myoglobin induced cytoresistance. In vivo heme oxygenase inhibition (tin-protoporphyrin) did not block the emergence of cytoresistance and it was expressed despite Na,K-ATPase inhibition (ouabain) or cytoskeletal disruption (cytochalasin D). In vivo heat shock failed to protect. In conclusion, (1) rhabdomyolysis induces broad based proximal tubular

  6. Monitoring oral iron therapy with protoporphyrin/heme ratios in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Prasannaraj, P; Rusia, U; Sundaram, K R; Nath, L M; Sood, S K

    1999-06-01

    Assessment of the efficacy of iron therapy has usually been done in populations/patients by monitoring changes in hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, percent transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin. In this study the protoporphyrin heme (P/H) ratio (a measure of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin) was measured before and after iron therapy in three groups of pregnant women, who received 60 mg (group A), 120 mg (group B), and 240 mg (group C) of elemental iron with folic acid (0.5 mg) per day for a period of 12 weeks, to evaluate its efficacy to monitor iron therapy. The three groups were comparable regarding the initial mean Hb concentration and serum ferritin levels. The initial mean P/H ratios were markedly elevated in all three groups and were different in the three groups, being highest in group A (113.2+/-92.6), intermediate in group B (87.5+/-62.5), and lowest in group C (69.8+/-43.3). The initial P/H ratio was significantly higher in group A than in group C (p<0.05). This probably affected the efficacy of iron therapy in the three groups. The P/H ratio decreased significantly in each of the three groups after iron therapy (A and B: p<0.001; C p<0.01). Mean Hb concentration and serum ferritin increased in all three groups post therapy; however, the magnitude of change in P/H ratio in all three groups was much greater. This indicated that the predominant contributory factor for anemia was iron deficiency in this group of pregnant women. Serum iron and percent transferrin saturation are difficult to interpret in our population, as iron is freely available over the counter and is prescribed as soon as anemia is detected in patients; therefore, the reduction in P/H ratio may be used to monitor response to iron therapy in population groups.

  7. Nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase expressions in human liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatrice J Goh; Bee Tee Tan; Wei Min Hon; Kang Hoe Lee; Hoon Eng Khoo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. Intrahepatic pressure can be elevated in several ways. Abnormal architecture affecting the vasculature, an increase in vasoconstrictors and increased circulation from the splanchnic viscera into the portal system may all contribute. It follows that endogenous vasodilators may be able to alleviate the hypertension. We therefore aimed to investigate the levels of endogenous vasodilators, nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) through the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and heme oxygenase (HO).METHOD: Cirrhotic (n= 20) and non-cirrhotic (n = 20) livers were obtained from patients who had undergone surgery. The mRNA and protein expressions of the various isoforms of NOS and HO were examined using competitive PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: There was no significant change in either inducible NOS (iNOS) or neuronal NOS (nNOS) expressions while endothelial NOS (eNOS) was upregulated in cirrhotic livers. Concomitantly, caveolin-1, an established down-regulator of eNOS, was up-regulated.Inducible HO-1 and constitutive HO-2 were found to show increased expression in cirrhotic livers albeit in different localizations.CONCLUSION: The differences of NOS expression might be due to their differing roles in maintaining liver homeostasis and/or involvement in the pathology of cirrhosis. Sheer stress within the hypertensive liver may induce increased expression of eNOS. In turn, caveolin-1 is also increased. Whether this serves as a defense mechanism against further cirrhosis or is a consequence of cirrhosis, is yet unknown. The elevated expression of HO-1 and HO-2 suggest that CO may compensate in its role as a vasodilator albeit weakly. It is possible that CO and NO have parallel or coordinated functions within the liver and may work antagonistically in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension.

  8. Initial heme uptake from albumin by short-term cultured rat hepatocytes is mediated by a transport mechanism differing from that of other organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyer, C M; Immenschuh, S; Liem, H H; Muller-Eberhard, U; Wolkoff, A W

    1998-07-01

    Although it is known that circulating heme accumulates in liver cells, the process by which heme enters hepatocytes is only partly understood. Hemopexin and a putative hemopexin receptor on hepatocyte membranes may mediate the uptake process. However, whether there are sufficient hemopexin receptors on rat hepatocytes to account for the bulk of heme entering cells is unknown. It is likely that heme may be transferred directly from albumin with the help of a plasma membrane heme transporter. To clarify the transport mechanism of heme into liver cells, we studied the uptake by short-term cultured rat hepatocytes of 55Fe-heme incubated with rat serum albumin. In these cells, the initial uptake of 55Fe-heme at 37 degrees C was five- to eightfold higher than that at 4 degrees C, linear for at least 5 minutes, and saturable. The Km of heme uptake was 0.95 +/- 0.27 micromol/L, and the Vmax was 0.12 +/- 0.01 pmol/min/mg protein (n = 3). Neither isosmotic substitution of sucrose for NaCl in the medium nor adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, perturbations that are known to reduce uptake of bilirubin, sulfobromophthalein (BSP), and taurocholate, had any influence on 55Fe-heme uptake. In addition, heme uptake was not reduced in the presence of a greater than 500-fold molar excess of BSP. These results indicate that hepatocytes take up heme by a process that is distinct from that of these other organic anions.

  9. Redox induced protonation of heme propionates in cytochrome c oxidase: Insights from surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy and QM/MM calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Murat; Woelke, Anna-Lena; Knapp, Ernst Walter; Schlesinger, Ramona; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Weidinger, Inez M

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the coupling between heme reduction and proton translocation in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is still an open problem. The propionic acids of heme a3 have been proposed to act as a proton loading site (PLS) in the proton pumping pathway, yet this proposal could not be verified by experimental data so far. We have set up an experiment where the redox states of the two hemes in CcO can be controlled via external electrical potential. Surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy was applied to simultaneously monitor the redox state of the hemes and the protonation state of the heme propionates. Simulated spectra based on QM/MM calculations were used to assign the resonant enhanced CH2 twisting modes of the propionates to the protonation state of the individual heme a and heme a3 propionates respectively. The comparison between calculated and measured H2OD2O difference spectra allowed a sound band assignment. In the fully reduced enzyme at least three of the four heme propionates were found to be protonated whereas in the presence of a reduced heme a and an oxidized heme a3 only protonation of one heme a3 propionates was observed. Our data supports the postulated scenario where the heme a3 propionates are involved in the proton pathway.

  10. Impact of OmpR on the membrane proteome of Yersinia enterocolitica in different environments: repression of major adhesin YadA and heme receptor HemR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieckarz, Marta; Raczkowska, Adrianna; Dębski, Janusz; Kistowski, Michał; Dadlez, Michał; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rossier, Ombeline; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is able to grow within or outside the mammalian host. Previous transcriptomic studies have indicated that the regulator OmpR plays a role in the expression of hundreds of genes in enterobacteria. Here, we have examined the impact of OmpR on the production of Y. enterocolitica membrane proteins upon changes in temperature, osmolarity and pH. Proteomic analysis indicated that the loss of OmpR affects the production of 120 proteins, a third of which are involved in uptake/transport, including several that participate in iron or heme acquisition. A set of proteins associated with virulence was also affected. The influence of OmpR on the abundance of adhesin YadA and heme receptor HemR was examined in more detail. OmpR was found to repress YadA production and bind to the yadA promoter, suggesting a direct regulatory effect. In contrast, the repression of hemR expression by OmpR appears to be indirect. These findings provide new insights into the role of OmpR in remodelling the cell surface and the adaptation of Y. enterocolitica to different environmental niches, including the host.

  11. Surface protein IsdC and Sortase B are required for heme-iron scavenging of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Anthony W; Chapa, Travis J; Schneewind, Olaf

    2006-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the spore-forming agent of anthrax, requires iron for growth and is capable of scavenging heme-iron during infection. We show here that the B. anthracis iron-regulated surface determinants (isd) locus encompasses isdC, specifying a heme-iron binding surface protein. Anchoring of IsdC to the cell wall envelopes of vegetative bacilli requires srtB, which encodes sortase B. Purified sortase B cleaves IsdC between the threonine and the glycine of its NPKTG motif sorting signal. B. anthracis variants lacking either isdC or srtB display defects in heme-iron scavenging, suggesting that IsdC binding to heme-iron in the cell wall envelope contributes to bacterial uptake of heme.

  12. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme-proteins immobilized in porous carbon nanofiber/room-temperature ionic liquid composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Qinglin [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Zheng Jianbin, E-mail: zhengjb@nwu.edu.c [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Shangguan Xiaodong [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Lin Wanghua; Li Yuanyao [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 62102, Taiwan (China); Liu Ruixiao [Institute of Analytical Science/Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2010-03-30

    The combination of porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF) and room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) provided a suitable microenvironment for heme-proteins to transfer electron directly. Hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c incorporated in PCNF/RTIL films exhibited a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.28 V vs. SCE in pH 7.0 buffers, respectively, characteristic of the protein heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couples. The cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the modified electrode. The heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT films were also characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, indicating that heme-proteins in the composite film could retain its native structure. Oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite were catalytically reduced at the heme/PCNF/RTIL/CHIT film modified electrodes, showing the potential applicability of the films as the new type of biosensors or bioreactors based on direct electrochemistry of the redox proteins.

  13. Exploring genome-wide - dietary heme iron intake interactions and the risk of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Robert Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/hypothesis: Genome-wide association studies have identified over 50 new genetic loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D. Several studies conclude that higher dietary heme iron intake increases the risk of T2D. Therefore we assessed whether the relation between genetic loci and type 2 diabetes is modified by dietary heme iron intake. Methods: We used Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human 6.0 array data (681,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and dietary information collected in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=725 cases; n=1,273 controls and the Nurses’ Health Study (n=1,081 cases; n=1,692 controls. We assessed whether genome-wide SNPs or iron metabolism SNPs interacted with dietary heme iron intake in relation to T2D, testing for associations in each cohort separately and then meta-analyzing to pool the results. Finally, we created 1,000 synthetic pathways matched to an iron metabolism pathway on number of genes, and number of SNPs in each gene. We compared the iron metabolic pathway SNPs with these synthetic SNP assemblies in their relation to T2D to assess if the pathway as a whole interacts with dietary heme iron intake.Results: Using a genomic approach, we found no significant gene-environment interactions with dietary heme iron intake in relation to T2D (top SNP in pooled analysis: intergenic rs10980508; p=1.03E-06 > Bonferroni corrected p=7.33E-08. Furthermore, no SNP in the iron metabolic pathway significantly interacted with dietary heme iron intake (top SNP in pooled analysis: rs1805313; p=1.14E-03 > Bonferroni corrected p=2.10E-04. Finally, neither the main genetic effects (pooled empirical p by SNP=0.41, nor gene – dietary heme-iron interactions (pooled empirical p value for the interactions=0.72 were significant for the iron metabolic pathway as a whole. Conclusions: We found no significant interactions between dietary heme iron intake and common SNPs in relation to T2D.

  14. Modulation of Na+/K+ ATPase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide Generated through Heme in L. amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Rocco-Machado

    Full Text Available Leishmania amazonensis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in many areas of Brazil and causes skin lesions. Using this parasite, our group showed the activation of Na+/K+ ATPase through a signaling cascade that involves the presence of heme and protein kinase C (PKC activity. Heme is an important biomolecule that has pro-oxidant activity and signaling capacity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS can act as second messengers, which are required in various signaling cascades. Our goal in this work is to investigate the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generated in the presence of heme in the Na+/K+ ATPase activity of L. amazonensis. Our results show that increasing concentrations of heme stimulates the production of H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 2.5 μM heme. To confirm that the effect of heme on the Na+/K+ ATPase is through the generation of H2O2, we measured enzyme activity using increasing concentrations of H2O2 and, as expected, the activity increased in a dose-dependent manner until a concentration of 0.1 μM H2O2. To investigate the role of PKC in this signaling pathway, we observed the production of H2O2 in the presence of its activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and its inhibitor calphostin C. Both showed no effect on the generation of H2O2. Furthermore, we found that PKC activity is increased in the presence of H2O2, and that in the presence of calphostin C, H2O2 is unable to activate the Na+/K+ ATPase. 100 μM of Mito-TEMPO was capable of abolishing the stimulatory effect of heme on Na+/K+ ATPase activity, indicating that mitochondria might be the source of the hydrogen peroxide production induced by heme. The modulation of L. amazonensis Na+/K+ ATPase by H2O2 opens new possibilities for understanding the signaling pathways of this parasite.

  15. Small Molecule Antivirulents Targeting the Iron-Regulated Heme Oxygenase (HemO) of P. aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria require iron for survival and virulence and employ several mechanisms including utilization of the host heme containing proteins. The final step in releasing iron is the oxidative cleavage of heme by HemO. A recent computer aided drug design (CADD) study identified several inhibitors of the bacterial HemOs. Herein we report the near complete HN, N, CO Cα and Cβ chemical shift assignment of the P. aeruginosa HemO in the absence and presence of inhibitors (E)-3-(4-(Phenylamino)phenylca...

  16. Axial ligand effects on vibrational dynamics of iron in heme carbonyl studied by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takehiro; Liu, Jin-Gang; Saito, Makina; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Seto, Makoto; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2012-11-29

    Nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and density functional theory calculation (DFT) have been applied to illuminate the effect of axial ligation on the vibrational dynamics of iron in heme carbonyl. The analyses of the NRVS data of five- (5c) and six-coordinate (6c) heme-CO complexes indicate that the prominent feature of (57)Fe partial vibrational density of state ((57)FePVDOS) at the 250-300 cm(-1) region is significantly affected by the association of the axial ligand. The DFT calculations predict that the prominent (57)FePVDOS is composed of iron in-plane motions which are coupled with porphyrin pyrrole in-plane (ν(49), ν(50), and ν(53)), an out-of-plane (γ(8)) (two of four pyrrole rings include the in-plane modes, while the rest of pyrrole rings vibrate along the out-of-plane coordinate), and out-of-phase carbonyl C and O atom displacement perpendicular to the Fe-C-O axis. Thus, in the case of the 5c CO-heme the prominent (57)FePVDOS shows sharp and intense feature because of the degeneracy of the e symmetry mode within the framework of C(4v) symmetry molecule, whereas the association of the axial imidazole ligand in the 6c complex with the lowered symmetry results in split of the degenerate vibrational energy as indicated by broader and lower intensity features of the corresponding NRVS peak compared to the 5c structure. The vibrational energy of the iron in-plane motion in the 6c complex is higher than that in 5c, implying that the iron in the 6c complex includes stronger in-plane interaction with the porphyrin compared to 5c. The iron in-plane mode above 500 cm(-1), which is predominantly coupled with the out-of-phase carbonyl C and O atom motion perpendicular to Fe-C-O, called as Fe-C-O bending mode (δ(Fe-C-O)), also suggests that the 6c structure involves a larger force constant for the e symmetry mode than 5c. The DFT calculations along with the NRVS data suggest that the stiffened iron in-plane motion in the 6c complex can be ascribed

  17. Characterization of the High-spin Heme x in the Cytochrome b{sub 6}f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Primak, Andrew N.; Cape, Jonathan L.; Bowman, Michael K.; Kramer, David M.; Cramer, William A.

    2004-12-28

    X-ray structures at 3.0-3.1 {angstrom} resolution of the ccterizytochrome b{sub 6}f complex from the cyanobacterium, Mastigocladus laminosus (1) and the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (2) showed the presence of a unique heme, heme x, that is covalently linked by a single thioether bond to a Cys residue (Cys35) on the electrochemically negative (n) side of the cytochrome b{sub 6} polypeptide. Heme x faces the inter-monomer quinone exchange cavity. The only axial ligand associated with this heme is a H{sub 2}O or OH{sup -} that is H-bonded to the propionate of the stromal side heme b{sub n}, showing that is penta-coordinate. The spectral properties of this heme were hardly defined at the time of the structure determination. The pyridine hemochromagen redox difference spectrum for heme x covalently bound to the cytochrome b polypeptide isolated from SDS-PAGE displays a broad spectrum of low amplitude with a peak at 553 nm, similar to that of other hemes with a single thioether linkage. The binding of CO and a hydrophobic cyanide analogue, butyl isocyanide (BIC), to dithionite-reduced b{sub 6}f complex perturbs and significantly shifts the redox difference visible spectrum. Together with EPR spectra displaying g values of the oxidized complex at 6.7 and 7.4, the character of heme x is defined to be ferric high spin in a rhombic environment. In addition to a possible function in photosystem I-linked cyclic electron transport, the 5-coordinate state implies that there is at least one more function of heme x that is related to axial binding of a physiological ligand.

  18. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and heme iron induce oxidative stress biomarkers and a cancer promoting environment in the colon of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéraud, Françoise; Taché, Sylviane; Steghens, Jean-Paul; Milkovic, Lidija; Borovic-Sunjic, Suzana; Zarkovic, Neven; Gaultier, Eric; Naud, Nathalie; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Pierre, Fabrice; Priymenko, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    The end products of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation, such as malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α), are widely used as systemic lipid oxidation/oxidative stress biomarkers. However, some of these compounds have also a dietary origin. Thus, replacing dietary saturated fat by PUFAs would improve health but could also increase the formation of such compounds, especially in the case of a pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalanced diet. Hence, the possible impact of dietary fatty acids and pro-oxidant compounds was studied in rats given diets allowing comparison of the effects of heme iron vs. ferric citrate and of ω-6- vs. ω-3-rich oil on the level of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress biomarkers. Rats given a heme iron-rich diet without PUFA were used as controls. The results obtained have shown that MDA and the major urinary metabolite of HNE (the mercapturic acid of dihydroxynonane, DHN-MA) were highly dependent on the dietary factors tested, while 8-iso-PGF2α was modestly but significantly affected. Intestinal inflammation and tissue fatty acid composition were checked in parallel and could only explain the differences we observed to a limited extent. Thus, the differences in biomarkers were attributed to the formation of lipid oxidation compounds in food or during digestion, their intestinal absorption, and their excretion into urine. Moreover, fecal extracts from the rats fed the heme iron or fish oil diets were highly toxic for immortalized mouse colon cells. Such toxicity can eventually lead to promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis, supporting the epidemiological findings between red meat intake and colorectal cancer risk. Therefore, the analysis of these biomarkers of lipid peroxidation/oxidative stress in urine should be used with caution when dietary factors are not well controlled, while control of their possible dietary intake is needed also because of their pro-inflammatory, toxic, and even

  19. Heme versus non-heme iron-nitroxyl {FeN(H)O}⁸ complexes: electronic structure and biologically relevant reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Amy L; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2014-04-15

    Researchers have completed extensive studies on heme and non-heme iron-nitrosyl complexes, which are labeled {FeNO}(7) in the Enemark-Feltham notation, but they have had very limited success in producing corresponding, one-electron reduced, {FeNO}(8) complexes where a nitroxyl anion (NO(-)) is formally bound to an iron(II) center. These complexes, and their protonated iron(II)-NHO analogues, are proposed key intermediates in nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) reducing enzymes in bacteria and fungi. In addition, HNO is known to have a variety of physiological effects, most notably in the cardiovascular system. HNO may also serve as a signaling molecule in mammals. For these functions, iron-containing proteins may mediate the production of HNO and serve as receptors for HNO in vivo. In this Account, we highlight recent key advances in the preparation, spectroscopic characterization, and reactivity of ferrous heme and non-heme nitroxyl (NO(-)/HNO) complexes that have greatly enhanced our understanding of the potential biological roles of these species. Low-spin (ls) heme {FeNO}(7) complexes (S = 1/2) can be reversibly reduced to the corresponding {FeNO}(8) species, which are stable, diamagnetic compounds. Because the reduction is ligand (NO) centered in these cases, it occurs at extremely negative redox potentials that are at the edge of the biologically feasible range. Interestingly, the electronic structures of ls-{FeNO}(7) and ls-{FeNO}(8) species are strongly correlated with very similar frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and thermodynamically strong Fe-NO bonds. In contrast, high-spin (hs) non-heme {FeNO}(7) complexes (S = 3/2) can be reduced at relatively mild redox potentials. Here, the reduction is metal-centered and leads to a paramagnetic (S = 1) {FeNO}(8) complex. The increased electron density at the iron center in these species significantly decreases the covalency of the Fe-NO bond, making the reduced complexes highly reactive. In the absence of

  20. High Affinity Heme Binding to a Heme Regulatory Motif on the Nuclear Receptor Rev-erbβ Leads to Its Degradation and Indirectly Regulates Its Interaction with Nuclear Receptor Corepressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Eric L; Gupta, Nirupama; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-01-29

    Rev-erbα and Rev-erbβ are heme-binding nuclear receptors (NR) that repress the transcription of genes involved in regulating metabolism, inflammation, and the circadian clock. Previous gene expression and co-immunoprecipitation studies led to a model in which heme binding to Rev-erbα recruits nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) into an active repressor complex. However, in contradiction, biochemical and crystallographic studies have shown that heme decreases the affinity of the ligand-binding domain of Rev-erb NRs for NCoR1 peptides. One explanation for this discrepancy is that the ligand-binding domain and NCoR1 peptides used for in vitro studies cannot replicate the key features of the full-length proteins used in cellular studies. However, the combined in vitro and cellular results described here demonstrate that heme does not directly promote interactions between full-length Rev-erbβ (FLRev-erbβ) and an NCoR1 construct encompassing all three NR interaction domains. NCoR1 tightly binds both apo- and heme-replete FLRev-erbβ·DNA complexes; furthermore, heme, at high concentrations, destabilizes the FLRev-erbβ·NCoR1 complex. The interaction between FLRev-erbβ and NCoR1 as well as Rev-erbβ repression at the Bmal1 promoter appear to be modulated by another cellular factor(s), at least one of which is related to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our studies suggest that heme is involved in regulating the degradation of Rev-erbβ in a manner consistent with its role in circadian rhythm maintenance. Finally, the very slow rate constant (10(-6) s(-1)) of heme dissociation from Rev-erbβ rules out a prior proposal that Rev-erbβ acts as an intracellular heme sensor.

  1. Roles of iron acquisition systems in virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli: salmochelin and aerobactin contribute more to virulence than heme in a chicken infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qingqing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC are the two main subsets of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC. Both types have multiple iron acquisition systems, including heme and siderophores. Although iron transport systems involved in the pathogenesis of APEC or UPEC have been documented individually in corresponding animal models, the contribution of these systems during simultaneous APEC and UPEC infection is not well described. To determine the contribution of each individual iron acquisition system to the virulence of APEC and UPEC, isogenic mutants affecting iron uptake in APEC E058 and UPEC U17 were constructed and compared in a chicken challenge model. Results Salmochelin-defective mutants E058ΔiroD and U17ΔiroD showed significantly decreased pathogenicity compared to the wild-type strains. Aerobactin defective mutants E058ΔiucD and U17ΔiucD demonstrated reduced colonization in several internal organs, whereas the heme defective mutants E058ΔchuT and U17ΔchuT colonized internal organs to the same extent as their wild-type strains. The triple mutant ΔchuTΔiroDΔiucD in both E058 and U17 showed decreased pathogenicity compared to each of the single mutants. The histopathological lesions in visceral organs of birds challenged with the wild-type strains were more severe than those from birds challenged with ΔiroD, ΔiucD or the triple mutants. Conversely, chickens inoculated with the ΔchuT mutants had lesions comparable to those in chickens inoculated with the wild-type strains. However, no significant differences were observed between the mutants and the wild-type strains in resistance to serum, cellular invasion and intracellular survival in HD-11, and growth in iron-rich or iron-restricted medium. Conclusions Results indicated that APEC and UPEC utilize similar iron acquisition mechanisms in chickens. Both salmochelin and aerobactin systems appeared to be important in APEC

  2. IsdB-dependent hemoglobin binding is required for acquisition of heme by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchany, Gleb; Sheldon, Jessica R; Dickson, Claire F; Alam, Md Tauqeer; Read, Timothy D; Gell, David A; Heinrichs, David E; Skaar, Eric P

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality. As with most bacteria, S. aureus requires iron to cause disease, and it can acquire iron from host hemoglobin. The current model for staphylococcal hemoglobin-iron acquisition proposes that S. aureus binds hemoglobin through the surface-exposed hemoglobin receptor IsdB. IsdB removes heme from bound hemoglobin and transfers this cofactor to other proteins of the Isd system, which import and degrade heme to release iron in the cytoplasm. Here we demonstrate that the individual components of the Isd system are required for growth on low nanomolar concentrations of hemoglobin as a sole source of iron. An in-depth study of hemoglobin binding by IsdB revealed key residues that are required for hemoglobin binding. Further, we show that these residues are necessary for heme extraction from hemoglobin and growth on hemoglobin as a sole iron source. These processes are found to contribute to the pathogenicity of S. aureus in a murine model of infection. Together these results build on the model for Isd-mediated hemoglobin binding and heme-iron acquisition during the pathogenesis of S. aureus infection.

