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Sample records for affect infant health

  1. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endara, Skye M; Ryan, Margaret AK; Sevick, Carter J; Conlin, Ava Marie S; Macera, Caroline A; Smith, Tyler C

    2009-01-01

    Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002). We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes. PMID:19619310

  2. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  3. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  4. Copenhagen infant mental health project:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  5. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  6. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  7. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  8. Parental education and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, L D; Cerda, S P

    1999-02-01

    An infant oral health evaluation encompasses the assessment and identification of oral disease, the establishment of preventive practices and the monitoring of developing dentofacial structures. The article presented here focuses on the need for dentists to begin a dialogue with parents of young children with regard to their infant's oral health. Emphasis is on oral hygiene, fluoride intake, non-nutritive habits, bottle feeding and diet.

  9. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  10. "MOODY BLUES": Affect Interpretation of Infant Facial Expressions and Negative Affect in Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig J.A. van Bakel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth places infants at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes, with self- and affect regulation problems among the most important impairments. However, few studies have empirically examined maternal interpretation of infant affect in mothers of pre- and term infants. The current study examines how negative affect of mothers of preterm and term infants is associated with their interpretation of infant facial expressions.One hundred and sixty-eight mothers with their infants (64 term and 104 preterm participated. Seven days after birth, mothers completed the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL; Matthews, Jones, & Chamberlain, 1990 to assess maternal negative affect. During a home visit, six months after birth, mothers additionally completed a task developed to measure infant affect interpretation (Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotions through Looking at Pictures task, IFEEL pictures task; Emde, Osofsky, & Butterfield, 1993.Mothers of preterm infants reported more negative affect than mothers of term infants. However, the relationship between infant birth status (i.e., term vs. preterm and maternal interpretation of infant facial expressions was moderated by the mother's own negative affectivity. Surprisingly, particularly mothers of term infants who also reported high levels of negative affect were found to interpret infant affect significantly more negatively.Prematurity itself does not seem to be a dominant factor in determining maternal infant affect interpretation, though maternal psychological negative mood does. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  11. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies. PMID:25152535

  12. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  13. Contingency, Imitation, and Affect Sharing: Foundations of Infants' Social Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during…

  14. The importance of intersectoral factors in promoting equity-oriented universal health coverage: a multilevel analysis of social determinants affecting neonatal infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir M. Huda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health is multidimensional and affected by a wide range of factors, many of which are outside the health sector. To improve population health and reduce health inequality, it is important that we take into account the complex interactions among social, environmental, behavioural, and biological factors and design our health interventions accordingly. Objectives: This study examines mortality differentials in children of different age groups by key social determinants of health (SDH including parental education and employment, mother's level of autonomy, age, asset index, living arrangements (utilities, and other geographical contextual factors (area of residence, road conditions. Design: We used data from the two rounds of Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of the population residing in Bangladesh. Multilevel logistic models were used to study the impact of SDH on child mortality. Results: The study found that the mother's age, the education of both parents, the mother's autonomy to take decisions about matters linked to the health of her child, the household socio-economic conditions, the geographical region of residence, and the condition of the roads were significantly associated with higher risks of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The study findings suggest there are complex relationships among different SDH. Thus larger intersectoral actions will be needed to reduce disparities in child health and mortality and achieve meaningful progress towards equity-oriented universal health coverage.

  15. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  16. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

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    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  17. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

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    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  18. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Health status and affecting factors of late-preterm infants%晚期早产儿健康状况及其影响因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萍; 张雪峰; 李瑛; 刘向梅; 钱素云

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the birth rate,mortality,complications,related factots of preterm infants at Beijing Haidian Maternity and Children's Hospital in 2007,80 as to establish the foundations for a more systematic and effective program for clinical treatments.Methods Data of all the neonates born at Beijing Haidian Maternity and Children's Hospital during the periodfrom January 1,2007 to December 31,2007 were recorded for statistical analysis.All near-term infants of 35-37 weeks of gestational age were taken into observation group.Within 24 hours after birth,blood routine examination,urine and stool routine examination,blood gas analysis and electrolytes,blood glucose monitoring(at 1st,3rd,6th,12th,and 24th hours),chest radiography examination,skull and heart color Doppler ultrasonographic examination were conducted.Full-term infants who were born on the first day of every month were randomly selected as a comparison group(totally 350 cases)for statistical analysis.Complications of the two groups were recorded in detail. Factors such as the ages of parturients,maternal infections,pregnancy-induced hypertension,diabetes,anaemia,premature rupture of membranes,abnormal aminotic fluid,abnormal umbilical cord,abnormal placenta,and twin were analyzed and compared.Results Of the 12 286 infants born during the study period.333 were late-preterm infants;the birth rate of late-preterm infants was 2.71%.Among the complications in late-preterm infants,the hyperbilirubinemia topped at 33.6%.followed by respiratory distress(16.8%),hypoglycemia(9.0%),intracranial hemorrhage(8.1%),anemia or erythrocytosis (5.7%),and digestive system disease(5.4%).Late-preterm infants have higher rate of the hyperbilirubinemia,respiratory distress,hypoglycemia,anemia or erythrocytosis and digestive system disease (P<0.05).The length of hospital stay of late-preterm infants,which is 5.1 d±3.90 d,was significantly longer than those of full-term infants which was 3.2 d±1.61 d(P<0.05).Conclusion The

  20. Infant mental health screening in the general child health surveilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Andersen, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    was investigated by Rasch item response analyses; the predictive validity was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The Rasch analyses showed that CIMHS had high construct validity and identified patterns of infant mental health problems without differential item function for gender, age...

  1. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea;

    2014-01-01

    Early Parent-infant Interactions: Are Health Visitors’ Observations Reliable? Cross-sectional study of Danish Marte Meo Therapists’ Competence The quality of parent-infant relations is essential for infant development, and its assessment by health visitors is potentially important to promote...... in knowing more about parent-infant relations than health visitors without a parenting program education. Health visitors without a parenting program education reported significantly higher need for further qualifications in parent-infants relations. Findings indicate that though all health visitors have...... high intention and self-efficacy to work with parent-infant relation, professionals certified as Marte Meo-therapists are 8-12% superior in terms of observation skills and knowledge. Further research is needed to determinate whether the level of knowledge and observation skills is associated...

  2. Universal Investment in Infants and Long-Run Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Jonas; Sølvsten, Mikkel; Wüst, Miriam

    This paper provides the first estimates of the long-run health effects of a universal infant health intervention. We examine the 1937 Danish home visiting program, which targeted all infants. Using administrative population data and exploiting variation in the timing of implementation across muni...

  3. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf

    mental health adversities and enhancing parental sensitivity and attachment security. Outcomes are measured at follow-up and include parental sensitivity and reflective functioning, child attachment, child social emotional and cognitive development. Results: Preliminary results from the study...... Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in detecting maternal postpartum depression. A sample of 326 eligible parent(s) enters into a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an attachment based intervention program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P), compared to Care as usual (CAU) in preventing...... will be presented focusing mainly on the results from screening part of the study. Conclusion: On the basis of our results we will discuss the importance of screening programs for early infant mental risks and indicated prevention programs aiming at enhancing parental sensitivity and child attachment. If proved...

  4. The health implications of soy infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

    2009-05-01

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development.

  5. Infant Mental Health Home Visitation: Setting and Maintaining Professional Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carla; Paradis, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Relationship-based infant mental health home visiting services for infants, toddlers, and their families intensify the connection between the personal and professional. To promote the therapeutic relationship and maximize the effectiveness of the intervention, home visitors must exercise good judgment, in the field and in the moment, to set and…

  6. Maternal emotion dysregulation is related to heightened mother-infant synchrony of facial affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotzin, Annett; Schiborr, Julia; Barkmann, Claus; Romer, Georg; Ramsauer, Brigitte

    2016-05-01

    A heightened synchrony between the mother's and infant's facial affect predicts adverse infant development. We know that maternal psychopathology is related to mother-infant facial affect synchrony, but it is unclear how maternal psychopathology is transmitted to mother-infant synchrony. One pathway might be maternal emotion dysregulation. We examined (a) whether maternal emotion dysregulation is positively related to facial affect synchrony and (b) whether maternal emotion dysregulation mediates the effect of maternal psychopathology on mother-infant facial affect synchrony. We observed 68 mothers with mood disorders and their 4- to 9-month-old infants in the Still-Face paradigm during two play interactions. The mother's and infant's facial affect were rated from high negative to high positive, and the degree of synchrony between the mother's and infant's facial affect was computed with a time-series analysis. Emotion dysregulation was measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and psychopathology was assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Higher maternal emotion dysregulation was significantly associated with higher facial affect synchrony; emotion dysregulation fully mediated the effect of maternal psychopathology on facial affect synchrony. Our findings demonstrate that maternal emotion dysregulation rather than maternal psychopathology per se places mothers and infants at risk for heightened facial affect synchrony.

  7. Positive affect in infant siblings of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filliter, Jillian H; Longard, Julie; Lawrence, Michael A; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Brian, Jessica; Garon, Nancy; Smith, Isabel M; Roncadin, Caroline; Roberts, Wendy; Bryson, Susan E

    2015-04-01

    Research on the expression of positive affect in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) suggests that differences in this domain emerge late in the first year or early in the second year. However, many previous studies in this area employed retrospective research methods and global rating schemes. In the current study, the expression of positive affect was examined prospectively at ages 6, 12, and 18 months in three groups: infant siblings with ASD, infant siblings without ASD, and low-risk comparison infants. Infant siblings were the younger brothers or sisters of children diagnosed with ASD and, therefore, had a higher familial risk of ASD. The frequency and duration of smiles were coded from video excerpts from the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (Bryson, Zwaigenbaum, McDermott, Rombough, and Brian 2008), a standardized, play-based assessment of early signs of ASD. Results indicated that at 12 months, infant siblings with ASD had a lower rate of smiling than the other two groups. At 18 months, infant siblings with ASD continued to display a lower rate of smiling than infant siblings without ASD, but not comparison infants. Overall, these results indicate that infant siblings with ASD demonstrate less positive affect than infant siblings without ASD and low-risk comparison infants at 12 months. This suggests that reduced smiling may be an informative behavioural risk marker for ASD by children's first birthdays and may have implications for our understanding of atypical social development in children with ASD.

  8. A new measure for infant mental health screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjorn E.; Wilms, Lisbeth;

    2016-01-01

    by community health nurses (CHN) in existing service settings in Denmark. This study was conducted to describe the development of a service setting based measure to screen for infant mental health problems, to investigate problems identified by the measure and assess the validity and feasibility in existing......Background: Mental health problems are a major public health challenges, and strategies of early prevention are needed. Effective prevention depends on feasible and validated measures of screening and intervention. Previous research has demonstrated potentials for infant mental health screening...... public health settings. Methods: Experts within the field developed a short, feasible and comprehensive measure. A consecutive sample of 2973 infants from 11 municipalities around the city of Copenhagen was screened at 9–10 months. Face validity and feasibility were evaluated among CHNs. Data on child...

  9. Infant nutrition and lifelong health: current perspectives and future challenges.

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    Robinson, S M

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the role and importance of nutrition in early postnatal life, as an influence on lifelong vulnerability to poor health, is an important part of current research. We need to be able to define optimal patterns of infant feeding, not just to support growth and development in infancy, but also as determinants of later health. To date, much of the focus on the long-term effects of infant nutrition has been on milk feeding, to compare breast and formula feeding and to evaluate the effects of exclusivity, timing and duration of feeding different types of milk in infancy; other aspects of infant feeding such as age at introduction of solid foods and type of weaning diet have received less attention, and relatively little is known about their links to later health. Contemporary data are needed to enable us to move beyond explanation of historical infant feeding data in order to understand and predict health outcomes in future generations. Ongoing and new population studies, that include infants from diverse settings, will be key to providing generalizable data that can be used to define optimal feeding practice. There are some methodological challenges ahead, although significant progress has already been made, and further progress is envisaged in the future. In particular, the opportunity to bring together epidemiological studies and new mechanistic insights that will help identify key aspects of infant nutrition and their causal effects offer great promise both in moving this field forward as well as the potential for health benefits for future generations.

  10. Infants and Toddlers in Group Care: Feeding Practices that Foster Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscomb, Kathryn R.; Goble, Carla B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of child-teacher interactions during daily child care routines plays a significant role in young children's development. The nature of mealtimes--the pace, the caregiver's responsiveness, how food is offered--affects infants' and toddlers' emotional health. Maintaining consistency between how children are fed at home and at the center…

  11. Impact of Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Infant Mortality Rate in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC: Evidence from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: infant mortality rate is one of the main health indicators for assessing the health system’s performance over the world. We aim to examine the socioeconomic and health system factors affect infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013. Methods: was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure and female labor force participation rate on infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013.  These data were obtained from World Bank and World Health Organization data bank. Results: our results showed the total fertility rate had a positive and significant impact on infant mortality in the studied period. Also, there are negative significant associations between GDP per capita and public health expenditure with infant mortality. We did not observe any relationship between infant mortality and female labour force participation rate in the studied countries from 2004 to 2013. Conclusion: total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure were identified as the main factors affecting on infant mortality in OPEC over the ten years (2004-2013. This study enables health policy-makers to better understand the factors affecting on infant mortality and thereby take necessary steps in managing and decreasing the infant mortality rate in the studied countries.

  12. Energy Expenditure in Infants in Health and Disease

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    Ross Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of energy balance represents a basic theoretical concept in the determination of nutritional and fluid requirements in humans in health and disease. Infants have special nutrient requirements, more limited reserves and relative immaturity of organ function. Energy requirements of infants have been based either retrospectively on intakes required to achieve normal growth or on equations derived from energy expenditure studies performed early this century. Recently, improved techniques for studying resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE and metabolically active body compartments in infants have facilitated more accurate estimates of energy requirements. Such studies indicated that current reference values for energy requirements are overestimates, and that compared with measured values, predicted values vary markedly between the various predictive equations with wide co-efficients of variation. In disease states with altered body composition, such as cystic fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, predictive equations markedly underestimate both energy and fluid requirements. In cystic fibrosis, both TEE and REE are 25% higher than values in healthy infants. In extrahepatic biliary atresia, energy expenditure per unit body cell mass is markedly elevated, suggesting that this is a catabolic condition in infants. Current estimates of energy and fluid requirements in both health and disease in infants need reappraisal. Bedside and free living energy expenditure methodology should be used to define accurately components of energy requirement in individual infants.

  13. The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses age-at-school-entry policies to identify the effect of female education on fertility and infant health. We focus on sharp contrasts in schooling, fertility, and infant health between women born just before and after the school entry date. School entry policies affect female education and the quality of a woman’s mate and have generally small, but possibly heterogeneous, effects on fertility and infant health. We argue that school entry policies manipulate primarily the education of young women at risk of dropping out of school. PMID:21490880

  14. Does trade affect child health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth.

  15. Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HaddersAlgra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics were recorded while the infants were exposed to s

  16. Infant mental health promotion and the discourse of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Angela; Coveney, John; MacDougall, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The field of infant mental health promotion has rapidly developed in academia, health policy and practice. Although there are roots in earlier childhood health and welfare movements, recent developments in infant mental health promotion are distinct and different. This article examines the development and practice of infant mental health promotion in South Australia. A regional, intersectoral forum with a focus on families and young children was used as a case study. In-depth interviews with forum members were analysed using a governmentality lens. Participants identified a range of risks to the healthy development of the infant. The study suggests that the construction of risk acts as a technique of governing, providing the rationale for intervention for the child, the mother and the public's good. It places responsibility on parents to self-govern. Although the influence of broader social contexts is acknowledged, the problematisation of mothering as risk shifts the focus to individual capacity, rather than encompassing the systems and social conditions that support healthy relationships. This research suggests that the representations of risk are a pervasive and potent influence that can act to undermine health promotion efforts that seek to empower and enable people to have more control over their own health.

  17. An Epidemiological Study on Infant Mortality and Factors Affecting it in Rural Areas of Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokab Namakin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infant mortality rate is one of the most expressive indicators of development in all countries. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of infant mortality and risk factors in rural areas of Birjand in Iran. Methods: This population based case-control study covered 156 infants who died when aged less than one-year in health houses of Birjand between January 2004 and December 2005. For each case, two controls were selected matching one-to-one to the case considering variables of residency and their date of birth. The data was collected through interview with mothers and reviewing infants files in health houses. Findings: 57.7 percent of deaths in under one year old infants happened during the first month of their lives. The most important causes of death in neonates were prematurity and low birth weight (44.4% later gastroenteritis (30.3%. In addition, the study showed that 9.6 percent of infants had died because of narcotic toxicosis. Moreover, the study showed a significant relationship between infant mortality and parents level of education, mothers addiction, age of mother in the first pregnancy, prematurity, low birth weight, type of delivery and exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Special attention to infantile period and special care for infants born to at-risk mothers, as well as providing special health education can cause a dramatic reduction in infants mortality rate.

  18. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  19. Changes in infants' affect related to the onset of independent locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Pamela G; Green, James A

    2011-06-01

    Previous research suggests that after gaining several weeks of independent locomotor experience, infants may show both more negative and more positive affect toward parents. However, this prior work has been based largely on parent report, and no studies have used longitudinal or naturalistic methods to chart changes in infants' affective expressions as they gain locomotor ability. Fifteen infants were observed at home before, during, and after learning to crawl in two naturalistic contexts, free play and dyadic play. Expressions of negative affect during free play decreased after the onset of crawling, but there was no change in expressions of positive affect. At the same time, however, mothers reported an increase in both negative and positive reactivity. These results are discussed in terms of the contexts typically assessed during observations and the different sensitivities of mothers to infants' expressions of affect. Several lines of evidence point to a potential role for independent locomotion in the reorganization of affective expressions.

  20. Sudden infant death syndrome: are we any closer to identifying which infants will be affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez TL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tara L Ramirez, Michael H MalloyDepartment of Pediatrics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Sudden infant death syndrome is a complex and multifactoral process. The classification and definition of the syndrome has changed over time. As knowledge in the genetics of this complex syndrome continues to advance, additional causes of vulnerability have been found, but no single cause has yet been discovered. Over the last 40 years there have also been many advances in the identification of risk factors that make a given infant more vulnerable to succumbing to sudden infant death. There have also been great strides made in decreasing the number of infant deaths from this syndrome by modification of these risk factors, most notably with the initiation of the Back to Sleep campaign. With the initiation of the Safe to Sleep campaign there is hope that sudden infant death syndrome as a component of all sudden unexpected infant deaths can be further reduced.Keywords: sudden infant death syndrome, sudden unexpected death of infancy, risk factors, sleep-related infant death, crib death, cot death

  1. Gut microbiota and probiotics in maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda

    2011-12-01

    The interplay between both heredity and environmental factors seems to affect every stage of development from conception to the early postnatal period with potential long-term effects on child and adult health. During pregnancy, immune and metabolic functions of the fetus are dependent on the mother; moreover, the refinement of these functions seems to commence inside the uterus and to be diet sensitive. The microbiota inhabiting the intestinal tract develop an array of physiologic roles within the human body, which influences both metabolic and immune functions, particularly during early neonatal life and possibly even in utero. Transmission of bacteria from the mother to the neonate through direct contact with maternal microbiota during birth and through breast milk during lactation also seems to influence the infant's gut colonization, with potential health consequences. In this context, intentional modulation of microbiota composition through the use of probiotics during the perinatal and early postnatal period has been proposed as a possible dietary strategy to reduce risk of disease. Herein, studies are reviewed on the composition of the intestinal microbiota during pregnancy and clinical trials evaluating the effects of perinatal administration of probiotics on different clinical outcomes.

  2. Happy babies, chatty toddlers: infant positive affect facilitates early expressive, but not receptive language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laake, Lauren M; Bridgett, David J

    2014-02-01

    Eighty-three mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Positive affect (PA) broadly, along with fine-grained aspects of PA, was measured at 10 months of age. Language was measured at 14 months. Infant PA predicted expressive, but not receptive, language. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  4. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Benitez, Viridian L; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  5. Creating and Sustaining an Interdisciplinary Infant Mental Health Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anne E.; Dillon, Colleen O.; Fernandes, Sherira; Spieker, Susan; ZeanahTulane, Paula D.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a sustainable, competent workforce is an urgent and challenging task for the Infant Mental Health (IMH) field. In this article, the authors share their experiences and perspectives on the importance of and challenges in the development of the IMH workforce. The broad view of both workforce members and professional development…

  6. The Training of Infant Mental Health Practitioners: The Norway Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinning, Kari; Vannebo, Unni Tranaas

    2015-01-01

    Today the infant mental health field includes a multidisciplinary team of practitioners with very different training and education needs. Implementation research has shown that appropriate training is a key factor for successful outcomes of an intervention and that supervision and coaching are crucial. All professionals who work with young…

  7. Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian the...... cultural ethnotheories on good child care in these two communities found in previous studies and by other researchers....... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres...... become visible in early caregiver–infant interactions. In a comparative study with 20 farming Cameroonian Nso mothers from Kikaikelaki and 20 German middle-class mothers from Muenster and their 3-month-old infants, we investigated discursive practices used by the mothers in reaction to the infants...

  8. Creating Career Pathways and Infusing Infant Mental Health into Early Care and Education Professional Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Carla B.; Laurin, Deborah E.

    2016-01-01

    Infant-toddler teachers are often the first people outside of families to interact with infants on a daily basis. Through these interactions teachers can promote infant mental health, prevent problems, screen and identify infants experiencing difficulties, make referrals, and work as members of interdisciplinary intervention teams. However,…

  9. New Law Protects the Health of Mothers and Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    CHINA celebrates International Children’s Day this year with the implementation of a law protecting the health of the country’s mothers and infants. The Law of the P.R.C. on the Protection of Mothers and Infants, passed on October 27, 1994, during the 10th Session of the 8th Standing Committee of National People’s Congress, was publicly issued on the No.33 Command of the President of the P.R.C. and will go into effect June 1, 1995. This first law specifically concerned with the protection of the health of women and children is expected to play an important role in the overall improvement of the health of the Chinese people, the quality of the population, the advancement of the society, and the overall happiness among families. The law stresses the promotion of maternal and child hygiene

  10. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  11. Mental Health May Affect Chances Against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163241.html Mental Health May Affect Chances Against Cancer Early research suggests ... Our findings contribute to the evidence that poor mental health might have some predictive capacity for certain physical ...