  3. Red meat and colon cancer : The cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of dietary heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, ALA; Termont, DSML; Kleibeuker, JH; Van der Meer, R

    1999-01-01

    The intake of a Western diet with a high amount of red meat is associated with a high risk for colon cancer. We hypothesize that heme, the iron carrier of red meat, is involved in diet-induced colonic epithelial damage, resulting in increased epithelial proliferation. Rats were fed purified control

  4. RED BLOOD CELL, HEMOGLOBIN AND HEME IN THE PROGRESSION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória eJeney

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For decades plaque neovascularization was considered as an innocent feature of advanced atherosclerotic lesions, but nowadays growing evidence suggest that this process triggers plaque progression and vulnerability. Neovascularization is induced mostly by hypoxia, but the involvement of oxidative stress is also established. Because of inappropriate angiogenesis, neovessels are leaky and prone to rupture, leading to the extravasation of red blood cells (RBCs within the plaque. RBCs, in the highly oxidative environment of the atherosclerotic lesions, tend to lyse quickly. Both RBC membrane and the released hemoglobin (Hb possess atherogenic activities. Cholesterol content of RBC membrane contributes to lipid deposition and lipid core expansion upon intraplaque hemorrhage. Cell-free Hb is prone to oxidation, and the oxidation products possess pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory activities. Defense and adaptation mechanisms evolved to cope with the deleterious effects of cell free Hb and heme. These rely on plasma proteins haptoglobin (Hp and hemopexin (Hx with the ability to scavenge and eliminate free Hb and heme form the circulation. The protective strategy is completed with the cellular heme oxygenase-1/ferritin system that becomes activated when Hp and Hx fail to control free Hb and heme-mediated stress. These protective molecules have pharmacological potential in diverse pathologies including atherosclerosis.

  5. Decoupling Activation of Heme Biosynthesis from Anaerobic Toxicity in a Molecule Active in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutter, Brendan F; Mike, Laura A; Reid, Paul R; Chong, Katherine M; Ramos-Hunter, Susan J; Skaar, Eric P; Sulikowski, Gary A

    2016-05-20

    Small molecules active in the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are valuable tools for the study of its basic biology and pathogenesis, and many molecules may provide leads for novel therapeutics. We have previously reported a small molecule, 1, which activates endogenous heme biosynthesis in S. aureus, leading to an accumulation of intracellular heme. In addition to this novel activity, 1 also exhibits toxicity towards S. aureus growing under fermentative conditions. To determine if these activities are linked and establish what features of the molecule are required for activity, we synthesized a library of analogs around the structure of 1 and screened them for activation of heme biosynthesis and anaerobic toxicity to investigate structure-activity relationships. The results of this analysis suggest that these activities are not linked. Furthermore, we have identified the structural features that promote each activity and have established two classes of molecules: activators of heme biosynthesis and inhibitors of anaerobic growth. These molecules will serve as useful probes for their respective activities without concern for the off target effects of the parent compound.

  6. 14 CFR 135.271 - Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....271 Helicopter hospital emergency medical evacuation service (HEMES). (a) No certificate holder may... assignment, for hospital emergency medical evacuation service helicopter operations unless that assignment... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Helicopter hospital emergency...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1410 - Iron (non-heme) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron (non-heme) test system. 862.1410 Section 862.1410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... with widespread deposit in the tissues of two iron-containing pigments, hemosiderin and hemofuscin,...

  8. Molecular insights into frataxin-mediated iron supply for heme biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mielcarek

    Full Text Available Iron is required as an element to sustain life in all eukaryotes and most bacteria. Although several bacterial iron acquisition strategies have been well explored, little is known about the intracellular trafficking pathways of iron and its entry into the systems for co-factor biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the iron-dependent process of heme maturation in Bacillus subtilis and present, for the first time, structural evidence for the physical interaction of a frataxin homologue (Fra, which is suggested to act as a regulatory component as well as an iron chaperone in different cellular pathways, and a ferrochelatase (HemH, which catalyses the final step of heme b biogenesis. Specific interaction between Fra and HemH was observed upon co-purification from crude cell lysates and, further, by using the recombinant proteins for analytical size-exclusion chromatography. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments identified the landscape of the Fra/HemH interaction interface and revealed Fra as a specific ferrous iron donor for the ferrochelatase HemH. The functional utilisation of the in vitro-generated heme b co-factor upon Fra-mediated iron transfer was confirmed by using the B. subtilis nitric oxide synthase bsNos as a metabolic target enzyme. Complementary mutational analyses confirmed that Fra acts as an essential component for maturation and subsequent targeting of the heme b co-factor, hence representing a key player in the iron-dependent physiology of B. subtilis.

  9. Rapamycin Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 in Liver but Inhibits Bile Flow Recovery after Ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kist, Alwine; Wakkie, Joris; Madu, Max; Versteeg, Ruth; ten Berge, Judith; Nikolic, Andrej; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B.; Porte, Robert J.; Padbury, Robert T. A.; Barritt, Greg J.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims. Rapamycin, which is employed in the management of patients undergoing liver surgery, induces the synthesis of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in some non-liver cell types. The aim was to investigate whether rapamycin can induce HO-1 expression in the liver, and to test the effects of rapamy

  10. Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits neuropathic pain in rats with diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Kong; Kang Liu; Lingxi Wu; Long Wang

    2012-01-01

    A diabetes mellitus model was established through single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin into rats.Seven days later,model rats were intraperitoneally administered zinc protoporphyrin,a heme oxygenase-1 inducer,and cobalt protoporphyrin,a heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor,once every two days,for 5 successive weeks.After administration,the paw withdrawal mechanical threshold of diabetic mellitus rats significantly decreased,the myelin sheath of the sciatic nerve thickened or showed vacuole defects,the number of spinal dorsal horn neurons reduced,some neurons degenerated and were necrotic,and heme oxygenase-1 was visible in the cytoplasm of spinal dorsal horn neurons.Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling demonstrated that the number of apoptotic neurons increased,which could be inhibited by cobalt protoporphyrin,however,zinc protoporphyrin led to an opposite effect.Our experimental findings indicate that heme oxygenase-1 attenuates neuropathic pain in diabetic mellitus rats through amelioration of peripheral neuropathy and inhibition of spinal dorsal horn neuron apoptosis.

  11. Electron transfer patterns of the di-heme protein cytochrome c(4) from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Schmidt, L.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2009-01-01

    We report kinetic data for the two-step electron transfer (ET) oxidation and reduction of the two-domain di-heme redox protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome (cyt) c(4) by [Co(bipy)(3)](2- 3-) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Following earlier reports, the data accord with both bi- and tri-exponential ...

  12. Novel insights in mammalian catalase heme maturation: effect of NO and thioredoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Majors, Alana; Ruple, Lisa; Aronica, Mark; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2015-05-01

    Catalase is a tetrameric heme-containing enzyme with essential antioxidant functions in biology. Multiple factors including nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to attenuate its activity. However, the possible impact of NO in relation to the maturation of active catalase, including its heme acquisition and tetramer formation, has not been investigated. We found that NO attenuates heme insertion into catalase in both short-term and long-term incubations. The NO inhibition in catalase heme incorporation was associated with defective oligomerization of catalase, such that inactive catalase monomers and dimers accumulated in place of the mature tetrameric enzyme. We also found that GAPDH plays a key role in mediating these NO effects on the structure and activity of catalase. Moreover, the NO sensitivity of catalase maturation could be altered up or down by manipulating the cellular expression level or activity of thioredoxin-1, a known protein-SNO denitrosylase enzyme. In a mouse model of allergic inflammatory asthma, we found that lungs from allergen-challenged mice contained a greater percentage of dimeric catalase relative to tetrameric catalase in the unchallenged control, suggesting that the mechanisms described here are in play in the allergic asthma model. Together, our study shows how maturation of active catalase can be influenced by NO, S-nitrosylated GAPDH, and thioredoxin-1, and how maturation may become compromised in inflammatory conditions such as asthma.

  13. Fungal unspecific peroxygenases: heme-thiolate proteins that combine peroxidase and cytochrome p450 properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofrichter, Martin; Kellner, Harald; Pecyna, Marek J; Ullrich, René

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years ago, a secreted heme-thiolate peroxidase with promiscuity for oxygen transfer reactions was discovered in the basidiomycetous fungus, Agrocybe aegerita. The enzyme turned out to be a functional mono-peroxygenase that transferred an oxygen atom from hydrogen peroxide to diverse organic substrates (aromatics, heterocycles, linear and cyclic alkanes/alkenes, fatty acids, etc.). Later similar enzymes were found in other mushroom genera such as Coprinellus and Marasmius. Approximately one thousand putative peroxygenase sequences that form two large clusters can be found in genetic databases and fungal genomes, indicating the widespread occurrence of such enzymes in the whole fungal kingdom including all phyla of true fungi (Eumycota) and certain fungus-like heterokonts (Oomycota). This new enzyme type was classified as unspecific peroxygenase (UPO, EC 1.11.2.1) and placed in a separate peroxidase subclass. Furthermore, UPOs and related heme-thiolate peroxidases such as well-studied chloroperoxidase (CPO) represent a separate superfamily of heme proteins on the phylogenetic level. The reactions catalyzed by UPOs include hydroxylation, epoxidation, O- and N-dealkylation, aromatization, sulfoxidation, N-oxygenation, dechlorination and halide oxidation. In many cases, the product patterns of UPOs resemble those of human cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases and, in fact, combine the catalytic cycle of heme peroxidases with the "peroxide shunt" of P450s. Here, an overview on UPOs is provided with focus on their molecular and catalytic properties.

  14. Functional expression of human heme oxygenase-1 gene in renal structure of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alvin I; Quan, Shou; Yang, Liming; Synghal, Arika; Abraham, Nader G

    2003-05-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO), by catabolizing heme to bile pigments, regulates the levels and activity of cellular hemoprotein and HO activity. We examined the effect of delivery of the human HO-1 gene on cellular heme in renal tissue using a retroviral vector. We used a single intracardiac injection of the concentrated infectious viral particles in 5-day-old spontaneously hypertensive rats; 25 were transduced with empty vector and 25 were transduced with the human HO-1 gene. Functional expression of human and rat HO-1 was measured after 2 and 4 weeks. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that human HO-1 mRNA was expressed as early as 2 weeks, with the highest levels in the kidney. Western blot analysis showed distribution of human HO-1 protein in rat kidney structures, predominantly in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle as well as in proximal tubules and preglomerular arterioles. These areas also demonstrated higher HO activity as measured by increased conversion of heme to bilirubin and carbon monoxide. Functional expression of the human HO-1 gene was associated with a decrease in blood pressure in 4- and 8-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats. Compared with nontransduced rats, human HO-1 gene overexpression in transduced rats was associated with a 35% decrease in urinary 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a potent vasoconstrictor and an inhibitor of tubular Na(+) transport, which may be related to the decrease in blood pressure.

  15. ["Kuhu me siis läheme? - Eks ikka koju."] / M. J.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Mall, 1947-

    2016-01-01

    Tutvustus: „Kuhu me siis läheme? - Eks ikka koju.“ : sajandivahetus saksa kirjanduses 200 aastat tagasi : Goethe, Schiller, Tieck, Kleist, Hoffmann, Eichendorff, Büchner, Novalis, Hegel (Schelling? Hölderlin?), Schlegel / saksa keelest valinud ja tõlkinud Mati Sirkel. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2015

  16. Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Can Halt and Even Reverse Renal Tubule-Interstitial Fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Costa, Matheus; Semedo, Patricia; Monteiro, Ana Paula F. S.; Silva, Reinaldo C.; Pereira, Rafael L.; Goncalves, Giselle M.; Marcusso Marques, Georgia Daniela; Cenedeze, Marcos A.; Faleiros, Ana C. G.; Keller, Alexandre C.; Shimizu, Maria H. M.; Seguro, Antonio C.; Reis, Marlene A.; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Camara, Niels O. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The tubule-interstitial fibrosis is the hallmark of progressive renal disease and is strongly associated with inflammation of this compartment. Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective molecule that has been shown to be beneficial in various models of renal injury. However, the role o

  17. Salicylic acid induces mitochondrial injury by inhibiting ferrochelatase heme biosynthesis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Liu, Shujie; Ando, Hideki; Ishii, Ryohei; Tateno, Shumpei; Kaneko, Yuki; Yugami, Masato; Sakamoto, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Nureki, Osamu; Handa, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid is a classic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Although salicylic acid also induces mitochondrial injury, the mechanism of its antimitochondrial activity is not well understood. In this study, by using a one-step affinity purification scheme with salicylic acid-immobilized beads, ferrochelatase (FECH), a homodimeric enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis in mitochondria, was identified as a new molecular target of salicylic acid. Moreover, the cocrystal structure of the FECH-salicylic acid complex was determined. Structural and biochemical studies showed that salicylic acid binds to the dimer interface of FECH in two possible orientations and inhibits its enzymatic activity. Mutational analysis confirmed that Trp301 and Leu311, hydrophobic amino acid residues located at the dimer interface, are directly involved in salicylic acid binding. On a gel filtration column, salicylic acid caused a shift in the elution profile of FECH, indicating that its conformational change is induced by salicylic acid binding. In cultured human cells, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis, whereas salicylic acid did not exert its inhibitory effect in FECH knockdown cells. Concordantly, salicylic acid treatment or FECH knockdown inhibited heme synthesis in zebrafish embryos. Strikingly, the salicylic acid-induced effect in zebrafish was partially rescued by FECH overexpression. Taken together, these findings illustrate that FECH is responsible for salicylic acid-induced inhibition of heme synthesis, which may contribute to its antimitochondrial and anti-inflammatory function. This study establishes a novel aspect of the complex pharmacological effects of salicylic acid.

  18. Heme iron uptake by Caco-2 cells is a saturable, temperature sensitive and modulated by extracellular pH and potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Miguel; Kloosterman, Janneke; Núñez, Sergio; Segovia, Fabián; Candia, Valeria; Flores, Sebastián; Le Blanc, Solange; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    It is known that heme iron and inorganic iron are absorbed differently. Heme iron is found in the diet mainly in the form of hemoglobin and myoglobin. The mechanism of iron absorption remains uncertain. This study focused on the heme iron uptake by Caco-2 cells from a hemoglobin digest and its response to different iron concentrations. We studied the intracellular Fe concentration and the effect of time, K+ depletion, and cytosol acidification on apical uptake and transepithelial transport in cells incubated with different heme Fe concentrations. Cells incubated with hemoglobin-digest showed a lower intracellular Fe concentration than cells grown with inorganic Fe. However, uptake and transepithelial transport of Fe was higher in cells incubated with heme Fe. Heme Fe uptake had a low Vmax and Km as compared to inorganic Fe uptake and did not compete with non-heme Fe uptake. Heme Fe uptake was inhibited in cells exposed to K+ depletion or cytosol acidification. Heme oxygenase 1 expression increased and DMT1 expression decreased with higher heme Fe concentrations in the media. The uptake of heme iron is a saturable and temperature-dependent process and, therefore, could occur through a mechanism involving both a receptor and the endocytic pathway.

  19. Induction of heme oxygenase 1 by nitrosative stress. A role for nitroxyl anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Patrick; Foresti, Roberta; Bains, Sandip K; Hoque, Martha; Green, Colin J; Motterlini, Roberto

    2002-10-25

    Nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols modulate a variety of important physiological activities. In vascular cells, agents that release NO and donate nitrosonium cation (NO(+)), such as S-nitrosoglutathione, are potent inducers of the antioxidant protein heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) (Foresti, R., Clark, J. E., Green, C. J., and Motterlini, R. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 18411-18417; Motterlini, R., Foresti, R., Bassi, R., Calabrese, V., Clark, J. E., and Green, C. J. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 13613-13620). Here, we report that Angeli's salt (AS) (0.25-2 mm), a compound that releases nitroxyl anion (NO(-)) at physiological pH, induces HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, resulting in increased heme oxygenase activity in rat H9c2 cells. A time course analysis revealed that NO(-)-mediated HO-1 expression is transient and gradually disappears within 24 h, in accordance with the short half-life of AS at 37 degrees C (t(12) = 2.3 min). Interestingly, multiple additions of AS at lower concentrations (50 or 100 microm) over a period of time still promoted a significant increase in heme oxygenase activity. Experiments performed using a NO scavenger and the NO electrode confirmed that NO(-), not NO, is the species involved in HO-1 induction by AS; however, the effect on heme oxygenase activity can be amplified by accelerating the rate of NO(-) oxidation. N-Acetylcysteine almost completely abolished AS-mediated induction of HO-1, whereas a glutathione synthesis inhibitor (buthionine sulfoximine) significantly decreased heme oxygenase activation by AS, indicating that sulfydryl groups are crucial targets in the regulation of HO-1 expression by NO(-). We conclude that NO(-), in analogy with other reactive nitrogen species, is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase activity and HO-1 protein expression. These findings indicate that heme oxygenase can act both as a sensor to and target of redox-based mechanisms involving NO and extend our knowledge on

  20. Faster heme loss from hemoglobin E than HbS, in acidic pH: Effect of aminophospholipids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mousumi Banerjee; Malini Pramanik; Dipankar Bhattacharya; Mohini Lahiry; Samita Basu; Abhjit Chakrabarti

    2011-12-01

    We report studies on loss of heme at or below pH 3.0 from two clinically important hemoglobin variants, HbE and HbS, in the presence and absence of phopholipid membranes. The kinetics of heme loss has been studied at pH 3.0 to simulate the same at a faster rate than at physiological pH, for spectroscopic investigation. Results obtained from the study clearly establish the probable fate of the lost heme to partition into the phospholipid bilayer independent of the pH range. This is also of particular importance to membranes containing the aminophospholipid and cholesterol which are predominantly localized in the inner leaflet of erythrocytes. Absorption measurements indicated such loss of heme when the Soret peak at 415 nm blue-shifted to 380 nm at pH 3.0. The extent of this blue shift decreased from 35 nm to ∼15 nm in the presence of small unilammelar vesicles of both dimyristoyl- and dioleoyl-based phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating partitioning of the released heme in the membrane bilayer. The kinetics of heme loss was faster from HbE than HbA and HbS, obeying first-order reaction kinetics. Released heme could be involved in the premature destruction of erythrocytes in hemoglobin disorders.

  1. G-quadruplex DNAzymes-induced highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of free heme in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruimin; Jiang, Qin; Cheng, Hanjun; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhen, Mingming; Chen, Daiqin; Ge, Jiechao; Mao, Lanqun; Wang, Chunru; Shu, Chunying

    2014-04-21

    Direct selective determination of free heme in the cerebral system is of great significance due to the crucial roles of free heme in physiological and pathological processes. In this work, a G-quadruplex DNAzymes-induced highly sensitive and selective colorimetric sensing of free heme in rat brain is established. Initially, the conformation of an 18-base G-rich DNA sequence, PS2.M (5'-GTGGGTAGGGCGGGTTGG-3'), in the presence of K(+), changes from a random coil to a "parallel" G-quadruplex structure, which can bind free heme in the cerebral system with high affinity through π-π stacking. The resulted heme/G-quadruplex complex exhibits high peroxidase-like activity, which can be used to catalyze the oxidation of colorless ABTS(2-) to green ABTS˙(-) by H2O2. The concentration of heme can be evaluated by the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output showed a linear relationship for heme within the concentration range from 1 to 120 nM with a detection limit of 0.637 nM. The assay demonstrated here was highly selective and free from the interference of physiologically important species such as dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), ascorbate acid (AA), cysteine, uric acid (UA), glucose and lactate in the cerebral system. The basal dialysate level of free heme in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats was determined to be 32.8 ± 19.5 nM (n = 3). The analytic protocol possesses many advantages, including theoretical simplicity, low-cost technical and instrumental demands, and responsible detection of heme in rat brain microdialysate.

  2. Influence of heme-thiolate in shaping the catalytic properties of a bacterial nitric-oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Somasundaram, Ramasamy; Tejero, Jesús; Wilson, Adjele; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2011-11-11

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) are heme-thiolate enzymes that generate nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. Mammalian and bacterial NOSs contain a conserved tryptophan (Trp) that hydrogen bonds with the heme-thiolate ligand. We mutated Trp(66) to His and Phe (W66H, W66F) in B. subtilis NOS to investigate how heme-thiolate electronic properties control enzyme catalysis. The mutations had opposite effects on heme midpoint potential (-302, -361, and -427 mV for W66H, wild-type (WT), and W66F, respectively). These changes were associated with rank order (W66H < WT < W66F) changes in the rates of oxygen activation and product formation in Arg hydroxylation and N-hydroxyarginine (NOHA) oxidation single turnover reactions, and in the O(2) reactivity of the ferrous heme-NO product complex. However, enzyme ferrous heme-O(2) autoxidation showed an opposite rank order. Tetrahydrofolate supported NO synthesis by WT and the mutant NOS. All three proteins showed similar extents of product formation (L-Arg → NOHA or NOHA → citrulline) in single turnover studies, but the W66F mutant showed a 2.5 times lower activity when the reactions were supported by flavoproteins and NADPH. We conclude that Trp(66) controls several catalytic parameters by tuning the electron density of the heme-thiolate bond. A greater electron density (as in W66F) improves oxygen activation and reactivity toward substrate, but decreases heme-dioxy stability and lowers the driving force for heme reduction. In the WT enzyme the Trp(66) residue balances these opposing effects for optimal catalysis.

  3. The transcriptional network of WRKY53 in cereals links oxidative responses to biotic and abiotic stress inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Leon; Davidson, Rebecca M; Wu, Shuchi; Zhao, Bingyu Y; Botha, Anna-Maria; Leach, Jan E; Lapitan, Nora L V

    2014-06-01

    The transcription factor WRKY53 is expressed during biotic and abiotic stress responses in cereals, but little is currently known about its regulation, structure and downstream targets. We sequenced the wheat ortholog TaWRKY53 and its promoter region, which revealed extensive similarity in gene architecture and cis-acting regulatory elements to the rice ortholog OsWRKY53, including the presence of stress-responsive abscisic acid-responsive elements (ABRE) motifs and GCC-boxes. Four proteins interacted with the WRKY53 promoter in yeast one-hybrid assays, suggesting that this gene can receive inputs from diverse stress-related pathways such as calcium signalling and senescence, and environmental cues such as drought and ultraviolet radiation. The Ser/Thr receptor kinase ORK10/LRK10 and the apoplastic peroxidase POC1 are two downstream targets for regulation by the WRKY53 transcription factor, predicted based on the presence of W-box motifs in their promoters and coregulation with WRKY53, and verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Both ORK10/LRK10 and POC1 are upregulated during cereal responses to pathogens and aphids and important components of the oxidative burst during the hypersensitive response. Taken with our yeast two-hybrid assay which identified a strong protein-protein interaction between microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 and WRKY53, this implies that the WRKY53 transcriptional network regulates oxidative responses to a wide array of stresses.