  12. Endorsement®: A National Tool for Workforce Development in Infant Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Sadie; Weatherston, Deborah J.; Warren, Mary G.; Schuren, Nicole R.; McCormick, Ashley; Paradis, Nichole; Van Horn, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    The Endorsement for Culturally Sensitive, Relationship-Focused Practice Promoting Infant Mental Health® (Endorsement®) recognizes knowledge, skills, and reflective experiences that promote quality service when working with or on behalf of infants, toddlers, and families. Developed by the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health, the…

  13. Methods of linking mothers and infants using health plan data for studies of pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin E.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Andrade, Susan E.; Cheetham, T. Craig; Scott, Pamela E.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Dashevsky, Inna; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Dublin, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research on medication safety in pregnancy often utilizes health plan and birth certificate records. This study discusses methods used to link mothers with infants, a crucial step in such research. Methods We describe how 8 sites participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program created linkages between deliveries, infants and birth certificates for the 2001–2007 birth cohorts. We describe linkage rates across sites and, for two sites, we compare the characteristics of populations linked using different methods. Results Of 299,260 deliveries, 256,563 (86%; range by site, 74–99%) could be linked to infants using a deterministic algorithm. At two sites, using birth certificate data to augment mother-infant linkage increased the representation of mothers who were Hispanic or non-white, younger, Medicaid recipients, or had low educational level. A total of 236,460 (92%; range by site, 82–100%) deliveries could be linked to a birth certificate. Conclusions Tailored approaches enabled linking most deliveries to infants and to birth certificates, even when data systems differed. The methods used may affect the composition of the population identified. Linkages established with such methods can support sound pharmacoepidemiology studies of maternal drug exposure outside the context of a formal registry. PMID:23596095

  14. Health-related Quality of Life in Infants With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverung, Lauren M; Bemrich-Stolz, Christina; Torres, Sylvia; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    Using historical cohorts of healthy, acutely ill, and chronically ill infants for comparison, we sought to determine whether infants with sickle cell disease (SCD) have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). We conducted a cross-sectional study at 2 sites: the Medical College of Wisconsin/Children's of Wisconsin and the University of Alabama School of Medicine/Children's of Alabama. Parents of 90 infants with SCD completed the PedsQL Infant Module corresponding to their infant's age (1 to 12 mo or 13 to 24 mo) during a regular clinic visit. At 1 to 12 months, infants with SCD displayed lower Physical HRQL than healthy infants, but better HRQL than chronically ill infants. By 13 to 24 months, infants with SCD had worse HRQL in all areas than healthy infants and worse Physical and Total HRQL than acutely ill infants. Compared with chronically ill infants in this age group, infants with SCD had similar Physical HRQL and better Psychosocial and Total HRQL. By 13 to 24 months, a greater proportion of infants with SCD had impaired Physical and Total HRQL compared with infants aged 1 to 12 months. All differences were significant at the (P<0.05) level. Impaired HRQL can be detected in infants with SCD.

  15. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  16. Does Maternal HIV Status Affect Infant Growth?: A Hospital Based Follow Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Trivedi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV infection is difficult to diagnose in infants, as most infected babies appear healthy and exhibit no signs and symptoms at birth. The present study was conducted to study the clinical profile & morbidity pattern of infants born to HIV positive mothers, their nutritional status and growth pattern and compare them with HIV non exposed infants. Methodology: This observational longitudinal study was conducted in Dec 2009 – Dec 2010 where all HIV exposed baby born in the hospital (n=44 were compared with suitable sample of HIV non exposed babies (n=140 in context of clinical profile & morbidity pattern. Results: In maternal weight <50 Kg category, mean weight, length and head circumference of HIV exposed infants is significantly lower than HIV non exposed infants. However, pattern of weight gain remain similar in both group. Grade 1 and grade 2 malnutrition was more in HIV exposed group at 3 month & 6 month. HIV exposed baby reported higher episodes of diarrhea (28.57% as compared to non exposed group (15.33% with statistically significant difference (p value<0.05. Conclusion: HIV exposure does not adversely affect growth potential of infants but because of their lower baseline values they seem to lag behind. Moreover maternal HIV status does not lead to severe degree of malnutrition if these babies were not themselves affected with HIV. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 512-517

  17. Selection and the marriage premium for infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey S; Price, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found a positive relationship between marriage and infant health, but it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or a reflection of positive selection into marriage. We use multiple empirical approaches to address this issue. First, using a technique developed by Gelbach (2009) to determine the relative importance of observable characteristics, we show how selection into marriage has changed over time. Second, we construct a matched sample of children born to the same mother and apply panel data techniques to account for time-invariant unobserved characteristics. We find evidence of a sizable marriage premium. However, this premium fell by more than 40 % between 1989 and 2004, largely as a result of declining selection into marriage by race. Accounting for selection reduces ordinary least squares estimates of the marriage premiums for birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality by at least one-half.

  18. The effects of Ghana's national health insurance scheme on maternal and infant health care utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna); Breebaart, L. (Lyn); De Poel, E.V. (Ellen Van)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIncreasing equitable access to health care is a main challenge African policy makers are facing. The Ghanaian government implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme in 2004 and the aim of this study is to evaluate its early effects on maternal and infant healthcare use. We exploit d

  19. A Call for Integrating a Mental Health Perspective into Systems of Care for Abused and Neglected Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2011-01-01

    A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…

  20. Infant Mortality. A Report Prepared by the Congressional Research Service for the Use of the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment and the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session. Committee Print 98-W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This report presents background information and statistical data on the problem of infant mortality. Contents include (1) a discussion of the causes of infant mortality; (2) data on infant mortality and low birth weight; and (3) information on federal programs affecting maternal and child health. Data tables depict infant mortality in terms of…

  1. Melding Infant Mental Health and Multisystemic Therapy Approaches to Community-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jay C.; Carubia, Beau A.; Murgolo, Marisa A.; Carter, Debbie R.; Frankel, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    A recent partnership between the Irving Harris Program in Child Development and Infant Mental Health and the Community Based Psychiatry Program at University of Colorado Hospital joined two different approaches to child mental health treatment: infant mental health and multisystemic therapy (MST). This article illustrates the compatibility of…

  2. Mental health in war-affected populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses mental health problems in populations in nonwestern war-affected regions, and methods to mitigate these problems through interventions focusing on social reintegration. It describes a number of studies among war-affected populations in widely different areas: refugees from the Rw

  3. Family matters: Infants, toddlers and preschoolers of parents affected by mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken

  4. Differential associations between infant affective and cortisol responses during the still face paradigm among infants born very low birth weight versus full-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J; Maclean, Peggy; Qualls, Clifford; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-06-01

    Psychological stress responses may have both emotional and cortisol reactivity correlates, but there are limited data addressing the association between generalized negative and positive emotional states and cortisol reactivity to a psychological stressor among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW; cortisol) responses may provide insight into the nature of regulation difficulties identified in infants born VLBW. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between infant affective and cortisol responses to the Still Face paradigm (SF) in a cohort of six- to eight-month old infants born VLBW compared with infants born full-term (N=53 total; N=29 and N=24, respectively). Infant affect was coded in 1-s intervals while mother-infant dyads participated in the SF paradigm, and percent positive affect and percent negative affect were calculated separately for each SF episode. We had hypothesized that because infants born VLBW are at increased risk for dysregulation, they would show, compared to full-term controls, greater dysregulation in the form of less synchrony (i.e., less correlated affective and cortisol responses) across the two SF stressors (episodes 2 and 4). This hypothesis was largely supported: the associations between affective and cortisol responses were different for the two groups across the two stressors for percent positive affect (both stressor episodes 2 and 4) and percent negative affect (episode 4 only). For the full-term group, follow up correlations revealed significant negative associations between percent positive affective and cortisol responses for both stressors. Mothers' responsiveness did not explain the term group association differences between infant affective and cortisol responses across stressors. The (lack of) association of stress reactivity systems may index dysregulation or dysregulation correlates in preterm children. Understanding how this lack of coordination among stress systems relates to greater dysregulation

  5. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet.

  6. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA, 2008: A COMMENTARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-gyamfi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.

  7. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  8. Macro-economic conditions and infant health: a changing relationship for black and white infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We study whether the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant health, infant mortality and maternal characteristics in the United States has changed over the years 1980-2004. We use microdata on births and deaths for years 1980-2004 and find that the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant mortality and birthweight changes over time and is stronger for blacks than whites. For years 1980-1989 increases in the state unemployment rate are associated with a decline in infant mortality among blacks, an effect driven by mortality from gestational development and birth weight, and complications of placenta while in utero. In contrast, state economic conditions are unrelated to black infant mortality in years 1990-2004 and white infant mortality in any period, although effects vary by cause of death. We explore potential mechanisms for our findings and, including mothers younger than 18 in the analysis, uncover evidence of age-related maternal selection in response to the business cycle. In particular, in years 1980-1989 an increase in the unemployment rate at the time of conception is associated with fewer babies born to young mothers. The magnitude and direction of the relationship between business cycles and infant mortality differs by race and period. Age-related selection into motherhood in response to the business cycle is a possible explanation for this changing relationship.

  9. Building Competency in Infant Mental Health Practice: The Edith Cowan University Pregnancy to Parenthood Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matacz, Rochelle; Priddis, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a unique Australian infant mental health (IMH) service for families from pregnancy through to early parenthood (0-3 years) and training center for postgraduate clinical psychology students. The Australian Association for Infant Mental Health Incorporated, West Australia Branch (AAIMHI WA) "Competency Guidelines"®…

  10. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics.

  11. Infants' social withdrawal symptoms assessed with a direct infant observation method in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puura, Kaija; Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Pälvi; Guedeney, Antoine; Salmelin, Raili; Tamminen, Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Distressed infants may withdraw from social interaction, but recognising infants' social withdrawal is difficult. The aims of the study were to see whether an infant observation method can be reliably used by front line workers, and to examine the prevalence of infants' social withdrawal symptoms. A random sample of 363 families with four, eight or 18-month-old infants participated in the study. The infants were examined by general practitioners (GPs) in well-baby clinics with the Alarm Distress BaBy Scale (ADBB), an observation method developed for clinical settings. A score of five or more on the ADBB Scale in two subsequent assessments at a two-week interval was regarded as a sign of clinically significant infant social withdrawal. Kappas were calculated for the GPs' correct rating of withdrawn/not withdrawn against a set of videotapes rated by developer of the method, Professor Guedeney and his research group. The kappas for their ratings ranged from 0.5 to 1. The frequency of infants scoring above the cut off in two subsequent assessments was 3%. The ADBB Scale is a promising method for detecting infant social withdrawal in front line services. Three percents of infants were showing sustained social withdrawal as a sign of distress in this normal population sample.

  12. UK health visitors' role in identifying and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Nathan, Dilip; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Atkinson, Philippa; Glazebrook, Cris

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of modifiable risk factors that can be identified during infancy or earlier. In the UK, health visitors advise parents about infant feeding, but little is known about their role in obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and current practices of UK health visitors in relation to recognising and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity. Thirty members of the health visiting team were interviewed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Health visitors were aware of some of the modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity such as infant feeding practices. They felt they had a role in advising parents about diet but did not formally identify and/or intervene with larger infants. Infant overweight was considered a sensitive issue that was difficult to raise with parents. They believed some parents preferred larger infants and were unaware that their feeding practices might be contributing to obesity risk. A need for training and guidance was identified together with strategies to overcome system barriers. Health visitors do not currently target parents of infants at risk of obesity largely because they do not perceive they have appropriate guidance and skills to enable them to do so. There is an urgent need for tools and training to enable all health care professionals to recognise and manage infants at risk of developing obesity without creating a sense of blame.

  13. Fish oil affects immune function in 9 to 12 month old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja;

    Background - n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to affect immune function and may affect immune maturation in early life. Objective - To examine if fish oil supplementation in late infancy could modify immune function. Design - A 2×2 intervention with fish oil (3.4 ± 1.1 ml....../day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...... production in whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei for 22 h. IgA was measured in feces at 10 months of age. Results - Fish oil supplementation effectively raised RBC n-3 PUFA (p...

  14. Neurosciences of infant mental health development: recent findings and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Adriana; Lifter, Karin

    2014-10-01

    This article is about the neural correlates of infant mental health and their correspondences to social emotional development. These correspondences are organized in terms of the definition of infant mental provided by Zero to Three (2001), centered on infants' capacities regarding the experience and expression of emotions, interpersonal relationships, and learning. We conclude with implications of these correspondences for counseling psychology-namely, working with children's caregivers to maximize children's healthy social and emotional development.

  15. DHA Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation Affects Infants' Cellular but Not Humoral Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Granot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is currently recommended that diet of pregnant mothers contain 200–300 mg DHA/day. Aim. To determine whether DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation affects infants' immune response. Methods. 60 women in ≥3rd pregnancy studied; 30 randomly assigned to receive DHA 400 mg/day from 12th week gestation until 4 months postpartum. From breast-fed infants, blood obtained for anti-HBs antibodies, immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subset phenotyping, and intracellular cytokine production. Results. CD4+ lymphocytes did not differ between groups, but CD4CD45RA/CD4 (naïve cells significantly higher in infants in DHA+ group. Proportion of CD4 and CD8 cells producing IFNγ significantly lower in DHA+ group, with no differences in proportion of IL4-producing cells. Immunoglobulins and anti-HBs levels did not differ between groups. Conclusions. In infants of mothers receiving DHA supplementation, a higher percentage of CD4 naïve cells and decreased CD4 and CD8 IFNγ production is compatible with attenuation of a proinflammatory response.

  16. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?:Cross-sectional study of Marte Meo therapists' Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Early Parent-infant Interactions: Are Health Visitors’ Observations Reliable?Cross-sectional study of Danish Marte Meo Therapists’ Competence The quality of parent-infant relations is essential for infant development, and its assessment by health visitors is potentially important to promote healthy relations. The objectives of this study were to explore health visitors’ observation skills assessing parent-infant interaction and their intention, self-efficacy and knowledge in early relationshi...

  17. Infant Mental Health for Medically Fragile Babies in Intensive Care and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joy V.; Talmi, Ayelet

    2017-01-01

    Infants who begin their lives in intensive care are impacted physically and socioemotionally for many months and years to come. Likewise, stressful experiences of caring for a baby hospitalized in intensive care have an impact on primary caregivers, typically the baby's parents. Infant mental health (IMH) is an expanding, evidence-based field that…

  18. BUILDING A WORKFORCE COMPETENCY-BASED TRAINING PROGRAM IN INFANT/EARLY CHILDHOOD MENTAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Lynn E; Matacz, Rochelle; Weatherston, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a project conducted in Western Australia (Mental Health Commission WA, 2015) that investigated the education and training needs of the Infant/Early Childhood Mental Health (I/ECMH) workforce. We examined international training programs and models of delivery in infant mental health, including a review of the current training available in Australia. Data collected from over 60 interviews were analyzed, and a staged delivery model for I/ECMH training and supervision that aligned with the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) Competency Guidelines was recommended. These findings led to the purchase of the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health (2014) for use in Western Australia. In a very short time, use of the Michigan Competency Framework by the Australian Association for Infant Mental Health West Australian Branch Incorporated has begun to change the training and education opportunities for upskilling the infant and early childhood workforce in Western Australia. It has resulted in a map to guide and develop training in the I/ECMH field for individual practitioners and professionals as well as for workplaces that will ultimately benefit Western Australian infants, young children, and their families during the perinatal period and in the early years.

  19. How Does What I Eat Affect My Oral Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... more... How Does What I Eat Affect My Oral Health? Article Chapters How Does What I Eat Affect ...

  20. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  1. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  2. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  3. National Natality Survey/National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survey provides data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of mothers, prenatal care, pregnancy history, occupational background, health status of mother and infant, and types and sources of medical care received.

  4. Minimum drinking age laws and infant health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, Angela R; Watson, Tara

    2009-05-01

    Alcohol policies have potentially far-reaching impacts on risky sexual behavior, prenatal health behaviors, and subsequent outcomes for infants. After finding initial evidence in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that changes in the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) are related to prenatal drinking, we examine whether the drinking age influences birth outcomes. Using data from the National Vital Statistics (NVS) for the years 1978-1988, we find that a drinking age of 18 is associated with adverse outcomes among births to young mothers-including higher incidences of low birth weight and premature birth, but not congenital anomalies. The effects are largest among black women. We also report evidence that the MLDA laws alter the composition of births that occur. In states with lenient drinking laws, young black mothers are less likely to report paternal information on the birth certificate, particularly in states with restrictive abortion policies. The evidence suggests that lenient drinking laws generate poor birth outcomes in part because they increase the number of unplanned pregnancies.

  5. Health and nutrition content claims on websites advertising infant formula available in Australia: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Nina J; Gribble, Karleen D

    2016-10-14

    The use of health and nutrition content claims in infant formula advertising is restricted by many governments in response to WHO policies and WHA resolutions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such prohibited claims could be observed in Australian websites that advertise infant formula products. A comprehensive internet search was conducted to identify websites that advertise infant formula available for purchase in Australia. Content analysis was used to identify prohibited claims. The coding frame was closely aligned with the provisions of the Australian and New Zealand Food Standard Code, which prohibits these claims. The outcome measures were the presence of health claims, nutrition content claims, or references to the nutritional content of human milk. Web pages advertising 25 unique infant formula products available for purchase in Australia were identified. Every advertisement (100%) contained at least one health claim. Eighteen (72%) also contained at least one nutrition content claim. Three web pages (12%) advertising brands associated with infant formula products referenced the nutritional content of human milk. All of these claims appear in spite of national regulations prohibiting them indicating a failure of monitoring and/or enforcement. Where countries have enacted instruments to prohibit health and other claims in infant formula advertising, the marketing of infant formula must be actively monitored to be effective.

  6. The Influence of Family Empowerment on the Health Status of Low Birth Weight Infant in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Rustina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW infant is susceptible to health problems since the infant born, during in the hospital and continue after discharge. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of family empowerment on the health status of LBW infant. Action research using qualitative and quantitative method was used in this study. Qualitative approach was used to identify the experience of mothers of LBW infants as a data based for intervention development, and quantitative approach was used to evaluate the influence of family empowerment program on the health status of LBW infants. There were 7 participants, 20 mothers and their infants in the intervention group and 27 in the control group involved in this study. The study showed that family empowerment was effective in improving the immunization status and follow- up care attendance, reducing the frequency of acute care visits, increasing mothers' knowledge and skill in providing care. In conclusion, mothers need information on providing a proper care for LBW, and family empowerment can significantly improve maternal knowledge and health status of LBW infants.

  7. Obesity and overweight: Impact on maternal and milk microbiome and their role for infant health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Obesity, particularly in infants, is becoming a significant public health problem that has reached "epidemic" status worldwide. Obese children have an increased risk of developing obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and diabetes, as well as increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes later in life. Experimental data show that maternal obesity has negative effects on the offspring's health in the short and long term. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for microbiota in host metabolism and energy harvest, providing novel tools for obesity prevention and management. The maternal environment, including nutrition and microbes, influences the likelihood of developing childhood diseases, which may persist and be exacerbated in adulthood. Maternal obesity and weight gain also influence microbiota composition and activity during pregnancy and lactation. They affect microbial diversity in the gut and breast milk. Such microbial changes may be transferred to the offspring during delivery and also during lactation, affecting infant microbial colonisation and immune system maturation. Thus, an adequate nutritional and microbial environment during the peri-natal period may provide a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of obesity and overweight in our infants using targeted strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota during early life.

  8. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  9. Fair Starts for Children. An Assessment of Rural Poverty and Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Richard A.

    The Maternal and Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW) of Vanderbilt University's Center for Health Services gathered data on family planning, prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, and preventive child health care from 60 women in 6 rural, low income communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The resulting baseline…

  10. FDA's health claim review: whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Carolyn S; Yamini, Sedigheh; Trumbo, Paula R

    2012-08-01

    In this review, we explain how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used its evidence-based review system to evaluate the scientific evidence for a qualified health claim for 100% whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula (W-PHF) and reduced risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). The labeling of health claims, including qualified health claims, on conventional foods and dietary supplements require premarket approval by the FDA. Health claims characterize the relationship between a substance (food or food component) and disease (eg, cancer or cardiovascular disease) or health-related condition (eg, hypertension). To determine whether sufficient evidence exists to support the qualified health claim, the FDA evaluated human intervention studies that evaluated the role of W-PHF in reducing the risk of AD. The FDA concluded there is little to very little evidence, respectively, to support a qualified health claim concerning the relationship between intake of W-PHF and a reduced risk of AD in partially breastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants throughout the first year after birth and up to 3 years of age. In addition, the FDA required a warning statement be displayed along with the health claim to indicate to consumers that partially hydrolyzed infant formulas are not hypoallergenic and should not be fed to infants who are allergic to milk or to infants with existing milk allergy symptoms.

  11. Risk factors affecting the mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hua; SHAO Zhong-jun; WANG Zong-ren; Ma Jing; LONG Yin; YAO Ju-feng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To search for risk factors that affect mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus(HBV). Methods:To obtain studies eligible for meta-analysis, China biological medicine discs and MEDLINE citations were surveyed. Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity,neonate HBeAg positivity,mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature abor were processed with meta analysis.Criteria for selection of published studies for meta analysis were based on principle by Abdolmaleky HM[1].Odds ratio (OR) was calculated and summarized by fixed effect model or random-effects model using RevMan software. The heterogeneity of the group of Ors was assessed using an x2 test. The significance of he pooled OR was determined by the u-test. The strength of association was assessed using the OR.An OR>1. 0 indicated a positive association between the risk factor and neonate HBV infection. Results:After meta analysis of factors concerned, a significant association was found between the positivity of HBeAg in mother and neonate, of HBV DNA in other peripheral serum, and HBV mother-to-infant transmission, with a pooled OR equal to 19.43 (95% CI=8.77-43.06), 36.5 (95% CI=19.85-67.11),and 36.5 (95 % CI= 19.85-67.11) respectively. Mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature labor proved not to be of risk factors on the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Conclusion:Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity and neonate HBeAg positivity were proved to be of risk factors affecting the transmission of HBV from mother to fetal.

  12. Travelers' Health: Vaccine Recommendations for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at age 6 weeks. Routine Infant and Childhood Vaccinations Children should receive routine vaccination for hepatitis A virus; ... recommendations about seasonal influenza vaccination. MMR or MMRV vaccine: Children traveling abroad may need to be vaccinated at ...

  13. Maternal mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy affect infants' neural responses to sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Marion I; Donkers, Franc C L; Winkler, István; Otte, Renée A; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2015-03-01

    Maternal anxiety during pregnancy has been consistently shown to negatively affect offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of positive maternal traits/states during pregnancy on the offspring. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of the mother's mindfulness and anxiety during pregnancy on the infant's neurocognitive functioning at 9 months of age. Mothers reported mindfulness using the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory and anxiety using the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) at ± 20.7 weeks of gestation. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured from 79 infants in an auditory oddball paradigm designed to measure auditory attention-a key aspect of early neurocognitive functioning. For the ERP responses elicited by standard sounds, higher maternal mindfulness was associated with lower N250 amplitudes (P mindfulness was also positively associated with the P150 amplitudes (P mindfulness devote fewer attentional resources to frequently occurring irrelevant sounds. The results show that positive traits and experiences of the mother during pregnancy may also affect the unborn child. Emphasizing the beneficial effects of a positive psychological state during pregnancy may promote healthy behavior in pregnant women.

  14. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  15. Survival and health in liveborn infants with transposition of great arteries--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria A; Nelen, Vera

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe treatment, survival, and morbidity for liveborn infants with isolated transposition of great arteries (TGA). DESIGN: Population-based data from 7 European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Ninety-seven infants were diagnosed with isolated TGA...... survived to 1 year and only 71% of infants diagnosed after birth survived (P = 0.08). Data on morbidity at 1 year of age was available for 57 infants. Fifty-one infants were reported with normal health and development. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study survival for liveborn infants with TGA...

  16. Can Social Support in the Guise of an Oral Health Education Intervention Promote Mother-Infant Bonding in Chinese Immigrant Mothers and Their Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…

  17. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection--United States, February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; Nelson, Jennifer M; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Mead, Paul; Villanueva, Julie; Renquist, Christina M; Minta, Anna A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-02-26

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease. This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ≥2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

  18. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  19. The State of the Science on Environmental Chemicals in Breast milk and the Relationship to Infant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breastfeeding’s health benefits to the infant and mother have been explored extensively by researchers, physicians, and public health professionals worldwide. Relevant authorities such as the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics have concluded th...