  4. Structure prediction and activity analysis of human heme oxygenase-1 and its mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Wei Xia; Wen-Pu Zhou; Wen-Jun Cui; Xue-Hong Zhang; Qing-Xiang Shen; Yun-Zhu Li; Shan-Chang Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To predict wild human heme oxygenase-1 (whHO-1)and hHO-1 His25Ala mutant (△hHO-1) structures, to clone and express them and analyze their activities.METHODS: Swiss-PdbViewer and Antheprot 5.0 were used for the prediction of structure diversity and physicalchemical changes between wild and mutant hHO-1. hHO1 His25Ala mutant cDNA was constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two plasmids of E. coli DH5α. Expression products were purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, and their activities were measured.RESULTS: rHO-1 had the structure of a helical fold with the heme sandwiched between heme-heme oxygenase1 helices. Bond angle, dihedral angle and chemical bond in the active pocket changed after Ala25 was replaced by His25, but Ala25 was still contacting the surface and the electrostatic potential of the active pocket was negative. The mutated enzyme kept binding activity to heme. Two vectors pBHO-1 and pBHO-1(M) were constructed and expressed. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography yielded 3.6-fold and 30-fold higher purities of whHO-1, respectively. The activity of △hHO-1 was reduced 91.21% after mutation compared with whHO-1.CONCLUSION: Proximal His25 ligand is crucial for normal hHO-1 catalytic activity. △hHO-1 is deactivated by mutation but keeps the same binding site as whHO-1. △hHO-1 might be a potential inhibitor of whHO-1 for preventing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  5. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. .

  6. A Heme-responsive Regulator Controls Synthesis of Staphyloferrin B in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Holly A; Marolda, Cristina L; Pinter, Tyler B; Stillman, Martin J; Heinrichs, David E

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus possesses a multitude of mechanisms by which it can obtain iron during growth under iron starvation conditions. It expresses an effective heme acquisition system (the iron-regulated surface determinant system), it produces two carboxylate-type siderophores staphyloferrin A and staphyloferrin B (SB), and it expresses transporters for many other siderophores that it does not synthesize. The ferric uptake regulator protein regulates expression of genes encoding all of these systems. Mechanisms of fine-tuning expression of iron-regulated genes, beyond simple iron regulation via ferric uptake regulator, have not been uncovered in this organism. Here, we identify the ninth gene of the sbn operon, sbnI, as encoding a ParB/Spo0J-like protein that is required for expression of genes in the sbn operon from sbnD onward. Expression of sbnD-I is drastically decreased in an sbnI mutant, and the mutant does not synthesize detectable SB during early phases of growth. Thus, SB-mediated iron acquisition is impaired in an sbnI mutant strain. We show that the protein forms dimers and tetramers in solution and binds to DNA within the sbnC coding region. Moreover, we show that SbnI binds heme and that heme-bound SbnI does not bind DNA. Finally, we show that providing exogenous heme to S. aureus growing in an iron-free medium results in delayed synthesis of SB. This is the first study in S. aureus that identifies a DNA-binding regulatory protein that senses heme to control gene expression for siderophore synthesis.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha controls hepatic heme biosynthesis through ALAS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Tatjana; Väisänen, Sami; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Kersten, Sander; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group of proteins involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism and nitric oxide production. ALAS1 (5-aminolevulinate synthase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis in the liver and is highly regulated to adapt to the metabolic demand of the hepatocyte. In the present study, we describe human hepatic ALAS1 as a new direct target for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). In primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells, PPARalpha agonists induced an increase in ALAS1 mRNA levels, which was abolished by PPARalpha silencing. These effects are mediated by two functional PPAR binding sites at positions -9 and -2.3 kb relative to the ALAS1 transcription start site. PPARalpha ligand treatment also up-regulated the mRNA levels of the genes ALAD (5-aminolevulinate dehydratase), UROS (uroporphyrinogen III synthase), UROD (uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase), CPOX (coproporphyrinogen oxidase) and PPOX (protoporphyrinogen oxidase) encoding for enzymes controlling further steps in heme biosynthesis. In HepG2 cells treated with PPARalpha agonists and in mouse liver upon fasting, the association of PPARalpha, its partner retinoid X receptor, PPARgamma co-activator 1alpha and activated RNA polymerase II with the transcription start site region of all six genes was increased, leading to higher levels of the metabolite heme. In conclusion, these data strongly support a role of PPARalpha in the regulation of human ALAS1 and of five additional genes of the pathway, consequently leading to increased heme synthesis.

  8. Nitrobindin: An Ubiquitous Family of All β-Barrel Heme-proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Giovanna; Ascenzi, Paolo; Polticelli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorins (Rp-NPs), Arabidopsis thaliana nitrobindin (At-Nb), and Homo sapiens THAP4 (Hs-THAP4) are the unique known proteins that use a β-barrel fold to bind ferric heme, which is devoted to NO transport and/or catalysis. The eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Rp-NPs, which represent the only heme-binding lipocalins, are devoted to deliver NO into the blood vessel of the host and to scavenge histamine during blood sucking. Regarding Nbs, crystallographic data suggest the ability of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 to bind ferric heme; however, no data are available with respect to these functions in the natural host. Here, a bioinformatics investigation based on the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of At-Nb and Hs-THAP4 suggests a conservation of the 10-stranded antiparallel β-barrel Nb structural module in all life kingdoms of the evolutionary ladder. In particular, amino acid residues involved in the heme recognition and in the structure stabilization of the Nb structural module are highly conserved (identity > 29%; homology > 83%). Moreover, molecular models of putative Nbs from different organisms match very well with each other and known three-dimensional structures of Nbs. Furthermore, phylogenetic tree reconstruction indicates that NPs and Nbs group in distinct clades. These data indicate that 10-stranded β-barrel Nbs constitute a new ubiquitous heme protein family spanning from bacteria to Homo sapiens. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(6):423-428, 2016.

  9. Distinct structures and environments for the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum. A resonance Raman study using B-band excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, C; Schoepp, B; Othman, S; Verméglio, A; Desbois, A

    1999-01-19

    The B-band excited resonance Raman (RR) spectra (100-1700 cm-1) of the bacterial cytochrome bc1 complex purified from Rhodospirillum rubrum are reported. Four redox states, i.e., the persulfate-oxidized, "as prepared", and ascorbate- and dithionite-reduced states of the complex, were investigated with the laser excitations at 406.7, 413.1, and 441.6 nm. Following the different absorption properties of the b- and c-type hemes and the different resonance enhancements of the vibrational modes of oxidized and reduced hemes, RR contributions from the b- and c-type hemes were characterized. For the nu2, nu10, and nu8 porphyrin vibrational modes, individual contributions of hemes c1, bH, and bL were determined. The data show that the macrocycle conformation of the three hemes of the cytochrome bc1 complex is different. In particular, the frequencies assigned to ferrous heme bL (1580, 1610, and 352 cm-1, respectively) reveal that its porphyrin is more strongly distorted than that of ferrous heme bH (1584, 1614, and 344 cm-1, respectively). The frequencies of the nu11 modes (1543, 1536, and 1526 cm-1 for ferrous heme c1, heme bH, and heme bL, respectively) confirm that the axial histidylimidazole ligands of heme bL have a marked anionic character. Strong differences in the peripheral interactions of the three hemes with the proteins were also detected through the frequency differences of the nu5, nu13, nu14, and nu42 modes. Considering that hemes bH and bL are inserted into a four-helice bundle, the RR data are interpreted in the frame of a strong protein constraint on heme bL.

  10. Electron transfer among the CuA-, heme b- and a3-centers of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Chen, Ying; Fee, James A

    2006-01-01

    . and Pecht, I. (2006) Rates and equilibrium of CuA to heme a electron transfer in Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase. Biophys. J. 90, 2131-2137]. Investigating this process in the cytochrome ba(3) of Thermus thermophilus (Tt), we now show that MNA(*) also reduces Cu(A) with a subsequent ET...... to the heme b and then to heme a(3), with first-order rate constants 11200 s(-1), and 770 s(-1), respectively. The results provide clear evidence for ET among the three spectroscopically distinguishable centers and indicate that the binuclear a(3)-Cu(B) center can be reduced in molecules containing a single...

  11. Characterization of the Products of the Heme Detoxification Pathway in Malarial Late Trophozoites by X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohle,D.; Dinnebier, R.; Madsen, S.; Stephens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Heme is a potent multifunction regulator whose biochemical levels and distribution are precisely controlled on both intra- and extracellular levels. Efficient regulation of heme is particularly critical for intra-erythrocytic parasites such as plasmodia which process large quantities of heme in the post-invasion digestion of the erythrocyte's hemoglobin. Plasmodia, which lack heme oxygenases, detoxify heme by sequestering it into an insoluble heme aggregate termed malarial pigment or hemozoin. The quinoline-based family of antimalarials interfere with this process by an as yet unknown mechanism that has recently come under intense scrutiny as part of the effort to combat the spread of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium. A variety of spectroscopic and bioanalytical techniques indicate that hemozoin is similar to the synthetic aggregated heme phase {beta}-hematin, which is thought to form strands of hemes linked by propionate oxygen-iron bonds as well as interstrand propionate hydrogen bonds. Characterization of the carboxylate stretching bands for the propionic acid side chains by IR and Raman spectroscopy provides the best evidence for the presence of iron-oxygen bonds to the propionate side chains. Unfortunately, crystallographic characterization of these heme aggregates has been hampered by the phase heterogeneity of many synthetic preparations as well as by the small size of the synthetic and natural crystallites isolated from either trophozoites and infected hosts. High resolution powder diffraction has been used extensively for the solution of many structural problems, and it can solve problems posed by diffraction from microcrystalline phases. In this communication we describe the characterization of {beta}-hematin derived from both synthetic and natural sources and provide new unambiguous evidence that the heme aggregate present in late stage trophozoites is {beta}-hematin. In a process inhibited by the quinoline antimalarial drugs, Plasmodia

  12. Effects of surfactants on the contents of metallothionein, heme and hemoproteins and on the activities of heme oxygenase and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats pretreated with phenobarbital or. beta. -naphthoflavone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Hideki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Synthetic surfactants as major constituent of detergent products are widely used in consumer and industrial fields, and hence environmental and toxicological investigations of surfactants are numerous. In the previous study, the authors observed that intraperitoneal administration of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) and polyoxyethyleneglycol nonylphenyl ether (Emulgen 913) to rats depressed the content of microsomal cytochrome P-450, while they enhanced markedly the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation. In addition, they noted an increase of metallothionein content in the liver of rats treated with LAS. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of surfactants on metallothionein, heme, hemoproteins, heme oxygenase and drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver of rats pretreated with phenobarbital or {beta}-naphthoflavone.

  13. Alterações provocadas pela irradiação e armazenamento nos teores de ferro heme em carne de frango Alteration by irradiation and storage at amount of heme iron in poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Régia Marques Souza; Valter Arthur; Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2007-01-01

    Estudos sobre o efeito da irradiação e do armazenamento em carnes de frango foram realizados para se conhecer melhor sua influência nos teores de ferro heme, não-heme, cor e pigmentos totais. Foram estudados coxa e filé de peito de frango. Estes foram irradiados a 0, 1 e 2 kGy e armazenados por 14 dias a 4 °C em câmara refrigerada. A determinação do conteúdo de heme e não-heme de carnes foi realizada através do método colorimétrico, empregando-se o reagente Ferrozine. Os valores de ferro ...

  14. Oxidation-Responsive and "Clickable" Poly(ethylene glycol) via Copolymerization of 2-(Methylthio)ethyl Glycidyl Ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberger, Jana; Fischer, Karl; Leibig, Daniel; Bros, Matthias; Thiermann, Raphael; Frey, Holger

    2016-07-27

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used biocompatible polymer. We describe a novel epoxide monomer with methyl-thioether moiety, 2-(methylthio)ethyl glycidyl ether (MTEGE), which enables the synthesis of well-defined thioether-functional poly(ethylene glycol). Random and block mPEG-b-PMTEGE copolymers (Mw/Mn = 1.05-1.17) were obtained via anionic ring opening polymerization (AROP) with molecular weights ranging from 5 600 to 12 000 g·mol(-1). The statistical copolymerization of MTEGE with ethylene oxide results in a random microstructure (rEO = 0.92 ± 0.02 and rMTEG E = 1.06 ± 0.02), which was confirmed by in situ (1)H NMR kinetic studies. The random copolymers are thermoresponsive in aqueous solution, with a wide range of tunable transition temperatures of 88 to 28 °C. In contrast, mPEG-b-PMTEGE block copolymers formed well-defined micelles (Rh ≈ 9-15 nm) in water, studied by detailed light scattering (DLS and SLS). Intriguingly, the thioether moieties of MTEGE can be selectively oxidized into sulfoxide units, leading to full disassembly of the micelles, as confirmed by detection of pure unimers (DLS and SLS). Oxidation-responsive release of encapsulated Nile Red demonstrates the potential of these micelles as redox-responsive nanocarriers. MTT assays showed only minor effects of the thioethers and their oxidized derivatives on the cellular metabolism of WEHI-164 and HEK-293T cell lines (1-1000 μg·mL(-1)). Further, sulfonium PEG polyelectrolytes can be obtained via alkylation or alkoxylation of MTEGE, providing access to a large variety of functional groups at the charged sulfur atom.

  15. Ultrafast heme-ligand recombination in truncated hemoglobin HbO from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A ligand cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Ouellet, Hugues; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Jean-Louis; Friedman, Joel M.; Guertin, Michel; Vos, Marten H.

    2012-03-01

    Truncated hemoglobin HbO from Mycobacterium tuberculosis displays very slow exchange of diatomic ligands with its environment. Using femtosecond spectroscopy, we show that upon photoexcitation, ligands rebind with unusual speed and efficiency. Only ˜1% O2 can escape from the heme pocket and less than 1% NO. Most remarkably, CO rebinding occurs for 95%, predominantly in 1.2 ns. The general CO rebinding properties are unexpectedly robust against changes in the interactions with close by aromatic residues Trp88 (G8) and Tyr36 (CD1). Molecular dynamics simulations of the CO complex suggest that interactions of the ligand with structural water molecules as well as its rotational freedom play a role in the high reactivity of the ligand and the heme. The slow exchange of ligands between heme and environment may result from a combination of hindered ligand access to the heme pocket by the network of distal aromatic residues, and low escape probability from the pocket.

  16. Fe-heme structure in Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase from Haemophilus ducreyi by X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Paola; Zitolo, Andrea; Pacello, Francesca; Mancini, Giordano; Proux, Olivier; Hazemann, Jean Louis; Desideri, Alessandro; Battistoni, Andrea

    2010-06-01

    We have carried out an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) study of ferric, ferrous, CO- and NO-bound Haemophilus ducreyi Cu,ZnSOD (HdSOD) in solution to investigate the structural modifications induced by the binding of small gaseous ligands to heme in this enzyme. The combined analysis of EXAFS and XANES data has allowed us to characterize the local structure around the Fe-heme with 0.02A accuracy, revealing a heterogeneity in the distances between iron and the two histidine ligands which was not evident in the X-ray crystal structure. In addition, we have shown that the metal oxidation state does not influence the Fe-heme coordination environment, whereas the presence of the CO and NO ligands induces local structural rearrangements in the enzyme which are very similar to those already observed in other hexa-coordinated heme proteins, such as neuroglobin.

  17. Role of heme oxygenase-1 in demethylating effects on SKM-1 cells induced by decitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, R; Ma, D; Wang, P; Sun, J; Wang, J S; Fang, Q

    2015-12-22

    We evaluated the influence of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene inhibition in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cell line SKM-1 on enhancement of the demethylating effects of decitabine on p15, and explored the possible mechanism. DNMT1 gene expression in SKM-1 cells was silenced by being transfected by a constructed siRNA with liposomes. The proliferation inhibition rates after drug treatment were detected by cell counting kit-8 assay. The apoptotic rates were detected by Annexin V/PI assay with flow cytometry. The expressions of p16, p15, TP73, CDH1, ESR1, and PDLIM4 mRNAs were detected by real-time PCR, and those of HO-1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HDAC, and p15 proteins were measured by western blot. The degree of methylation of the p15 gene was analyzed by using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). CCK-8 assay showed that after HO-1 gene expression was inhibited; the proliferation rate of SKM-1 cells treated by decitabine (70.91 ± 0.05%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (53.67 ± 0.05%). Flow cytometry showed that the apoptotic rate of SKM- 1 cells treated by decitabine in combination with HO-1 expression inhibition (44.25 ± 0.05%) exceeded that of the cells treated by this drug alone (37.70 ± 0.05%). MSP showed that inhibiting HO-1 expression significantly increased the degree of methylation of the p15 gene. As suggested by western blot, the degree of methylation of the p15 protein was changed after decitabine treatment when the expression of the HO-1 protein was changed, being associated with the affected DNMT1 expression. Inhibited HO-1 expression attenuated the hypermethylation of CDKN2B by suppressing DNMT1, which was conducive to treatment by cooperating with decitabine. In conclusion, the findings of this study provide valuable experimental evidence for targeted MDS therapy, and a theoretical basis for further studies.

  18. Identification of iron and heme utilization genes in Aeromonas and their role in the colonization of the leech digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Michele; LeVarge, Barbara L; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or proteins for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mini Tn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to utilize iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB) was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted with an antibiotic resistance cassette in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant, yielding an hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A. veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a potential role in virulence factor of other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental) were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed that in contrast to the siderophore utilization genes heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. The importance of heme utilization in the colonization of the leech further confirms that symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar

  19. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of heme detoxification protein (HDP) from the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium vinckei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Awakash; Goyal, Manish; Prakash, Kirtika; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Siddiqui, Arif Jamal; Puri, Sunil K

    2015-07-15

    Malaria parasite resides within the host red blood cells, where it degrades vast amount of haemoglobin. During haemoglobin degradation, toxic free heme is liberated which subsequently gets converted into hemozoin. This process is facilitated by action of various proteins viz. heme detoxification protein (HDP), and histidine rich proteins II and III (HRP II & III). Out of these, HDP is the most potent in hemozoin formation and plays indispensible role for parasite survival. Despite this, the detailed study of HDP from rodent and simian parasite has not been performed till date. Here, we have cloned and sequenced hdp gene from different malaria parasites Plasmodium vinckei, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium knowlesi, and Plasmodium cynomolgi. Furthermore, HDP from P. vinckei (PvHDP) was over-expressed and purified for detailed characterization. The PvHDP is cytosolic, expressed throughout the intra erythrocytic stages and its expression is higher in late trophozoite and schizont stages of parasite. The PvHDP interacts with free heme (KD=89 nM) and efficiently converts heme into hemozoin in a time and concentration dependent manner. Moreover, PvHDP showed activity in acidic pH and over a broad range of temperature. Histidine modification of PvHDP using DEPC showed reduction in heme binding and hemozoin formation, thus emphasizing the importance of histidine residues in heme binding and subsequent hemozoin production. Furthermore, applicability of PvHDP to screen anti-plasmodial agents (targeting heme to hemozoin conversion) was also determined using chloroquine, and mefloquine as reference antimalarials. Results showed that these drugs inhibit heme polymerization effectively in a concentration dependent manner. In conclusion, our study identified and biochemically characterized HDP from rodent malaria parasite P. vinckei and this will help to develop a high throughput assay to evaluate new antimalarials targeting hemozoin pathway.

  20. NikA binds heme: a new role for an Escherichia coli periplasmic nickel-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Mark; Heath, Mathew D; Poole, Robert K

    2007-05-01

    NikA is a periplasmic binding protein involved in nickel uptake in Escherichia coli. NikA was identified as a heme-binding protein in the periplasm of anaerobically grown cells overexpressing CydDC, an ABC transporter that exports reductant to the periplasm. CydDC-overexpressing cells accumulate a heme biosynthesis-derived pigment, P-574. For further biochemical and spectroscopic analysis, unliganded NikA was overexpressed and purified. NikA was found to comigrate with both hemin and protoporphyrin IX during gel filtration. Furthermore, tryptophan fluorescence quenching titrations demonstrated that both hemin and protoporphyrin IX bind to NikA with similar affinity. The binding affinity of NikA for these pigments (Kd approximately 0.5 microM) was unaltered in the presence and absence of saturating concentrations of nickel, suggesting that these tetrapyrroles bind to NikA in a manner independent of nickel. To test the hypothesis that NikA is required for periplasmic heme protein assembly, the effects of a nikA mutation (nikA::Tn5, Km(R) insertion) on accumulation of P-574 by CydDC-overexpressing cells was assessed. This mutation significantly lowered P-574 levels, implying that NikA may be involved in P-574 production. Thus, in the reducing environment of the periplasm, NikA may serve as a heme chaperone as well as a periplasmic nickel-binding protein. The docking of heme onto NikA was modeled using the published crystal structure; many of the predicted complexes exhibit a heme-binding cleft remote from the nickel-binding site, which is consistent with the independent binding of nickel and heme. This work has implications for the incorporation of heme into b- and c-type cytochromes.

  1. Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved

    OpenAIRE

    Bastide, Nadia; Pierre, Fabrice; Corpet, Denis E

    2011-01-01

    accepted 2 dec 2010; International audience; Red meat and processed meat intake is associated with a risk of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that heme iron present in meat promotes colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of colon cancer reporting heme intake included 566,607 individuals and 4,734 cases of colon cancer. The summary relative risk of colon cancer was 1.1...

  2. Staphylococcus aureus FepA and FepB proteins drive heme iron utilization in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlin, Evelyne; Débarbouillé, Michel; Augustyniak, Katarzyna; Gilles, Anne-Marie; Wandersman, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    EfeUOB-like tripartite systems are widespread in bacteria and in many cases they are encoded by genes organized into iron-regulated operons. They consist of: EfeU, a protein similar to the yeast iron permease Ftrp1; EfeO, an extracytoplasmic protein of unknown function and EfeB, also an extracytoplasmic protein with heme peroxidase activity, belonging to the DyP family. Many bacterial EfeUOB systems have been implicated in iron uptake, but a prefential iron source remains undetermined. Nevertheless, in the case of Escherichia coli, the EfeUOB system has been shown to recognize heme and to allow extracytoplasmic heme iron extraction via a deferrochelation reaction. Given the high level of sequence conservations between EfeUOB orthologs, we hypothesized that heme might be the physiological iron substrate for the other orthologous systems. To test this hypothesis, we undertook characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus FepABC system. Results presented here indicate: i) that the S. aureus FepB protein binds both heme and PPIX with high affinity, like EfeB, the E. coli ortholog; ii) that it has low peroxidase activity, comparable to that of EfeB; iii) that both FepA and FepB drive heme iron utilization, and both are required for this activity and iv) that the E. coli FepA ortholog (EfeO) cannot replace FepA in FepB-driven iron release from heme indicating protein specificity in these activities. Our results show that the function in heme iron extraction is conserved in the two orthologous systems.

  3. Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Pierre, Fabrice H F; Corpet, Denis E

    2011-02-01

    Red meat and processed meat intake is associated with a risk of colorectal cancer, a major cause of death in affluent countries. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that heme iron present in meat promotes colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of colon cancer reporting heme intake included 566,607 individuals and 4,734 cases of colon cancer. The relative risk of colon cancer was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06-1.32) for subjects in the highest category of heme iron intake compared with those in the lowest category. Epidemiological data thus show a suggestive association between dietary heme and risk of colon cancer. The analysis of experimental studies in rats with chemically-induced colon cancer showed that dietary hemoglobin and red meat consistently promote aberrant crypt foci, a putative precancer lesion. The mechanism is not known, but heme iron has a catalytic effect on (i) the endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and (ii) the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic aldehydes by lipoperoxidation. A review of evidence supporting these hypotheses suggests that both pathways are involved in heme iron toxicity.

  4. Melatonin prevents myeloperoxidase heme destruction and the generation of free iron mediated by self-generated hypochlorous acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Shaeib

    Full Text Available Myeloperoxidase (MPO generated hypochlorous acid (HOCl formed during catalysis is able to destroy the MPO heme moiety through a feedback mechanism, resulting in the accumulation of free iron. Here we show that the presence of melatonin (MLT can prevent HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction using a combination of UV-visible photometry, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-specific electrode, and ferrozine assay techniques. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis showed that MPO heme protection was at the expense of MLT oxidation. The full protection of the MPO heme requires the presence of a 1:2 MLT to H2O2 ratio. Melatonin prevents HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction through multiple pathways. These include competition with chloride, the natural co-substrate; switching the MPO activity from a two electron oxidation to a one electron pathway causing the buildup of the inactive Compound II, and its subsequent decay to MPO-Fe(III instead of generating HOCl; binding to MPO above the heme iron, thereby preventing the access of H2O2 to the catalytic site of the enzyme; and direct scavenging of HOCl. Collectively, in addition to acting as an antioxidant and MPO inhibitor, MLT can exert its protective effect by preventing the release of free iron mediated by self-generated HOCl. Our work may establish a direct mechanistic link by which MLT exerts its antioxidant protective effect in chronic inflammatory diseases with MPO elevation.

  5. Human Pharmacokinetics of High Dose Oral Curcumin and Its Effect on Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Klickovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 has been proposed to exert pharmacological benefits by its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. HO-1 expression may be affected by the GT length polymorphism in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We investigated the inducibility of HO-1 by orally administered curcumin in healthy male subjects and its correlation with the GT length polymorphism. Methods. In an open label uncontrolled phase-1 pilot study, ten male subjects received 12 g of oral curcumin. To investigate the effects of the GT length polymorphism on the inducibility of HO-1, five subjects with homozygous short and five with homozygous long GT genotypes were studied. Plasma concentrations of curcumin, bilirubin, HO-1 mRNA, and protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were analyzed over 48 hours. Results. At a detection limit of 1 µg/mL curcumin could not be detected in plasma of any subject. Compared to baseline, HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were not induced in PBMCs at any time point up to 48 hours. There was no correlation between any of the parameters and GT length polymorphism. Conclusions. Oral curcumin administration has low bioavailability and does not induce HO-1 on mRNA or protein level in PBMCs.

  6. Effects of Silymarin on Hepatitis C Virus and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Vania; Shan, Ying; Lambrecht, Richard W.; Donohue, Susan E.; Moschenross, Darcy; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global medical problem. The current standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, is prolonged, expensive, has serious side effects and, at best, is only 50% effective. Silymarin is a natural antioxidant often used by patients with CHC, although its efficacy for decreasing HCV levels or ameliorating CHC remains uncertain. HCV infection is associated with increased hepatic oxidative stress, and one of the antioxidant enzymes which protect cells against this stress is heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods We investigated effects of silymarin on HCV and HO-1 gene expression in Huh-7 cells, CNS3, and 9-13 cells (the latter two stably expressing HCV-proteins). Results Silymarin significantly down-regulated HCV core mRNA (by 20% - 36%) and protein (by 30%-60%) in CNS3 cells. In contrast, silymarin did not decrease HCV NS5A mRNA or protein expression in 9-13 cells. HO-1 mRNA was up-regulated (60%-400%) by silymarin in Huh-7, CNS3 and 9-13 cells, whereas Bach1 and Nrf2 mRNA levels were not affected. The effect of silymarin to down-regulate HCV core was not related to changes in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. Conclusions Silymarin may be of benefit in CHC, although prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to be certain. PMID:18694403

  7. Red meat and colon cancer : a possible role for heme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, Aloysius Lambertus Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Sporadic colon cancer is a multifactorial aging disease affected by long-term exposure to environmental risk factors. Epidemiological studies have shown that risk for colon cancer is associated with diets high in red meat and/or animal fat. The mechanisms by which colonic tumors arise are, however,

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westre, Tami E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s→3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  9. The Effect of Distal Interactions on O2-Binding to Heme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Dasmeh, Pouria

    2013-01-01

    , the impact of specific types of distal interactions on oxyheme electronic structure can be systematized. Hydrogen bonding increases back donation, O-O bond activation, and oxygen binding affinity. The heme side-chains reduce isomer shifts by -0.06 mm/s due to electron-withdrawal from iron, and distal......This paper reports DFT-computed electronic ground states, Mössbauer isomer shifts, O-O and Fe-O vibration frequencies, and thermodynamics of O2-binding of heme models representing different distal (position E7) interactions, strictly validated against experimental data. Based on the results...... hydrogen bonds can further reduce isomer shifts up to 0.07 mm/s. The O-O stretch vibration, the O-O distance, and the isomer shift possess substantial heuristic value in interpreting electronic structure, whereas other properties are less effective, based on computed correlation coefficients. Shorter Fe...

  10. X-ray Crystallography of A Metalloprotein: A Reaction Intermediate of Heme Oxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaki; Matsui, Toshitaka; Ikeda-Saito, Masao

    X-ray crystallographic analysis of a metalloprotein requires knowing the electronic state of the metal center, if one wants to elucidate the exact function and/or reaction mechanism. As an example, we show our recent structural analysis of the heme oxygenase reaction intermediate which is involved in the third step of the heme degradation reaction. The reaction intermediate was crystallized under anaerobic condition, and the obtained crystals were frozen into liquid nitrogen. The absorption spectra of the single crystal before and after X-ray irradiation were compared with that of the frozen solution in 100 K cold nitrogen stream. The determined structure offers the first solid evidence for the presence of a water cluster in the distal pocket of this catalytically critical intermediate. This structure combined with the QM/MM calculation supports our proposal that the biliverdin is produced via Fe-OOH verdoheme intermediate.

  11. Intense Raman bands and low luminescence of thin films of heme proteins on silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonois, Vanessa; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Faller, Peter

    2009-08-01

    We use resonance Raman spectroscopy to study cytochrome c, hemoglobin and myoglobin from 50 μM solutions dried on a SiO 2 surface. Intense Raman spectra were observed with low luminescent background when excited at 488 nm with low laser power levels (0.6 mW) and relative short acquisition times (120 s). We estimate that 1 picogram of heme proteins can be detected. A polarization sensitive Raman band in cytochrome c near the edge of dried droplets suggests that the proteins line up in the ring deposit. This preferential orientation is suggested to contribute to the low luminescence back ground signal and to the larger Raman intensity compared to the heme proteins in powder form.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westre, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

  13. In vitro bioavailability of iron from the heme analogue sodium iron chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Silvia; Tascioglu, Serpil; van der Burg, Monique; Frenken, Leon; Klaffke, Werner

    2010-01-27

    The use of heme analogues from vegetable origin could provide an alternative iron source of potentially high bioavailability. Sodium iron chlorophyllin is a water-soluble semisynthetic chlorophyll derivative where the magnesium in the porphyrin ring has been substituted by iron. We have used an in vitro model that combines gastric and intestinal digestion followed by intestinal iron uptake in Caco-2 cells to determine the bioavailability of iron from sodium iron chlorophyllin. Our results demonstrate that sodium iron chlorophyllin is stable under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and is able to deliver bioavailable iron to Caco-2 cells. Similar to the heme, the bioavailability of iron from sodium iron chlorophyllin is dependent on the food matrix, and it was inhibited by calcium. Potentially, sodium iron chlorophyllin could be used as an iron fortificant from vegetable origin with high bioavailability.

  14. Genotype and allele frequencies of heme oxygenase-1 promoter region in a Greek cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleni P. Katana; Lemonia G. Skoura; Zacharias G Scouras; Michail A. Daniilidis

    2011-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme,which catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide,biliverdin and free iron.The induction of this enzyme is an important cytoprotective mechanism,which occurs as an adaptive and beneficial response to a wide variety of oxidant stimuli.HO-1 inducibility is mainly modulated by a (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region,and has been shown that short (S) repeats are associated with greater up-regulation of HO-1,compared with long (L) repeats.Methods In the present study,250 healthy Greek individuals have been screened in order to estimate the frequencies of (GT)n alleles in the HO-1 gene.Results Nineteen different alleles,ranging from 17 to 39 repeats,with (GT)23 and (GT)30 being the most common ones,were identified.Conclusion The possible role of this polymorphism in disease states is discussed.

  15. A Heme Oxygenase-1 Transducer Model of Degenerative and Developmental Brain Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In “stressed” astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  16. The iron/heme regulated genes of Haemophilus influenzae: comparative transcriptional profiling as a tool to define the species core modulon

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    Morton Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for aerobic growth and possesses multiple mechanisms to obtain this essential nutrient. Although an understanding of the heme acquisition mechanisms of H. influenzae is emerging, significant gaps in our knowledge remain. Unresolved issues include the identities of all genes exhibiting altered transcription in response to iron and heme availability, the fraction of such genes functioning in iron/heme acquisition, and the heterogeneity of this gene set among clinical isolates. Previously we utilized H. influenzae strain Rd KW20 to demonstrate the utility of transcriptional profiling in defining the genes exhibiting altered transcription in response to environmental iron and heme levels. The current study expands upon those observations by determining the iron/heme modulons of two clinical isolates, the type b isolate 10810 and the nontypeable isolate R2866. These data are used to begin to define the core iron/heme modulon of the species. Results Microarray studies were performed to compare gene expression on transition from iron/heme-restricted to iron/heme-replete conditions for each isolate. Of 1820 ORFs on the array corresponding to R2866 genes, 363 were significantly differentially expressed: 233 were maximally transcribed under iron/heme-replete conditions and 130 under iron/heme-restricted conditions. Of the 1883 ORFs representing genes of strain 10810, 353 were significantly differentially transcribed: 150 were preferentially transcribed under iron/heme-replete conditions and 203 under iron/heme-restricted conditions. Comparison of the data sets indicated that 163 genes exhibited similar regulation in both isolates and that 74 of these exhibited similar patterns of regulation in Rd KW20. These comprise the putative core iron/heme modulon. Conclusion This study provides evidence for a conserved core of H. influenzae genes the transcription of which is altered by the availability of

  17. The NEAT Domain-Containing Proteins of Clostridium perfringens Bind Heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Cheung, Jackie K; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Steer, David L; Bulach, Dieter M; Hiscox, Thomas J; Chakravorty, Anjana; Smith, A Ian; Gell, David A; Rood, Julian I; Awad, Milena M

    2016-01-01

    The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to scavenge iron from its host is important for its growth and survival during an infection. Our studies on C. perfringens gas gangrene strain JIR325, a derivative of strain 13, showed that it is capable of utilizing both human hemoglobin and ferric chloride, but not human holo-transferrin, as an iron source for in vitro growth. Analysis of the C. perfringens strain 13 genome sequence identified a putative heme acquisition system encoded by an iron-regulated surface gene region that we have named the Cht (Clostridium perfringens heme transport) locus. This locus comprises eight genes that are co-transcribed and includes genes that encode NEAT domain-containing proteins (ChtD and ChtE) and a putative sortase (Srt). The ChtD, ChtE and Srt proteins were shown to be expressed in JIR325 cells grown under iron-limited conditions and were localized to the cell envelope. Moreover, the NEAT proteins, ChtD and ChtE, were found to bind heme. Both chtDE and srt mutants were constructed, but these mutants were not defective in hemoglobin or ferric chloride utilization. They were, however, attenuated for virulence when tested in a mouse myonecrosis model, although the virulence phenotype could not be restored via complementation and, as is common with such systems, secondary mutations were identified in these strains. In summary, this study provides evidence for the functional redundancies that occur in the heme transport pathways of this life threatening pathogen.

  18. Explaining the atypical reaction profiles of heme enzymes with a novel mechanistic hypothesis and kinetic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelath Murali Manoj

    Full Text Available Many heme enzymes show remarkable versatility and atypical kinetics. The fungal extracellular enzyme chloroperoxidase (CPO characterizes a variety of one and two electron redox reactions in the presence of hydroperoxides. A structural counterpart, found in mammalian microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP, uses molecular oxygen plus NADPH for the oxidative metabolism (predominantly hydroxylation of substrate in conjunction with a redox partner enzyme, cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we employ the two above-mentioned heme-thiolate proteins to probe the reaction kinetics and mechanism of heme enzymes. Hitherto, a substrate inhibition model based upon non-productive binding of substrate (two-site model was used to account for the inhibition of reaction at higher substrate concentrations for the CYP reaction systems. Herein, the observation of substrate inhibition is shown for both peroxide and final substrate in CPO catalyzed peroxidations. Further, analogy is drawn in the "steady state kinetics" of CPO and CYP reaction systems. New experimental observations and analyses indicate that a scheme of competing reactions (involving primary product with enzyme or other reaction components/intermediates is relevant in such complex reaction mixtures. The presence of non-selective reactive intermediate(s affords alternate reaction routes at various substrate/product concentrations, thereby leading to a lowered detectable concentration of "the product of interest" in the reaction milieu. Occam's razor favors the new hypothesis. With the new hypothesis as foundation, a new biphasic treatment to analyze the kinetics is put forth. We also introduce a key concept of "substrate concentration at maximum observed rate". The new treatment affords a more acceptable fit for observable experimental kinetic data of heme redox enzymes.

  19. Imaging B. anthracis heme catabolism in mice using the IFP1.4 gene reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Banghe; Robinson, Holly; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Nobles, Christopher L.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Maresso, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    B. anthracis is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium which likes all pathogenic bacteria, survive by sequestering heme from its host. To image B. anthracis heme catabolism in vivo, we stably transfect new red excitable fluorescent protein, IFP1.4, that requires the heme catabolism product biliverdin (BV). IFP1.4 reporter has favorable excitation and emission characteristics, which has an absorption peak at 685 nm and an emission peak at 708 nm. Therefore, IFP1.4 reporter can be imaged deeply into the tissue with less contamination from tissue autofluorescence. However, the excitation light "leakage" through optical filters can limit detection and sensitivity of IFP1.4 reporter due to the small Stoke's shift of IFP1.4 fluorescence. To minimize the excitation light leakage, an intensified CCD (ICCD) based infrared fluorescence imaging device was optimized using two band pass filters separated by a focus lens to increase the optical density at the excitation wavelength. In this study, a mouse model (DBA/J2) was first injected with B. anthracis bacteria expressing IFP1.4, 150 μl s.c., on the ventral side of the left thigh. Then mouse was given 250 μl of a 1mM BV solution via I.V. injection. Imaging was conducted as a function of time after infection under light euthanasia, excised tissues were imaged and IFP1.4 fluorescence correlated with standard culture measurements of colony forming units (CFU). The work demonstrates the use of IFP1.4 as a reporter of bacterial utilization of host heme and may provide an important tool for understanding the pathogenesis of bacterial infection and developing new anti-bacterial therapeutics.

  20. Identification of c-Type Heme-Containing Peptides Using Non-Activated Immobilized Metal Affinity Cchromatography Resin Enrichment and Higher-Energy Collisional Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Yang, Feng; Qian, Weijun; Brown, Roslyn N.; Wang, Yuexi; Merkley, Eric D.; Park, Jea H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2011-10-01

    c-type cytochromes play essential roles in many biological activities of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including electron transfer, enzyme catalysis and induction of apoptosis. We report a novel enrichment strategy for identifying c-type heme-containing peptides that uses non-activated IMAC resin. The strategy demonstrated at least seven-fold enrichment for heme-containing peptides digested from a cytochrome c protein standard, and quantitative linear performance was also assessed for heme-containing peptide enrichment. Heme-containing peptides extracted from the periplasmic fraction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were further identified using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated the applicability of this enrichment strategy to identify c-type heme-containing peptides from a highly complex biological sample, and at the same time, confirmed the periplasmic localization of heme-containing proteins during suboxic respiration activities of S. oneidensis MR-1.

  1. Heme oxygenase-1, a critical arbitrator of cell death pathways in lung injury and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Danielle; Lin, Ling; Choi, Augustine M K; Ryter, Stefan W

    2009-07-01

    Increases in cell death by programmed (i.e., apoptosis, autophagy) or nonprogrammed mechanisms (i.e., necrosis) occur during tissue injury and may contribute to the etiology of several pulmonary or vascular disease states. The low-molecular-weight stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers cytoprotection against cell death in various models of lung and vascular injury by inhibiting apoptosis, inflammation, and cell proliferation. HO-1 serves a vital metabolic function as the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation pathway and in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. The transcriptional induction of HO-1 occurs in response to multiple forms of chemical and physical cellular stress. The cytoprotective functions of HO-1 may be attributed to heme turnover, as well as to beneficial properties of its enzymatic reaction products: biliverdin-IXalpha, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Recent studies have demonstrated that HO-1 or CO inhibits stress-induced extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in vitro. A variety of signaling molecules have been implicated in the cytoprotection conferred by HO-1/CO, including autophagic proteins, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, nuclear factor-kappaB, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and others. Enhanced HO-1 expression or the pharmacological application of HO end-products affords protection in preclinical models of tissue injury, including experimental and transplant-associated ischemia/reperfusion injury, promising potential future therapeutic applications.

  2. Direct visualization of a Fe(IV)-OH intermediate in a heme enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hanna; Basran, Jaswir; Casadei, Cecilia M.; Fielding, Alistair J.; Schrader, Tobias E.; Ostermann, Andreas; Devos, Juliette M.; Aller, Pierre; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Moody, Peter C. E.; Raven, Emma L.

    2016-11-01

    Catalytic heme enzymes carry out a wide range of oxidations in biology. They have in common a mechanism that requires formation of highly oxidized ferryl intermediates. It is these ferryl intermediates that provide the catalytic engine to drive the biological activity. Unravelling the nature of the ferryl species is of fundamental and widespread importance. The essential question is whether the ferryl is best described as a Fe(IV)=O or a Fe(IV)-OH species, but previous spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic studies have not been able to unambiguously differentiate between the two species. Here we use a different approach. We report a neutron crystal structure of the ferryl intermediate in Compound II of a heme peroxidase; the structure allows the protonation states of the ferryl heme to be directly observed. This, together with pre-steady state kinetic analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray fluorescence, identifies a Fe(IV)-OH species as the reactive intermediate. The structure establishes a precedent for the formation of Fe(IV)-OH in a peroxidase.

  3. Iron chelators can protect against oxidative stress through ferryl heme reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Brandon J; Hider, Robert C; Wilson, Michael T

    2008-02-01

    Iron chelators such as desferrioxamine have been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo. The mechanism of this therapeutic action under non-iron-overload conditions is, however, complex, as desferrioxamine has properties that can impact on oxidative damage independent of its capacity to act as an iron chelator. Desferrioxamine can act as a reducing agent to remove cytotoxic ferryl myoglobin and hemoglobin and has recently been shown to prevent the formation of a highly cytotoxic heme-to-protein cross-linked derivative of myoglobin. In this study we have examined the effects of a wide range of iron chelators, including the clinically used hydroxypyridinone CP20 (deferriprone), on the stability of ferryl myoglobin and on the formation of heme-to-protein cross-linking. We show that all hydroxypyridinones, as well as many other iron chelators, are efficient reducing agents of ferryl myoglobin. These compounds are also effective at preventing the formation of cytotoxic derivatives of myoglobin such as heme-to-protein cross-linking. These results show that the use of iron chelators in vivo may ameliorate oxidative damage under conditions of non-iron overload by at least two mechanisms. The antioxidant effects of chelators in vivo cannot, therefore, be attributed solely to iron chelation.

  4. Molecular basis of inherited microcytic anemia due to defects in iron acquisition or heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; De Falco, Luigia; Beaumont, Carole

    2009-03-01

    Microcytic anemia is the most commonly encountered anemia in general medical practice. Nutritional iron deficiency and beta thalassemia trait are the primary causes in pediatrics, whereas bleeding disorders and anemia of chronic disease are common in adulthood. Microcytic hypochromic anemia can result from a defect in globin genes, in heme synthesis, in iron availability or in iron acquisition by the erythroid precursors. These microcytic anemia can be sideroblastic or not, a trait which reflects the implications of different gene abnormalities. Iron is a trace element that may act as a redox component and therefore is integral to vital biological processes that require the transfer of electrons as in oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, DNA biosynthesis and xenobiotic metabolism. However, it can also be pro-oxidant and to avoid its toxicity, iron metabolism is strictly controlled and failure of these control systems could induce iron overload or iron deficient anemia. During the past few years, several new discoveries mostly arising from human patients or mouse models have highlighted the implication of iron metabolism components in hereditary microcytic anemia, from intestinal absorption to its final inclusion into heme. In this paper we will review the new information available on the iron acquisition pathway by developing erythrocytes and its regulation, and we will consider only inherited microcytosis due to heme synthesis or to iron metabolism defects. This information could be useful in the diagnosis and classification of these microcytic anemias.

  5. Highly selective isolation and purification of heme proteins in biological samples using multifunctional magnetic nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yating; Li, Yan; Wei, Yun

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic particles with suitable surface modification are capable of binding proteins selectively, and magnetic separations have advantages of rapidity, convenience, and high selectivity. In this paper, new magnetic nanoparticles modified with imidazolium ionic liquid (Fe3O4 @SiO2 @ILs) were successfully fabricated. N-Methylimidazolium was immobilized onto silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles via γ-chloropropyl modification as a magnetic nanoadsorbent for heme protein separation. The particle size was about 90 nm without significant aggregation during the preparation process. Hemoglobin as one of heme proteins used in this experiment was compared with other nonheme proteins. It has been found that the magnetic nanoparticles can be used for more rapid, efficient, and specific adsorption of hemoglobin with a binding capacity as high as 5.78 mg/mg. In comparison with other adsorption materials of proteins in the previous reports, Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @ILs magnetic nanoparticles exhibit the excellent performance in isolation of heme proteins with higher binding capacity and selectivity. In addition, a short separation time makes the functionalized nanoparticles suitable for purifying unstable proteins, as well as having other potential applications in a variety of biomedical fields.

  6. Identification of an Escherichia coli O 157:H7 Heme Oxygenase with Tandem Functional Repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suits,M.; Pal, G.; Nakatsu, A.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.; Jia, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HOs) catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron. Iron acquisition is critical for invading microorganisms to enable survival and growth. Here we report the crystal structure of ChuS, which displays a previously uncharacterized fold and is unique compared with other characterized HOs. Despite only 19% sequence identity between the N- and C-terminal halves, these segments of ChuS represent a structural duplication, with a root-mean-square deviation of 2.1 {angstrom} between the two repeats. ChuS is capable of using ascorbic acid or cytochrome P450 reductase-NADPH as electron sources for heme oxygenation. CO detection confirmed that ChuS is a HO, and we have identified it in pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Based on sequence analysis, this HO is present in many bacteria, although not in the E. coli K-12 strain. The N- and C-terminal halves of ChuS are each a functional HO.