  20. Effectiveness of an oral health program for mothers and their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros, P.B.; Otero, S.A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Leal, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The baby oral health program (bOHP) provides pregnant women and their future babies with oral care. AIM: To assess the bOHP effectiveness by comparing caries prevalence in infants enrolled and not enrolled in the oral health program (OHP). DESIGN: Mothers who had been invited to particip

  1. Maternal Drug Use during Pregnancy: Are Preterm and Full-Term Infants Affected Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Sexson, William R.; Demi, Alice S.

    1998-01-01

    Examined effects of prenatal drug exposure on infants born preterm and full-term to African American mothers. Found more extreme fetal growth deficits in later-born infants, and more extreme irritability increases in earlier-born infants. Gestation length did not moderate cardiorespiratory reactivity effects. Exposure effects occurred for…

  2. Effects of Cesarean Section on Infant Health in China:Matched Prospective Cohort Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the medical outcomes of infants delivered by cesarean section with those of infants delivered vaginally.Methods A total of 301 healthy women with cesarean section and a matched control group of 301 women delivered vaginally were identified at three district-level hospitals in Shanghai from May 2001 to February 2003.Two groups were matched according to their medical indications Tor cesarean section.Their infants were assessed at delivery,1 month,6 month and 1 year after birth.Results The incidence of neonatal complications and infant morbidities at all measurement occasions did not differ significantly between groups.Rehospitalization was found to be more likely among infants delivered by cesarean section in the first month after birth.However,there was no difference between two groups in the incidence of rehospitalization in the first year after birth. Cesarean section was also associated with a higher risk of infant diarrhea (adjusted relative risk=1.25,95% CI:1.01,1.56).Conclusion Infants did not have health benefits from cesarean section if the pregnancy was at low risk.

  3. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  4. What explains DRG upcoding in neonatology? The roles of financial incentives and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane

    2015-09-01

    We use the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) in German neonatology to study the determinants of upcoding. Since 2003, reimbursement is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities at eight thresholds. These discontinuities create incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996-2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we show that (1) since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro; (2) upcoding rates are systematically higher at thresholds with larger reimbursement hikes and in hospitals that subsequently treat preterm infants, i.e. where the gains accrue; (3) upcoding is systematically linked with newborn health conditional on birth weight. Doctors and midwives respond to financial incentives by not upcoding newborns with low survival probabilities, and by upcoding infants with higher expected treatment costs.

  5. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  6. Care around birth, infant and mother health and maternal health investments – Evidence from a nurse strike

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    investments indicate that strike-exposed mothers—especially those who lacked postnatal early home visits—are less likely to exclusively breastfeed their child at four months. Thus reduced care around birth may have persistent effects on treated children through its impact on parental investments.......Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health...... not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health...

  7. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  8. Surrogate Mobility and Orientation Affect the Early Neurobehavioral Development of Infant Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda M Dettmer; Ruggerio, Angela M.; Novak, Melinda A.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    A biological mother’s movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard...

  9. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Michael T.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and “difficult temperament” was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with 3 or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63–3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15–2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at one year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61–5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22–8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81–5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother’s mental health. PMID:19554438

  10. Association of family and health care provider opinion on infant feeding with mother's breastfeeding decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; Perrine, Cria G; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    In the United States, about 25% of women choose not to initiate breastfeeding, yet little is known about how opinions of individuals in a woman's support network influence her decision to breastfeed. In the 2005-2007 Infant Feeding Practices Study II, women completed questionnaires from the last trimester of pregnancy until 12 months postpartum. Mothers indicated prenatally their family members' and health care providers' opinion on how newborns should be fed: breastfed only, formula fed only, breast and formula fed, or no opinion/don't know. Breastfeeding initiation was determined by asking mothers around 4 weeks postpartum (n=2,041) whether they ever breastfed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between mothers' perception of family members' and health care providers' opinion on how to feed the infant and the initiation of breastfeeding, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Nearly 14% of mothers surveyed did not initiate breastfeeding. Mothers who believed their family members or health care providers preferred breastfeeding only were least likely not to initiate breastfeeding. Never breastfeeding was significantly associated with the following perceptions: the infant's father (odds ratio [OR]=110.4; 95% CI 52.0 to 234.4) or maternal grandmother (OR=15.9; 95% CI 7.0 to 36.0) preferred only formula feeding; the infant's father (OR=3.2; 95% CI 1.7 to 5.9) or doctor (OR=2.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 6.2) preferred both breast and formula feeding; and the infant's father (OR=7.6; 95% CI 4.5 to 12.7), maternal grandmother (OR=5.4; 95% CI 2.6 to 11.0), or doctor (OR=1.9; 95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) had no opinion/didn't know their feeding preference. The prenatal opinions of family members and health care providers play an important role in a woman's breastfeeding decisions after the infant's birth.

  11. Role of affective attitudes and anticipated affective reactions in predicting health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M; McEachan, R; Taylor, N.; O'Hara, J; Lawton, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two measures of affect-affective attitude (AA) and anticipated affective reaction (AAR)- have frequently been used individually, but rarely simultaneously, in correlational studies predicting health behaviors. This research assessed their individual and combined impact in predicting intention and action for a range of health behaviors, controlling for theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables. Method: Self-reported intentions and performance of health behaviors were the main outco...

  12. Health Outcomes among Infants Born to Women Deployed to US Military Operations during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    defined as infants born to military women who deployed outside of the first trimester of pregnancy. This referent group was considered optimal because...Occup Med Environ Health 17:223–243. Jacobson IG, Gumbs GR, Sevick CJ, et al. 2008a. Smallpox vaccination is not associated with infertility in a

  13. Early diagnosis of craniosynostosis in infants at primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoric Jasmina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis or premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures in infants disturbs normal brain growth. This condition causes abnormal skull configuration, increased intracranial pressure, headache, strabismus, blurred vision, blindness, psychomotor retardation. The diagnosis of craniosynostosis is very simple. Pediatricians should routinely assess neurological status and measure head circumference and anterior fontanelle. When necessary, ultrasound of CNS, X-ray and cranial CT scan can be done. When it comes to this condition, early diagnosis and surgical intervention are of utmost importance. In this paper, we have presented a case on craniosynostosis in a female infant, discovered in the third month of life during systematic review that included measurement of head circumference, palpation of anterior fontanelle and cranial sutures. The child was referred to a neurosurgeon who performed the CT scan of endocranium and confirmed the initial diagnosis of craniosynostosis. With head circumference of 40 cm and fused anterior fontanelle, the surgery was timely performed at the sixth month of life due to early diagnosis.

  14. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kulik Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.

  15. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  16. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  17. Bilingualism Affects 9-Month-Old Infants' Expectations about How Words Refer to Kinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Infants are precocious word learners, and seem to possess systematic expectations about how words refer to object kinds. For example, while monolingual infants show a one-to-one mapping bias (e.g. mutual exclusivity), expecting each object to have only one basic level label, previous research has shown that this is less robust in bi- and…

  18. Positive Affect Processing and Joint Attention in Infants at High Risk for Autism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Alexandra P.; Ibanez, Lisa V.; Henderson, Heather A.; Warren, Zachary; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Few behavioral indices of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are present before 12 months, and potential biomarkers remain largely unexamined. This prospective study of infant siblings of children with ASD (n = 16) and low-risk comparison infants (n = 15) examined group differences in event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing processing of…

  19. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies: protecting women's reproductive rights and maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D; McGrath, Marie; MacLaine, Ali; Lhotska, Lida

    2011-10-01

    Women have the right to support that enables them to breastfeed. Supporting breastfeeding in emergencies is important because artificial feeding places mothers and children at risk. In emergencies, artificial feeding is dangerous to the infant, difficult and requires substantial resources. In contrast, breastfeeding guards infant health. It is also protective against postpartum haemorrhage, maternal depletion, maternal anaemia and closely spaced births and should therefore concern not only nutritionists, but also those involved in reproductive health. However, it is common for women's ability to breastfeed to be undermined in emergencies by the indiscriminate distribution of breast-milk substitutes and the absence of breastfeeding support. Controlling the distribution of breast-milk substitutes, providing supportive environments, and appropriate medical and practical assistance to breastfeeding women safeguards the health and well-being of mothers and babies. Greater collaboration between the nutrition and reproductive health sectors is required to promote best practice in protecting breastfeeding women and their children in emergencies.

  20. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  1. A literature review of record linkage procedures focusing on infant health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jorge Machado

    Full Text Available Record linkage is a powerful tool in assembling information from different data sources and has been used by a number of public health researchers. In this review, we provide an overview of the record linkage methodologies, focusing particularly on probabilistic record linkage. We then stress the purposes and research applications of linking records by focusing on studies of infant health outcomes based on large data sets, and provide a critical review of the studies in Brazil.

  2. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  3. Possible impact of phthalates on infant reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Andersson, A-M; Leffers, H;

    2006-01-01

    discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. One study analysed phthalate monoesters in breast milk and reproductive hormone levels in infants. Five of six phthalates [monoethyl-(MEP), monobutyl- (MBP......), monomethyl- (MMP), mono-2-ethylhexyl- (MEHP) and mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP)] showed correlation with hormone levels in healthy boys, which were indicative of lower androgen activity and reduced Leydig cell function. MEP and MBP were positively correlated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG...... be due to differences in exposure routes (inhalation and dermal absorption which circumvents liver detoxification in addition to oral) and metabolism, or this association could be spurious. As phthalates are produced as bulk chemicals worldwide, these new findings raise concern about the safety...

  4. [Burnout : concepts and implications affecting public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Burnout was originally described as a mental condition characterized by reduced work performance, impotence, frustration and lack of capability to reach objectives or goals while performing a job. For some authors, burnout is a poorly defined mixture of symptoms and signs, while other professionals think of it as a disease and a potential threat to public health. Worldwide, it has been observed that the most afflicted professionals and technicians are those who work providing services or assistance to other people, especially those dedicated to health care. This paper focuses on the idea that burnout should be considered a disease more than a syndrome. On the other hand, definitions of health and disease have changed with time, as well as theoretical and methodological references about burnout. In addition, burnout remains a condition that is being discussed in various scientific areas, with radically opposing positions; these approaches are discussed in this article. After presenting different conceptions regarding burnout, the essay concludes with an exploration of its implications and the identification of possible treatments, especially for health workers, among whom it is more common depending on their predisposing conditions and environments.

  5. Does parental unemployment affect adolescents' health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Geckova, A.M.; Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the associations between mother's and father's employment status separately and together and the subjective health of children; and how parental education and financial strain can modify these associations. Methods: Data were obtained from 2836 respondents aged 14 to 22 years (me

  6. Infant mortality in India: use of maternal and child health services in relation to literacy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Medha K; Rao, Shobha S; Garole, Varsha R

    2002-06-01

    Slow reduction in infant mortality rate in the last couple of decades is a major concern in India. State-level aggregate data from the National Family Health Survey 1992 and micro-level data on rural mothers (n=317) were used for examining the influence of female literacy on reduction of infant mortality through increased use of maternal and child health (MCH) services. Illiteracy of females was strongly associated with all variables relating to maternal care and also with infant mortality rate. States were grouped into best, medium, and worst on the basis of female illiteracy (about 11%, 48.5%, and 75% respectively). Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 livebirths) was significantly (phigher among the worst group (90.99) than that among the medium (64.2) and the best (24.0) groups. Use of maternal health services increased in the worst to become the best groups for tetanus toxoid (from 48.0% to 84.4%), iron and folic acid tablets (36.6% to 76.2%), hospitalized deliveries (14.2% to 69.7%), and childcare services, such as vaccination (23.8% to 64.9%). Illiteracy of females had a more detrimental impact on rural than on urban areas. In the event of high female illiteracy, male literacy was beneficial for improving the use of services for reducing infant mortality rate. The micro-level study supported all major findings obtained for the national-level aggregate data. Programmes, like providing free education to girls, will yield long-term health benefits.

  7. Frontal Brain Electrical Activity (EEG) and Heart Rate in Response to Affective Infant-Directed (ID) Speech in 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective…

  8. Observing Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianwei; Uto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine-month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions, but this was not the case for the 1.5-year-old infants in the back-to-back condition. Furthermore, we found that infants' gaze following could be negatively predicted by their expectation of the partner's response to the actor's head turn (i.e., they shift their gaze toward the partner immediately after they realize that the actor's head will turn). These findings suggested that the sensitivity to the difference in knowledge and attentional states in the second year of human life could be extended to third-party interactions, even without any direct involvement in the situation. Additionally, a spontaneous concern with the epistemic gap between self and other, as well as between others, develops by this age. These processes might be considered part of the fundamental basis for human communication.

  9. Connecting the dots: how local structure affects global integration in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Melanie; Pettet, Mark; Vildavski, Vladimir; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    Glass patterns are moirés created from a sparse random-dot field paired with its spatially shifted copy. Because discrimination of these patterns is not based on local features, they have been used extensively to study global integration processes. Here, we investigated whether 4- to 5.5-month-old infants are sensitive to the global structure of Glass patterns by measuring visual-evoked potentials. Although we found strong responses to the appearance of the constituent dots, we found sensitivity to the global structure of the Glass patterns in the infants only over a very limited range of spatial separation. In contrast, we observed robust responses in the infants when we connected the dot pairs of the Glass pattern with lines. Moreover, both infants and adults showed differential responses to exchanges between line patterns portraying different global structures. A control study varying luminance contrast in adults suggests that infant sensitivity to global structure is not primarily limited by reduced element visibility. Together our results suggest that the insensitivity to structure in conventional Glass patterns is due to inefficiencies in extracting the local orientation cues generated by the dot pairs. Once the local orientations are made unambiguous or when the interpolation span is small, infants can integrate these signals over the image.

  10. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A

    2016-09-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  11. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  12. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Does dental health education affect inequalities in dental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Lothian 1991 dental health campaigns on 5-year-old schoolchildren's oral hygiene and gingival health in relation to deprivation. A stratified random sample of 486 children was selected from 92 primary schools in the city of Edinburgh. Clinical examinations...... took place immediately before (T1), a month after (T2) and 4 months after the campaign (T3). A total of 342 (70 per cent) children received all 3 examinations. Oral hygiene and gingival health were examined using a modified Silness and Löe and the Ainamo and Bay Index. Toothbrushes and take...... to established social indicators. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in plaque scores at T2 and T3 (P gingival health improved at T2 and T3 (P

  14. Factors affecting the course of body and kidney growth in infants with urolithiasis: A critical long-term evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Sarica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the possible effects of dietary, patient and stone related factors on the clinical course of the stone disease as well as the body and renal growth status of the infants. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 children with an history of stone disease during infancy period were studied. Patient (anatomical abnormalities, urinary tract infection - UTI, associated morbidities, stone (obstruction, UTI and required interventions and lastly dietary (duration of sole breast feeding, formula feeding related factors which may affect the clinical course of the disease were all evaluated for their effects on the body and renal growth during long-term follow-up. Results: Mean age of the children was 2.40 ± 2.65 years. Our findings demonstrated that infants receiving longer period of breast feeding without formula addition seemed to have a higher rate of normal growth percentile values when compared with the other children. Again, higher frequency of UTI and stone attacks affected the growth status of the infants in a remarkable manner than the other cases. Our findings also demonstrated that thorough a close follow-up and appropriately taken measures; the possible growth retardation as well as renal growth problems could be avoided in children beginning to suffer from stone disease during infancy period. Conclusions: Duration of breast feeding, frequency of UTI, number of stone attacks and stone removal procedures are crucial factors for the clinical course of stone disease in infants that may affect the body as well as kidney growth during long-term follow-up.

  15. [Public health programs have greatly reduced infant mortality in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The spectacular decline of infant mortality in Costa Rica from 68/1000 live births in 1970 to 20/1000 in 1980 was largely due to the implementation of public health programs in the 1970s. The abrupt decline was even more notable because deaths of infants constituted the major health problem of the country during the 1960s, accounting for 40% of all registered deaths. Socioeconomic development and reduced fertility contributed to the reduction, but 3/4 of the improvement can be attributed to extension of primary health care to previously unserved rural populations and to better secondary health care, according to a study by the Costa Rican demographer Luis Rosero Bixby. The programs targeted at less privileged groups substantially reduced class and geographic differentials in infant mortality. Infant mortality began to decline at an accelerating rate in 1972, coinciding with the first national health plan and the law of universal social security in 1971, the transfer of public hospitals to the social security system and promulgation of a general health law in 1973, and application of the rural health program in 1973 and community health program in 1976. By 1980, home services reached 60% of the population and immunization programs were in place for measles and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. There was a doubling of outpatient services and a tripling of hours contracted by doctors between 1970-80. Also in 1980, 78% of the Costa Rican population was fully covered by health insurance. After 1972, infant mortality declined from all causes except complications of pregnancy and congenital anomalies. The decline was most rapid for deaths due to prematurity, illnesses avoidable by vaccination, and illnesses such as septicemia and meningitis in which prompt diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving. Although impressive gains were made in neonatal mortality, the main share of the decline between 1970-80 was in postneonatal mortality. Reductions in deaths due to diarrheal

  16. Immunizing Infants (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-18

    Parents can protect the health of their children by making sure they’re up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. This podcast discusses the importance of childhood immunization.  Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/18/2013.

  17. Prevalence of nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding in the mother-infant dyad in basic health unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ocilia Maria Costa Carvalho; Karolina Rodrigues Silva; Lívia Zulmyra Cintra Andrade; Viviane Martins da Silva; Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study conducted with 28 mother-infant dyads, users of a Family Health Center of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, that aimed to identify the nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding, their frequency of occurrence, defining characteristics, and the value of maternal confidence based on the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale. Data collection happened during September and October 2010, using interviews, anamnesis, and physical examination of the dyad. The most prevalent diagnosis was Effective br...

  18. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤ 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤ 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar associations with health as childbearing for adults. This 'tipping point' may vary by the underlying physical and nutritional health of girls

  19. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  20. Environmental Health and Primary Health Care in micro-territories: the infant mortality rate as a guide for the healthcare team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herling Gregorio Aguilar Alonzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, the Brazilian Unified Health System has improved primary health care and the implementation of environmental health surveillance. In Brazil, basic sanitation coverage has also improved. Macro-regional inequalities are known to exist, but there is little information about the micro-territories where primary care actions are being carried out. This study attempts to describe the influence of drinking water coverage (DWC, sanitation (SC and solid waste management services (SWMS on the infant mortality rate (IMR in areas covered by primary care facilities (PCF, within the Northwest Health District of Campinas/SP. An ecological study was conducted using secondary data for the year 2000. In the eight PCF, DWC varied between 96.3 % and 99.9 %, SC between 67 % and 99.8 %, and SWMS between 95.8 % and 99.9 %. The IMR varied between 5.5 ‰ and 22.9 ‰. An inverse relationship was found, in which the larger the DWC (R2= 0.73, SC (R2= 0.78 and SWMS (R2= 0.95 the lower was the IMR. In addition to other factors, basic sanitation affects the health of the population and, according to the results presented here, there are inequalities in the areas covered by the PCF. Therefore, managers and health professionals, especially those in primary care, should take these factors into consideration to set priorities, actions and targets for integral care, intersectoral collaboration and health surveillance.

  1. Real time monitoring to the odour of excrement for health of infants and elderly completely bedridden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiancheng; Huang, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    In the domain of biomedical signals measurements, monitoring human physiological parameters is an important issue. With the rapid development of wireless body area network, it makes monitor, transmit and record physiological parameters faster and more convenient. Infants and the elderly completely bedridden are two special groups of the society who need more medical care. According to researches investigating current frontier domains and the market products, the detection of physiological parameters from the excrement is rare. However, urine and faeces contain a large number of physiological information, which are high relative to health. The mainly distributed odour from urine is NH4 and the distributed odour from feces is mainly H2S, which are both could be detected by the sensors. In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a portable wireless device based on body area network for real time monitoring to the odour of excrement for health of infants and the elderly completely bedridden. The device not only could monitor in real time the emitted odour of faeces and urine for health analysis, but also measures the body temperature and environment humidity, and send data to the mobile phone of paramedics to alarm or the server for storage and process, which has prospect to monitoring infants and the paralysis elderly.

  2. Immunizing Infants (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-18

    One of the main things parents can do to protect the health of their children is to make sure they’re up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. In this podcast, Dr. Yabo Beysolow discusses the importance of ensuring children are up-to-date on their vaccinations.  Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/18/2013.

  3. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicace

  4. The impact of paraprofessional home visitors on infants' growth and health at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Ingrid M; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Stein, Judith; Tomlinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Paraprofessional home visitors trained to improve multiple outcomes (HIV, alcohol, infant health, and malnutrition) have been shown to benefit mothers and children over 18 months in a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). These longitudinal analyses examine the mechanisms which influence child outcomes at 18 months post-birth in Cape Town, South Africa. The results were evaluated using structural equation modelling, specifically examining the mediating effects of prior maternal behaviours and a home visiting intervention post-birth. Twelve matched pairs of neighbourhoods were randomised within pairs to: 1) the control condition, receiving comprehensive healthcare at community primary health care clinics (n=12 neighbourhoods; n=594 pregnant women), or 2) the Philani Intervention Program, which provided home visits by trained, paraprofessional community health workers, here called Mentor Mothers, in addition to clinic care (n=12 neighbourhoods; n=644 pregnant women). Recruitment of all pregnant neighbourhood women was high (98%) with 88% reassessed at six months and 84% at 18 months. Infants' growth and diarrhoea episodes were examined at 18 months in response to the intervention condition, breastfeeding, alcohol use, social support, and low birth weight, controlling for HIV status and previous history of risk. We found that randomisation to the intervention was associated with a significantly lower number of recent diarrhoea episodes and increased rates and duration of breastfeeding. Across both the intervention and control conditions, mothers who used alcohol during pregnancy and had low birth weight infants were significantly less likely to have infants with normal growth patterns, whereas social support was associated with better growth. HIV-infection was significantly associated with poor growth and less breastfeeding. Women with more risk factors had significantly smaller social support networks. The relationships among initial and sustained maternal risk

  5. Infant motivation in dental health: Attitude without constant reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bucholdz Teixeira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social factors determine the child′s behavior and motivation is an important task in the teaching-learning process. This longitudinal and cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of a motivational activity program for oral hygiene habits formation after motivation and without constant reinforcement. Materials and Methods: The sample was constituted of 26 children (mean 6 years old from a Public Kindergarten School in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Data were collected applying a test-chart, with figures reporting the process of dental health/illness. Some figures were considered positive to dental health (dentist/Cod 1, toothbrush/Cod 3, dentifrice/dental floss/Cod 6, fruits/vegetables/Cod 7 and tooth without caries lesion/Cod 8 and negative on dental health (sweets/Cod 2, bacteria/Cod 4, tooth with caries lesion/Cod 5. The figures presentation occurred in three different stages: First stage - figures were presented to children without previous knowledge; second stage - following the motivational presentation, and third stage - 30 days after the first contact. Results: On the first stage, most children select good for the figures considered harmful to their teeth (Cod 2-88%; Cod 4-77% and Cod 5-65%. On the second stage, there was a lower percentage: 23% (P < 0.0001, 8% (P < 0.0001, and 23% (P = 0.0068 related to the Cod 2, 4, and 5. On the third stage, the results showed again an association with the good choice to these figures considered harmful (Cod 2-85%, Cod 4-65% and Cod 5-54% similar the results obtained on the first stage. Conclusion: The motivational programs performed without constant reinforcement does not have a positive influence in changing the child′s behavior related to a better dental care.