  7. [Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide in the physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz, Anna; Borkowska, Ewelina

    2004-03-03

    Heme oxygenase (HO) degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions, and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is subsequently reduced to the other important bile pigment, bilirubin, by biliverdin reductase. Fe2+ liberated from the heme molecule upregulates ferritin production, and bile pigments are potent endogenous antioxidants. The HO enzyme exists in three isophorms: HO-1 is expressed at low levels under physiological conditions, but is induced by numerous factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, an elevated level of substrate, and hypoxia. HO-2 is a constitutive enzyme involved in the baseline production of CO in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, whereas HO-3 is also ubiquitously expressed, but possesses low catalytic activity. Like nitric oxide, CO activates soluble guanylate cyclase and elevates cGMP in target tissues, which dilates blood vessels. It also does this by directly activating potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, CO inhibits platelet aggregation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibits apoptosis, and stimulates angiogenesis. Both deficiency, and excess of HO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Induction of HO-1 attenuates atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Pharmacological and genetic induction of HO-1 as well as the delivery of exogenous CO are promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z P; Liu, R F; Wang, A R; Li, J Y; Deng, X M

    2011-04-01

    Biliverdin is responsible for the coloration of blue eggs and is secreted onto the eggshell by the shell gland. Previous studies confirmed that a significant difference exists in biliverdin content between blue eggs and brown eggs, although the reasons are still unknown. Because the pigment is derived from oxidative degradation of heme catalyzed by heme oxygenase (HO), this study compared heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), the gene encoding HO expression and HO activity, in the shell glands of the Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken (n = 12) and the Dongxiang brown-shelled chicken (n = 12). Results showed that HMOX1 was highly expressed at the mRNA (1.58-fold; P 0.05). Taken together, these results show that blue egg formation is associated with high expression of HMOX1 in the shell gland of Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens, and suggest that differential expression of HMOX1 in the 2 groups of chickens is most likely to arise from an alteration in the trans-acting factor.

  9. Tracheobronchial cytologic changes and abnormal serum heme pigments in hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Mor, Z; Chalon, J; Turndorf, H; Orkin, L R

    1977-11-01

    Significantly elevated numbers of iron laden histiocytes have been shown to appear in the tracheobronchial secretions of subjects in hemorrhagic shock and in patients undergoing open heart-surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (3,4). Abnormal heme pigments have also been demonstrated in the serum of dogs bled to hemorrhagic shock (6) and have been felt to be toxic. Because the ingestion of abnormal heme pigments by histiocytes may be part of a defense mechanism, we have attempted to correlate the percentage of iron laden histiocytes found in the tracheobronchial secretions of patients in hemorrhagic shock (Prussian blue method) with the presence of degradation of products of hemoglobin found in their serum by scanning spectrophotometry. There were, generally speaking, few iron laden histiocytes when hemoglobin degradation was advanced, and always numerous iron laden histiocytes when abnormal heme pigments were absent or spectrophotometric findings revealed minor degrees of degradation. Our findings probably reflect the process in the reticuloendothelial systems which eliminates toxic products accumulating in the circulation in low-flow states.

  10. Heme oxygenase-1: a provenance for cytoprotective pathways in the kidney and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, K A

    2006-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme, converting heme to biliverdin, during which iron is released and carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted; biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. At least two isozymes possess HO activity: HO-1 represents the isozyme induced by diverse stressors, including ischemia, nephrotoxins, cytokines, endotoxin, oxidants, and vasoactive substances; HO-2 is the constitutive, glucocorticoid-inducible isozyme. HO-1 is upregulated in the kidney in assorted conditions and diseases. Interest in HO is driven by the capacity of this system to protect the kidney against injury, a capacity likely reflecting, at least in part, the cytoprotective properties of its products: in relatively low concentrations, CO exerts vasorelaxant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects while bile pigments are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory metabolites. This article reviews the HO system and the extent to which it influences the function of the healthy kidney; it summarizes conditions and stimuli that elicit HO-1 in the kidney; and it explores the significance of renal expression of HO-1 as induced by ischemia, nephrotoxins, nephritides, transplantation, angiotensin II, and experimental diabetes. This review also points out the tissue specificity of the HO system, and the capacity of HO-1 to induce renal injury in certain settings. Studies of HO in other tissues are discussed insofar as they aid in elucidating the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of the HO system in the kidney.

  11. Diamond Blackfan Anemia at the Crossroad between Ribosome Biogenesis and Heme Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Chiabrando

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA is a rare, pure red-cell aplasia that presents during infancy. Approximately 40% of cases are associated with other congenital defects, particularly malformations of the upper limb or craniofacial region. Mutations in the gene coding for the ribosomal protein RPS19 have been identified in 25% of patients with DBA, with resulting impairment of 18S rRNA processing and 40S ribosomal subunit formation. Moreover, mutations in other ribosomal protein coding genes account for about 25% of other DBA cases. Recently, the analysis of mice from which the gene coding for the heme exporter Feline Leukemia Virus subgroup C Receptor (FLVCR1 is deleted suggested that this gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of DBA. FLVCR1-null mice show a phenotype resembling that of DBA patients, including erythroid failure and malformations. Interestingly, some DBA patients have disease linkage to chromosome 1q31, where FLVCR1 is mapped. Moreover, it has been reported that cells from DBA patients express alternatively spliced isoforms of FLVCR1 which encode non-functional proteins. Herein, we review the known roles of RPS19 and FLVCR1 in ribosome function and heme metabolism respectively, and discuss how the deficiency of a ribosomal protein or of a heme exporter may result in the same phenotype.

  12. Quantum chemical calculations of tryptophan → heme electron and excitation energy transfer rates in myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Christian J; Hirst, Jonathan D; Besley, Nicholas A

    2017-04-01

    The development of optical multidimensional spectroscopic techniques has opened up new possibilities for the study of biological processes. Recently, ultrafast two-dimensional ultraviolet spectroscopy experiments have determined the rates of tryptophan → heme electron transfer and excitation energy transfer for the two tryptophan residues in myoglobin (Consani et al., Science, 2013, 339, 1586). Here, we show that accurate prediction of these rates can be achieved using Marcus theory in conjunction with time-dependent density functional theory. Key intermediate residues between the donor and acceptor are identified, and in particular the residues Val68 and Ile75 play a critical role in calculations of the electron coupling matrix elements. Our calculations demonstrate how small changes in structure can have a large effect on the rates, and show that the different rates of electron transfer are dictated by the distance between the heme and tryptophan residues, while for excitation energy transfer the orientation of the tryptophan residues relative to the heme is important. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. New insights into Alzheimer's disease amyloid inhibition: nanosized metallo-supramolecular complexes suppress aβ-induced biosynthesis of heme and iron uptake in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Chuanqi; Duan, Taicheng; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-06-01

    Nanosized metallo-supramolecular compounds, [Ni2 L3 ](4+) and [Fe2 L3 ](4+) , can not only strongly inhibit Aβ aggregation but also reduce the peroxidase activity of Aβ-heme. Further studies demonstrate that through blocking the heme-binding site, these two compounds can suppress Aβ-induced biosynthesis of heme and iron uptake in PC12 cells. This work provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of Aβ inhibitors on Aβ-mediated neurotoxicity.

  14. An alternative reaction for heme degradation catalyzed by the Escherichia coli O157:H7 ChuS protein: Release of hematinic acid, tripyrrole and Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Yannick H; Ndiaye, Cheikh Tidiane; Gagné, Stéphane M; Sebilo, Anne; Suits, Michael D L; Jubinville, Éric; Jia, Zongchao; Ivancich, Anabella; Couture, Manon

    2016-01-01

    As part of the machinery to acquire, internalize and utilize heme as a source of iron from the host, some bacteria possess a canonical heme oxygenase, where heme plays the dual role of substrate and cofactor, the later catalyzing the cleavage of the heme moiety using O2 and electrons, and resulting in biliverdin, carbon monoxide and ferrous non-heme iron. We have previously reported that the Escherichia coli O157:H7 ChuS protein, which is not homologous to heme oxygenases, can bind and degrade heme in a reaction that releases carbon monoxide. Here, we have pursued a detailed characterization of such heme degradation reaction using stopped-flow UV-visible absorption spectrometry, the characterization of the intermediate species formed in such reaction by EPR spectroscopy and the identification of reaction products by NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry. We show that hydrogen peroxide (in molar equivalent) is the key player in the degradation reaction, at variance to canonical heme oxygenases. While the initial intermediates of the reaction of ChuS with hydrogen peroxide (a ferrous keto π neutral radical and ferric verdoheme, both identified by EPR spectroscopy) are in common with heme oxygenases, a further and unprecedented reaction step, involving the cleavage of the porphyrin ring at adjacent meso-carbons, results in the release of hematinic acid (a monopyrrole moiety identified by NMR spectroscopy), a tripyrrole product (identified by Mass spectrometry) and non-heme iron in the ferric oxidation state (identified by EPR spectroscopy). Overall, the unprecedented reaction of E. coli O157:H7 ChuS provides evidence for a novel heme degradation activity in a Gram-negative bacterium.

  15. Biophysical Characterisation of Globins and Multi-Heme Cytochromes Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Filip

    Heme proteins of different families were investigated in this work, using a combination of pulsed and continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy and laser flash photolysis. The first class of proteins that were investigated, were the globins. The globin-domain of the globin-coupled sensor of the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens was studied in detail using different pulsed EPR techniques (HYSCORE and Mims ENDOR). The results of this pulsed EPR study are compared with the results of the optical investigation and the crystal structure of the protein. The second globin, which was studied, is the Protoglobin of Methanosarcina acetivorans, various mutants of this protein were studied using laser flash photolysis and Raman spectroscopy to unravel the link between this protein's unusual structure and its ligand-binding kinetics. In addition to this, the CN -bound form of this protein was investigated using EPR and the influence of the strong deformation of the heme on the unusual low gz values is discussed. Finally, the neuroglobins of three species of fishes, Danio rerio, Dissostichus mawsoni and Chaenocephalus aceratus are studied. The influence of the presence or absence of two cysteine residues in the C-D and D-region of the protein on the EPR spectrum, and the possible formation of a disulfide bond is studied. The second group of proteins that were studied in this thesis belong to the family of the cytochromes. First the Mouse tumor suppressor cytochrome b561 was studied, the results of a Raman and EPR investigation are compared to the Human orthologue of the protein. Secondly, the tonoplast cytochrome b561 of Arabidopsis was investigated in its natural form and in two double-mutant forms, in which the heme at the extravesicular side was removed. The results of this investigation are then compared with two models in literature that predict the localisation of the hemes in this

  16. Delayed globin synthesis leads to excess heme and the macrocytic anemia of Diamond Blackfan anemia and del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhantao; Keel, Siobán B; Shimamura, Akiko; Liu, Li; Gerds, Aaron T; Li, Henry Y; Wood, Brent L; Scott, Bart L; Abkowitz, Janis L

    2016-05-11

    Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with isolated del(5q) are severe macrocytic anemias; although both are associated with impaired ribosome assembly, why the anemia occurs is not known. We cultured marrow cells from DBA (n = 3) and del(5q) MDS (n = 6) patients and determined how heme (a toxic chemical) and globin (a protein) are coordinated. We show that globin translation initiates slowly, whereas heme synthesis proceeds normally. This results in insufficient globin protein, excess heme and excess reactive oxygen species in early erythroid precursors, and CFU-E (colony-forming unit-erythroid)/proerythroblast cell death. The cells that can more rapidly and effectively export heme or can slow heme synthesis preferentially survive and appropriately mature. Consistent with these observations, treatment with 10 μM succinylacetone, a specific inhibitor of heme synthesis, improved the erythroid cell output of DBA and del(5q) MDS marrow cultures by 68 to 95% (P = 0.03 to 0.05), whereas the erythroid cell output of concurrent control marrow cultures decreased by 4 to 13%. Our studies demonstrate that erythropoiesis fails when heme exceeds globin. Our data further suggest that therapies that decrease heme synthesis (or facilitate heme export) could improve the red blood cell production of persons with DBA, del(5q) MDS, and perhaps other macrocytic anemias.

  17. Dendrimeric template of Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein II repeat motifs bearing Asp→Asn mutation exhibits heme binding and β-hematin formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky Kumari

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum (Pf employs a crucial PfHRPII catalyzed reaction that converts toxic heme into hemozoin. Understanding heme polymerization mechanism is the first step for rational design of new drugs, targeting this pathway. Heme binding and hemozoin formation have been ascribed to PfHRPII aspartate carboxylate-heme metal ionic interactions. To investigate, if this ionic interaction is indeed pivotal, we examined the comparative heme binding and β-hematin forming abilities of a wild type dendrimeric peptide BNT1 {harboring the native sequence motif of PfHRPII (AHHAHHAADA} versus a mutant dendrimeric peptide BNTM {in which ionic Aspartate residues have been replaced by the neutral Asparaginyl residues (AHHAHHAANA}. UV and IR data reported here reveal that at pH 5, both BNT1 and BNTM exhibit comparable heme binding as well as β-hematin forming abilities, thus questioning the role of PfHRPII aspartate carboxylate-heme metal ionic interactions in heme binding and β-hematin formation. Based on our data and information in the literature we suggest the possible role of weak dispersive interactions like N-H···π and lone-pair···π in heme binding and hemozoin formation.

  18. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC. In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO, which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO. Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM and light-dark box test (LDB in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182. The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol, a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  19. Identification of Iron and Heme Utilization Genes in Aeromonas and their Role in the Colonization of the Leech Digestive Tract

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    Michele eMaltz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that many pathogens produce high-affinity iron uptake systems like siderophores and/or genes for utilizing iron bound to heme-containing molecules, which facilitate iron-acquisition inside a host. In mutualistic digestive-tract associations, iron uptake systems have not been as well studied. We investigated the importance of two iron utilization systems within the beneficial digestive-tract association Aeromonas veronii and the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Siderophores were detected in A. veronii using chrome azurol S. Using a mTn5, a transposon insertion in viuB generated a mutant unable to acquire iron using siderophores. The A. veronii genome was then searched for genes potentially involved in iron utilization bound to heme-containing molecules. A putative outer membrane heme receptor (hgpB was identified with a transcriptional activator, termed hgpR, downstream. The hgpB gene was interrupted in both the parent strain and the viuB mutant with an antibiotic resistance cassette, yielding a hgpB mutant and a mutant with both iron uptake systems inactivated. In vitro assays indicated that hgpB is involved in utilizing iron bound to heme and that both iron utilization systems are important for A. veronii to grow in blood. In vivo colonization assays revealed that the ability to acquire iron from heme-containing molecules is critical for A.veronii to colonize the leech gut. Since iron and specifically heme utilization is important in this mutualistic relationship and has a role as a possible virulence factor in other organisms, genomes from different Aeromonas strains (both clinical and environmental were queried with iron utilization genes of A. veronii. This analysis revealed the heme utilization genes are widely distributed among aeromonads. In addition, aeromonads posses a suite of genes involved in iron acquisition. These data further confirm symbiotic and pathogenic relationships possess similar mechanisms for interacting with

  20. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2016-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC) is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO), which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light-dark box test (LDB) in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182). The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol), a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  1. Characterization of a heme-regulated non-coding RNA encoded by the prrF locus of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, requires iron for virulence and can obtain this nutrient via the acquisition of heme, an abundant source of iron in the human body. A surplus of either iron or heme can lead to oxidative stress; thus, the Fur (ferric uptake regulator protein blocks expression of genes required for iron and heme uptake in iron-replete environments. Fur also represses expression of two nearly identical genes encoding the 116- and 114-nucleotide (nt long PrrF1 and PrrF2 RNAs, respectively. While other Pseudomonads encode for the two PrrF RNAs at separate genomic loci, PrrF1 and PrrF2 are encoded in tandem in all sequenced strains of P. aeruginosa. In this report we characterize a third longer transcript encoded by the prrF locus, PrrH, which is repressed by heme as well as iron. We mapped the PrrH RNA in PA01 using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE and northern analysis, demonstrating the PrrH RNA is 325 nt in length. Accordingly, transcription of PrrH initiates at the 5' end of prrF1, proceeds through the prrF1 terminator and prrF1-prrF2 intergenic sequence (95 nt, and terminates at the 3' end of the prrF2 gene. We also present evidence that repression of PrrH by heme causes increased expression of previously identified PrrF-regulated genes, as well as newly identified iron- and heme-activated genes. Thus, the PrrH RNA appears to impart a novel heme regulatory mechanism to P. aeruginosa.

  2. Chronic Activation of Heme Free Guanylate Cyclase Leads to Renal Protection in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The nitric oxide (NO/soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC/cyclic guanosine monophasphate (cGMP-signalling pathway is impaired under oxidative stress conditions due to oxidation and subsequent loss of the prosthetic sGC heme group as observed in particular in chronic renal failure. Thus, the pool of heme free sGC is increased under pathological conditions. sGC activators such as cinaciguat selectively activate the heme free form of sGC and target the disease associated enzyme. In this study, a therapeutic effect of long-term activation of heme free sGC by the sGC activator cinaciguat was investigated in an experimental model of salt-sensitive hypertension, a condition that is associated with increased oxidative stress, heme loss from sGC and development of chronic renal failure. For that purpose Dahl/ss rats, which develop severe hypertension upon high salt intake, were fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl containing either placebo or cinaciguat for 21 weeks. Cinaciguat markedly improved survival and ameliorated the salt-induced increase in blood pressure upon treatment with cinaciguat compared to placebo. Renal function was significantly improved in the cinaciguat group compared to the placebo group as indicated by a significantly improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced urinary protein excretion. This was due to anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of the cinaciguat treatment. Taken together, this is the first study showing that long-term activation of heme free sGC leads to renal protection in an experimental model of hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These results underline the promising potential of cinaciguat to treat renal diseases by targeting the disease associated heme free form of sGC.

  3. Identification of the heme-modified peptides from cumene hydroperoxide-inactivated cytochrome P450 3A4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, K; Bornheim, L M; Falick, A M; Maltby, D; Yin, H; Correia, M A

    1998-12-15

    Cumene hydroperoxide-mediated (CuOOH-mediated) inactivation of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) results in destruction of their prosthetic heme to reactive fragments that irreversibly bind to the protein. We have attempted to characterize this process structurally, using purified, 14C-heme labeled, recombinant human liver P450 3A4 as the target of CuOOH-mediated inactivation, and a battery of protein characterization approaches [chemical (CNBr) and proteolytic (lysylendopeptidase-C) digestion, HPLC-peptide mapping, microEdman sequencing, and mass spectrometric analyses]. The heme-peptide adducts isolated after CNBr/lysylendopeptidase-C digestion of the CuOOH-inactivated P450 3A4 pertain to two distinct P450 3A4 active site domains. One of the peptides isolated corresponds to the proximal helix L/Cys-region peptide 429-450 domain and the others to the K-region (peptide 359-386 domain). Although the precise residue(s) targeted remain to be identified, we have narrowed down the region of attack to within a 17 amino acid peptide (429-445) stretch of the 55-amino acid proximal helix L/Cys domain. Furthermore, although the exact structures of the heme-modifying fragments and the nature of the adduction remain to be established conclusively, the incremental masses of approximately 302 and 314 Da detected by electrospray mass spectrometric analyses of the heme-modified peptides are consistent with a dipyrrolic heme fragment comprised of either pyrrole ring A-D or B-C, a known soluble product of peroxidative heme degradation, as a modifying species.

  4. Sesamin increases heme oxygenase-1 protein in RAW 264.7 macrophages through inhibiting its ubiquitination process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Mizuki; Ohnishi, Masatoshi; Shiratsuchi, Ayano; Kawakami, Takuya; Takahashi, Madoka; Motomura, Misato; Egusa, Kyohei; Urasaki, Tomoka; Inoue, Atsuko

    2014-10-15

    Sesamin is a major component in lignans of sesame seed oil, known to possess potent anti-oxidative capacity. In this study, the variation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, a kind of anti-oxidative enzyme, by sesamin in murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10μg/ml) exposure tended to increase HO-1 protein expression. Co-treatment with 100μM sesamin for 12h up-regulated the HO-1 protein level increased by LPS; however, HO-1 mRNA was unaffected. Sesamin delayed the reversal, by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (1μM), of the LPS-induced increase of HO-1 protein level. Meanwhile, sesamin suppressed LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) protein and associated NO release. LPS-induced increase of iNOS protein expression was also reversed by cycloheximide, which was not affected by sesamin, unlike HO-1. To clarify the mechanisms that underlie the up-regulation of HO-1 protein level by sesamin, the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cell line transfected with Flag-tagged HO-1 was used. A proteasome inhibitor, MG-132 (10μM), stabilized HO-1 protein in HEK 293T cells. Co-treatment with sesamin decreased ubiquitinated HO-1 protein accumulation by MG-132. However, sesamin did not affect the proteasome activity. These findings suggest that sesamin disturbs the degradation of HO-1 protein through inhibiting its ubiquitination, resulting in HO-1 protein up-regulation.