  6. Maternal Symptoms of Anxiety During Pregnancy Affect Infant Neuromotor Development: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg-Eddes, T. van; Groot, L. de; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  7. How Do Object Size and Rigidity Affect Reaching and Grasping in Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Francisco, Kelly Regina; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between such an intrinsic factor, Down syndrome, and extrinsic factors, such as different object properties. Seven infants with Down syndrome and seven…

  8. Memory Load Affects Object Individuation in 18-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosh, Jennifer M.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Accurate representation of a changing environment requires individuation--the ability to determine how many numerically distinct objects are present in a scene. Much research has characterized early individuation abilities by identifying which object features infants can use to individuate throughout development. However, despite the fact that…

  9. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Batenburg-Eddes, T.; de Groot, L.; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  10. Maternal and infant affect at 4 months predicts performance and verbal IQ at 4 and 7 years in a diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Tenenbaum, Elena J; Messinger, Daniel S; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M

    2016-10-23

    Using existing longitudinal data from 570 infants in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, we explored the predictive value of maternal and infant affect and maternal vocalizations during 2 minutes of face-to-face interactions at 4 months on IQ scores at 4.5 and 7 years. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal depression, and prenatal drug exposure, maternal positive affect and maternal positive vocalizations emerged as predictors of both verbal and performance IQ at 4.5 and 7 years. Although infant positive affect during the interaction with the mother was not predictive of these outcome measures, infant positive affect towards an examiner predicted verbal but not performance IQ at 4.5 years. These results suggest that maternal positive affect may index emotional engagement in interaction that facilitates both verbal and nonverbal cognitive development, while infant social positive affect is specifically related to the acquisition of verbal reasoning abilities. These findings are significant because they are based on a discrete snapshot of observable behavior in infancy (just 2 minutes of interaction), because they extend the range of maternal behaviors and characteristics known to support positive developmental outcomes, and because they are derived from high-risk infants where prevention efforts may be beneficial. Potential mechanisms for these associations are discussed, as are the clinical implications for identifying dyads most in need of targeted interventions.

  11. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and impr

  12. Syndromes associated with children exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment to multiple mycotoxins in infant foods

    OpenAIRE

    Alvito, Paula; Martins, Carla; Assunção, Ricardo; Pires, M.J.; Calhau, Maria Antónia

    2015-01-01

    1. Children health and mycotoxins; 2. Routes of exposure; 3. Syndromes Syndromes associated associated with children children exposure exposure to mycotoxins: to mycotoxins: ingestion and inhalation; 4. Health risk assessment to multiple mycotoxins in infant foods -MYCOMIX project (PTDC/DTP-FTO/0417/2012); 5. Critical role of health professionals

  13. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  14. Breastfeeding and atopic eczema in Japanese infants: The Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Ohya, Yukihiro; Fukushima, Wakaba; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies associated with breastfeeding have provided conflicting results about whether it is preventive or a risk factor for atopic eczema in children. The current prospective study investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and the risk of atopic eczema in Japan. A birth cohort of 763 infants was followed. The first survey during pregnancy and the second survey between 2 and 9 months postpartum collected information on potential confounding factors and atopic eczema status. Data on breastfeeding and symptoms of atopic eczema were obtained from questionnaires in the third survey from 16 to 24 months postpartum. The following variables were a priori selected as potential confounders: maternal age, maternal and paternal history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, indoor domestic pets (cats, dogs, birds, or hamsters), family income, maternal and paternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, baby's sex, baby's birth weight, baby's older siblings, household smoking in the same room as the infant, and time of delivery before the third survey. In the third survey, 142 infants (18.6%) were revealed to have developed atopic eczema based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. In an overall analysis, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding was significantly related to the risk of atopic eczema. After excluding 64 infants identified with suspected atopic eczema in the second survey, both exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months or more and partial breastfeeding for 6 months or more were independently associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema only among infants with no parental history of allergic disorders [multivariate odds ratios were 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.55) and 3.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.20-12.36), respectively]. The authors found that, overall, neither exclusive nor partial breastfeeding had a strong impact on the risk of atopic eczema. However, a parental

  15. Analysis the Development of Mother and Infant Health in Sampang District Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmini Rukmini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital have a strategic role in efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This study aimed to determine the development of maternal and infant health services carried out in Sampang District hospital between 2010 and May 2012. Methods: The quantitative study with ecology design carried out in Sampang District hospital east Java Province Indonesia in 2012. The collection of secondary data such as coverage of maternal and infant health care in the period of 2010 to May 2012, as well as qualitative data collection with in depth interview to the Head of Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Doctors and midwives. Data were analyzed descriptively. Result: In Sampang District hospital in period 2010 – May 2012 showed, an increase in maternal and child health services, where an increase in the handling of complications of pregnancy, normal delivery or Sectio Caesar and management of newborn complications and maternal and neonatal deaths are relatively increased . The coverage of family planning services was still low and the vast majority was IUD. Conclusion: The maternal and child health services in Sampang District hospital in period of 2010 – May 2012, showed an increase in the quantity of service coverage. The majority cases of delivery in hospitals were referral cases and complications. Howefer, the number of Sectio Caesar, maternal and neonatal mortality were still high. Recommendation: Sampang District Health Offi ce and Sampang District Hospital should create a policis and programs to reduce neonatal mortality in an integrated, continuous with proper implementation of standard procedures at every level of service, supported by well trained human resources, infrastructure and adequate fi nancing.

  16. The consequences of iron deficiency and anaemia in pregnancy on maternal health, the foetus and the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, F E

    1994-01-01

    An estimated 2150 million people are iron deficient, with deficiency severe enough to cause anemia in 1200 million people globally. Widespread particularly among tropical low-income populations, anemia has serious health and functional consequences. Due to their increased iron demands of menstruation and pregnancy, women of fertile age and pregnant-lactating women are especially affected by anemia and iron deficiency. Approximately 47% of non-pregnant women and 60% of pregnant women worldwide have anemia, while those who are iron deficient without anemia may comprise 60% and 90%, respectively. The anemic pregnant woman is at greater risk of death during the perinatal period. Iron deficiency also affects performance during pregnancy and delivery, lactation performance, working capacity and general well-being, and immunity status. Infants are adversely affected in terms of health, development, hematological status, and iron nutrition. Most anemia is, however, the result of severe iron deficiency, and therefore open to prevention and treatment interventions with a very high benefit/cost ratio. Accordingly, world authorities have agreed that anemia in pregnant women must be reduced by one-third by the year 2000. The author recommends expanding the target for iron supplementation to all women of fertile age who might become pregnant, the adoption of a preventive instead of therapeutic approach to iron deficiency, and the exploration of new supplementation programs.

  17. Intervention by the mental health specialist nurse for preventing sleep disorders due to incorrect habits in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cámara Conde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disorders caused by bad habits in the infant. - To prevent symptoms of anxiety due to lack of sleep in the parents.The program will consist of 6 sessions of 90 minutes long, 3 pre-natal where they thrive knowledge and 3 sessions after to exposure doubts and search for solutions. We think that cooperation between the mental health nurse specialist with the midwife it is necessary to create a program that establish a healthy dream pattern in both infants and their parents, will prevent the sleep disorders by incorrect habits and their effects

  18. Do Infant Birth Outcomes Vary Among Mothers With and Without Health Insurance Coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa? Findings from the National Health Insurance and Cash and Carry Eras in Ghana, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ibrahim, DrPH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beginning in the late 1960’s, and accelerating after 1985, a system known as “Cash and Carry” required the people of Ghana to pay for health services out-of-pocket before receiving them. In 2003, Ghana enacted a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS (fully implemented by 2005 that allowed pregnant women to access antenatal care and hospital delivery services for low annual premiums tied to income. The objective of this study was to compare trends in low birth weight (LBW among infants born under the NHIS with infants born during the Cash and Carry system when patients paid out-of-pocket for maternal and child health services. Methods: Sampled birth records abstracted from birth folders at the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH were examined. Chi-squared tests were performed to determine differences in the prevalence of LBW. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Analyses were conducted for selected variables in each year from 2000 to 2003 (Cash and Carry and 2008 to 2011(NHIS. Results: Higher birth weights were not observed for deliveries under NHIS compared to those under Cash and Carry. More than one-third of infants in both eras were born to first-time mothers, and they had a significantly higher prevalence of LBW compared to infants born to multiparous mothers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: Understanding the factors that affect the prevalence of LBW is crucial to public health policy makers in Ghana. LBW is a powerful predictor of infant survival, and therefore, an important factor in determining the country’s progress toward meeting the United Nations Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five child mortality rates (MDG4 by the end of 2015.

  19. Positive affect and psychobiological processes relevant to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Dockray, Samantha; Wardle, Jane

    2009-12-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that there are marked associations between positive psychological states and health outcomes, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk and increased resistance to infection. These observations have stimulated the investigation of behavioral and biological processes that might mediate protective effects. Evidence linking positive affect with health behaviors has been mixed, though recent cross-cultural research has documented associations with exercising regularly, not smoking, and prudent diet. At the biological level, cortisol output has been consistently shown to be lower among individuals reporting positive affect, and favorable associations with heart rate, blood pressure, and inflammatory markers such as interleukin-6 have also been described. Importantly, these relationships are independent of negative affect and depressed mood, suggesting that positive affect may have distinctive biological correlates that can benefit health. At the same time, positive affect is associated with protective psychosocial factors such as greater social connectedness, perceived social support, optimism, and preference for adaptive coping responses. Positive affect may be part of a broader profile of psychosocial resilience that reduces risk of adverse physical health outcomes.

  20. Congenital rubella affecting an infant whose mother had rubella antibodies before conception

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    A woman who had had high titres of rubella antibodies some months before she became pregnant gave birth to an infant in whom congenital rubella was confirmed at 4 months. Rubella haemagglutination inhibition tests, complement fixation tests, and immunofluorescence tests with anti-human IgG were carried out on sera from the mother. Rubella antibody titres in sera obtained in March 1971, seven and a half months before conception, were equivalent to 400 units, which is usually taken as indicatin...

  1. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  2. Stress and health-related well-being among mothers with a low birth weight infant: the role of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2012-04-01

    This U.S.A.-based study examined the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sleep, as well as the role of sleep, in the association of stress with depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (H-QOL) among mothers with a low-birth-weight, preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit at early postpartum. Fifty-five first-time mothers kept a sleep diary and filled out a battery of questionnaires. The wrist actigraphy method was also applied to collect information on maternal sleep. We tested a path model, with sleep disturbance and depression mediating the effect of stress on health-related well-being. Results showed that the majority of the study participants were stressed, depressed, fatigued, and at risk for poor physical and mental health. Poor sleep quality as perceived by mothers was significantly associated with their stress, fatigue, and poor mental and physical H-QOL. A cascading effect was found in the path model where maternal stress contributed to poor sleep quality and depression, which in turn contributed to poor mental H-QOL. In addition, poor sleep quality was associated with fatigue, which in turn contributed to poor physical and mental H-QOL. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms through which sleep affects the stress-health relation are discussed. The implications of sleep for intervention and prevention are also addressed.

  3. Occupational Risks and Pregnancy and Infant Health Outcomes in Florida Farmworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Runkle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry has some of the highest incidence rates and numbers of occupational injuries and illnesses in the United States. Injuries and illnesses in agriculture result from accidents, falls, excessive heat, repetitive motion and adverse pesticide exposure. Women working in agriculture are exposed to the same hazards and risks as their male counterparts, but can face additional adverse impacts on their reproductive health. Yet, few occupational risk assessment studies have considered the reproductive health of female farmworkers. The objective of this community-based participatory research study was to conduct a retrospective, cross-sectional survey to collect information on workplace conditions and behaviors and maternal, pregnancy and infant health outcomes among a sample of female nursery and fernery farmworkers in Central Florida. Survey results showed that nursery workers were more likely to report health symptoms during their pregnancy than fernery workers. We also observed a self-reported increased risk of respiratory illness in the first year of life for infants whose mothers worked in ferneries. Our findings confirm that agricultural work presents potential reproductive hazards for women of childbearing age.

  4. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nayyeri; Farima Raji; Edith Haghnazarian; Mamak Shariat; Hosein Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Objective:An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old.Materials and methods:Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study....

  5. Neonatology in the emerging countries: the strategies and health-economics challenges related to prevention of neonatal and infant infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vain, N E; Fariña, D; Vázquez, L N

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of neonatal and infant infections is higher in emerging countries when compared to the developed world. Major factors associated to this increased frequency include the scarcity of trained health personnel, overcrowding of the neonatal units, late onset and slow advance of feeding, use of formula instead of breastfeeding, failure to comply with handwashing recommendations, and excessive use of antibiotics, resulting in the emergence of resistant strains. Infants discharged home frequently share rooms with a large number of siblings and other cohabitants, increasing the risk of infection by respiratory viruses. Several strategies are described that could decrease these serious problems which impact increasing significantly neonatal and infant mortality rates in developing countries.

  6. Simulating the effects of acculturation and return migration on the maternal and infant health of Mexican immigrants in the United States: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    A significant body of research on minority health shows that although Latino immigrants experience unexpectedly favorable outcomes in maternal and infant health, this advantage deteriorates with increased time of residence in the United States. This study evaluates the underlying assumptions of two competing hypotheses that explain this paradox. The first hypothesis attributes this deterioration to possible negative effects of acculturation and behavioral adjustments made by immigrants while living in the United States, and the second hypothesis attributes this deterioration to the mechanism of selective return migration. Hypothetical probabilistic models are simulated for assessing the relationship between duration and birth outcomes based on the assumptions of these two hypotheses. The results are compared with the empirical research on the maternal and infant health of first-generation, Mexican-origin immigrant women in the United States. The analysis provides evidence that a curvilinear pattern of duration and birth outcomes can be explained by the joint effects of both acculturation and selective return migration in which the former affects health status over the longer durations, and the latter affects health status at shorter durations.

  7. Post-neonatal infant mortality in Malawi: the importance of maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Francine H; Le Cessie, Saskia; Kalanda, Boniface F; Kazembe, Peter N; Broadhead, Robin L; Brabin, Bernard J

    2004-06-01

    In a cohort study of mothers and their infants, information was collected from women attending the antenatal services of two hospitals in a rural area of Malawi and 561 of their babies were enrolled in a follow-up study. There were 128 with a low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g), 138 with fetal anaemia (FA, cord haemoglobin <12.5 g/dl), 42 with both and 228 with a normal birthweight and no FA. Infants were seen monthly for 1 year. Risk factors for post-neonatal infant mortality (PNIM) were calculated using Cox regression analysis adjusting for LBW and FA. PNIM was 9.3%. Respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease were the principal attributable causes of death. PNIM increased with LBW (RR 3.08, 95% CI 1.51-6.23) but not significantly so with FA (RR 1.60, 95% CI 0.78-3.27). An additional effect on PNIM was observed with maternal HIV (RR 3.44, 95% CI 1.63-7.26) and malaria at the first antenatal visit (RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.09-4.73). Illiteracy was not associated with mortality. Placental malaria in HIV-seronegative mothers was significantly associated with increased PNIM. Improving birthweight through effective antimalarial control in pregnancy will lead to a reduction in PNIM. Reduction of HIV prevalence and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV must be a main target for government health policy.

  8. Clustering of socioeconomic, behavioural, and neonatal risk factors for infant health in pregnant smokers.

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    Caren I Lanting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, including during pregnancy. Although effective ways of promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy exist, the impact of these interventions has not been studied at a national level. We estimated the prevalence of smoking throughout pregnancy in the Netherlands and quantified associations of maternal smoking throughout pregnancy with socioeconomic, behavioural, and neonatal risk factors for infant health and development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data of five national surveys, containing records of 14,553 Dutch mothers and their offspring were analyzed. From 2001 to 2007, the overall rate of smoking throughout pregnancy fell by 42% (from 13.2% to 7.6% mainly as a result of a decrease among highly educated women. In the lowest-educated group, the overall rate of smoking throughout pregnancy was six times as high as in the highest-educated group (18.7% versus 3.2%. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure was associated with increased risk of extremely preterm (infants (OR 3.08; 95% CI 2.66 to 3.57. Smoking-attributable risk percent in the population (based on adjusted risk ratios were estimated at 29% for extremely preterm births and at 17% for SGA outcomes. Infants of smokers were more likely to experience significant alcohol exposure in utero (OR 2.08; 95%CI 1.25 to 3.45 and formula feeding in early life (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.69 to 2.16. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of maternal smoking throughout pregnancy decreased significantly in the Netherlands from 2001 to 2007. If pregnant women were to cease tobacco use completely, an estimated 29% of extremely preterm births and 17% of SGA infants may be avoided annually.

  9. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  10. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Muralidhar Jawdekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children’s health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing pragmatically.

  11. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawdekar, Ashwin Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children's health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing) pragmatically. PMID:24288533

  12. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Salime

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  13. Does fiscal decentralization improve health outcomes? Evidence from infant mortality in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Marina; Ferrante, Livio

    2016-09-01

    Despite financial and decision-making responsibilities having been increasingly devolved to lower levels of government worldwide, the potential impact of these reforms remains largely controversial. This paper investigates the hypothesis that a shift towards a higher degree of fiscal autonomy of sub-national governments could improve health outcomes, as measured by infant mortality rates. Italy is used as a case study since responsibilities for healthcare have been decentralized to regions, though the central government still retains a key role in ensuring all citizens uniform access to health services throughout the country. A linear fixed-effects regression model with robust standard errors is employed for a panel of 20 regions over the period 1996-2012 (340 observations in the full sample). Decentralization is proxied by two different indicators, capturing the degree of decision-making autonomy in the allocation of tax revenues and the extent to which regions rely on fiscal transfers from the central government. The results show that a higher proportion of tax revenues raised and/or controlled locally as well as a lower transfer dependency from the central government are consistently associated with lower infant mortality rates, ceteris paribus. The marginal benefit from fiscal decentralization, however, is not constant but depends on the level of regional wealth, favouring poorest regions. In terms of policy implications, this study outlines how the effectiveness of decentralization in improving health outcomes is contingent on the characteristics of the context in which the process takes place.

  14. The Role of Relaxation Training to Pregnant Mothers on Health Index of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mosaviasl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Investigations have shown that the emotional stress during the pregnancy period could have sustainable effects on the embryo. Different factors such as family members, spouse, supporting friends could relive these effects, but coping skills especially relaxation could be more effective on stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation training to pregnant mothers on health index such as Apgar index, weight, height, and cowlick grade in infants. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trail in which 100 pregnant women who referred to health center of Yasuj (2006-2008 were selected using simple sampling method and assigned randomly to case and control groups. The relaxation was taught to the case group whereas nothing was taught to control groups. At the time of delivery the above mentioned indices were assessed. The gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results showed a significant difference between two groups in weight, height, cephalic index, and colic grade (with better situation in case group. There was no significant difference between two groups in Apgar scores. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it seems that teaching of relaxation to pregnant women could be effective in health index of children especially in the time of delivery. Therefore attention should be paid to different methods for reducing the stress in this group of mothers. Keywords: relaxation, pregnant women, infants, Apgar scores

  15. Random assignment in clinical trials: issues in planning (Infant Health and Development Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, H C; Fendt, K H

    1990-01-01

    Various options available for the randomization of subjects into groups in a clinical trial are discussed, emphasizing the issues of logistics given less focus in more mathematical treatments. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of total randomization, of Zelen-type randomization procedures, of Efron-type procedures vs more classical blocking procedures to control the balance between groups, and of Simon-Pocock-type procedures vs more classical stratification for controlling possible biases in prognostic factors. Finally, we discuss issues related to choice and implementation of randomization procedures. The discussion is illustrated with the processes of decision-making in a national collaborative randomized clinical trial, the Infant Health and Development Program.

  16. Bees brought to their knees: Microbes affecting honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and health of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been of interest to human societies since the advent of beekeeping. Descriptive scientific research on pathogens affecting honey bees have been published for nearly a century, but it wasn’t until the recent outbreak of heavy colony losses...

  17. Zinc absorption from micronutrient powder is low but is not affected by iron in Kenyan infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esamai, Fabian; Liechty, Edward; Ikemeri, Justus; Westcott, Jamie; Kemp, Jennifer; Culbertson, Diana; Miller, Leland V; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F

    2014-12-01

    Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP) on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively); a control (C) group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day) was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM) TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10) and MNP - Fe (n = 9) groups: 0.85 (0.22) and 0.72 (0.19), respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9): 0.24 (0.03) (p = 0.04). Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups' mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations.

  18. Zinc Absorption from Micronutrient Powder Is Low but Is not Affected by Iron in Kenyan Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Esamai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively; a control (C group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10 and MNP − Fe (n = 9 groups: 0.85 (0.22 and 0.72 (0.19, respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9: 0.24 (0.03 (p = 0.04. Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups’ mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations.

  19. The Future of Infant and Young Children's Food: Food Supply/Manufacturing and Human Health Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina; Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Infant food and weaning practices are highly debated with lots of unanswered questions. It is becoming more apparent that early-life feeding may have an effect on the long-term health of humans, particularly for noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and allergic diseases. It is important to understand how environmental influences in early life can affect the development of the immune system and metabolic profiling. In terms of nutrition and diet, one should consider the role of the total/whole diet, as well as particular nutrients in the development of noncommunicable diseases. Providing the appropriate nutrition for infants during the weaning age needs to address factors such as the microbial load of the food, nutrient composition, presence/absence of allergens and appropriate textures. These factors are of importance irrespective of whether the food is homemade or produced commercially, and need to take environmental factors and food resources into account.

  20. A randomized controlled study about the use of eHealth in the home health care of premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gund Anna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One area where the use of information and communication technology (ICT, or eHealth, could be developed is the home health care of premature infants. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate whether the use of video conferencing or a web application improves parents’ satisfaction in taking care of a premature infant at home and decreases the need of home visits. In addition, nurses’ attitudes regarding the use of these tools were examined. Method Thirty-four families were randomized to one of three groups before their premature infant was discharged from the hospital to home health care: a control group receiving standard home health care (13 families; a web group receiving home health care supplemented with the use of a web application (12 families; a video group with home health care supplemented with video conferencing using Skype (9 families. Families and nursing staff answered questionnaires about the usefulness of ICT. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 families. Results All the parents in the web group found the web application easy to use. 83% of the families thought it was good to have access to their child’s data through the application. All the families in the video group found Skype easy to use and were satisfied with the video calls. 88% of the families thought that video calls were better than ordinary phone calls. 33% of the families in the web group and 75% of those in the video group thought the need for home visits was decreased by the web application or Skype. 50% of the families in the web group and 100% of those in the video group thought the web application or the video calls had helped them feel more confident in caring for their child. Most of the nurses were motivated to use ICT but some were reluctant and avoided using the web application and video conferencing. Conclusion The families were satisfied with both the web application and video

  1. Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG): Mobilizing Allied Health Students and Community Partners to Put Data into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget; Julian, Zoë; Pinto, Meredith; Rochat, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Despite having an obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) workforce comparable to the national average, Georgia is ranked 50th in maternal mortality and 40th in infant mortality. The Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG) was founded in 2010 to evaluate and address this paradox. Description In the several years since GMIHRG's inception, its graduate allied health student researchers and advisors have collaborated with community partners to complete several requisite research initiatives. Their initial work demonstrated that over half the Georgia areas outside metropolitan Atlanta lack adequate access to obstetric services, and their subsequent research evaluated the reasons for and the consequences of this maldistribution of obstetric providers. Assessment In order to translate their workforce and outcomes data for use in policymaking and programming, GMIHRG created reader-friendly reports for distribution to a wide variety of stakeholders and prepared concise, compelling presentations with targeted recommendations for change. This commitment to advocacy ultimately enabled them to: (a) inspire the Georgia Study Committees on Medicaid Reform and Medical Education, (b) influence Georgia General Assembly abortion bills, medical scholarship/loan legislation, and appropriations, and (c) motivate programming initiatives to improve midwifery education and perinatal regionalization in Georgia. Conclusion GMIHRG members have employed inventive research methods and maximized collaborative partnerships to enable their data on Georgia's maternal and infant outcomes and obstetric workforce to effectively inform state organizations and policymakers. With this unique approach, GMIHRG serves as a cost-efficient and valuable model for student engagement in the translation of research into advocacy efforts, policy change, and innovative programming.