  5. Density functional theory calculations of the lowest energy quintet and triplet states of model hemes: role of functional, basis set, and zero-point energy corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostichenko, Daria; Choi, Andrew; Boulatov, Roman

    2008-04-24

    We investigated the effect of several computational variables, including the choice of the basis set, application of symmetry constraints, and zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, on the structural parameters and predicted ground electronic state of model 5-coordinate hemes (iron(II) porphines axially coordinated by a single imidazole or 2-methylimidazole). We studied the performance of B3LYP and B3PW91 with eight Pople-style basis sets (up to 6-311+G*) and B97-1, OLYP, and TPSS functionals with 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets. Only hybrid functionals B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-1 reproduced the quintet ground state of the model hemes. With a given functional, the choice of the basis set caused up to 2.7 kcal/mol variation of the quintet-triplet electronic energy gap (DeltaEel), in several cases, resulting in the inversion of the sign of DeltaEel. Single-point energy calculations with triple-zeta basis sets of the Pople (up to 6-311G++(2d,2p)), Ahlrichs (TZVP and TZVPP), and Dunning (cc-pVTZ) families showed the same trend. The zero-point energy of the quintet state was approximately 1 kcal/mol lower than that of the triplet, and accounting for ZPE corrections was crucial for establishing the ground state if the electronic energy of the triplet state was approximately 1 kcal/mol less than that of the quintet. Within a given model chemistry, effects of symmetry constraints and of a "tense" structure of the iron porphine fragment coordinated to 2-methylimidazole on DeltaEel were limited to 0.3 kcal/mol. For both model hemes the best agreement with crystallographic structural data was achieved with small 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets. Deviation of the computed frequency of the Fe-Im stretching mode from the experimental value with the basis set decreased in the order: nonaugmented basis sets, basis sets with polarization functions, and basis sets with polarization and diffuse functions. Contraction of Pople-style basis sets (double-zeta or triple-zeta) affected the results

  6. Role of distal arginine in early sensing intermediates in the heme domain of the oxygen sensor FixL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasaitis, Audrius; Hola, Klara; Bouzhir-Sima, Latifa; Lambry, Jean-Christophe; Balland, Veronique; Vos, Marten H; Liebl, Ursula

    2006-05-16

    FixL is a bacterial heme-based oxygen sensor, in which release of oxygen from the sensing PAS domain leads to activation of an associated kinase domain. Static structural studies have suggested an important role of the conserved residue arginine 220 in signal transmission at the level of the heme domain. To assess the role of this residue in the dynamics and properties of the initial intermediates in ligand release, we have investigated the effects of R220X (X = I, Q, E, H, or A) mutations in the FixLH heme domain on the dynamics and spectral properties of the heme upon photolysis of O(2), NO, and CO using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparison of transient spectra for CO and NO dissociation with steady-state spectra indicated less strain on the heme in the ligand dissociation species for all mutants compared to the wild type (WT). For CO and NO, the kinetics were similar to those of the wild type, with the exception of (1) a relatively low yield of picosecond NO rebinding to R220A, presumably related to the increase in the free volume of the heme pocket, and (2) substantial pH-dependent picosecond to nanosecond rebinding of CO to R220H, related to formation of a hydrogen bond between CO and histidine 220. Upon excitation of the complex bound with the physiological sensor ligand O(2), a 5-8 ps decay phase and a nondecaying (>4 ns) phase were observed for WT and all mutants. The strong distortion of the spectrum associated with the decay phase in WT is substantially diminished in all mutant proteins, indicating an R220-induced role of the heme in the primary intermediate in signal transmission. Furthermore, the yield of dissociated oxygen after this phase ( approximately 10% in WT) is increased in all mutants, up to almost unity in R220A, indicating a key role of R220 in caging the oxygen near the heme through hydrogen bonding. Molecular dynamics simulations corroborate these findings and suggest motions of O(2) and arginine 220 away from the heme

  7. Detection and Identification of Heme c-Modified Peptides by Histidine Affinity Chromatography, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, and Database Searching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkley, Eric D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Park, Jea H.; Belchik, Sara M.; Shi, Liang; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2012-12-07

    Multiheme c-type cytochromes (proteins with covalently attached heme c moieties) play important roles in extracellular metal respiration in dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-(LC-MS/MS) characterization of c-type cytochromes is hindered by the presence of multiple heme groups, since the heme c modified peptides are typically not observed, or if observed, not identified. Using a recently reported histidine affinity chromatography (HAC) procedure, we enriched heme c tryptic peptides from purified bovine heart cytochrome c, a bacterial decaheme cytochrome, and subjected these samples to LC-MS/MS analysis. Enriched bovine cytochrome c samples yielded three- to six-fold more confident peptide-spectrum matches to heme-c containing peptides than unenriched digests. In unenriched digests of the decaheme cytochrome MtoA from Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1, heme c peptides for four of the ten expected sites were observed by LC-MS/MS; following HAC fractionation, peptides covering nine out of ten sites were obtained. Heme c peptide spiked into E. coli lysates at mass ratios as low as 10-4 was detected with good signal-to-noise after HAC and LC-MS/MS analysis. In addition to HAC, we have developed a proteomics database search strategy that takes into account the unique physicochemical properties of heme c peptides. The results suggest that accounting for the double thioether link between heme c and peptide, and the use of the labile heme fragment as a reporter ion, can improve database searching results. The combination of affinity chromatography and heme-specific informatics yielded increases in the number of peptide-spectrum matches of 20-100-fold for bovine cytochrome c.

  8. Detection and identification of heme c-modified peptides by histidine affinity chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and database searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkley, Eric D; Anderson, Brian J; Park, Jea; Belchik, Sara M; Shi, Liang; Monroe, Matthew E; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S

    2012-12-07

    Multiheme c-type cytochromes (proteins with covalently attached heme c moieties) play important roles in extracellular metal respiration in dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) characterization of c-type cytochromes is hindered by the presence of multiple heme groups, since the heme c modified peptides are typically not observed or, if observed, not identified. Using a recently reported histidine affinity chromatography (HAC) procedure, we enriched heme c tryptic peptides from purified bovine heart cytochrome c, two bacterial decaheme cytochromes, and subjected these samples to LC-MS/MS analysis. Enriched bovine cytochrome c samples yielded 3- to 6-fold more confident peptide-spectrum matches to heme c containing peptides than unenriched digests. In unenriched digests of the decaheme cytochrome MtoA from Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1, heme c peptides for 4 of the 10 expected sites were observed by LC-MS/MS; following HAC fractionation, peptides covering 9 out of 10 sites were obtained. Heme c peptide spiked into E. coli lysates at mass ratios as low as 1×10(-4) was detected with good signal-to-noise after HAC and LC-MS/MS analysis. In addition to HAC, we have developed a proteomics database search strategy that takes into account the unique physicochemical properties of heme c peptides. The results suggest that accounting for the double thioether link between heme c and peptide, and the use of the labile heme fragment as a reporter ion, can improve database searching results. The combination of affinity chromatography and heme-specific informatics yielded increases in the number of peptide-spectrum matches of 20-100-fold for bovine cytochrome c.

  9. Meat and heme iron intake and esophageal adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Agudo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Molina, Esther; Sánchez, Ma José; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Siersema, Peter D; Matiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Saieva, Calogero; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadie; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Oikonomidou, Edespina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Johansen, Dorthe; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Mattias; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Freisling, Heinz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, Jose Ma; Amiano, Pilar; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Kuehn, Tilman; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Peeters, Petra H M; González, Carlos A

    2013-12-01

    Although recent studies suggest that high intakes of meat and heme iron are risk factors for several types of cancer, studies in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are scarce. Previous results in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) based on a relatively small number of cases suggested a positive association between processed meat and EAC. In this study, we investigate the association between intake of different types of meats and heme iron intake and EAC risk in a larger number of cases from EPIC. The study included 481,419 individuals and 137 incident cases of EAC that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of meat (unprocessed/processed red and white meat) was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant positive association of EAC risk with heme iron and processed meat intake, with HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68 and HR: 2.27, 95% CI:1.33-3.89, respectively, for comparison of the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake. Our results suggest a potential association between higher intakes of processed meat and heme iron and risk of EAC.

  10. Biglutaminyl-biliverdin IX alpha as a heme degradation product in the dengue fever insect-vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luiza O R; Oliveira, Pedro L; Almeida, Igor C; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O

    2007-06-12

    Hemoglobin digestion in the midgut of hematophagous animals results in the release of its prosthetic group, heme, which is a pro-oxidant molecule. Heme enzymatic degradation is a protective mechanism that has been described in several organisms, including plants, bacteria, and mammals. This reaction is catalyzed by heme oxygenase and results in formation of carbon monoxide, ferrous ion, and biliverdin IXalpha. During digestion, a large amount of a green pigment is produced and secreted into the intestinal lumen of Aedes aegypti adult females. In the case of another blood-sucking insect, the kissing-bug Rhodnius prolixus, we have recently shown that heme degradation involves a complex pathway that generates dicysteinyl-biliverdin IX gamma. The light absorption spectrum of the Aedes purified pigment was similar to that of biliverdin, but its mobility on a reverse-phase chromatography column suggested a compound less hydrophobic than biliverdin IXalpha. Structural characterization by ESI-MS revealed that the mosquito pigment is the alpha isomer of biliverdin bound to two glutamine residues by an amide bond. This biglutaminyl-biliverdin is formed by oxidative cleavage of the heme porphyrin ring followed by two subsequent additions of glutamine residues to the biliverdin IXalpha. The role of this pathway in the adaptation of this insect vector to a blood-feeding habit is discussed.

  11. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play, expe...... affects can be choreographed and designed intentionally or whether it arises from unpredictable circumstances within urbanity itself....

  12. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  13. Temporal adaptation of neutrophil oxidative responsiveness to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Acceleration by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, D; Broxmeyer, H E; Gabig, T G; Akard, L P; Williams, D E; Hoffman, R

    1988-10-01

    This investigation was undertaken to clarify the mechanism by which purified recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates neutrophil oxidative responses triggered by the chemotactic peptide, FMLP. Previous studies have shown that GM-CSF priming of neutrophil responses to FMLP is induced relatively slowly, requiring 90 to 120 min of incubation in vitro, is not associated with increased levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+, but is associated with up-regulation of cell-surface FMLP receptors. We have confirmed these findings and further characterized the process of GM-CSF priming. We found that the effect of GM-CSF on neutrophil oxidative responsiveness was induced in a temperature-dependent manner and was not reversed when the cells were washed extensively to remove the growth factor before stimulation with FMLP. Extracellular Ca2+ was not required for functional enhancement by GM-CSF and GM-CSF alone effected no detectable alteration in the 32P-labeled phospholipid content of neutrophils during incubation in vitro. Our data indicate that GM-CSF exerts its influence on neutrophils by accelerating a process that occurs spontaneously and results in up-regulation of both cell-surface FMLP receptors and oxidative responsiveness to FMLP. Thus, the results demonstrate that, with respect to oxidative activation, circulating endstage polymorphonuclear leukocytes are nonresponsive or hyporesponsive to FMLP; functional responsiveness increases dramatically as surface FMLP receptors are gradually deployed after the cells leave the circulation. Thus, as neutrophils mature, their responsiveness to FMLP changes in a manner which may be crucial for efficient host defense. At 37 degrees C, this process is markedly potentiated by GM-CSF. We conclude that endogenous GM-CSF, released systemically or at sites of infection and inflammation, potentially plays an important role in host defense by accelerating functional maturation of responding

  14. Signal peptide peptidase-mediated nuclear localization of heme oxygenase-1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and invasion independent of its enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F-F; Yeh, C-T; Sun, Y-J; Chiang, M-T; Lan, W-M; Li, F-A; Lee, W-H; Chau, L-Y

    2015-04-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a heme-degrading enzyme anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum by a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS). HO-1 is highly expressed in various cancers and its nuclear localization is associated with the progression of some cancers. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying HO-1 nuclear translocation and its pathological significance remain elusive. Here we show that the signal peptide peptidase (SPP) catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of HO-1. Coexpression of HO-1 with wild-type SPP, but not a dominant-negative SPP, promoted the nuclear localization of HO-1 in cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of cytosolic HO-1 isolated from HeLa cells overexpressing HO-1 and SPP revealed two adjacent intramembrane cleavage sites located after S275 and F276 within the TMS. Mutations of S275F276 to A275L276 significantly hindered SPP-mediated HO-1 cleavage and nuclear localization. Nuclear HO-1 was detected in A549 and DU145 cancer cell lines expressing high levels of endogenous HO-1 and SPP. SPP knockdown or inhibition significantly reduced nuclear HO-1 localization in A549 and DU145 cells. The positive nuclear HO-1 stain was also evident in lung cancer tissues expressing high levels of HO-1 and SPP. Overexpression of a truncated HO-1 (t-HO-1) lacking the TMS in HeLa and H1299 cells promoted cell proliferation and migration/invasion. The effect of t-HO-1 was not affected by a mutation in the catalytic site. However, blockade of t-HO-1 nuclear localization abolished t-HO-1-mediated effect. The tumorigenic effect of t-HO-1 was also demonstrated in the mouse model. These findings disclose that SPP-mediated intramembrane cleavage of HO-1 promotes HO-1 nuclear localization and cancer progression independent of HO-1 enzymatic activity.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of Argon are mediated via an ERK-1/2 dependent regulation of heme-oxygenase-1 in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Felix; Kaufmann, Kai B; Coburn, Mark; Lagrèze, Wolf Alexander; Roesslein, Martin; Biermann, Julia; Buerkle, Hartmut; Loop, Torsten; Goebel, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Retinal ischemia and reperfusion injuries (R-IRI) damage neuronal tissue permanently. Recently, we demonstrated that Argon exerts anti-apoptotic and protective properties. The molecular mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesized that Argon inhalation exert neuroprotective effects in rats retinal ganglion cells (RGC) via an ERK-1/2 dependent regulation of heat-shock proteins. Inhalation of Argon (75 Vol%) was performed after R-IRI on the rats' left eyes for 1 h immediately or with delay. Retinal tissue was harvested after 24 h to analyze mRNA and protein expression of heat-shock proteins -70, -90 and heme-oxygenase-1, mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38, JNK, ERK-1/2) and histological changes. To analyze ERK dependent effects, the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was applicated prior to Argon inhalation. RGC count was analyzed 7 days after injury. Statistics were performed using anova. Argon significantly reduced the R-IRI-affected heat-shock protein expression (p ERK-1/2 expression (p ERK-1/2 before Argon inhalation resulted in significantly lower vital RGCs (p ERK-1/2 activation in Müller cells. We conclude, that Argon treatment protects R-IRI-induced apoptotic loss of RGC via an ERK-1/2 dependent regulation of heme-oxygenase-1. We proposed the following possible mechanism for Argon-mediated neuroprotection: Argon exerts its protective effects via an induction of an ERK with subsequent suppression of the heat shock response. In conclusion, ischemia and reperfusion injuries and subsequent neuronal apoptosis are attenuated. These novel findings may open up new opportunities for Argon as a therapeutic option, especially since Argon is not toxic.

  16. The roles of C-terminal residues on the thermal stability and local heme environment of cytochrome c' from the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Kasuga, Sachiko; Unno, Masashi; Furusawa, Takashi; Osoegawa, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Yuko; Ohno, Takashi; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-04-01

    A soluble cytochrome (Cyt) c' from thermophilic purple sulfur photosynthetic bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum exhibits marked thermal tolerance compared with that from the closely related mesophilic counterpart Allochromatium vinosum. Here, we focused on the difference in the C-terminal region of the two Cyts c' and examined the effects of D131 and R129 mutations on the thermal stability and local heme environment of Cyt c' by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. In the oxidized forms, D131K and D131G mutants exhibited denaturing temperatures significantly lower than that of the recombinant control Cyt c'. In contrast, R129K and R129A mutants denatured at nearly identical temperatures with the control Cyt c', indicating that the C-terminal D131 is an important residue maintaining the enhanced thermal stability of Tch. tepidum Cyt c'. The control Cyt c' and all of the mutants increased their thermal stability upon the reduction. Interestingly, D131K exhibited narrow DSC curves and unusual thermodynamic parameters in both redox states. The RR spectra of the control Cyt c' exhibited characteristic bands at 1,635 and 1,625 cm(-1), ascribed to intermediate spin (IS) and high spin (HS) states, respectively. The IS/HS distribution was differently affected by the D131 and R129 mutations and pH changes. Furthermore, R129 mutants suggested the lowering of their redox potentials. These results strongly indicate that the D131 and R129 residues play significant roles in maintaining the thermal stability and modulating the local heme environment of Tch. tepidum Cyt c'.

  17. Heme oxygenase activity modulates vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulak, Jozef; Józkowicz, Alicja; Foresti, Roberta; Kasza, Aneta; Frick, Matthias; Huk, Ihor; Green, Colin J; Pachinger, Otmar; Weidinger, Franz; Motterlini, Roberto

    2002-04-01

    Hypoxia, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate the generation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in vascular tissue. HO-1 degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and biliverdin, the latter being reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. In the present study, we investigated the role of HO-1 in the modulation of VEGF synthesis in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In VSMC stimulated with cytokines, inhibition of NO production significantly, but not completely, reduced VEGF release. In contrast, inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX) totally prevented cytokine-induced increase in VEGF, despite an augmented synthesis of intracellular NO. Stimulation of HO-1 activity by hemin enhanced VEGF production; this effect was abrogated by blockade of the HO pathway. Similarly, VEGF synthesis induced by hypoxia was down-regulated by SnPPIX, but not by inhibitors of NO synthase. To elucidate further a direct involvement of HO-1 in the observed effects, we generated transfected cells that overexpressed the HO-1 gene. Notably, these cells synthesized significantly more VEGF protein than cells transfected with a control gene. Among the products of HO-1, biliverdin and bilirubin showed no effect, whereas iron ions inhibited VEGF synthesis. Exposure of cells to 1% CO resulted in a marked accumulation of VEGF (20-fold increase) over the basal level. Our data indicate that HO-1 activity influences the generation of VEGF in VSMC in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. As CO and iron, respectively the inducer and the inhibitor of VEGF synthesis, are concomitantly produced during the degradation of heme, these data indicate that HO by-products may differentially modulate VEGF production.

  18. Genetic analyses of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 in different forms of pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Weis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 is the rate limiting enzyme in heme degradation and a key regulator of inflammatory processes. In animal models the course of pancreatitis was ameliorated by up-regulation of HMOX1 expression. Additionally, carbon monoxide released during heme breakdown inhibited proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells and might thereby prevent the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP. Transcription of HMOX1 in humans is influenced by a GT-repeat located in the promoter. As such, HMOX1 variants might be of importance in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. METHODS: The GT-repeat and SNP rs2071746 were investigated with fluorescence labelled primers and by melting curve analysis in 285 patients with acute pancreatitis, 208 patients with alcoholic CP, 207 patients with idiopathic/hereditary CP, 147 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and in 289 controls, respectively. GT-repeat analysis was extended to a total of 446 alcoholic CP patients. In addition, we performed DNA sequencing in 145 patients with alcoholic CP, 138 patients with idiopathic/hereditary CP, 147 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, and 151 controls. Exon 3 screening was extended to additional patients and controls. RESULTS: S- and L-alleles of the GT-repeat, genotypes and alleles of SNP rs2071746 and non-synonymous variants detected by sequencing were found with similar frequencies in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although functional data implicate a potential influence of HMOX1 variants on the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, we did not find any association. As rare non-synonymous HMOX1 variants were found in patients and controls, it is rather unlikely that they will have functional consequences essential for pancreatitis development.

  19. Gut Microbiota Conversion of Dietary Ellagic Acid into Bioactive Phytoceutical Urolithin A Inhibits Heme Peroxidases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piu Saha

    Full Text Available Numerous studies signify that diets rich in phytochemicals offer many beneficial functions specifically during pathologic conditions, yet their effects are often not uniform due to inter-individual variation. The host indigenous gut microbiota and their modifications of dietary phytochemicals have emerged as factors that greatly influence the efficacy of phytoceutical-based intervention. Here, we investigated the biological activities of one such active microbial metabolite, Urolithin A (UA or 3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one, which is derived from the ellagic acid (EA. Our study demonstrates that UA potently inhibits heme peroxidases i.e. myeloperoxidase (MPO and lactoperoxidase (LPO when compared to the parent compound EA. In addition, chrome azurol S (CAS assay suggests that EA, but not UA, is capable of binding to Fe3+, due to its catechol-like structure, although its modest heme peroxidase inhibitory activity is abrogated upon Fe3+-binding. Interestingly, UA-mediated MPO and LPO inhibition can be prevented by innate immune protein human NGAL or its murine ortholog lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, implying the complex nature of host innate immunity-microbiota interactions. Spectral analysis indicates that UA inhibits heme peroxidase-catalyzed reaction by reverting the peroxidase back to its inactive native state. In support of these in vitro results, UA significantly reduced phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-induced superoxide generation in neutrophils, however, EA failed to block the superoxide generation. Treatment with UA significantly reduced PMA-induced mouse ear edema and MPO activity compared to EA treated mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that microbiota-mediated conversion of EA to UA is advantageous to both host and microbiota i.e. UA-mediated inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes reduce tissue inflammation, mitigate non-specific killing of gut bacteria, and abrogate iron-binding property of EA, thus providing a competitive edge to the

  20. Spirulina platensis and phycocyanobilin activate atheroprotective heme oxygenase-1: a possible implication for atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasky, Zbynek; Zemankova, Lenka; Nemeckova, Ivana; Rathouska, Jana; Wong, Ronald J; Muchova, Lucie; Subhanova, Iva; Vanikova, Jana; Vanova, Katerina; Vitek, Libor; Nachtigal, Petr

    2013-11-01

    Spirulina platensis, a water blue-green alga, has been associated with potent biological effects, which might have important relevance in atheroprotection. We investigated whether S. platensis or phycocyanobilin (PCB), its tetrapyrrolic chromophore, can activate atheroprotective heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1), a key enzyme in the heme catabolic pathway responsible for generation of a potent antioxidant bilirubin, in endothelial cells and in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. In vitro experiments were performed on EA.hy926 endothelial cells exposed to extracts of S. platensis or PCB. In vivo studies were performed on ApoE-deficient mice fed a cholesterol diet and S. platensis. The effect of these treatments on Hmox1, as well as other markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, was then investigated. Both S. platensis and PCB markedly upregulated Hmox1 in vitro, and a substantial overexpression of Hmox1 was found in aortic atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice fed S. platensis. In addition, S. platensis treatment led to a significant increase in Hmox1 promoter activity in the spleens of Hmox-luc transgenic mice. Furthermore, both S. platensis and PCB were able to modulate important markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, such as eNOS, p22 NADPH oxidase subunit, and/or VCAM-1. Both S. platensis and PCB activate atheroprotective HMOX1 in endothelial cells and S. platensis increased the expression of Hmox1 in aortic atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-deficient mice, and also in Hmox-luc transgenic mice beyond the lipid lowering effect. Therefore, activation of HMOX1 and the heme catabolic pathway may represent an important mechanism of this food supplement for the reduction of atherosclerotic disease.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a heme oxygenase-2 gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Jin, Qi-Jiang; Lin, Yu-Ting; Feng, Jian-Fei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Zheng, Tian-Qing

    2011-11-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3) catalyzes the oxidation of heme and performs vital roles in plant development and stress responses. Two HO isozymes exist in plants. Between these, HO-1 is an oxidative stress-response protein, and HO-2 usually exhibited constitutive expression. Although alfalfa HO-1 gene (MsHO1) has been investigated previously, HO2 is still poorly understood. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of HO2 gene, MsHO2, from alfalfa (Medica sativa L.). The full-length cDNA of MsHO2 contains an ORF of 870 bp and encodes for 290 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 33.3 kDa. Similar to MsHO1, MsHO2 also appears to have an N-terminal transit peptide sequence for chloroplast import. Many conserved residues in plant HO were also conserved in MsHO2. However, unlike HO-1, the conserved histidine (His) required for heme-iron binding and HO activity was replaced by tyrosine (Tyr) in MsHO2. Further biochemical activity analysis of purified mature MsHO2 showed no HO activity, suggesting that MsHO2 may not be a true HO in nature. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed its maximum expression in the germinating seeds. Importantly, the expression levels of MsHO2 were up-regulated under sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and H(2)O(2) (especially) treatment, respectively.