  2. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age.

  3. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.

  4. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.;

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P

  5. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  6. Vitamin D status among immigrant mothers from Pakistan, Turkey and Somalia and their infants attending child health clinics in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Ahmed A; Stene, Lars C; Meyer, Haakon E

    2009-04-01

    High prevalences of vitamin D deficiency have been reported in non-Western immigrants moving to Western countries, including Norway, but there is limited information on vitamin D status in infants born to immigrant mothers. We aimed to describe the vitamin D status and potentially correlated factors among infants aged 6 weeks and their mothers with Pakistani, Turkish or Somali background attending child health clinics in Norway. Eighty-six healthy infants and their mothers with immigrant background were recruited at the routine 6-week check-up at nine centres between 2004 and 2006. Venous or capillary blood was collected at the clinics from the mother and infant, and serum separated for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH). The mean maternal s-25(OH)D was 25.8 nmol/l, with 57 % below 25 nmol/l and 15 % below 12.5 nmol/l. Of the mothers, 26 % had s-iPTH>5.7 pmol/l. For infants, mean s-25(OH)D was 41.7 nmol/l, with 47 % below 25 nmol/l and 34 % below 12.5 nmol/l. s-25(OH)D was considerably lower in the thirty-one exclusively breast-fed infants (mean 11.1 nmol/l; P < 0.0001). Use of vitamin D supplements and education showed a positive association with maternal s-25(OH)D. There was no significant association between mother's and child's s-25(OH)D, and no significant ethnic or seasonal variation in s-25(OH)D for mothers or infants. In conclusion, there is widespread vitamin D deficiency in immigrant mothers and their infants living in Norway. Exclusively breast-fed infants who did not receive vitamin D supplements had particularly severe vitamin D deficiency.

  7. Spending to save? State health expenditure and infant mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2007-09-01

    There are severe inequalities in health in the world, poor health being concentrated amongst poor people in poor countries. Poor countries spend a much smaller share of national income on health expenditure than do richer countries. What potential lies in political or growth processes that raise this share? This depends upon how effective government health spending in developing countries is. Existing research presents little evidence of an impact on childhood mortality. Using specifications similar to those in the existing literature, this paper finds a similar result for India, which is that state health spending saves no lives. However, upon allowing lagged effects, controlling in a flexible way for trended unobservables and restricting the sample to rural households, a significant effect of health expenditure on infant mortality emerges, the long run elasticity being about -0.24. There are striking differences in the impact by social group. Slicing the data by gender, birth order, religion, maternal and paternal education and maternal age at birth, I find the weakest effects in the most vulnerable groups (with the exception of a large effect for scheduled tribes).

  8. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  9. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  10. Optimizing the health of infants and children: their oral health counts!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Sweeney, Kathleen; Stevens, Joanne

    2010-08-01

    Tooth decay and poor oral health are the most common chronic health conditions in children in the United States today. This article discusses the significance of dental caries in children, the importance of oral health promotion, barriers to providing and obtaining oral health care, and current recommendations for practice. This article also recommends strategies for the promotion of optimal oral health in children and adolescents through screening, triaging, education, and tracking.

  11. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Miguel; Reig-Botella, Adela; Prados, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals. PMID:25902564

  12. Alterations in psychosocial health of people affected by asbestos poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Clemente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the state of psychosocial and mental health of professionals affected by asbestos. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted with 110 professionals working in the Ferrolterra region of Spain, who were affected by asbestos poisoning. This group was compared with a group of 70 shipyard workers with no manifestation of work-related diseases. All the participants were male with a mean age of 67 years. This study was conducted in 2013, between January and June, and used the SCL-90 questionnaire by Derogatis as its primary measure for research. This questionnaire consists of 9 variables that measure psychosomatic symptoms. In addition, an overall index of psychosomatic gravity was calculated. The participants were also asked two questions concerning their overall perception of feeling good. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression. RESULTS Participants affected by asbestos poisoning showed high occurrence rates of psychological health variables such as somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, and global severity index. CONCLUSIONS Social interaction as a differentiating factor between workers affected by work-related chronic syndromes as compared to healthy participants will possibly aid in the development of intervention programs by improving the social network of affected individuals.

  13. Head and Eye Movements Affect Object Processing in 4-Month-Old Infants More than an Artificial Orientation Cue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Sebastian; Michel, Christine; Pauen, Sabina; Hoehl, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of attention-guiding stimuli on 4-month-old infants' object processing. In the human head condition, infants saw a person turning her head and eye gaze towards or away from objects. When presented with the objects again, infants showed increased attention in terms of longer looking time measured by eye…

  14. Research report--Volunteer infant feeding and care counselors: a health education intervention to improve mother and child health and reduce mortality in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Mikey; Lewycka, Sonia; Mwansambo, Charles; Kazembe, Peter; Phiri, Tambosi; Chapota, Hilda; Vergnano, Stefania; Newell, Marie-Louise; Osrin, David; Costello, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this report is to describe a health education intervention involving volunteer infant feeding and care counselors being implemented in Mchinji district, Malawi. The intervention was established in January 2004 and involves 72 volunteer infant feeding and care counselors, supervised by 24 government Health Surveillance Assistants, covering 355 villages in Mchinji district. It aims to change the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of women to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices. The main target population are women of child bearing age who are visited at five key points during pregnancy and after birth. Where possible, their partners are also involved. The visits cover exclusive breastfeeding and other important neonatal and infant care practices. Volunteers are provided with an intervention manual and picture book. Resource inputs are low and include training allowances and equipment for counselors and supervisors, and a salary, equipment and materials for a coordinator. It is hypothesized that the counselors will encourage informational and attitudinal change to enhance motivation and risk reduction skills and self-efficacy to promote exclusive breastfeeding and other infant care practices and reduce infant mortality. The impact is being evaluated through a cluster randomised controlled trial and results will be reported in 2012.

  15. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%. Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%. Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8% and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development.

  16. International migration to Canada: the post-birth health of mothers and infants by immigration class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Wahoush, Olive; Saucier, Jean-François; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Stanger, Elizabeth; Palmer, Becky; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    There are over 214 million international migrants worldwide, half of whom are women, and all of them assigned by the receiving country to an immigration class. Immigration classes are associated with certain health risks and regulatory restrictions related to eligibility for health care. Prior to this study, reports of international migrant post-birth health had not been compared between immigration classes, with the exception of our earlier, smaller study in which we found asylum-seekers to be at greatest risk for health concerns. In order to determine whether refugee or asylum-seeking women or their infants experience a greater number or a different distribution of professionally-identified health concerns after birth than immigrant or Canadian-born women, we recruited 1127 migrant (and in Canada immigration class (refugee, asylum-seeker, immigrant, or Canadian-born). Between February 2006 and May 2009, we followed them from childbirth (in one of eleven birthing centres in Montreal or Toronto) to four months and found that at one week postpartum, asylum-seeking and immigrant women had greater rates of professionally-identified health concerns than Canadian-born women; and at four months, all three migrant groups had greater rates of professionally-identified concerns. Further, international migrants were at greater risk of not having these concerns addressed by the Canadian health care system. The current study supports our earlier findings and highlights the need for case-finding and services for international migrant women, particularly for psychosocial difficulties. Policy and program mechanisms to address migrants' needs would best be developed within the various immigration classes.

  17. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  18. Prevalence of nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding in the mother-infant dyad in basic health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocilia Maria Costa Carvalho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study conducted with 28 mother-infant dyads, users of a Family Health Center of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, that aimed to identify the nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding, their frequency of occurrence, defining characteristics, and the value of maternal confidence based on the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale. Data collection happened during September and October 2010, using interviews, anamnesis, and physical examination of the dyad. The most prevalent diagnosis was Effective breastfeeding (50%. The breastfeeding self-efficacy scale revealed significance in the presence of the nursing diagnoses Effective breastfeeding and the absence of Interrupted breastfeeding. Although the diagnosis Effective breastfeeding presented a significant occurrence, we verified the need for effective actions of nurses in the breastfeeding process.

  19. Financial crisis. How it affects the public health and health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Sarafis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The economic situation affects health indicators like life expectancy, morbidity, mortality and access to health services. Methodology: Α research in bibliography was done in Pubmed, Scopus, Sciverse with key words: health, health systems, economic crisis, unemployment, poverty. Results: Unemployment is also associated with increased daily alcohol consumption, suicides increase, domestic violence, and it reduces road deaths at 1.4%. In particular, poverty leads to disease as people are forced to live in degraded environment, fed poorly and work in dangerous and unhealthy environments. Conclusions: In particular, the economic crisis is leading to job insecurity, unemployment and poverty that eventually lead to the exclusion of more people something that is responsible for various mental disorders. Health systems on the other hand in crisis are facing financial problems because of reduced government spending on health due to economic scarcity and because of disruption of foreign economic aid from richer countries, which cover a large part of health funding.

  20. Difficulty in disengaging from threat and temperamental negative affectivity in early life: A longitudinal study of infants aged 12–36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa Atsuko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention disengagement is reportedly influenced by perceiving a fearful facial expression even in the first year of life. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in disengaging from fearful expressions predict temperamental negative affectivity. Method Twenty-six infants were studied longitudinally at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, using an overlap paradigm and two temperament questionnaires: the Japanese versions of the revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Results The infants fixated significantly more frequently to fearful than to happy or neutral faces. The attentional bias to threat (i.e., the number of fixed responses on fearful faces divided by the total number of fixed responses on faces at 12 months was significantly positively correlated with negative affect at 12 months, and its relations with negative affect measured later in development was in the expected positive direction at each age. In addition, a moderation analysis indicates that the orienting network and not the executive network marginally moderated the relation between early attentional bias and later fear. Conclusions The results suggest that at 12 months, infants with more negative affectivity exhibit greater difficulty in disengaging their attention from fearful faces. We also found evidence that the association between parent-reported fear and disengagement might be modulated in the second year, perhaps because of the differences in temperamental control networks.

  1. Survival and health benefits of breastfeeding versus artificial feeding in infants of HIV-infected women: developing versus developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace

    2010-12-01

    Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. This article summarizes the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral drugs can be used during lactation and reduce risks of transmission. For most of the developing world, the health and survival benefits of breastfeeding exceed the risks of HIV transmission, especially when antiretroviral interventions are provided.

  2. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  3. Maternal Mental Health and Its Association with Infant Growth at 6 Months in Ethnic Groups: Results from the Born-in-Bradford Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma D Traviss; West, Robert M.; House, Allan O

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth. METHODS: Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK). Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28) was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation) and 6 months postpartum. Modelling incl...

  4. Association of anthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asefzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indices are of the best indicators for growth monitoring during neonatal period. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association ofanthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices. The study was conducted in 230 mothers who had health profiles in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin during 2013. Data were collected through the records in mothers’ health profiles. Data were analyzed using T-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Of 230 infants, 119 (51.7% were male. Mean weight and head circumference were significantly different between Iranian and Afghan infants.The Iranian mothers were older and had higher weight and height during pregnancy compared to the Afghan mothers and the difference was statistically significant. There was positive significant correlation between mothers’ age, weight, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and infants’ birth weight. There was also positive significant correlation between mothers’ hemoglobin and hematocrit and infants’ height. With regards to the results, proper nutrition, maternal health, and providing appropriate health services during pregnancy can be beneficial for improving infants’ health.

  5. FDA Approves Immunotherapy for a Cancer that Affects Infants and Children | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved dinutuximab (ch14.18) as an immunotherapy for neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that offers poor prognosis for about half of the children who are affected. The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Biopharmaceutical Development Program (BDP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research produced ch14.18 for the NCI-sponsored clinical trials that proved the drug’s effectiveness against the disease.

  6. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2016-01-01

    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... present in homozygotes. FSHB -211T carriers had smaller breast tissue size than girls who without a minor allele; GT+TT 10.5 (confidence interval 9.4 -11.5) mm vs GG 12.1 (confidence interval 11.4-12.8) mm, P = .014. Conclusions: Our study indicates that 3 genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...

  7. The T1405N carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphism does not affect plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M J Moonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1 has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. AIM: To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. RESULTS: Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC:CA:AA = 55.5%:33.6%:10.9%, n = 128 and term infants (CC:CA:AA = 54.2%:35.4%:10.4%, n = 96. There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants.

  8. Food sources of total energy and nutrients among U.S. infants and toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0...

  9. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  10. Factors affecting the health of migrants and their impact on Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasopoulou M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization from a public health perspective, has endangered the health of migrants due to the deteriorating socio-economic conditions of living and working. The protection of health is a fundamental human right, which must be guaranteed by institutions, without distinction. Purpose: the present study is to investigate the factors that affect the health of migrants and their impact on public health. Method: A search was made in electronic databases for review and research studies using the keywords «Aggravating Health Factors», «Immigrants» and «Public Health» alone or in combination. The search was extended to include the databases of the European Union (EU, the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations (UN. Conclusions: The review findings, since the majority of the research studies show that for the protection of Public Health, interventions awareness of migrants about the importance of prevention, the adoption of healthy lifestyles and behavior modification. are necessary. The ultimate goal of interventions, should be the full integration of special operations in the existing National Health System and the smooth integration of immigrants in the productive, despite of social exclusion.

  11. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world.

  12. The positive role of breastfeeding on infant health during the first 6 weeks: findings from a prospective observational study based on maternal reports.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to report on adverse infant and maternal clinical outcomes, and investigate the relationship between infant feeding practice and such adverse clinical outcomes in infants during the first 6 weeks postpartum. From an eligible sample of 450 mother-term infant pairs recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin, 27.1% of infants (n=122) were maternally reported to have had an illness during the first 6 weeks that necessitated the provision of prescribed medication +\\/- general practitioner\\/paediatrician attendance +\\/- hospitalisation. Of these, 90 infants had > or =1 episode of infection +\\/- viral +\\/- gastro-intestinal-related condition. After adjustment, \\'any\\' breastfeeding to 6 weeks was protective against such adverse infant outcomes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44, P = 0.022). Attendance to the GP\\/paediatrician for > 1 visit (aOR 3.44, P = 0.000) and multiparity (aOR 1.76, P = 0.041) were also positively associated with such adverse infant outcomes. To decrease infant morbidity rates in Ireland, government investment in breastfeeding promotion, support and research should be a continued public health priority.

  13. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  14. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 84 - Guidelines Relating to Health Care for Handicapped Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... premature and low birth weight infant on the grounds of reasonable medical judgments concerning the... section 504. (ii) Withholding of treatment for medically correctable physical anomalies in children born... treatment for an infant born with anencephaly, who will inevitably die within a short period of time,...

  15. A comparative study of adoloscents’ perceived stress and health outcomes among adolescent mothers and their infants in Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Yako

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare perceived stress in general, stress due to pregnancy, and post partum complications between a group of unmarried adolescent first-time mothers and a group of married adolescent first-time mothers. Never-pregnant adolescents served as a comparison group on perceived stress. Health outcomes of infants of the two groups of adolescent mothers were also compared on birth weight, nutritional status (weight gain and immunization status.

  16. [Strategies for integration of health care practices and sanitary surveillance in the context of the implementation of Rede Cegonha - a Brazilian mother and infant health care network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Roberta Zanelli Sartori; Vilela, Maria Filomena de Gouveia

    2014-11-01

    Mother and infant mortality has been the scope of analysis throughout the history of public health in Brazil and various strategies to tackle the issue have been proposed to date. The Ministry of Health has been working on this and the Rede Cegonha strategy is the most recent policy in this context. Given the principle of comprehensive health care and the structure of the Unified Health System in care networks, it is necessary to ensure the integration of health care practices, among which are the sanitary surveillance actions (SSA). Considering that the integration of health care practices and SSA can contribute to reduce mother and infant mortality rates, this article is a result of qualitative research that analyzed the integration of these actions in four cities in the State of São Paulo/Brazil: Campinas, Indaiatuba, Jaguariúna and Santa Bárbara D'Oeste. The research was conducted through interviews with SSA and maternal health managers, and the data were evaluated using thematic analysis. The results converge with other studies, identifying the isolation of health care practices and SSA. The insertion of SSA in collectively-managed areas appears to be a potential strategy for health planning and implementation of actions in the context under scrutiny.

  17. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  18. Validation of self-reported maternal and infant health indicators in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Patricia; Bombard, Jennifer; Mulready-Ward, Candace; Gauthier, John; Sackoff, Judith; Brozicevic, Peggy; Gambatese, Melissa; Nyland-Funke, Michael; England, Lucinda; Harrison, Leslie; Taylor, Allan

    2014-12-01

    To assess the validity of self-reported maternal and infant health indicators reported by mothers an average of 4 months after delivery. Three validity measures-sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV)-were calculated for pregnancy history, pregnancy complications, health care utilization, and infant health indicators self-reported on the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) questionnaire by a representative sample of mothers delivering live births in New York City (NYC) (n = 603) and Vermont (n = 664) in 2009. Data abstracted from hospital records served as gold standards. All data were weighted to be representative of women delivering live births in NYC or Vermont during the study period. Most PRAMS indicators had >90 % specificity. Indicators with >90 % sensitivity and PPV for both sites included prior live birth, any diabetes, and Medicaid insurance at delivery, and for Vermont only, infant admission to the NICU and breastfeeding in the hospital. Indicators with poor sensitivity and PPV (urinary tract infection or kidney infection, and for NYC only, preterm labor, prior low-birth-weight birth, and prior preterm birth. For Vermont only, receipt of an HIV test during pregnancy had poor sensitivity and PPV. Mothers accurately reported information on prior live births and Medicaid insurance at delivery; however, mothers' recall of certain pregnancy complications and pregnancy history was poor. These findings could be used to prioritize data collection of indicators with high validity.

  19. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Borah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.

  20. Girl child marriage and its association with national rates of HIV, maternal health, and infant mortality across 97 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess associations between national rates of girl child marriage and national rates of HIV and maternal and child health (MCH) concerns, using national indicator data from 2009 United Nations reports. Current analyses were limited to the N = 97 nations (of 188 nations) for which girl child marriage data were available. Regression analyses adjusted for development and world region demonstrate that nations with higher rates of girl child marriage are significantly more likely to contend with higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and nonutilization of maternal health services, but not HIV.

  1. Symptomatology and growth in infants with cow's milk protein intolerance using two different whey-protein hydrolysate based formulas in a Primary Health Care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwimp, J J; Bindels, J G; Barents, M; Heymans, H S

    1995-09-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept or Pepti Junior. The efficacy of both products, in terms of symptomatology and growth, was compared with each other. The products differ in fat source (Pepti Junior 50% of its fat as MCT, Nutrilon Pepti normal LCT fat blend) and the presence of lactose (Pepti Junior: lactose free; Nutrilon Pepti: 40% of its carbohydrate as lactose). The study was part of a large project that aimed at standardising the approach towards cow's milk protein intolerance in Baby Health Clinics. Nearly 50 Baby Health Clinics participated in this project. In this study, growth and symptomatology (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract) were monitored during an intervention period of at least 10 weeks. Infants in both feeding groups showed normal growth, and in at least 80% of the infants an improvement of the overall symptomatology could be seen during the intervention period. Most profound were the decreases in prevalence and severity of eczema and infantile colic. No differences in efficacy were found in this study between the two infant formulas. It was concluded that the exclusive use of either whey hydrolysate based infant formula resulted in an improvement of allergic symptoms and in normal growth in infants diagnosed by elimination/provocation for cow's milk protein intolerance in a Primary Health Care setting.

  2. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  3. The contribution of Australian residential early parenting centres to comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants: evidence from a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jane RW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia's public access residential early parenting services provide programs to assist parents who self-refer, to care for their infants and young children. Treatment programs target infant feeding and sleeping difficulties and maternal mental health. There is limited systematic evidence of maternal and infant mental health, psychosocial circumstances or presenting problems, or the effectiveness of the programs. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evidence base about residential early parenting services. Methods A prospective cohort design was used. A consecutive sample of mothers with infants under one year old recruited during admission to a public access residential early parenting service for a 4 or 5 night stay in Melbourne, Australia was recruited. They completed structured self-report questionnaires, incorporating standardised measures of infant behaviour and maternal mood, during admission and at one and six months after discharge. Changes in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning after discharge were observed. Results 79 women completed the first questionnaire during admission, and 58 provided complete data. Women admitted to the residential program have poor physical and mental health, limited family support, and infants with substantial behaviour difficulties. One month after discharge significant improvements in infant behaviour and maternal psychological functioning were observed (mean (SD daily crying and fussing during admission = 101.02 (100.8 minutes reduced to 37.7 (55.2 at one month post discharge, p Conclusions This psycho-educational approach is an effective and acceptable early intervention for parenting difficulties and maternal mood disturbance, and contributes to a system of comprehensive mental health care for mothers of infants.

  4. Situation and Strategies of the Maternal and Infant Health in Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents then makes a retrospective and descriptive evaluation of the Tunisian strategy implemented to reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.The objectives of this bibliography work are to make a diagnosis of the situation of the maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, to develop the philosophy and the orientations of the strategic axis and to underline the keys of the success as well as the limits of the strategy.

  5. Breast or bottle? HIV-positive women's responses to global health policy on infant feeding in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hollen, Cecilia

    2011-12-01

    This article describes how local responses to global health initiatives on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers reflect and transform sociocultural values in Tamil Nadu, India. Drawing from ethnographic research conducted from 2002 to 2008, the article compares guidelines for counseling HIV-positive mothers established by UNICEF and WHO with decision-making processes and perceptions of HIV-positive mothers. In addition to the financial considerations, three factors are identified as impinging on this decision: (1) a strong sociocultural value in favor of breastfeeding linked to historical traditions and contemporary state and international development discourses, (2) constructions of class identity, (3) the influence of a rights-based discourse in HIV/AIDS advocacy. This wide range of factors points to the difficulty of implementing the international protocols. This is the first study of its kind to closely examine the complex determinants in HIV-positive women's decisions and evaluations of infant feeding methods in India.

  6. Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muldoon Katherine A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have examined the link between health system strength and important public health outcomes across nations. We examined the association between health system indicators and mortality rates. Methods We used mixed effects linear regression models to investigate the strength of association between outcome and explanatory variables, while accounting for geographic clustering of countries. We modelled infant mortality rate (IMR, child mortality rate (CMR, and maternal mortality rate (MMR using 13 explanatory variables as outlined by the World Health Organization. Results Significant protective health system determinants related to IMR included higher physician density (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.81; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.71-0.91, higher sustainable access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78-0.93, and having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.80. Out-of-pocket expenditures on health (aRR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62 were a risk factor. The same four variables were significantly related to CMR after controlling for other variables. Protective determinants of MMR included access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94, having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.49; 95%; CI 0.36-0.66, and higher total expenditures on health per capita (aRR 0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.92. Higher fertility rates (aRR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.02-4.00 were found to be a significant risk factor for MMR. Conclusion Several key measures of a health system predict mortality in infants, children, and maternal mortality rates at the national level. Improving access to water and sanitation and reducing corruption within the health sector should become priorities.

  7. Iron deficiency anemia in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Eun Young; Kim, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background In Korea, the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among older infants and young children remains high. To detect IDA early and to reduce its adverse impact, we assessed the characteristics of infants and young children who had IDA or were at risk of developing IDA, or who exhibited characteristics associated with severe anemia. Methods Among the 1,782 IDA-affected children aged 6 months to 18 years who visited the hospital, we retrospectively analyzed the medical records and laboratory data of 1,330 IDA-affected children aged 6–23 months who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2013. We excluded patients with a C-reactive protein level ≥5 mg/dL. Results IDA was predominant in boys (2.14:1) during infancy and early childhood. The peak IDA incidence was noted among infants aged 9–12 months. Only 7% patients exhibited symptoms of IDA, while 23.6% patients with severe IDA demonstrated classic symptoms/signs of IDA. Low birth weight (LBW) infants with IDA demonstrated low adherence to iron supplementation. In a multivariate analysis, prolonged breastfeeding without iron fortification (odds ratio [OR] 5.70), and a LBW (OR 6.49) were identified as risk factors of severe anemia. Conclusion LBW infants need more attention in order to increase their adherence to iron supplementation. For the early detection of IDA, nutritional status of all infants, and iron batteries of high-risk infants (LBW infants, infants with prolonged breastfeeding, picky eaters, and/or infants with the presence of IDA symptoms) should be evaluated at their health screening visits. PMID:28090490

  8. Low-fat, high calorie parenteral nutrition (PN), reverses liver affection in long term PN dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Hørby Jørgensen, Marianne; Husby, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen...

  9. Examining functional mechanisms of imitative learning in infancy: does teleological reasoning affect infants' imitation beyond motor resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Recently, researchers have been debating whether infants' selective imitative learning is primarily based on sensorimotor processes (e.g., motor resonance through action perception) or whether inferential processes such as teleological reasoning (i.e., reasoning about the efficiency of others' actions) predominantly explain selective imitation in infancy. The current study directly investigated two different theoretical notions employing the seminal and widely used head touch paradigm. In two conditions, we manipulated whether the action appeared to be efficient while motor resonance was optimized to enhance imitation performance in general. The results showed that infants imitated the target action to the same extent in both conditions irrespective of the action's efficiency. In addition, in both conditions, more infants imitated the head action than in an additional baseline condition or in a condition where the target action was performed by another effector. The results suggest that 14-month-olds do not imitate novel actions according to their apparent efficiency but that motor resonance is an important factor in infants' imitation.

  10. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  11. Globalisation: what is it and how does it affect health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley

    2004-02-16

    The term "globalisation" tends to be misused and overused. We need greater clarity in our understanding of the globalisation process, including the distinct changes involved and their relation to human health. The health impacts of globalisation are simultaneously positive and negative, varying according to factors such as geographical location, sex, age, ethnic origin, education level, and socioeconomic status. Globalisation is not an unstoppable force. Our key challenge is to create socially and environmentally sustainable forms of globalisation that provide the greatest benefits and least costs, shared more equitably than is currently the case. The health community must engage more directly in current research and policy debates on globalisation and encourage values that promote human health. At the same time, those at the helm of globalisation processes must recognise that attending to health impacts will strengthen the long-term sustainability of globalisation.

  12. Delivery of an Ebola Virus-Positive Stillborn Infant in a Rural Community Health Center, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Grass, Julian E; Veltus, Emily; Brault, Aaron; Campbell, Shelley; Basile, Alison Jane; Wang, David; Paddock, Christopher D; Erickson, Bobbie R; Salzer, Johanna S; Belser, Jessica; Chege, Eunice; Seneca, Dean; Saffa, Gbessay; Stroeher, Ute; Decroo, Tom; Caleo, Grazia M

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of an Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA-negative pregnant woman who delivered an EBOV RNA-positive stillborn infant at a community health center in rural Sierra Leone, 1 month after the mother's last possible exposure. The mother was later found to be immunoglobulins M and G positive indicating previous infection. The apparent absence of Ebola symptoms and not recognizing that the woman had previous contact with an Ebola patient led health workers performing the delivery to wear only minimal personal protection, potentially exposing them to a high risk of EBOV infection. This case emphasizes the importance of screening for epidemiological risk factors as well as classic and atypical symptoms of Ebola when caring for pregnant women, even once they have passed the typical time frame for exposure and incubation expected in nonpregnant adults. It also illustrates the need for health-care workers to use appropriate personal protection equipment when caring for pregnant women in an Ebola setting.

  13. Introducing the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds Database: A validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eParsons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalisations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocaliser mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and Study 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive. While the adult vocalisations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalisations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalisations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of the each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions.

  14. Stress and health-related well-being among mothers with a low birth weight infant: The role of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This U.S.A.-based study examined the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sleep, as well as the role of sleep, in the association of stress with depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (H-QOL) among mothers with a low-birth-weight, preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit at early postpartum. Fifty-five first-time mothers kept a sleep diary and filled out a battery of questionnaires. The wrist actigraphy method was also applied to collect information on ma...

  15. Can routine screening and iron supplementation for iron deficiency anemia in nonsymptomatic pregnant women improve maternal and infant health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Anoosh; Lassi, Zohra S.

    2015-01-01

    CLINICAL SCENARIO Pregnant women have an increased need for iron that might not be met with diet alone. Due to physiologic anemia and population differences, no set criteria for defining iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are available globally. Serum ferritin and transferrin levels are often used to guide therapy by clinicians. Studies have reported an association between poor iron status and negative health outcomes such as low birth weight, premature birth, and perinatal death for women and their infants, although the evidence is weak. PMID:26288769

  16. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Cong; Wanli Xu; Susan Janton; Henderson, Wendy A.; Adam Matson; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Kendra Maas; Joerg Graf

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of li...

  17. Client flow through the Women, Infants, and Children Public Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, B A; Bumgarner, M; Prime, P

    1998-01-01

    The Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program, managed by the county boards of health, provides nutrition, limited physical examinations, and food vouchers for pregnant women and for children with nutritional deficiencies. Because federal guidelines for the WIC program leave little maneuvering room to improve the delivery of services, we analyzed the client flow through a WIC clinic in the Atlanta metropolitan area to determine how that flow could be managed more efficiently. The challenge facing the WIC clinic was to increase the efficiency of their operation in an environment characterized by resource constraints, rigid regulations, and dysfunctional client behavior. In a limited physical space, the WIC clinic was expected to provide a number of sequential services to a client population that failed to arrive or arrived late 40 percent-50 percent of the time. The provision of services was further complicated by walk-ins, which were not only common but, according to federal guidelines, also must be accommodated. To analyze the clinic's problem, we used the General Purpose Simulation System for personal computer (GPSS/PC) to simulate client flow through the clinic. Estimates of the average amount of time a client spent in the clinic as well as average waiting times at each station and clerk and nurse utilization rates were generated assuming a variety of staffing levels. For comparison purposes, each version of the model was run with a 20-minute time lag before a late appointment was filled, and then a one-minute lag. The data used for the simulation were collected by clinic personnel during February 1994. It included the number of clerks and nurses available; the waiting time to see clerks and nurses for walk-ins and appointments; the waiting time to get WIC vouchers; the number of appointments met; the number of appointments missed; and the total time in the clinic for walk-ins and appointments. In all three versions of the model that were estimated, the results

  18. Maternal mental health and its association with infant growth at 6 months in ethnic groups: results from the Born-in-Bradford birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma D Traviss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth. METHODS: Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK. Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28 was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Modelling included social deprivation, ethnicity, and other known influences on infant growth such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Maternal distress improved markedly from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum. At both times Pakistani women had more somatic and depression symptoms than White women. Depression in pregnancy (GHQ subscale D was associated with lower infant growth at 6 months. Self-reported social dysfunction in pregnancy (GHQ subscale C was associated with lower gestational age.. Pakistani women reported higher GHQ scores during pregnancy associated with smaller infants at birth. They lived in areas of higher social deprivation, reported less alcohol consumption and smoking postnatally, all independent influences on growth at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mental health in pregnancy is an independent influence on infant growth up to 6 months and is associated with ethnicity which was itself associated with deprivation in our sample. There is a complex relationship between symptoms of maternal distress, ethnicity, deprivation, health behaviours, and early infant growth. Measures should include both emotional and somatic symptoms and interventions to reduce risks of poor early growth need to include psychological and social components.

  19. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  20. Infant Feeding Practices: Perceptions of Native American Mothers and Health Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Calcatera, Mary; Carpenter, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain infant feeding practices and to explore the feasibility of an in-home feeding intervention with Native American Indian (NAI) mothers in six Native American communities in the United States (US). Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Six Native American communities in the Midwest region of the United States.…

  1. Perspectives of Parents and Health Care Workers on Early Infant Male Circumcision Conducted Using Devices: Qualitative Findings From Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhu, Webster; Hatzold, Karin; Ncube, Getrude; Fernando, Shamiso; Mangenah, Collin; Chatora, Kumbirai; Mugurungi, Owen; Ticklay, Ismail; Cowan, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) for prevention of HIV. Here, we present findings from a qualitative study in Zimbabwe that assessed parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices. Methods: This qualitative study was nested within a trial of EIMC devices. Between January and May 2013, we held 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 12 in-depth interviews with parents and 12 in-depth interviews with clinicians (7 trial clinicians and 5 non-trial clinicians). We also conducted 95 short telephone interviews with parents who had arranged to bring their sons for EIMC but then defaulted. Results: Parents who had adopted EIMC spoke of their initial anxieties about the procedure. Additionally, they commented on both the procedure and outcome. Parents who decided against EIMC cited fear of harm, specifically the infant's death, penile injury, and excessive pain. Misperceptions about male circumcision in general and EIMC specifically were a significant barrier to EIMC adoption and were prevalent among health care workers as well as parents. In particular, the findings suggest strong parental concerns about the fate of the discarded foreskin. Parents who chose EIMC for their newborn sons felt that the procedure was safe and expressed satisfaction with the outcome. For their part, health care workers largely thought that EIMC was safe and that the outcome was aesthetically pleasing. They also felt that it would be feasible to offer wide-scale EIMC for HIV prevention in the public sector; they recommended strategies to increase EIMC uptake, in addition to highlighting a few concerns. Conclusions: The qualitative study enables us to better understand parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices, especially their perspectives on EIMC safety, feasibility, acceptability, and barriers. These findings

  2. Negative Affectivity is Common to Pediatric Behavioral Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Behar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of youth in the United States experience mental illness; within these youth, comorbidity is considered the rule, not the exception. Rather than treat each disorder distinctly, recent research examines common psychopathological processes shaping various presenting problems to simultaneously target deficits and excesses. Contemporary research hypothesizes that negative affectivity pervades multiple psychiatric problems in youth. The present study sought to examine negative affectivity in an intent-to-treat sample of young patients presenting at an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. Young patients (n=54 with internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, or both completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders. MANOVA results indicated no significant difference between the groups. Additionally, no gender differences were found. Findings suggest negative affectivity is a core feature of psychopathology in general, and thus a valuable focus for transdiagnostic treatments.

  3. Unbelievable?! Theistic/Epistemological Viewpoint Affects Religion-Health Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, David

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that Religion/Spirituality promotes a variety of positive health outcomes. However, despite reporting lower levels of Religion/Spirituality, non-believers report comparable levels of health to believers. The current study tested the hypothesis that Religion/Spirituality does not have a uniform effect on health for all persons, and tested theological/epistemological categories as moderators. Using the 2012 and 2014 General Social Survey (N = 2670), the relationship between Religion/Spirituality and happiness and self-rated health was investigated. Results indicated that Gnostic Theists experienced Religion/Spirituality more positively than their peers did; Agnostic Theists experienced Religion/Spirituality less positively than their peers did; and Negative Atheists experienced Religion/Spirituality less positively than their peers did. These findings suggested that Religion/Spirituality is not associated with salutary effects for all persons, and that whether a person believes in god(s) and how confident he/she was in god(s)' existence, influenced his/her experience with Religion/Spirituality.

  4. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  5. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome -- the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-2006). My...... of care to insured heart attack patients in response to reduced revenues, the evidence I have suggests a modest increase in the quantity of cardiac services without a corresponding increase in hospital staff.......In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome -- the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-2006). My...... results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically significant effect that increases the mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I show that these results are not driven by alternative explanations, including reverse causality, patient composition effects, sample selection...

  6. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  7. Early consumption of liquids different to breast milk in Mexican infants under 1 year: results of the probabilistic National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah González-Castell

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies on infant dietary intake do not generally focus on the types of liquids consumed. Objective: To document by age and breastfeeding status, the types of liquids present in the diet of Mexican children under 1 year of age (< 1 y who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (ENSANUT-2012. Methods: Analysis of the infant < 1 y feeding practices from the ENSANUT-2012 survey in non-breastfed (non-BF and breastfed (BF infants by status quo for the consumption of liquids grouped in: water, formula, fortified LICONSA milk, nutritive liquids (NL; thin cereal-based gruel with water or milk and coffee with milk and non-nutritive liquids (non-NL as sugared water, water-based drinks, tea, beans or chicken broth, aguamiel and coffee. In this infants < 1 y we analyzed the not grouped consumption of liquids in the first three days of life (newborns from the mother's recall. Percentage and confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated adjusting for survey design. Statistical differences were analyzed by Z test. Results: We observed a high consumption of human milk followed by formula (56.7% and water (51.1% in infants under 6 months of age (< 6 mo. The proportion of non-BF infants consuming non-NL was higher than for BF infants (p < 0.05. More than 60% of older infants (6 mo and < 1 y consumed formula and were non-BF. In newborns formula consumption was predominant, followed by tea or infusion and water. Conclusions: Non-breast milk liquids are present undesirably in Mexican infants' diet and non-NL are consumed earlier than NL, revealing inadequate early dietary practices.

  8. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    1996-04-23

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  9. Noise and Health: How does noise affect us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Noise annoyance is a primary indication that noise is a problem, and by itself noise annoyance means that the quality of life is adversely affected. Results from noise annoyance research are presented that make possible a detailed evaluation of noise exposures with respect to the annoyance induced.

  10. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Martino, D; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram;

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo....... In a subset of 12 children, buffy-coat DNA was extracted before and after intervention and analyzed on Illumina-Human-Methylation 450-arrays to explore genome-wide differences between the FO and SO groups. Genome-wide-methylation analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups after adjustment...

  11. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of microbiota isolated from infant fecal samples after in vitro fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    , we have determined effects of selected combinations of FFA and MAG on microbial composition during a 24-hour anaerobic in vitro fermentation in microbiota obtained from infant fecal samples (age 2-5 months). PCR-based quantification of 11 different bacterial taxa revealed that the growth...... ileum and in colon can be expected to selectively modulate the growth rate and hereby the composition of the microbiota. In earlier studies, we have shown that this concentration is dependent on the type of emulsification of the triglycerides, which deviates between breast milk and formula milk. Here...

  12. Does sustained participation in an online health community affect sentiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members' behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members.

  13. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. (a) Where employees of different...

  14. Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakiris, Manos; Critchley, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognit...

  15. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  16. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Campbell, Karen J; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-08-14

    Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0-24 months. Data from the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0-11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  17. Maternal and infant health indicators by county, census tract and year, 1999-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains values for Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (NCDMs) designated by the national Environmental Public Health Tracking Program derived...

  18. Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos; Critchley, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness. This view is supported by a growing body of experimental evidence that links peripheral physiological states to mental processes. Within this framework, the representation of self is constructed from early development through continuous integrative representation of biological data from the body, to form the basis for those aspects of conscious awareness grounded on the subjective sense of being a unique individual. This theme issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B draws together state-of-the-art knowledge concerning theoretical, experimental and clinical facets of interoception with the emphasis on cognitive and affective neuroscience. The multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary perspectives represented in this theme issue disseminate and entrench knowledge about interoception across the scientific community and provide a reference for the conceptualization and further study of interoception across behavioural sciences. PMID:28080961

  19. Prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood and the MTHFR C677T variant affect SLC6A4 methylation in infants at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Devlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal depression may "program" childhood behavior via epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation. Methylenetetrahydro-folate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme in the generation of methyl groups for DNA methylation. The common MTHFR C677T variant is associated with depression in men and non-pregnant women, and with global changes in DNA methylation. This study investigated the effect of maternal MTHFR C677T genotype on antenatal maternal mood, and their impact on the gene-specific methylation in pregnant women and their newborn infants. The methylation status of SLC6A4, which encodes the transmembrane serotonin transporter, and BDNF, which encodes brain derived neurotrophic factor, were assessed because of their potential role in behaviour. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Depressed mood was assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D in women (n = 82, all taking folate during the 2(nd and 3(rd trimesters of pregnancy. The methylation status of SLC6A4 and BDNF were assessed in 3rd trimester maternal peripheral leukocytes and in umbilical cord leukocytes collected from their infants at birth. Women with the MTHFR 677TT genotype had greater 2(nd trimester depressed mood (p<0.05. Increased 2(nd trimester maternal depressed mood (EPDS scores was associated with decreased maternal and infant SLC6A4 promoter methylation (p<0.05, but had no effect on BDNF promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the MTHFR C677T variant is associated with greater depressed mood during pregnancy. We further showed that prenatal exposure to maternal depressed mood affects gene-specific DNA methylation patterns. These findings support the concept that alterations in epigenetic processes may contribute to developmental programming of behaviour by maternal depression.

  20. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  1. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roggeri DP

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Paola Roggeri,1 Alessandro Roggeri,1 Elisa Rossi,2 Salvatore Cataudella,2 Nello Martini,3 1ProCure Solutions, Nembro, Bergamo, 2CINECA Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, 3Accademia Nazionale di Medicina, Rome, Italy Purpose: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy, based on administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in health care costs of preterm infants with and without early hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Patients and methods: Preterm infants born in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were selected from the ARNO Observatory database and observed for the first 4 years of life. These preterm infants were compared (paired 1–3 with preterm infants who were not hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life and with similar characteristics. Only direct health care costs reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service were considered for this study (drugs, hospitalizations, and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures. Results: Of 40,823 newborns in the accrual period, 863 were preterm with no evidence of prophylaxis, and 22 preterm infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis (cases and paired with 62 controls. Overall, cases had 74% higher average cost per infant in the first 4 years of life than controls (18,624€ versus 10,189€, respectively. The major cost drivers were hospitalizations, accounting for >90% in both the populations. The increase in total yearly health care cost between cases and controls remained substantial even in the fourth year of life for all cost items. A relevant increase in hospitalizations and drug consumption linked to respiratory tract diseases was noted in

  2. Factors affecting patients' ratings of health-care satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne K; Fuglsang, Marie; Miiller, Max Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surveys that include rating scales are commonly used to collect data about patients' experiences. We studied how patients associated their ratings with their experiences of care. METHODS: A survey and a qualitative study were conducted at a Danish hospital. Initially, 19 female...... patients completed a questionnaire using the response categories from very good to very bad; and subsequently they participated in a semi-structured interview held within two days after they completed the questionnaire. Additionally, 44 female patients participated in an interview within six weeks...... of completing a questionnaire. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used in the analysis and interpretation. RESULTS: Two major themes emerged: experienced versus expected clinical quality and health-care professional attitude. Patients responded to each question by combining their experiences of both...

  3. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  4. Admission to day stay early parenting program is associated with improvements in mental health and infant behaviour: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s Early Parenting Services support families and intervene early in mental health problems in parents. The Victorian Early Parenting Strategy, a platform for government policy recommended a stronger evidence base for early parenting services. Tweddle Child and Family Health Service (TCFHS is a not-for-profit public sector early parenting centre, which provides residential, day stay, home visiting and outreach programs. This study aimed i to examine the health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients attending the Tweddle Day Stay Program (DSP with infants under 12 months old and ii to assess the parent mental health and infant behaviour outcomes and the factors associated with program success. Methods A cohort of clients was recruited prior to admission and followed-up 8 weeks after discharge. Data were collected using standardised measures in a study specific questionnaire at baseline, participant’s Tweddle records and a follow-up telephone interview. Health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients were described. Changes in parents’ symptoms of depression and infants’ sleep and settling between admission and follow-up were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with changes in primary outcomes. Results Of the total 162 clients who were eligible and invited to participate, 115 (72% were recruited. Parents admitted to the DSP had worse general self-reported physical and mental health than community samples. Infants of DSP participants were no more likely to be premature or have low birth weight, but significantly more unsettled than other community samples. Participants’ mental health and their infants’ behaviours were significantly improved after DSP admission. In multivariate analysis, higher depression score at baseline and greater educational attainment were significantly associated with improvements in parents’ mental

  5. Implementation examined in a health center-delivered, educational intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Steckler, Allan; Black, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    Process evaluation was used to examine the implementation of a randomized, controlled trial of an education intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered the multi-component intervention as part of usual care in the government health centers. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine process indicators, which included the extent of delivery (dose), fidelity to intervention protocol, barriers to implementation and context. Results demonstrated that most intervention components were delivered at a level of 50-90% of expectations. Fidelity to intervention protocol, where measured, was lower (28-70% of expectations). However, when compared with existing nutrition education, as represented by the control centers, significant improvements were demonstrated. This included both improved delivery of existing educational activities as well as delivery of new intervention components to strengthen overall nutrition education. Barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation were explored with health personnel and helped to explain results. This study demonstrates the importance of examining actual versus planned implementation in order to improve our understanding of how interventions succeed. The information gained from this study will inform future evaluation designs, and lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs for child health.

  6. A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial of the New Orleans Intervention for Infant Mental Health: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.

  7. Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Munyua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The countrys system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The countrys ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts percentages and measures of central tendency. Inferential statistics on the other hand include t-test analysis and spearman correlation

  8. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication.