  2. An association study between Heme oxygenase-1 genetic variants and Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Pedro; Martínez, Carmen; Pastor, Pau; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Luengo, Antonio; Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix J.; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Agúndez, José A. G.; García-Martín, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) supplies brain tissues with nutrients, filters harmful compounds from the brain back to the bloodstream, and plays a key role in iron homeostasis in the human brain. Disruptions of the BBB are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress, iron deposition and mitochondrial impaired function are considered as risk factors for degeneration of the central nervous system. Heme oxygenase (HMOX) degrades heme ring to biliverdin, free ferrous iron and carbon monoxide being the rate-limiting activity in heme catabolism. The isoform HMOX1 is highly inducible in response to reactive oxygen species, which induce an increase in BBB permeability and impair its pathophysiology. Consequently, an over- expression of this enzyme may contribute to the marked iron deposition found in PD. We analyzed the HMOX1 SNPs rs2071746, rs2071747, and rs9282702, a microsatellite (GT)n polymorphism and copy number variations in 691 patients suffering from PD and 766 healthy control individuals. Copy number variations in the HMOX1 gene exist, but these do not seem to be associated with PD risk. In contrast two polymorphisms that modify the transcriptional activity of the gene, namely a VNTR (GT)n and the SNP rs2071746, are strongly associated with PD risk, particularly with the classic PD phenotype and with early onset of the disease. This study indicates that HMOX1 gene variants are associated to the risk of developing some forms of PD, thus adding new information that supports association of HMOX gene variations with PD risk. PMID:25309329

  3. Gut Microbiota Conversion of Dietary Ellagic Acid into Bioactive Phytoceutical Urolithin A Inhibits Heme Peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Piu; Yeoh, Beng San; Singh, Rajbir; Chandrasekar, Bhargavi; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Jala, Venkatakrishna R

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies signify that diets rich in phytochemicals offer many beneficial functions specifically during pathologic conditions, yet their effects are often not uniform due to inter-individual variation. The host indigenous gut microbiota and their modifications of dietary phytochemicals have emerged as factors that greatly influence the efficacy of phytoceutical-based intervention. Here, we investigated the biological activities of one such active microbial metabolite, Urolithin A (UA or 3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one), which is derived from the ellagic acid (EA). Our study demonstrates that UA potently inhibits heme peroxidases i.e. myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) when compared to the parent compound EA. In addition, chrome azurol S (CAS) assay suggests that EA, but not UA, is capable of binding to Fe3+, due to its catechol-like structure, although its modest heme peroxidase inhibitory activity is abrogated upon Fe3+-binding. Interestingly, UA-mediated MPO and LPO inhibition can be prevented by innate immune protein human NGAL or its murine ortholog lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), implying the complex nature of host innate immunity-microbiota interactions. Spectral analysis indicates that UA inhibits heme peroxidase-catalyzed reaction by reverting the peroxidase back to its inactive native state. In support of these in vitro results, UA significantly reduced phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced superoxide generation in neutrophils, however, EA failed to block the superoxide generation. Treatment with UA significantly reduced PMA-induced mouse ear edema and MPO activity compared to EA treated mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that microbiota-mediated conversion of EA to UA is advantageous to both host and microbiota i.e. UA-mediated inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes reduce tissue inflammation, mitigate non-specific killing of gut bacteria, and abrogate iron-binding property of EA, thus providing a competitive edge to the microbiota in

  4. Gut Microbiota Conversion of Dietary Ellagic Acid into Bioactive Phytoceutical Urolithin A Inhibits Heme Peroxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Piu; Yeoh, Beng San; Singh, Rajbir; Chandrasekar, Bhargavi; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Jala, Venkatakrishna R.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies signify that diets rich in phytochemicals offer many beneficial functions specifically during pathologic conditions, yet their effects are often not uniform due to inter-individual variation. The host indigenous gut microbiota and their modifications of dietary phytochemicals have emerged as factors that greatly influence the efficacy of phytoceutical-based intervention. Here, we investigated the biological activities of one such active microbial metabolite, Urolithin A (UA or 3,8-dihydroxybenzo[c]chromen-6-one), which is derived from the ellagic acid (EA). Our study demonstrates that UA potently inhibits heme peroxidases i.e. myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) when compared to the parent compound EA. In addition, chrome azurol S (CAS) assay suggests that EA, but not UA, is capable of binding to Fe3+, due to its catechol-like structure, although its modest heme peroxidase inhibitory activity is abrogated upon Fe3+-binding. Interestingly, UA-mediated MPO and LPO inhibition can be prevented by innate immune protein human NGAL or its murine ortholog lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), implying the complex nature of host innate immunity-microbiota interactions. Spectral analysis indicates that UA inhibits heme peroxidase-catalyzed reaction by reverting the peroxidase back to its inactive native state. In support of these in vitro results, UA significantly reduced phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced superoxide generation in neutrophils, however, EA failed to block the superoxide generation. Treatment with UA significantly reduced PMA-induced mouse ear edema and MPO activity compared to EA treated mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that microbiota-mediated conversion of EA to UA is advantageous to both host and microbiota i.e. UA-mediated inhibition of pro-oxidant enzymes reduce tissue inflammation, mitigate non-specific killing of gut bacteria, and abrogate iron-binding property of EA, thus providing a competitive edge to the microbiota in

  5. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Zavala, A.; Del Razo, L.M.; Garcia-Vargas, G.G.; Aguilar, C.; Borja, V.H.; Albores, A.; Cebrian, M.E. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Farmacologia y Toxicologica

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 {mu}g As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  6. Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zavala, A; Del Razo, L M; García-Vargas, G G; Aguilar, C; Borja, V H; Albores, A; Cebrián, M E

    1999-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 microg As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized.

  7. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role of endogenous heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats.Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amount of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-oximeter.Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% of the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence of IN were significantly increased by 50% (P<0.05) and by 83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate(heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P<0.05) after administration of ZnDPBG, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level of cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6%(P<0.01), 40.0%(P<0.01), 49.3%(P<0.05) and 38.9%(P<0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats.Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process of IN induced by LPS, and inhibition of HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  8. Pleurotus ostreatus heme peroxidases: an in silico analysis from the genome sequence to the enzyme molecular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Fernández, Elena; Martínez, María Jesús; Martínez, Angel T

    2011-11-01

    An exhaustive screening of the Pleurotus ostreatus genome was performed to search for nucleotide sequences of heme peroxidases in this white-rot fungus, which could be useful for different biotechnological applications. After sequence identification and manual curation of the corresponding genes and cDNAs, the deduced amino acid sequences were converted into structural homology models. A comparative study of these sequences and their structural models with those of known fungal peroxidases revealed the complete inventory of heme peroxidases of this fungus. This consists of cytochrome c peroxidase and ligninolytic peroxidases, including manganese peroxidase and versatile peroxidase but not lignin peroxidase, as representative of the "classical" superfamily of plant, fungal, and bacterial peroxidases; and members of two relatively "new" peroxidase superfamilies, namely heme-thiolate peroxidases, here described for the first time in a fungus from the genus Pleurotus, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases, already known in P. ostreatus but still to be thoroughly explored and characterized.

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopic evidence on the heme binding to the proximal histidine in unfolded carbonmonoxy myoglobin by guanidine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan, E-mail: harami.taikan@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kitao, Shinji; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro [Kyoto University, Research Reactor Institute (Japan); Mitsui, Takaya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    The unfolded heme structure in myoglobin is controversial because of no chance of direct X-ray structure analyses. The unfolding of carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO) by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) was studied by the Moessbauer spectroscopy. The spectra show the presence of a sort of spectrum in the unfolded MbCO, independent on the concentration of GdnHCl from 1 to 6 M and the increase of the fraction of unfolded MbCO, depending on the GdnHCl concentration. The isomer shift of the iron of heme in the unfolded MbCO was identified to be different from that of the native MbCO as the globin structure in Mb collapses under the unfolded conditions. This result and the existing related Moessbauer data proved that the heme in the unfolded MbCO may remain coordinated to the proximal histidine.

  10. Synthetic heme/copper assemblies: toward an understanding of cytochrome c oxidase interactions with dioxygen and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematian, Shabnam; Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2015-08-18

    Our long-time niche in synthetic biological inorganic chemistry has been to design ligands and generate coordination complexes of copper or iron ions or both, those reacting with dioxygen (O2) or nitrogen oxides (e.g., nitric oxide (NO(g)) and nitrite (NO2(-))) or both. As inspiration for this work, we turn to mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, which is responsible for dioxygen consumption and is also the predominant target for NO(g) and nitrite within mitochondria. In this Account, we highlight recent advances in studying synthetic heme/Cu complexes in two respects. First, there is the design, synthesis, and characterization of new O2 adducts whose further study will add insights into O2 reductive cleavage chemistry. Second, we describe how related heme/Cu constructs reduce nitrite ion to NO(g) or the reverse, oxidize NO(g) to nitrite. The reactions of nitrogen oxides occur as part of CcO's function, which is intimately tied to cellular O2 balance. We had first discovered that reduced heme/Cu compounds react with O2 giving μ-oxo heme-Fe(III)-O-Cu(II)(L) products; their properties are discussed. The O-atom is derived from dioxygen, and interrogations of these systems led to the construction and characterization of three distinctive classes of heme-peroxo complexes, two high-spin and one low-spin species. Recent investigations include a new approach to the synthesis of low-spin heme-peroxo-Cu complexes, employing a "naked" synthon, where the copper ligand denticity and geometric types can be varied. The result is a collection of such complexes; spectroscopic and structural features (by DFT calculations) are described. Some of these compounds are reactive toward reductants/protons effecting subsequent O-O cleavage. This points to how subtle improvements in ligand environment lead to a desired local structure and resulting optimized reactivity, as known to occur at enzyme active sites. The other sector of research is focused on heme/Cu assemblies mediating the redox

  11. Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Response to Wild Thyme Treatment Protects against Hypertension and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloradović, Zoran; Bugarski, Branko; Jovović, Đurđica; Vajić, Una-Jovana; Grujić-Milanović, Jelica

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is the most powerful contributor to the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and inverse correlation between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods or beverages and incidence of cardiovascular diseases gains more importance. Reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the development of hypertension. We found that wild thyme (a spice plant, rich in polyphenolic compounds) induced a significant decrease of blood pressure and vascular resistance in hypertensive rats. The inverse correlation between vascular resistance and plasma heme oxygenase-1 suggests that endogenous vasodilator carbon monoxide generated by heme oxidation could account for this normalization of blood pressure. Next product of heme oxidation, bilirubin (a chain-breaking antioxidant that acts as a lipid peroxyl radical scavenger), becomes significantly increased after wild thyme treatment and induces the reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in hypertensive, but not in normotensive rats. The obtained results promote wild thyme as useful supplement for cardiovascular interventions.

  12. O2 Binding to Heme is Strongly Facilitated by Near‐Degeneracy of Electronic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper P.

    2013-01-01

    electronic singlet and heptet states for bound and dissociated O2. The experimental activation enthalpy of dissociation (∼82 kJ mol−1) was also accurately computed (∼75 kJ mol−1) with an actual barrier height of ∼60 kJ mol−1 plus a vibrational component of ∼10 and ∼5 kJ mol−1 due to the spin‐forbidden nature......‐forbidden binding of O2 to heme, so fundamental to higher life forms, is fast and reversible....

  13. Protein folding modulates the swapped dimerization mechanism of methyl-accepting chemotaxis heme sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta A Silva

    Full Text Available The periplasmic sensor domains GSU0582 and GSU0935 are part of methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens. Both contain one c-type heme group and their crystal structures revealed that these domains form swapped dimers with a PAS fold formed from the two protein chains. The swapped dimerization of these sensors is related to the mechanism of signal transduction and the formation of the swapped dimer involves significant folding changes and conformational rearrangements within each monomeric component. However, the structural changes occurring during this process are poorly understood and lack a mechanistic framework. To address this issue, we have studied the folding and stability properties of two distinct heme-sensor PAS domains, using biophysical spectroscopies. We observed substantial differences in the thermodynamic stability (ΔG = 14.6 kJ.mol(-1 for GSU0935 and ΔG = 26.3 kJ.mol(-1 for GSU0582, and demonstrated that the heme moiety undergoes conformational changes that match those occurring at the global protein structure. This indicates that sensing by the heme cofactor induces conformational changes that rapidly propagate to the protein structure, an effect which is directly linked to the signal transduction mechanism. Interestingly, the two analyzed proteins have distinct levels of intrinsic disorder (25% for GSU0935 and 13% for GSU0582, which correlate with conformational stability differences. This provides evidence that the sensing threshold and intensity of the propagated allosteric effect is linked to the stability of the PAS-fold, as this property modulates domain swapping and dimerization. Analysis of the PAS-domain shows that disorder segments are found either at the hinge region that controls helix motions or in connecting segments of the β-sheet interface. The latter is known to be widely involved in both intra- and intermolecular interactions, supporting the view that it's folding

  14. Cerebral malaria and the hemolysis/methemoglobin/heme hypothesis: shedding new light on an old disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Ana; Hanscheid, Thomas; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Mota, Maria M; Vigário, Ana M

    2009-04-01

    Malaria causes more than 1 million deaths every year with cerebral malaria (CM) being a major cause of death in Sub-Saharan African children. The nature of the malaria-associated pathogenesis is complex and multi-factorial. A unified hypothesis involving sequestration of infected red blood cells, systemic host inflammatory response and hemostasis dysfunction has been proposed to explain the genesis of CM. In this review, we discuss the role of hemolysis, methemoglobin and free heme in CM, brought to light by our recent studies in mice as well as by other studies in humans.

  15. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseda, Clement A.; Srinivasan, Kumar; Wise, Jasen; Catalano, Jennifer; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2017-01-01

    Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection. PMID:25450361

  16. An Experimental Study on the Expression of Heme Oxygenase-2 mRNA in Hirschsprung's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱珉; 魏明发; 刘芳

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the relationship between the expression of heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) mRNA and the pathogenesis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD), total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted in the aganglionic and ganglionic segments of colon respectively from 15 cases of HD. The single-stranded cDNA of HO-2 was synthesized and further amplified by reverse transcription-poly merase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of HO-2 mRNA was normal in ganglionic seg ments, but absent in aganglionic segments. It is concluded that the absence of HO-2 mRNA expres sion may be an important mechanism responsible for HD.

  17. Bach1-dependent and -independent Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Keratinocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bach1 is a member of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, and the Bach1/small Maf heterodimer specifically represses transcriptional activity directed by the Maf recognition element (MARE). Because Bach1 is a repressor of the oxidative stress response, we examined the function(s) of Bach1 in keratinocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 led to an increase in MARE activity and expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible antioxidant defen...

  18. In silico multiple-targets identification for heme detoxification in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiphinit, Suthat; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Lursinsap, Chidchanok; Plaimas, Kitiporn

    2016-01-01

    Detoxification of hemoglobin byproducts or free heme is an essential step and considered potential targets for anti-malaria drug development. However, most of anti-malaria drugs are no longer effective due to the emergence and spread of the drug resistant malaria parasites. Therefore, it is an urgent need to identify potential new targets and even for target combinations for effective malaria drug design. In this work, we reconstructed the metabolic networks of Plasmodium falciparum and human red blood cells for the simulation of steady mass and flux flows of the parasite's metabolites under the blood environment by flux balance analysis (FBA). The integrated model, namely iPF-RBC-713, was then adjusted into two stage-specific metabolic models, which first was for the pathological stage metabolic model of the parasite when invaded the red blood cell without any treatment and second was for the treatment stage of the parasite when a drug acted by inhibiting the hemozoin formation and caused high production rate of heme toxicity. The process of identifying target combinations consisted of two main steps. Firstly, the optimal fluxes of reactions in both the pathological and treatment stages were computed and compared to determine the change of fluxes. Corresponding enzymes of the reactions with zero fluxes in the treatment stage but non-zero fluxes in the pathological stage were predicted as a preliminary list of potential targets in inhibiting heme detoxification. Secondly, the combinations of all possible targets listed in the first step were examined to search for the best promising target combinations resulting in more effective inhibition of the detoxification to kill the malaria parasites. Finally, twenty-three enzymes were identified as a preliminary list of candidate targets which mostly were in pyruvate metabolism and citrate cycle. The optimal set of multiple targets for blocking the detoxification was a set of heme ligase, adenosine transporter, myo

  19. (GT)n Repeat Polymorphism in Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Correlates with Clinical Outcome after Myeloablative or Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køllgaard, Tania; Kornblit, Brian; Petersen, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment for various hematologic diseases where efficacy of treatment is in part based on the graft versus tumour (GVT) activity of cells in the transplant. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme...

  20. Structural and Functional Models of Non-Heme Iron Enzymes : A Study of the 2-His-1-Carboxylate Facial Triad Structural Motif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnincx, P.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The structural and functional modeling of a specific group of non-heme iron enzymes by the synthesis of small synthetic analogues is the topic of this thesis. The group of non-heme iron enzymes with the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad has recently been established as a common platform for the activ

  1. Ab initio study of the {sup 57}Fe quadrupole splitting in the heme models of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits in tetrameric deoxyhemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuryeva, E. I. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Chemistry (Russian Federation); Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    Ab initio X{alpha} discrete variation method was used for calculation of quadrupole splitting for the rough heme models in {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of tetrameric deoxyhemoglobin accounting small stereochemical variations. The differences of theoretical values of quadrupole splitting for these heme models were obtained.

  2. Dietary heme alters microbiota and mucosa of mouse colon without functional changes in host-microbe cross-talk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje IJssennagger

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths in Western countries and is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the iron-porphyrin pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of gut contents which injures surface cells leading to compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt cells. This hyperproliferation results in epithelial hyperplasia which increases the risk of colon cancer. In humans, a high red-meat diet increases Bacteroides spp in feces. Therefore, we simultaneously investigated the effects of dietary heme on colonic microbiota and on the host mucosa of mice. Whole genome microarrays showed that heme injured the colonic surface epithelium and induced hyperproliferation by changing the surface to crypt signaling. Using 16S rRNA phylogenetic microarrays, we investigated whether bacteria play a role in this changed signaling. Heme increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes in colonic contents. This shift was most likely caused by a selective susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria to heme cytotoxic fecal water, which is not observed for gram-negative bacteria, allowing expansion of the gram-negative community. The increased amount of gram-negative bacteria most probably increased LPS exposure to colonocytes, however, there is no appreciable immune response detected in the heme-fed mice. There was no functional change in the sensing of the bacteria by the mucosa, as changes in inflammation pathways and Toll-like receptor signaling were not detected. This unaltered host-microbe cross-talk indicates that the changes in microbiota did not play a causal role in the observed hyperproliferation and hyperplasia.

  3. Treatment of Chronic Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis with Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate and Glatiramer Acetate Alters Expression of Heme-Oxygenase-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Janssen

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG synergizes with the immunomodulatory agent glatiramer acetate (GA in eliciting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the relapsing-remitting EAE model. Thus, we hypothesized that mice with chronic EAE may also benefit from this combination therapy. We first assessed how a treatment with a single dose of GA together with daily application of EGCG may modulate EAE. Although single therapies with a suboptimal dose of GA or EGCG led to disease amelioration and reduced CNS inflammation, the combination therapy had no effects. While EGCG appeared to preserve axons and myelin, the single GA dose did not improve axonal damage or demyelination. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of EGCG was abolished when GA was applied in combination. To elucidate how a single dose of GA may interfere with EGCG, we focused on the anti-inflammatory, iron chelating and anti-oxidant properties of EGCG. Surprisingly, we observed that while EGCG induced a downregulation of the gene expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 in affected CNS areas, the combined therapy of GA+EGCG seems to promote an increased HO-1 expression. These data suggest that upregulation of HO-1 may contribute to diminish the neuroprotective benefits of EGCG alone in this EAE model. Altogether, our data indicate that neuroprotection by EGCG in chronic EAE may involve regulation of oxidative processes, including downmodulation of HO-1. Further investigation of the re-dox balance in chronic neuroinflammation and in particular functional studies on HO-1 are warranted to understand its role in disease progression.

  4. A fluorescence approach to the unfolding thermodynamics of horseradish peroxidase based on heme degradation by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Lamei; Huang, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a classical heme-containing protein which has been applied in many fields. The prosthetic group heme in HRP, especially in unfolded state, can react with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce a fluorescent product with the maximum emission wavelength at 450 nm. Utilizing this emission band as a fluorescence probe, the unfolding process of HRP in urea can be assessed quantitatively, and the calculated thermodynamic parameters are consistent with those determined by circular dichroism (CD) at 222 nm and steady-state tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence methods.

  5. Characterization of the products of the heme detoxification pathway in malarial late trophozoites by X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, D S; Dinnebier, R E; Madsen, S K; Stephens, P W

    1997-01-10

    In a process inhibited by the quinoline antimalarial drugs, Plasmodia detoxify heme released during the degradation of hemoglobin by aggregating it into malarial pigment, an insoluble crystalline heme coordination polymer. Synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction patterns for intact desiccated malarial trophozoites and synthetic beta-hematin have been measured; both materials correspond to a single crystalline triclinic lattice with unit cell parameters a = 12.2176(4), b = 14.7184(5), c = 8.0456(3) A; alpha = 90.200(2), beta = 96.806(3), gamma = 97.818(3) degrees and Z = 2. These results unambiguously demonstrate that hemozoin crystallites are identical to synthetic beta-hematin.

  6. Iminoguanidines as Allosteric Inhibitors of the Iron-Regulated Heme Oxygenase (HemO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    New therapeutic targets are required to combat multidrug resistant infections, such as the iron-regulated heme oxygenase (HemO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to links between iron and virulence and dependence on heme as an iron source during infection. Herein we report the synthesis and activity of a series of iminoguanidine-based inhibitors of HemO. Compound 23 showed a binding affinity of 5.7 µM and an MIC50 of 52.3 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa PAO1. An in cellulo activity assay was develop...

  7. The Staphylococcus aureus Protein IsdH Inhibits Host Hemoglobin Scavenging to Promote Heme Acquisition by the Pathogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saederup, Kirstine Lindhardt; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Kristian; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov;

    2016-01-01

    Hemolysis is a complication in septic infections with Staphylococcus aureus, which utilizes the released Hb as an iron source. S. aureus can acquire heme in vitro from hemoglobin (Hb) by a heme-sequestering mechanism that involves proteins from the S. aureus iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd....... By binding and uptake studies, we now show that the IsdH protein, which serves as an Hb receptor in the Isd system, directly interferes with the CD163-mediated clearance by binding the Hb-Hp complex and inhibiting CD163 recognition. Analysis of truncated IsdH variants including one or more of three near iron...

  8. Crystal structure of HutZ, a heme storage protein from Vibrio cholerae: A structural mismatch observed in the region of high sequence conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiuhua

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HutZ is the sole heme storage protein identified in the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae and is required for optimal heme utilization. However, no heme oxygenase activity has been observed with this protein. Thus far, HutZ’s structure and heme-binding mechanism are unknown. Results We report the first crystal structure of HutZ in a homodimer determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The HutZ structure adopted a typical split-barrel fold. Through a docking study and site-directed mutagenesis, a heme-binding model for the HutZ dimer is proposed. Very interestingly, structural superimposition of HutZ and its homologous protein HugZ, a heme oxygenase from Helicobacter pylori, exhibited a structural mismatch of one amino acid residue in β6 of HutZ, although residues involved in this region are highly conserved in both proteins. Derived homologous models of different single point variants with model evaluations suggested that Pro140 of HutZ, corresponding to Phe215 of HugZ, might have been the main contributor to the structural mismatch. This mismatch initiates more divergent structural characteristics towards their C-terminal regions, which are essential features for the heme-binding of HugZ as a heme oxygenase. Conclusions HutZ’s deficiency in heme oxygenase activity might derive from its residue shift relative to the heme oxygenase HugZ. This residue shift also emphasized a limitation of the traditional template selection criterion for homology modeling.

  9. Impact of heme oxygenase-1 on cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol efflux and oxysterol formation in cultured astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascalovici, Jacob R; Song, Wei; Vaya, Jacob; Khatib, Soliman; Fuhrman, Bianca; Aviram, Michael; Schipper, Hyman M

    2009-01-01

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol (CH) metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased neural tissues. The liver X receptor (LXR) is a molecular sensor of CH homeostasis. In the current study, we determined the effects of HO-1 over-expression and its byproducts iron (Fe(2+)), carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin on CH biosynthesis, CH efflux and oxysterol formation in cultured astroglia. HO-1/LXR interactions were also investigated in the context of CH efflux. hHO-1 over-expression for 3 days ( approximately 2-3-fold increase) resulted in a 30% increase in CH biosynthesis and a two-fold rise in CH efflux. Both effects were abrogated by the competitive HO inhibitor, tin mesoporphyrin. CO, released from administered CORM-3, significantly enhanced CH biosynthesis; a combination of CO and iron stimulated CH efflux. Free iron increased oxysterol formation three-fold. Co-treatment with LXR antagonists implicated LXR activation in the modulation of CH homeostasis by heme degradation products. In Alzheimer's disease and other neuropathological states, glial HO-1 induction may transduce ambient noxious stimuli (e.g. beta-amyloid) into altered patterns of glial CH homeostasis. As the latter may impact synaptic plasticity and neuronal repair, modulation of glial HO-1 expression (by pharmacological or other means) may confer neuroprotection in patients with degenerative brain disorders.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis: the adhesins AP51 and AP65 bind heme and hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Shahed; Lee, B Craig; Garber, Gary E

    2009-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Although acquisition of iron by binding to host hemoglobin through distinct receptor(s) has been described, no specific heme- or hemoglobin-binding site has been reported in this parasite. To determine the presence of hemoglobin-binding protein(s), membrane proteins were subjected to hemoglobin-affinity chromatography. Eluted proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 48 and 63 kDa were detected. Competition assay with an excess amount of hemoglobin or hemin in hemoglobin-affinity chromatography could block the 63- and 48-kDa bands, respectively. Further analysis by mass spectrometry indicated that the 48- and 63-kDa proteins had identity with two T. vaginalis adhesins: AP51 and AP65, respectively. This study confirms the existence of multifunctional proteins in T. vaginalis, and suggested that AP51 and AP65, besides serving as adhesion molecules, could also act as heme- and hemoglobin-binding proteins.