  9. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    The Born-Alive Infants Protection Act (BAIPA), passed by Congress in 2002, has attracted little publicity. Its purposes were, in part, "to repudiate the flawed notion that a child's entitlement to the protections of the law is dependent on whether that child's mother or others want him or her." Understood as antiabortion rhetoric, the bill raised little concern among physicians at the time of legislative hearings and passed in both Houses by overwhelming majorities, hardly suggesting contentious legislation. After its signing into law, the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) Steering Committee issued an opinion stating that "[BAIPA] should not in any way affect the approach that physicians currently follow with respect to the extremely premature infant." This interpretation of the law, however, may have been short sighted. In April 2005, the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) brought life to the BAIPA, announcing: "As a matter of law and policy, [DHHS] will investigate all circumstances where individuals and entities are reported to be withholding medical care from an infant born alive in potential violation of federal statutes." The agency issued instructions to state officials on how the definitional provision within the BAIPA interacts with the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). These interagency memoranda potentially resurrect dormant governmental oversight of newborn-treatment decisions and thus may have influence over normative neonatal practice. Under the BAIPA, the DHHS interprets EMTALA to protect all "born-alive" infants; hospitals and physicians violating regulatory requirements face agency-sanctioned monetary penalties or a "private right of action by any individual harmed as a direct result." According to its memorandum, the DHHS will investigate allegations of EMTALA violations whenever it finds evidence that a newborn was not provided with at least a medical

  10. Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André I. Wierdsma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services. Methods: In a retrospective record linkage study, we compared two neighboring districts, varying in level of service integration. Two periods were combined: 1991–1993 and 2001–2003. We included patients aged 18–60, who had a first emergency compulsory admission (n=830. Their psychiatric history was assessed, and service-use after admission was monitored over a 12-month follow-up. Results: Over a 10-year period, compulsory admission rates increased by 47%. Difference in relative increase between the integrated and non-integrated services was 14%. Patient characteristics showed different profiles in the two districts. Length of stay was >10 days shorter in the integrated district, where the proportion of involuntary readmissions decreased more, and where aftercare was swift and provided to about 10% more patients than in the non-integrated district. Conclusions: Services outcomes showed better results where mental healthcare was more integrated. However, limited effects were found and other factors than integration of services may be more important in preventing compulsory admissions.

  11. A quiet NICU for improved infants' health, development and well-being: a systems approach to reducing noise and auditory alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, A.; Van Stuijvenberg, M.; Van Goudoever, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a direct cause of health problems, long-lasting auditory problems and development problems. Preterm infants are, especially, at risk for auditory and neurocognitive development. Sound levels are very high at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and may contribute to the frequently observ

  12. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  13. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  14. PUBLIC HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTERCONNECTIVITY: A CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY APPROACH ASSOCIATING DEGRADATION OF STREAMS AND INFANT MORTALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective public health policy should not be based solely on clinical, individualbasedinformation, but requires a broad characterization of human health conditionsacross large geographic areas. For the most part, the necessary monitoring of humanhealth to ...

  15. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.

    2016-01-01

    changes in erythrocyte EPA and changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (both PBMI and length. In conclusion, FO compared with SO resulted in higher IGF-1 among boys and lower IGFBP-3 among girls. The potential long-term implications for growth and body...... of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA...... intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (P

  16. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Hui, Charles; Rahman, Prinon; Ingleby, David; Akl, Elie A.; Russell, Grant; Ling, Li; Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services. PMID:28165380

  17. Visibilidade dos braços afeta a preferência manual em bebês Arms visibility affects manual preference in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Silveira Pogetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Um aspecto de interesse sobre a formação da preferência manual humana em idades precoces é a extensão em que ela é afetada por informações aferentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da oclusão visual do braço preferido sobre a preferência manual e desempenho motor em bebês. Participaram cinco bebês com cinco meses de idade, que realizaram alcances com visão plena ou oclusão visual do braço preferido. O desempenho motor foi avaliado por meio de medidas cinemáticas. Os resultados indicaram que a oclusão visual induziu redução da frequência de alcances unimanuais com o braço ocluído durante e imediatamente após a oclusão visual. Oclusão visual não alterou o desempenho motor. Estes resultados indicam que a formação da preferência manual durante o desenvolvimento motor é afetada pela disponibilidade de informação visual dos braços, embora os bebês pareçam ter pouca capacidade de usar a visão para controle motor.An interesting aspect about formation of human manual preference in early ages is the extent to which it is affected by afferent information. This study aimed at investigating the effect of visual occlusion of the preferred arm on manual preference and motor performance in infants. Five 5-month-old infants performed reaching movements under full vision or occlusion of their preferred arm. Motor performance was assessed through kinematic measures. Results indicated that visual occlusion led to reduction of frequency of unimanual reaches using the visually occluded arm. Visual occlusion did not impair motor performance. These results indicate that formation of manual preference during motor development is affected by availability of visual afference of the arms, although infants seem to have reduced capacity to use vision for motor control.

  18. Promoting health: action in infant nutrition - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.14045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Freitas Casimiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of children under five die from preventable diseases. Community interventions that emphasize primary care on health and nutrition have been identified as one of the solutions to overcome this problem. This study aimed to develop educational workshops to improve the perception of mothers about infant nutrition, using a qualitative approach with technical educational workshops, in a Health Unit of the City of Fortaleza, during the period from February to June 2008. The seven participants were mothers accompanying their children in childcare consultation. The analysis of data was made through a survey and saturation of responses, from where the thematic categories emerged: the contribution of educational workshops, breastfeeding and introduction of complementary feeding. The educational activities allowed a better awareness of mothers in relation to child nutrition and development of critical awareness of their essential role on children nutrition. In conclusion, the professional should emphasize the importance and benefits of adequate diet, and for this is necessary educational strategies in health, offering exchanges of knowledge, since they are different experiences in which the learning is significant.  

  19. Face Orientation and Motion Differently Affect the Deployment of Visual Attention in Newborns and 4-Month-Old Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Valenza

    Full Text Available Orienting visual attention allows us to properly select relevant visual information from a noisy environment. Despite extensive investigation of the orienting of visual attention in infancy, it is unknown whether and how stimulus characteristics modulate the deployment of attention from birth to 4 months of age, a period in which the efficiency in orienting of attention improves dramatically. The aim of the present study was to compare 4-month-old infants' and newborns' ability to orient attention from central to peripheral stimuli that have the same or different attributes. In Experiment 1, all the stimuli were dynamic and the only attribute of the central and peripheral stimuli to be manipulated was face orientation. In Experiment 2, both face orientation and motion of the central and peripheral stimuli were contrasted. The number of valid trials and saccadic latency were measured at both ages. Our results demonstrated that the deployment of attention is mainly influenced by motion at birth, while it is also influenced by face orientation at 4-month of age. These findings provide insight into the development of the orienting visual attention in the first few months of life and suggest that maturation may be not the only factor that determines the developmental change in orienting visual attention from birth to 4 months.

  20. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  1. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  2. Neighborhood context and health: How neighborhood social capital affects individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that

  3. Health Complaints, Stress, and Distress: Exploring the Central Role of Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Pennebaker, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies involving several population types (300 college students and 222 adults) and an assessment of related research examined assumptions that stress adversely affects physical health. Results indicate that self-report measures tend to overestimate the true association between stress and health due to the existence of negative affectivity…

  4. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  5. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  6. Factors Affecting Job Motivation among Health Workers: A Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers’ motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed ques...

  7. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  8. On the nutrition and health of infant and young child%论当前的婴幼儿营养与保健研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚清

    2013-01-01

    婴幼儿时期的营养与保健是孩子健康成长的重要组成部分,婴幼儿时期的营养问题可能会导致儿童不可逆转的生长和认知发育迟缓,以及近期和远期的不良后果。因此,当前婴幼儿营养与保健问题成为家长普遍关注的话题。其中母乳喂养和合理的添加辅助食品是预防儿童营养不良的重要举措。本文将分析当前婴幼儿营养与保健方面存在的问题,进而提出婴幼儿营养与保健的方法。%The nutrition and health of infant period is an important part of the healthy growth of children, nutritional problems of infants and young children may lead to irreversible growth and cognitive retardation, and short-term and long-term adverse consequences. Therefore, the current problems of infant nutrition and health has become a topic of common concern of parents. The breastfeeding and to add supplementary food reasonably are important measure to prevent child malnutrition. This article will analyze the existing problems of nutrition and health of infants, and then put forward the method of nutrition and health of infants and young children.

  9. The development and implementation of a public health strategy : cost and health system analysis of intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, Fatuma

    2010-01-01

    The achievements of the health Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality (MDG 4) depend on the massive scaling-up of new and available health interventions. Evidence shows that effective interventions to attain MDG 4 are available; however coverage rates are currently low. The health systems in developing countries lack the necessary capacity to deliver the interventions to those in need. These factors among others are the cause of millions of preventable child deaths every year...

  10. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  11. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy.

  12. The effect of changes in health sector resources on infant mortality in the short-run and the long-run: a longitudinal econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansour; Subramanian, S V; Canning, David

    2009-06-01

    While countries with higher levels of human resources for health typically have better population health, the evidence that increases in the level of human resources for health leads to improvements in population health is limited. We use a dynamic regression model to obtain estimates of both the short-run and long-term effects of changes in physicians per capita, our measure of health system resources, on infant mortality. Using a dataset of 99 countries at 5-year intervals from 1960-2000, we estimate that increasing the number of physicians by one per 1000 population (roughly a doubling of current levels of provision) decreases the infant mortality rate by 15% within 5 years and by 45% in the long-run with half the long-run gain being achieved in 15 years. We conclude that the long-run effects of heath system resources are substantially larger than previously estimated. Our results suggest, however, that countries that have delayed action on the Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant and child mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015 (relative to 1990) may have difficulty meeting this goal even if they rapidly increase resources now.

  13. PoopMD, a Mobile Health Application, Accurately Identifies Infant Acholic Stools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Franciscovich

    Full Text Available Biliary atresia (BA is the leading cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease in the United States. Education of parents in the perinatal period with stool cards depicting acholic and normal stools has been associated with improved time-to-diagnosis and survival in BA. PoopMD is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and color recognition software to analyze an infant's stool and determine if additional follow-up is indicated. PoopMD was developed using custom HTML5/CSS3 and wrapped to work on iOS and Android platforms. In order to define the gold standard regarding stool color, seven pediatricians were asked to review 45 photographs of infant stool and rate them as acholic, normal, or indeterminate. Samples for which 6+ pediatricians demonstrated agreement defined the gold standard, and only these samples were included in the analysis. Accuracy of PoopMD was assessed using an iPhone 5s with incandescent lighting. Variability in analysis of stool photographs as acholic versus normal with intermediate rating weighted as 50% agreement (kappa was compared between three laypeople and one expert user. Variability in output was also assessed between an iPhone 5s and a Samsung Galaxy S4, as well as between incandescent lighting and compact fluorescent lighting. Six-plus pediatricians agreed on 27 normal and 7 acholic photographs; no photographs were defined as indeterminate. The sensitivity was 7/7 (100%. The specificity was 24/27 (89% with 3/27 labeled as indeterminate; no photos of normal stool were labeled as acholic. The Laplace-smoothed positive likelihood ratio was 6.44 (95% CI 2.52 to 16.48 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.13 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.83. kappauser was 0.68, kappaphone was 0.88, and kappalight was 0.81. Therefore, in this pilot study, PoopMD accurately differentiates acholic from normal color with substantial agreement across users, and almost perfect agreement across two popular smartphones and ambient light

  14. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  15. Variables Affecting Patient Satisfaction with Health Care Services in the College Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Joyce L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Five hundred college students who had used Kent State University's School Health Service were surveyed to determine patient satisfaction with health care services. Overall satisfaction with the services was high, and satisfaction was significantly influenced by patients' perceptions of practitioners' technical competence and by the adequacy of the…

  16. Applying Rank Sum Ratio (RSR) to the Evaluation of Feeding Practices Behaviors, and Its Associations with Infant Health Risk in Rural Lhasa, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the status of feeding practices and analyze the association between feeding practice and health status among Tibetan infants, a cross-sectional survey of 386 women with children aged under 24 months was conducted in rural areas surrounding Lhasa, Tibet. All participants were selected using simple random sampling and were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on their feeding practices. A feeding practices index was created using the rank sum ratio method. Most of the infants had been or were being breastfed at the time of the interview. The feeding practices index was significantly and inversely associated with the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection, and the odds ratio for the qualified feeding practices index vs. the non-qualified feeding practices index was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94). There were no measurable associations observed between acute upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and the feeding practices index after controlling for selected factors. The method of rank sum ratio provides a flexible way to evaluate feeding practices and is easy to understand. Furthermore, appropriate infant feeding practices might play a protective role in Tibetan infants' health.

  17. The knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Neves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its objective to investigate the knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care. A qualitative analysis was made based on a thematic investigation of the subject matter. Ten pregnant teenagers with chronological age between ten and nineteen years old joined in the survey. They found themselves around the fifth and ninth months of gestation age, being attended at the Center of Pregnant TeenagersAttention Care at Fortaleza General Hospital. The collection of data involved the application of a semi-structured interview broaching topics that could identify what the pregnant teenagers knew about Speech Therapy and maternal-infant care. Education interventions, related to Speech Therapy health promotion, were also accomplished. The results pointed out that the pregnant teenagers’ level of knowledge on aspects such as: food transition and utensils, oral habits, language stimulation and hearing loss detection, was still incipient and unsatisfactory. It is concluded that the knowledge of the pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care was unsatisfactory, which demonstrates the importance of education interventions related to human communication health care for this studied sample.

  18. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], paffect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], pfatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect.

  19. Mental health affects the quality of life and recovery after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisa Renee; Paulson, Daniel; Eshelman, Anne; Bugenski, Mary; Brown, Kimberly A; Moonka, Dilip; Abouljoud, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    There has been little research examining the effects of mental health before liver transplantation on quality of life (QOL) and recovery after transplantation. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine how pretransplant depression and anxiety affect mental health, QOL, and recovery after transplantation. Eighty-two transplant recipients provided data when they were listed for transplantation and 6 months after transplantation. Pretransplant anxiety predicted posttransplant anxiety (P Mental Health, as well as the Mental Health Composite Score (P Health, Vitality, and Social Functioning, as well as the Physical Composite Score (P recovery 6 months after transplantation (P recovery (P = 0.09). These findings highlight the importance of evaluating transplant candidates both before and after transplantation for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Once patients with these symptoms are identified, they can be referred for treatment, which may lead to better posttransplant outcomes for mental health, QOL, and recovery.

  20. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  1. Steps for Maintaining Baby’s Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of areas, including: Postpartum depression and how it affects maternal and infant health Ways to treat or prevent depression during or after pregnancy Biology of maternal mood disorders, anxiety, and stress, and how they may affect pregnancy and outcomes ...

  2. The knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p207

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Carvalho Neves; Aline Maria de Araújo Aguiar; Izabella Santos Nogueira de Andrade

    2012-01-01

    This study had as its objective to investigate the knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care. A qualitative analysis was made based on a thematic investigation of the subject matter. Ten pregnant teenagers with chronological age between ten and nineteen years old joined in the survey. They found themselves around the fifth and ninth months of gestation age, being attended at the Center of Pregnant TeenagersAttention Care at Fortaleza General H...

  3. Effect of maternal job strain during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment by gender at 6 and 12 months: Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Yangho; Lee, Bo-Eun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Limited evidence is available regarding the association between prenatal job strain and infant neurodevelopment. Most studies used stress indicators other than job strain to explain the relationship between prenatal maternal stress and child development. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between maternal job strain during pregnancy and neurodevelopment in infancy. Methods Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, an on-going prospective...

  4. Methodological aspects of the study of dietary patterns during pregnancy and maternal and infant health outcomes. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Brito, Noe; Doreste-Alonso, Jorge; Nissensohn, Mariela; Henriquez, Patricia; Hermoso, Maria; Berti, Cristiana; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2010-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to systematically review the literature exploring the associations between different dietary patterns obtained from Food Frequency Questionnaires during pregnancy and the development of health-related maternal and infant outcomes in the Framework of the EURRECA Network of Excellence. A systematic search was conducted on Pubmed for literature published up to September 2009. The search strategy resulted in an initial amount of 2048 articles. After applying the selection criteria, seven studies were finally identified. Five articles were based on prospective cohort studies and the other two were case-control studies. The methods used to elaborate the dietary pattern could be classified as hypothesis-oriented (three studies) or empirically-derived (four studies). The different food frequency questionnaires used for diet assessment were self-administered, semi-quantitative and had been previously validated, but just four studies employed questionnaires validated specifically for their use in a pregnant population. The divergent methods used to assess the dietary patterns make it difficult to compare results. However, some resulting recommendations can be applied when dietary patterns during pregnancy are analyzed: to employ a validated food frequency questionnaire designed for use in pregnancy, to consider the special role exerted by mineral and vitamin supplements in this particular population group, to adequately select the time in which dietary data is collected, to adjust the results for life-style and educational characteristics, and in the case of hypothesis-oriented dietary patterns, to correctly choose the components comprising the score.

  5. The introduction of the meningococcal B (MenB) vaccine (Bexsero®) into the national infant immunisation programme--New challenges for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Campbell, Helen; Parikh, Sydel R; Saliba, Vanessa; Borrow, Ray; Ramsay, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The United Kingdom is the first country to introduce Bexsero(®) (GSK Biologicals), a multicomponent, protein-based vaccine against meningococcal group B (MenB), into the national infant immunisation programme. This vaccine is like no other licensed vaccine and poses a number of implementation and surveillance challenges in England. From 01 September 2015, UK infants were offered a reduced two dose primary immunisation schedule at 2 and 4 months followed by a booster at 12 months. Because of high rates of fever post-vaccination, parents were advised to give their infants three doses of prophylactic paracetamol, with the first dose given as soon as possible after the primary MenB vaccination dose. Since the vaccine only protects against 73-88% of MenB strains causing invasive disease in England, clinical isolates and PCR-positive samples will require extensive characterisation by the Meningococcal Reference Unit (MRU) at Public Health England (PHE) in order to monitor vaccine effectiveness and identify potential vaccine failures. PHE is also conducting detailed clinical and epidemiological surveillance to assess the impact of the MenB immunisation programme on the morbidity and mortality associated with invasive meningococcal disease in infants and young children.

  6. Factors Affecting Health-Promoting Behaviors in Nursing Students at a University in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ülkü; Özen, Şükrü; Kahraman, Burcu Bayrak; Bostanoğlu, Hatice

    2016-07-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine factors affecting health-promoting behaviors in nursing students. The sample consisted of 245 students. A questionnaire about factors affecting lifestyle behavior and the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II were used to collect data from 245 nursing students during the spring semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. A significant difference was found between students with and without diagnosed health problems in terms of their mean scores on the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II subscales of health responsibility, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relations, as well as their total mean scores (p nutrition, spiritual growth, and stress management subscale scores of those students regularly going for health checks were determined to be significantly higher than those of the students who did not obtain regular health checks. Students' healthy lifestyle behaviors were generally found to be at the medium level. This study provides evidence of the need for interventions to help nurses in Turkey.

  7. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population.

  8. What matters most?: evidence-based findings of health dimensions affecting the societal preferences for EQ-5D health states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viegas Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how different health dimensions defined by the EQ-5D-3L instrument affect average individual preferences for health states. This analysis is an important benchmark for the incorporation of health technologies as it takes into consideration Brazilian population preferences in health resource allocation decisions. The EQ-5D instrument defines health in terms of five dimensions (mobility, daily activities, self-care activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression each divided into three levels of severity. Data came from a valuation study with 3,362 literate individuals aged between 18 and 64 living in urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main results reveal that health utility decreases as the level of severity increases. With regard to health issues, mobility stands out as the most important EQ-5D dimension. Independently of severity levels of the other EQ-5D-3L dimensions, the highest decrements in utilities are associated with severe mobility problems.

  9. [Family health and infant palliative care: listening the relatives of technology dependent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, Claudia Azevedo Ferreira Guimarães; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique de Almeida

    2010-10-01

    This study discusses the creation of a new child palliative care program based on the Family Health Program, considering the level of care at home and yielding to family requests. Eighteen members of nine families of technology dependent children (TDC) who were hospital patients in the Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) participated on the study. From those four were being assisted by its palliative care program Programa de Assistência Domiciliar Interdisciplinar (PADI); three were inpatients waiting for inclusion in the program, and finally two inpatients already included in PADI. PADI was chosen because it is the only child palliative care program in Brazil. The results are positive in regards to the connection established between the families and the health care team, the reception of the children, the explanation to the family concerning the disease, and the functional dynamics between the PADI and the IFF. As negative points, difficulties arose as a result of the implementation of the program, from its continuity to the worsening or illness of the entire family. In conclusion, although the PADI is the IFF's way of discharging patients, the domiciliary care provided by the Family Health Program, well articulated with the healthcare system, would be ideal for being the adequate assistance for it.

  10. A case study of infant health promotion and corporate marketing of milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country's Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine policy costs and risks against the benefits of delineating and containing corporate marketing strategies for milk substitutes and supplements. The study finds that the methodological and information-based challenges faced by courts in resolving multi-dimensional health issues may not be overcome without serious questions concerning the legitimacy of the judicial process itself. Despite the deficiencies of litigation and adjudication, the study notes the catalytic potential of a judicial decision in opening up vital policy space for future renegotiations among rival parties and interests. Third-party intervention is explored relative to this catalytic function.

  11. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-01-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. A

  12. Vector-borne pathogens: New and emerging arboviral diseases affecting public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue and Zika have quickly become two of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting Public health around the world. This presentation will introduce vector-borne diseases and all the vectors implicated. A focus will be made on the most important arboviral diseases (Zika and dengue) describ...

  13. The Role of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability in Models of Infant Cochlear Implant Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, Colleen; Love, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Newborn hearing screening has led to the early diagnosis of hearing loss in neonates and early device fitting is common, based primarily on electrophysiologic and radiologic information, with some supplementary behavioral measures. Such early fitting of hearing devices, in particular cochlear implants (CIs), has been beneficial to the majority of children implanted under the age of 12 months who meet the cochlear implant candidacy criteria. Comorbidities are common in children with hearing loss, although they may not be evident in neonates and may not emerge until later in infants. Evidence suggests that the child's outcomes are strongly influenced by a range of environmental factors including emotional and social support from the immediate and extended family. Consequently, such factors are important in service planning and service delivery for babies and children receiving CIs. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) can provide a framework to facilitate the holistic management of pediatric cochlear implant recipients. The ICF also can be used to map the progress of recipients over time to highlight emerging issues that require intervention. This article will discuss our preliminary use of the ICF to establish clinical practice; develop advocacy skills among clients and their families; identify eligibility for services such as support in educational settings; enable access to modes of service delivery such as telepractice; provide a conceptual framework for policy and program development for pediatric cochlear implant recipients (i.e., in both disability and health services); and, most importantly, establish a clear pathway for the longitudinal management of the cochlear implant in a child's future. It is anticipated that this model will be applied to other populations receiving cochlear implants through our program.

  14. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he or she eats. Do not allow an infant to crawl around while eating or drinking from a bottle. Never tie pacifiers, jewelry, chains, bracelets, or anything else around an infant's neck or wrists. Alternative Names Rescue breathing and ...

  15. How emotions stimulate people affected by cancer to use personalised health websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Hadzidedic Bazdarevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on helping people affected by cancer – which is the leading cause of death worldwide - by identifying their personalisation needs for health websites. The aim is to identify a set of personalisation features that users prefer on these websites. Delving in a less explored area, the study also seeks to understand how user emotional states correlate with their needs for personalisation, to better define user models for health websites. Through a controlled experiment, based on the survey questionnaire method, we established that participants perceived that personalisation features offered on the evaluated website do meet their needs. More interestingly, perceived personalisation needs are influenced by certain emotions, primarily positively valenced emotions (e.g., interest. Finally, two factors positively impact intentions to reuse the website: personalisation needs and post-usage emotions. The outcomes of this study inform on ways to increase user engagement on health websites and improve online support available to people affected by cancer.