  11. Hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 expression in the uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Zenclussen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of the Heme Oxygenase-1 (Hmox1 locus in mice results in intrauterine lethality. The expression of the heme catabolyzing enzyme encoded by this gene, namely HO 1, is required to successfully support reproductive events. We have previously observed that HO-1 acts at several key events in reproduction ensuring pregnancy. HO-1 defines ovulation, positively influences implantation and placentation and ensures fetal growth and survival. Here, we embarked on a study aimed to determine whether hormonal changes during the estrous cycle in the mouse define HO-1 expression, thus influencing receptivity. We analyzed the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen by ELISA and HO-1 mRNA expression in uterus by real time RT-PCR at the metestrus, proestrus, estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Further, we studied the HO-1 protein expression by Western Blot upon hormone addition to cultured uterine AN3 cells. We observed that HO-1 variations in uterine tissue correlated to changes in hormonal levels at different phases of the estrus cycle. In vitro, HO-1 protein levels in AN3 cells augmented after the addition of physiological concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, which confirmed our in vivo observations. Our data suggest an important role for hormones in HO-1 regulation in uterus that has a significant impact in receptivity and later on blastocyst implantation.

  12. Light-induced cytotoxicity after aminolevulinic acid treatment is mediated by heme and not by iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusing, Nicolle; Grimm, Stefanie; Mvondo, Dagmar; Flaccus, Andrea; Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Grune, Tilman

    2010-04-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising antitumor treatment strategy. However, effectiveness of PDT is limited due to an initiation of rescue responses in tumor cells, including the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, the main sources of free radical production in PDT-induced oxidative stress are not clear. Here, human melanoma cells were loaded with the photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid and exposed to non-thermal light of 420-800 nm at different doses. It was shown that inhibition of HO-1 activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX increased PDT-induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the cytotoxic effects were not diminished by the simultaneous application of the iron chelator desferrioxamine. Importantly, PDT together with non-toxic doses of hemin increased the number of dead cells. From these results can be concluded that heme but not iron act as the main source of free radicals in PDT treatment. This is supported by the fact that during PDT ferritin is readily up-regulated, able to bind excess iron formed by the HO-1 action. The combined treatment of photosensitizers with HO-1 inhibitors might increase the effectiveness of PDT in tumor treatment.

  13. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO, iron, and biliverdin-IXα. Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when applied at low concentration, have been observed in many of these models. Recent studies have expanded this concept to include chemical CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Collectively, salutary effects of the HO-1/CO system have been demonstrated in lung inflammation/acute lung injury, lung and vascular transplantation, sepsis, and pulmonary hypertension models. The beneficial effects of HO-1/CO are conveyed in part through the inhibition or modulation of inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative processes. Recent advances, however, suggest that the regulation of autophagy and the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis may serve as additional candidate mechanisms. Further preclinical and clinical trials are needed to ascertain the therapeutic potential of HO-1/CO in human clinical disease.

  14. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukat, G.S.; Rodgers, K.R.; Jabro, M.N.; Goff, H.M. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1989-04-18

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, the authors characterize the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Caprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum.

  15. Magnetic resonance spectral characterization of the heme active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukat, G S; Rodgers, K R; Jabro, M N; Goff, H M

    1989-04-18

    Examination of the peroxidase isolated from the inkcap Basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus shows that the 42,000-dalton enzyme contains a protoheme IX prosthetic group. Reactivity assays and the electronic absorption spectra of native Coprinus peroxidase and several of its ligand complexes indicate that this enzyme has characteristics similar to those reported for horseradish peroxidase. In this paper, we characterize the H2O2-oxidized forms of Coprinus peroxidase compounds I, II, and III by electronic absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of this Coprinus peroxidase indicate the presence of high-spin Fe(III) in the native protein and a number of differences between the heme site of Coprinus peroxidase and horseradish peroxidase. Carbon-13 (of the ferrous CO adduct) and nitrogen-15 (of the cyanide complex) NMR studies together with proton NMR studies of the native and cyanide-complexed Coprinus peroxidase are consistent with coordination of a proximal histidine ligand. The EPR spectrum of the ferrous NO complex is also reported. Protein reconstitution with deuterated hemin has facilitated the assignment of the heme methyl resonances in the proton NMR spectrum.

  16. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO, which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO, participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group using the analgesia index (AI in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  17. Non-coding RNAs and heme oxygenase-1 in vaccinia virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meseda, Clement A. [Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Srinivasan, Kumar [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Wise, Jasen [Qiagen, Frederick, MD (United States); Catalano, Jennifer [Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Dhawan, Subhash, E-mail: subhash.dhawan@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction inhibited vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. • Reduced infectivity inversely correlated with increased expression of non-coding RNAs. • The regulation of HO-1 and ncRNAs suggests a novel host defense response against vaccinia virus infection. - Abstract: Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are <200 nucleotide non-coding uridylate-rich RNAs. Although the functions of many snRNAs remain undetermined, a population of snRNAs is produced during the early phase of infection of cells by vaccinia virus. In the present study, we demonstrate a direct correlation between expression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), suppression of selective snRNA expression, and inhibition of vaccinia virus infection of macrophages. Hemin induced HO-1 expression, completely reversed virus-induced host snRNA expression, and suppressed vaccinia virus infection. This involvement of specific virus-induced snRNAs and associated gene clusters suggests a novel HO-1-dependent host-defense pathway in poxvirus infection.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 promotes Caco-2 cell proliferation and migration by targeting CTNND1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; LIU Yu-lin; CHEN Guang-xiang; CUI Bin; WANG Jin-shen; SHI Yu-long; LI Le-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can be induced by inflammatory cytokines,oxidation,ischemia,hypoxia,and endotoxins.As a "graft survival protective gene," HO-1 is a hot spot in organ transplantation research.However,the role of HO-1 gene expression in the function of human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) cells has not been reported previously.Methods The role of HO-1 in the proliferation and migration of Caco-2 cells was analyzed using a stable HO-1 expression plasmid.We constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus plasmid containing the HO-1 gene,heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1),which was transfected into Caco-2 intestinal cells.We identified a number of target genes by global microarray analysis combined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay.Results Our results showed that significant HO-1 upregulation was demonstrated in the Caco-2 cells after HO-1 transfection.Restoration of HO-1 expression promoted proliferation and invasion in vitro.The CTNND1 gene,a member of the armadillo protein family,was identified as a direct HO-1 target gene.Conclusion Overexpression of HO-1 promotes Caco-2 cell proliferation and migration by targeting the CTNND1 gene.

  19. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency leads to alteration of soluble guanylate cyclase redox regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Allan W; Durante, William; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2010-10-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 knockout, H(mox)1(-/-), mice exhibit exacerbated vascular lesions after ischemia-reperfusion and mechanical injury. Surprisingly, we found no studies that reported contractile responses and sensitivity to vasorelaxants in H(mox)1(-/-) mice. The contractile responses [superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), from female H(mox)1(-/-) mice] exhibited increased sensitivity to phenylephrine (p mox)1(-/-) mice (p mox)1(-/-) than H(mox)1(+/+) mice (p mox)1(-/-) mesenteric and renal arteries also showed reduced relaxation (p mox)1(-/-) arteries were 15 times more sensitive to BAY 60-2770 (p mox)1(+/+) arteries. Pretreatment with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[3,4-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an oxidizer of sGC, predictably shifted the BAY 60-2770 response of H(mox)1(+/+) to the left (p mox)1(-/-) arteries, indicating that much of sGC was oxidized/heme-free. Western analyses of sGC in SMA indicated that both α1 and β1 subunit levels were reduced to mox)1(+/+) level (p mox)1 plays a significant role in the maintenance of sGC in a reduced state, which is resistant to degradation and is sensitive to NO. This function may be especially important in reducing vascular damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  20. A Novel, ;Double-Clamp; Binding Mode for Human Heme Oxygenase-1 Inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Mona N.; Vlahakis, Jason Z.; Vukomanovic, Dragic; Lee, Wallace; Szarek, Walter A.; Nakatsu, Kanji; Jia, Zongchao (Queens)

    2012-08-01

    The development of heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitors is critical in dissecting and understanding the HO system and for potential therapeutic applications. We have established a program to design and optimize HO inhibitors using structure-activity relationships in conjunction with X-ray crystallographic analyses. One of our previous complex crystal structures revealed a putative secondary hydrophobic binding pocket which could be exploited for a new design strategy by introducing a functional group that would fit into this potential site. To test this hypothesis and gain further insights into the structural basis of inhibitor binding, we have synthesized and characterized 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,4-diphenyl-2-butanone (QC-308). Using a carbon monoxide (CO) formation assay on rat spleen microsomes, the compound was found to be {approx}15 times more potent (IC{sub 50} = 0.27{+-}0.07 {mu}M) than its monophenyl analogue, which is already a potent compound in its own right (QC-65; IC{sub 50} = 4.0{+-}1.8 {mu}M). The crystal structure of hHO-1 with QC-308 revealed that the second phenyl group in the western region of the compound is indeed accommodated by a definitive secondary proximal hydrophobic pocket. Thus, the two phenyl moieties are each stabilized by distinct hydrophobic pockets. This 'double-clamp' binding offers additional inhibitor stabilization and provides a new route for improvement of human heme oxygenase inhibitors.

  1. Turning points in the evolution of peroxidase-catalase superfamily: molecular phylogeny of hybrid heme peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámocký, Marcel; Gasselhuber, Bernhard; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Heme peroxidases and catalases are key enzymes of hydrogen peroxide metabolism and signaling. Here, the reconstruction of the molecular evolution of the peroxidase-catalase superfamily (annotated in pfam as PF00141) based on experimentally verified as well as numerous newly available genomic sequences is presented. The robust phylogenetic tree of this large enzyme superfamily was obtained from 490 full-length protein sequences. Besides already well-known families of heme b peroxidases arranged in three main structural classes, completely new (hybrid type) peroxidase families are described being located at the border of these classes as well as forming (so far missing) links between them. Hybrid-type A peroxidases represent a minor eukaryotic subfamily from Excavates, Stramenopiles and Rhizaria sharing enzymatic and structural features of ascorbate and cytochrome c peroxidases. Hybrid-type B peroxidases are shown to be spread exclusively among various fungi and evolved in parallel with peroxidases in land plants. In some ascomycetous hybrid-type B peroxidases, the peroxidase domain is fused to a carbohydrate binding (WSC) domain. Both here described hybrid-type peroxidase families represent important turning points in the complex evolution of the whole peroxidase-catalase superfamily. We present and discuss their phylogeny, sequence signatures and putative biological function.

  2. Amplifying the fluorescence of bilirubin enables the real-time detection of heme oxygenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemz, Roman; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin; Spies, Claudia; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Kotsch, Katja

    2009-01-15

    Heme oxygenases (HO) are the rate-limiting enzymes in the degradation of heme to equimolar amounts of antioxidant bile pigments, the signaling molecule carbon monoxide, and ferric iron. The inducible form HO-1 confers protection on cells and tissues that mediates beneficial effects in many diseases. Consequently, measurement of the enzymatic activity is vital in the investigation of the regulatory role of HO. Here we report that the fluorescence characteristics of bilirubin in complex with serum albumin can be used for the real-time detection of HO activity in enzymatic kinetics measurements. We characterized the enzymatic activity of a truncated human HO-1 and measured the HO activity for various cell types and organs, in either the basal naive or the HO-1-induced state. The bilirubin-dependent increase in fluorescence over time monitored by this assay facilitates a very fast, sensitive, and reliable measurement of HO activity. Our approach offers the basis for a highly sensitive high-throughput screening, which provides, inter alia, the opportunity to discover new therapeutic HO-1-inducing agents.

  3. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulated Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Vanella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of increased expression of HO-1 protein and increased levels of HO activity on differentiation of bone-marrow-derived human MSCs. MSCs are multipotent cells that proliferate and differentiate into many different cell types including adipocytes and osteoblasts. HO, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, plays an important role during MSCs differentiation. HO catalyzes the stereospecific degradation of heme to biliverdin, with the concurrent release of iron and carbon monoxide. Upregulation of HO-1 expression and increased HO activity are essential for MSC growth and differentiation to the osteoblast lineage consistent with the role of HO-1 in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. HO-1 participates in the MSC differentiation process shifting the balance of MSC differentiation in favor of the osteoblast lineage by decreasing PPARγ and increasing osteogenic markers such as alkaline phosphatase and BMP-2. In this paper, we define HO-1 as a target molecule in the modulation of adipogenesis and osteogenesis from MSCs and examine the role of the HO system in diabetes, inflammation, osteoporosis, hypertension, and other pathologies, a burgeoning area of research.

  5. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  6. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties Efeito da irradiação e processo térmico na concentração do ferro heme e nas propriedades de cor da carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Perazzini Furtado Mistura

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 ºC for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L*, a*, and b* values.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da irradiação e de processos térmicos na concentração do ferro heme (Fe heme e nas propriedades de cor da carne do gado brasileiro. As amostras da carne (hambúrgueres e bifes foram irradiadas com 0-10 kGy e foram cozidas em um forno combinado a 250 ºC por 9 minutes com umidade de 70%. As concentrações de ferro total e de ferro heme foram determinadas. Os dados foram comparados por comparações múltiplas e por efeitos fixos, ANOVA. Irradiação em doses mais altas do que 5 kGy alteraram significativamente a concentração de Fe heme. Entretanto, as condições de preparo da amostra, interferiram muito mais na quantidade de Fe heme do que a irradiação. Dependendo da espécie animal, os níveis do ferro heme da carne estão entre 35 e 52% do ferro total e são usados para cálculos dietéticos. Em nosso estudo, a porcentagem de ferro heme foi em média, 70% do ferro total, mostrando que a umidade é um fator

  7. Dietary heme alters microbiota and mucosa of mouse colon without functional changes in host-microbe cross-talk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssenagger, N.; Derrien, M.; Doorn, van G.M.; Rijnierse, A.; Bogert, van den B.; Muller, M.R.; Dekker, J.; Kleerebezem, M.; Meer, van der R.

    2012-01-01

    Colon cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths in Western countries and is associated with diets high in red meat. Heme, the iron-porphyrin pigment of red meat, induces cytotoxicity of gut contents which injures surface cells leading to compensatory hyperproliferation of crypt cells. This hyperproli

  8. Single-WalledCarbon Nanotube Networked Field-Effect Transistors Functionalized with Thiolated Heme for NO2 Sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏昂; 李维维; 汪静霞; 龙庆; 王钊; 熊莉; 董晓臣; 黄维

    2011-01-01

    The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated. After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme, the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below Woppb. It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.%The gas sensing properties of the single-walled carbon nanotube networked field-effect transistors for NO2 are investigated.After the modification of the gold contact electrodes of the carbon nanotube transistors with the thiolated heme,the NO2 sensing results indicate that the sensing sensitivity of the modified transistors is enhanced greatly and the sensing limit can reach below 100ppb.It is also proposed that the mechanism of the sensitivity enhancement for NO2 detection mainly results from the modulation of the Schottky energy barrier at the Au/CNTs junction upon thiolated heme facilitated NO2 adsorption.

  9. A robust and extracellular heme-containing peroxidase from Thermobifida fusca as prototype of a bacterial peroxidase superfamily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloois, Edwin; Torres Pazmino, Daniel; Winter, Remko T.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2010-01-01

    DyP-type peroxidases comprise a novel superfamily of heme-containing peroxidases which is unrelated to the superfamilies of known peroxidases and of which only a few members have been characterized in some detail. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a DyP-type peroxidase (TfuD

  10. The role of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase and ferrochelatase genes in heme biosynthesis and regulation in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, A.C.W.; Werner, E.R.; Haas, H.; Lokman, B.C.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Ram, A.F.J.; Weert, S. de; Punt, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme is a suggested limiting factor in peroxidase production by Aspergillus spp., which are well-known suitable hosts for heterologous protein production. In this study, the role of genes coding for coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (hemF) and ferrochelatase (hemH) was analyzed by means of deletion and

  11. Cryptococcus neoformans requires the ESCRT protein Vps23 for iron acquisition from heme, for capsule formation, and for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Cadieux, Brigitte; Chan, Vivienne; Liu, Victor; Kronstad, James

    2013-01-01

    Iron availability is a key regulator of virulence factor elaboration in Cryptococcus neoformans, the causative agent of fungal meningoencephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients. In addition, iron is an essential nutrient for pathogen proliferation in mammalian hosts but little is known about the mechanisms of iron sensing and uptake in fungal pathogens that attack humans. In this study, we mutagenized C. neoformans by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA insertion and screened for mutants with reduced growth on heme as the sole iron source. Among 34 mutants, we identified a subset with insertions in the gene for the ESCRT-I (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) protein Vps23 that resulted in a growth defect on heme, presumably due to a defect in uptake via endocytosis or misregulation of iron acquisition from heme. Remarkably, vps23 mutants were also defective in the elaboration of the cell-associated capsular polysaccharide that is a major virulence factor, while overexpression of Vps23 resulted in cells with a slightly enlarged capsule. These phenotypes were mirrored by a virulence defect in the vps23 mutant in a mouse model of cryptococcosis and by hypervirulence of the overexpression strain. Overall, these results reveal an important role for trafficking via ESCRT functions in both heme uptake and capsule formation, and they further reinforce the connection between iron and virulence factor deployment in C. neoformans.

  12. A functional mimic of natural peroxidases : synthesis and catalytic activity of a non-heme iron/peptide hydroperoxide complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choma, Christin T.; Schudde, Ebe P.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Robillard, George T.; Feringa, Ben L.

    1998-01-01

    Site-selective attachment of unprotected peptides to a non-heme iron complex is achieved by displacing two halides on the catalyst by peptide caesium thiolates. This coupling approach should be compatible with any peptide sequence provided there is only a single reduced cysteine. The oxidation activ

  13. Redox Bohr effects and the role of heme a in the proton pump of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, Giuseppe; Martino, Pietro Luca; Capitanio, Nazzareno; Papa, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Structural and functional observations are reviewed which provide evidence for a central role of redox Bohr effect linked to the low-spin heme a in the proton pump of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase. Data on the membrane sidedness of Bohr protons linked to anaerobic oxido-reduction of the individual metal centers in the liposome reconstituted oxidase are analysed. Redox Bohr protons coupled to anaerobic oxido-reduction of heme a (and Cu(A)) and Cu(B) exhibit membrane vectoriality, i.e. protons are taken up from the inner space upon reduction of these centers and released in the outer space upon their oxidation. Redox Bohr protons coupled to anaerobic oxido-reduction of heme a(3) do not, on the contrary, exhibit vectorial nature: protons are exchanged only with the outer space. A model of the proton pump of the oxidase, in which redox Bohr protons linked to the low-spin heme a play a central role, is described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Allosteric cooperativity in respiratory proteins.

  14. Spatiotemporal expression of heme oxygenase-1 detected by in vivo bioluminescence after hepatic ischemia in HO-1/luc mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Huawei; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Buis, Carlijn I.; Visser, Dorien S.; Hesselink, Jan Willem; Schuurs, Theo A.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Contag, Christopher H.; Porte, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been proposed as a critical mechanism protecting against cellular stress during liver transplantation, providing a potential target for new therapeutic interventions. We investigated the feasibility of in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to noninvasively

  15. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accelerate the expression of heme carrier protein 1 and enhance photodynamic cancer therapy effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tamura, Masato; Majima, Hideyuki J; Indo, Hiroko P; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy using hematoporphyrin and its derivatives is clinically useful for cancer treatments. It has been reported that cancer cells incorporate hematoporphyrin and its derivatives via heme carrier protein 1, which is a proton-coupled folate transporter. However, the mechanism of this protein expression has not been elucidated. In general, the concentration of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells is higher than that in normal cells. We previously reported that reactive oxygen species from mitochondria involved in the expression of peptide transporter 1 and accelerate the uptake of 5-aminolevulinic acid, which is a precursor of protoporphyrin IX. We suggested mitochondrial reactive oxygen species also regulated the expression of heme carrier protein 1. In this study, we used a rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM1 and its cancer-like mutated cell line RGK1. We clarified the expression of heme carrier protein 1 increased in cancer cells and it decreased in manganese superoxide dismutase expressed cancer cells. In addition, the uptake level of hematoporphyrin and photodynamic therapeutic effect were also decreased in manganese superoxide dismutase expressed cancer cells in comparison with cancer cells. Thus, we concluded that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulated heme carrier protein 1 expression and photodynamic therapeutic effect.

  16. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  17. Oxidative responsiveness to multiple stressors in the key Antarctic species, Adamussium colbecki: Interactions between temperature, acidification and cadmium exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Maura; Lanzoni, Ilaria; Nardi, Alessandro; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Di Carlo, Marta; Fattorini, Daniele; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    High-latitude marine ecosystems are ranked to be among the most sensitive regions to climate change since highly stenothermal and specially adapted organisms might be seriously affected by global warming and ocean acidification. The present investigation was aimed to provide new insights on the sensitivity to such environmental stressors in the key Antarctic species, Adamussium colbecki, focussing also on their synergistic effects with cadmium exposure, naturally abundant in this area for upwelling phenomena. Scallops were exposed for 2 weeks to various combinations of Cd (0 and 40 μgL-1), pH (8.05 and 7.60) and temperature (-1 and +1 °C). Beside Cd bioaccumulation, a wide panel of early warning biomarkers were analysed in digestive glands and gills including levels of metallothioneins, individual antioxidants and total oxyradical scavenging capacity, onset of oxidative cell damage like lipid peroxidation, lysosomal stability, DNA integrity and peroxisomal proliferation. Results indicated reciprocal interactions between multiple stressors and their elaboration by a quantitative hazard model based on the relevance and magnitude of effects, highlighted a different sensitivity of analysed tissues. Due to cellular adaptations to high basal Cd content, digestive gland appeared more tolerant toward other prooxidant stressors, but sensitive to variations of the metal. On the other hand, gills were more affected by various combinations of stressors occurring at higher temperature.

  18. Geometric and electronic structure contributions to function in non-heme iron enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Edward I; Light, Kenneth M; Liu, Lei V; Srnec, Martin; Wong, Shaun D

    2013-11-19

    Mononuclear non-heme Fe (NHFe) enzymes play key roles in DNA repair, the biosynthesis of antibiotics, the response to hypoxia, cancer therapy, and many other biological processes. These enzymes catalyze a diverse range of oxidation reactions, including hydroxylation, halogenation, ring closure, desaturation, and electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS). Most of these enzymes use an Fe(II) site to activate dioxygen, but traditional spectroscopic methods have not allowed researchers to insightfully probe these ferrous active sites. We have developed a methodology that provides detailed geometric and electronic structure insights into these NHFe(II) active sites. Using these data, we have defined a general mec