  16. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  17. Perseverative thoughts and subjective health complaints in adolescence: Mediating effects of perceived stress and negative affects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Józan, Anna; Morgan, Antony; Szemenyei, Eszter; Urbán, Róbert; Reinhardt, Melinda; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Stable tendency to perseverative thoughts such as trait rumination and worry can influence somatic health. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between perseverative thoughts and somatic complaints, and the possible mediating effects of perceived stress, negative and positive affectivity in adolescence. Having an acute or a chronic condition was also assessed to be controlled for and to reveal their effects on symptom reporting. Three hundred and six adolescents from 7th to 12th grade with mean age of 16.33 (SD = 1.29) participated in the study. Mediation analysis suggested that impact of trait-like perseverative thoughts on complaints were mediated by perceived stress and negative affectivity. Having an acute condition had also an effect on symptom reporting through increased negative affectivity. Our results highlight that ruminations or worry as stable intrapersonal characteristics are relevant processes in health and can be potential targets in prevention programmes in adolescence.

  18. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  19. [Surgical methods for delivery in modern obstetrics and their influence on maternal and infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanevych, Ie V; Mitsoda, R M; Konoplianko, T V; Konoplianko, V V

    2000-03-01

    The article addresses issues of comparative characterization of deliveries involving surgery and impact thereof on the health of the mother and her child. Risk factors are identified that the mother and her child run in sectio cesarea, in application of obstetrical forceps, and in vacuum-extraction of the fetus. Cesarean section was found out to be the most acceptable mode of delivery in origination of organic and functional nervous system involvement in children but the most ill-chosen and unpropitious one in the mother, especially so in those groups at risk for bleeding, septic complications, and genital endometriosis. Among those surgical methods of delivery being the least traumatic to the mother are obstetrical forceps and vacuum-extraction of the fetus.

  20. An experimental study on mother-infant skin-to-skin contact in full-terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Linda; Zijlmans, Maartje A C

    2016-05-01

    In premature infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has various beneficial effects on the health of the infant and the mother. These beneficial effects might extend to full-term infants. This experimental within-subject study examines the immediate effects of SSC on full-terms' cortisol physiology during SSC and subsequent physiological and behavioral reactions to a mild stressor (a bathing session). Additionally, the effects of SSC on the quality of maternal behavior are examined. Between 5 and 7 weeks postpartum, 17 full-term infant-mother dyads were visited at home twice. During one home visit, a bathing session was proceeded by 50min of mother-infant SSC, while during the other visit the bathing session was proceeded by 50min of the infant resting alone. The order of the home visits was counterbalanced. Infant salivary cortisol measures were taken to measure the cortisol response to the experimental condition (SSC versus solitary resting) and the bathing session. Furthermore, infant behavioral distress and the quality of maternal behavior during the bathing session were scored from videotapes. Two-way within-subject repeated measures ANOVA's showed that, when compared to solitary resting, full-terms' cortisol concentrations significantly decreased during SSC, followed by higher cortisol reactivity in response to the subsequent bathing session. No effects of SSC on infant behavioral distress and maternal caregiving behavior were found. Apparently, a single session of mother-infant SSC can affect infant cortisol physiology in full-term infants. Future SSC research is needed to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms and dose-response relations in full-term infants.

  1. Association between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain: Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey - PNDS-2006/07

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between socioeconomic and biological factors and infant weight gain. METHODS: All infants (0-23 months of age) with available birth and postnatal weight data (n = 1763) were selected from the last nationally representative survey with complex probability sampling conducted in Brazil (2006/07). The outcome variable was conditional weight gain (CWG), which represents how much an individual has deviated from his/her expected weight gain, given the birth wei...

  2. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  3. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhu; Tao Liu; Guangyi Li; Tong Li; Yoshio Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such sys...

  4. Evidence of a right-shift factor affecting infant hand-use preferences from 7 to 11 months of age as revealed by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, George F; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Brumley, Michele R

    2002-01-01

    Infant hand-use preferences for apprehending objects were assessed three times at 7, 9, and 11 months of age for 154 infants (79 males) using a reliable and valid procedure. Two classification procedures (differing in Type I classification error rates) were used to identify an infant's preference (right, left, no preference) at each age, and these data were examined using two- and three-group latent class analysis models. These analyses revealed the importance of using a handedness classification procedure with low Type I error rates and evidence of a right-shift factor similar to that expressed in child and adult handedness. Thus, infant hand-use preferences for apprehending objects are likely a developmental precursor of adult handedness. The relation of the right-shift factor to increased susceptibility to social influences during development and the evolution of human abilities also is discussed.

  5. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  6. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women.

  7. Factors Affecting Oral-Dental Health in Children in the Viewpoints of Mothers Referred to the Health Centers in Qom City: Using the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Gharlipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Many dental problems such as tooth decay starts from childhood. In this regard, attitudes and beliefs of mothers about oral-dental health are important. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting oral-dental health in children of the mothers who referred to the Qom health centers by using of the Health Belief Model. Materials and Methods This is cross-sectional descriptive analytic study that was performed among mothers who had Children's health dossier in the Qom health centers, Iran. By using of multi-stage sampling and sample size formula, 300 mothers were selected randomly from health assessment centers. Required data from target group were collected by the questionnaire about Health Belief Model in the field of oral health. The data were analyzed using SPSS -20. Results The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the mothers' behavior towards oral-dental health with perceived benefits and self-efficacy (r=0.16, P

  8. Attribute framing affects the perceived fairness of health care allocation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Gamliel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Health care resource allocation is a central moral issue in health policy, and opinions about it have been studied extensively. Allocation situations have typically been described and presented in a positive manner (i.e., who should receive medical aid. On the other hand, the negative valence allocation situation (i.e., who should not receive medical aid has been relatively neglected. This paper demonstrates how positive versus negative framing of the exact same health care resource allocation situation can affect the perceived fairness of allocation principles. Participants usually perceived non-egalitarian principles (i.e., need, equity and tenure to be fairer in positively framed situations (i.e., to deliver health care resources to certain patients than negatively framed situation (i.e., not to deliver health care resources to other patients. However, framing did not affect the perceived fairness of the equality principle (i.e., a random draw. The paper offers a theoretical explanation for the effect of framing on the perceived fairness of heath care resource allocation and discusses implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  9. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  10. SPACIAL DISTRIBUTION AND ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INFANT MORTALITY AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT WITH SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND HEALTH SERVICES IN THE SOUTHERN REGION OF BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Boing, Fernando Kel e Alexandra Crispim Boing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to realize the spacial distribution of the infant mortality rates and of the proportion of low weight newborns in the southern area of Brazil and to test the association of those indicators with socioeconomic factors and health services. It is an ecological study put together from data collected from the 1,159 municipalities comprising the southern area of Brazil in the year 2000. The independent variables were the Municipal Human Development Rate, the illiteracy rate, the Gini coefficient, the proportion of poor people and people in homes with indoor plumbing and bathrooms, the annual average of medical visits for basic medical specialties, the monthly average of home visits per family and the number of medical clinics per 10,000 inhabitants. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests were performed and the Spearman coefficient of correlation was calculated. A significant statistical association was established between infant mortality and all the socioeconomic indicators. As for the proportion of low birth weight, it was associated with the proportion of people in homes with indoor plumbing and bathrooms, the annual average of medical visits for basic medical specialties, the Gini coefficient, poverty levels and monthly average of home visits per family. The spacial distribution of the diseases investigated allowed the identification of areas with the worst indicators investigated and which need greater government investment and attention. The public policies in infant health care should consider the need to improve the socioeconomic conditions and accessible health services in order to reduce the inequalities in health and the magnitude of the disease.

  11. VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION - IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR LACTATING MOTHERS AND BREAST-FED INFANTS??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vit D deficiency is an upcoming health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is an essential nutrient required for bone metabolism and growth. Need for vitamin D and calcium is higher in embryonic period, infancy, early childhood, puberty, pregnancy, lactation and old age. Vit D supplementation is not included in the present antenatal care and Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI programmes in India. AIM This study was done to evaluate the Vit D status of lactating mothers and their exclusively breast fed infants. The study also aims to find the correlation of Vit D with the blood biochemical markers like ALP, PTH, calcium, phosphorus and find the risk factors associated with hypovitaminosis D in infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty two lactating mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants up to 4 months age were selected and their blood was analysed for Vit D, calcium, phosphorus, ALP and PTH. RESULTS An 86% of mothers and 87% of infants showed hypovitaminosis D. There is significant positive correlation between maternal and infant Vit D levels. Vit D of infants showed significant inverse correlation with BMI of mothers and PTH of infants. CONCLUSION Vit D status of exclusively breast fed infants depend on maternal Vit D levels. Infant’s bone mineral status is affected by hypovitaminosis D. Therefore, both mothers and infants should be supplemented with Vit D to prevent complications in future

  12. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  13. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  14. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  15. Health-related stress, affect, and depressive symptoms experienced by caregiving mothers of adults with a developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Meeks, Suzanne

    2004-09-01

    The interrelationships among health-related stress, positive and negative affect, and depressive symptoms patterned in the dynamic model of affect (J. Reich, A. Zautra, & M. Davis, 2003) were examined using data from 932 women having an adult child with a developmental disability. Results indicate that women experience a moderate inverse correlation between positive and negative affect under conditions of low levels of health-related stress, whereas at high levels of stress, positive and negative affect become more strongly inversely correlated. Under high-stress conditions, both negative affect and positive affect have a stronger relationship to depressive symptoms than they do under low-stress conditions.

  16. The Societal Importance of Embracing Counterintuitive Thought in Science: Assisted Exercise in Preterm Infants for Long-term Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen; Vaughan, Jessica; Sando, Kelsi; Rich, Julia; Lakes, Kimberley; Cooper, Daniel

    For research to lead to progressive change, scientists and society must embrace what may seem counterintuitive. While there is often resistance to changing views of what we presume to already understand, we must be open to evolving knowledge and evidence. Our research is examining the effect of a novel intervention designed to increase physical activity of premature babies in their first year of life on: (1) body composition, (2) associated biochemical and cellular mechanisms of growth and inflammation, and (3) quality of maternal care. This study is novel because it is counterintuitive to prevailing knowledge of the care and treatment of infants born prematurely. Traditionally, we swaddle infants and restrict their movement in order to minimize energy expenditure. We are proposing the opposite: to increase energy expenditure in a systematic, controlled way in order to increase muscle mass and bone density, with the ultimate goal of preventing diseases associated with lack of muscle mass or bone density. Our research actively engages the mothers in the study by learning about their perceptions and their experiences of doing the exercise with their infants because the mothers, too, are aware of the prevailing views that are counter to what they are being asked to do. The mothers have taught us, however, that they are willing to participate in this exercise study, while paradoxically also viewing their infants as "fragile" and are fearful of hurting their infants. Our thesis in this research-based paper is that science and society must work in tandem to be effective.

  17. Does fiscal discipline towards subnational governments affect citizens' well-being? Evidence on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Turati, Gilberto

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to assess the impact on citizens' well-being of fiscal discipline imposed by the central government on subnational governments. Because healthcare policies involve strategic interactions between different layers of governments in many different countries, we focus on a particular dimension of well-being, namely citizens' health. We model fiscal discipline by considering government expectations of future deficit bailouts from the central government. We then study how these bailout expectations affect the expenditure for healthcare policies carried out by decentralized governments. To investigate this issue, we separate efficient health spending from inefficiencies by estimating an input requirement frontier. This allows us to assess the effects of bailout expectations on both the structural component of health expenditure and its deviations from the 'best practice'. The evidence from the 15 Italian ordinary statute regions (observed from 1993 to 2006) points out that bailout expectations do not significantly influence the position of the frontier, thus not affecting citizens' health. However, they do appear to exert a remarkable impact on excess spending.

  18. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

  19. 晚期早产儿的临床回顾分析%Retrospective survey on health issues of late preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬梅; 何颖; 王瑞泉

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究晚期早产儿存在的临床问题.方法 回顾性总结我院新生儿病房及新生儿监护病房2007年9月至2008年9月收治的晚期早产儿508例、足月儿1 514例的临床资料.记录低体温、呼吸窘迫、暂时性呼吸增快、低血糖、黄疸、颅内出血的发生率及临床转归.结果 与足月儿相比.晚期早产儿低体温(13.4%vs 0)、低血糖(19.9%vs 3.0%)、呼吸窘迫(38.6%vs 10.8%)、暂时性呼吸增快(31.0%vs 13.1%)、颅内出血(5.1%vs 2.3%)、黄疽(55.0%vs 33.0%)及喂养不耐受(52.4%vs 14.2%)的发生率高,差异有非常显著性(P<0.01).晚期早产儿接受机械通气、应用肺表面活性物质和经鼻持续气道正压通气呼吸支持的比例高于足月儿(P<0.05,P<0.01).晚期早产儿未完成治疗的比例高于足月儿(P<0.01).结论 晚期早产儿比足月儿存在更多的临床问题,是不应被忽视的高危人群.%Objective To analyze if late preterm infants have more postnatal health issues than full term infants.Methods Two thousands four hundreds and ten neonatal records were reviewed from August 31st 2007 to September 1st 2008.There were totally 508 late preterm and 1 514 full term infants were admitted during that time.The incidence of hypothermia,jaundice,hypoglycemia,transient tachypnea of newborn,feeding difficulties,respiratory distress and intracranial hemorrhage was collected.Clinical prognosis was analyzed.Results The incidence of hypothermia was significantly higher in late preterm infants group as compared to full term infants group(13.4% vs 0),same as hypoglycemia(19.9% vs 3.0%,P <0.01),respiratory distress(38.6% vs 10.8%,P < 0.01),jaundice(55.0% vs 33.0%,P < 0.01),feeding difficulties (52.4% vs 14.2%,P <0.01),transient tachypnea of newborn(31.0% vs 13.1%,P <0.01)and intracranial hemorrhage(5.1% vs 2.3%,P <0.01).The proportion of ventilation,the usage of surfactant and nasal continuous positive airway pressure were higher in late

  20. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  1. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Zand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.

  2. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Debra; Pierce, Katherine; Thomson, Nicole; Baig, M Waseem; Teodorescu, Cristiana; Nibras, Sohail; Maxim, Rolanda

    2014-02-19

    Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek's Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.

  3. Does personality affect health-related quality of life? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Chan; Lee, Joy L.; Ketheeswaran, Pavinarmatha; Jones, Conor M.; Revicki, Dennis A.; Wu, Albert W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly measured as an outcome for clinical and health services research. However, relatively little is known about how non-health factors affect HRQOL. Personality is a potentially important factor, yet evidence regarding the effects of personality on HRQOL measures is unclear. Methods This systematic review examined the relationships among aspects of personality and HRQOL. Eligible studies were identified from Medline and PsycINFO. The review included 76 English-language studies with HRQOL as a primary outcome and that assessed personality from the psychological perspective. Individuals with various health states, including ill (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular disorders), aging, and healthy, were included in this review study. Results Some personality characteristics were consistently related to psychosocial aspects more often than physical aspects of HRQOL. Personality characteristics, especially neuroticism, mastery, optimism, and sense of coherence were most likely to be associated with psychosocial HRQOL. Personality explained varying proportions of variance in different domains of HRQOL. The range of variance explained in psychosocial HRQOL was 0 to 45% and the range of explained variance in physical HRQOL was 0 to 39%. Conclusions Personality characteristics are related to HRQOL. Systematic collection and analysis of personality data alongside HRQOL measures may be helpful in medical research, clinical practice, and health policy evaluation. PMID:28355244

  4. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many attempts have been made to mimic the intestinal flora of breast fed infants in formula fed infants. Bothprebioticsandprobioticsbased concepts have been developed to beneficially change the intestinalmicrofloraand thus induce positive health effects. We conducted two infant nutritio...

  5. Does Acute Maternal Stress in Pregnancy Affect Infant Health Outcomes? Examination of a Large Cohort of Infants Born After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    preg- nancy was considered 13 weeks after the onset of preg- nancy, and was selected because this is the period of greatest vulnerability to teratogens ...weeks represent the period of greatest vulnerability to teratogens or fetal compromise resulting in pregnancy loss [30]. Evaluating incident pregnancy

  6. A positive affect intervention for people experiencing health-related stress: development and non-randomized pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R; Duncan, Larissa G; Cohn, Michael A; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2012-07-01

    In this article we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect and significant decreases in negative affect. This positive affect intervention can serve as a template for programs to be developed to help people experiencing health-related and other types of life stress.

  7. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  8. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  9. E-health and consultation rates for respiratory illnesses in infants : a randomised clinical trial in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gugten, Anne C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Verheij, Theo J M; van der Ent, Cornelis K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is assumed that clear and complete information on the internet can reduce healthcare consumption. AIM: We assessed in a randomised clinical trial whether a personalised online parent information program on infant respiratory symptoms can reduce primary care utilisation. DESIGN AND SET

  10. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  11. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A randomized, double-blind

  12. Auditory- and visual-evoked potentials in Mexican infants are not affected by maternal supplementation with 400 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid in the second half of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Aryeh D; Wang, Meng; Rivera, Juan A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2012-08-01

    The evidence relating prenatal supplementation with DHA to offspring neurological development is limited. We investigated the effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on infant brainstem auditory-evoked responses and visual- evoked potentials in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Pregnant women were supplemented daily with 400 mg DHA or placebo from gestation wk 18-22 through delivery. DHA and placebo groups did not differ in maternal characteristics at randomization or infant characteristics at birth. Brainstem auditory-evoked responses were measured at 1 and 3 mo in 749 and 664 infants, respectively, and visual-evoked potentials were measured at 3 and 6 mo in 679 and 817 infants, respectively. Left-right brainstem auditory-evoked potentials were moderately correlated (range, 0.26-0.43; all P evoked potentials were strongly correlated (range, 0.79-0.94; all P 0.10). We conclude that DHA supplementation during pregnancy did not influence brainstem auditory-evoked responses at 1 and 3 mo or visual-evoked potentials at 3 and 6 mo.

  13. Lactose intolerance in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cathy

    Cathy Taylor describes the pathophysiology and aetiology of lactose intolerance and how to diagnose and treat it. Management of the infant by the primary health care team is discussed, with emphasis on advice and nutritional support that can be recommended to parents.

  14. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  15. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  16. On the Convergence of Affective and Persuasive Technologies in Computer- Mediated Health-Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca I. García-Betances

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a portrayal of how affective computing and persuasive technologies can converge into an effective tool for interfacing biomedical engineering with behavioral sciences and medicine. We describe the characteristics, features, applications, present state of the art, perspectives, and trends of both streams of research. In particular, these streams are analyzed in light of the potential contribution of their convergence for improving computer-mediated health-care systems, by facilitating the modification of patients’ attitudes and behaviors, such as engagement and compliance. We propose a framework for future research in this emerging area, highlighting how key constructs and intervening variables should be considered. Some specific implications and challenges posed by the convergence of these two technologies in health care, such as paradigm change, multimodality, patients’ attitude improvement, and cost reduction, are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  17. How does violence exposure affect the psychological health and parenting of young African-American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2010-02-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.

  18. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology—hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5–10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  19. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  20. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  1. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  2. Effect of systematic health care on physical development of preterm infants under 32 weeks' gestational age and very low birth weight infants%系统保健对32周以下早产儿及VLBWI体格发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧丽; 王强; 任路忠; 王为实; 邓顺莲; 宁玉峰; 钱刚

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨系统保健对胎龄小于32周早产儿及极低出生体重儿(VLBWI)校正胎龄12个月时体格发育的影响。方法将2011-2012年度在深圳市龙岗区妇幼保健院出生的胎龄0.05)。结论1岁以内对胎龄32周以下早产儿及VLBWI实施系统保健可促进其1岁时体格发育,降低营养不良的发生率。%Objective To discuss the effect of systematic health care on physical development of pre-term infants under 32 weeks' gestational age and very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) at the age of 12 months. Methods Sixty preterm infants under 32 weeks' gestational age and VLBWI who were born in Shenzhen Long-gang Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital between 2011 and 2012 were divided into systematic health care group (n=30, group A) and non systematic health care group (n=30, group B). At the same time, 30 normal term in-fants who were born in the same hospital between 2011 and 2012 were randomly selected as control group (group C). Infants of group A accepted a general examination once a month before 6 months corrected gestational age, once two months after 6 months corrected gestational age. Infants of group B did not accept the general examination. Infants of group C accepted a general examination once three months. Examined their physical development at the age of 12 months, compared the index of physical development and incidence of malnutrition. Results At the age of 12 months the weight, height and head circumference of infants in group A and group C were higher than those of group B, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Systematic health care can improve physical development and reduce malnutrition rate for preterm infants at the age of 12 months.

  3. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children.

  4. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  5. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during......(2)) and benzene with temporally adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m(3) increase in average NO(2....... Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, so we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper...

  6. Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Sharma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community health workers (CHWs form a vital link between the community and the health department in several countries. In India, since 2005 this role is largely being played by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs, who are village-level female workers. Though ASHAs primarily work for the health department, in a model being tested in Rajasthan they support two government departments. Focusing on the ASHA in this new role as a link worker between two departments, this paper examines factors associated with her work performance from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Design: The study was done in 16 villages from two administrative blocks of Udaipur district in Rajasthan. The findings are based on 63 in-depth interviews with ASHAs, their co-workers and representatives from the two departments. The interviews were conducted using interview guides. An inductive approach with open coding was used for manual data analysis. Results: This study shows that an ASHA's motivation and performance are affected by a variety of factors that emerge from the complex context in which she works. These include various personal (e.g. education, professional (e.g. training, job security, and organisational (e.g. infrastructure factors along with others that emerge from external work environment. The participants suggested various ways to address these challenges. Conclusion: In order to improve the performance of ASHAs, apart from taking corrective actions at the professional and organisational front on a priority basis, it is equally essential to promote cordial work relationships amongst ASHAs and other community-level workers from the two departments. This will also have a positive impact on community health.

  7. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  8. [Health and nutritional status of 'alternatively' fed infants and young children, facts and uncertainties. II. Specific nutritional deficiencies; discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, P C; Van Staveren, W A; Hautvast, J G

    1985-12-01

    This article, which is the second in a series of two articles, discusses available scientific information on the nutritional status of infants and preschool children on alternative diets with regard to calcium, iron, vitamin B12 and D. Some favourable aspects of alternative food habits in such children are also mentioned. Most studies report low intakes of vitamin D and in vegan and macrobiotic children also of calcium and vitamin B12, but it cannot be excluded that some alternative sources of these nutrient may have been missed. Deficiencies have been described for vitamin D and B12 but the evidence is often unconvincing. For example, exposure to sunlight has not been measured in most of the studies on rickets. From the literature available, it would appear that there is a need for longitudinal research on the growth and development of alternatively fed infants and preschool children and for information on the nutrient composition of alternative foods.

  9. A comparison of determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) between countries with high and low IMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawangi, R; Barnett, J B

    1993-06-01

    Weighted least squares regressions and pooled regression models were used to examine the determinants of infant mortality in developing countries. Data were obtained from the UNICEF's "State of the World's Children, 1987" for 87 countries with data on gross national product, percentage of literate females, percentage of low birth weight infants, daily caloric supply per capita as a percentage of the daily requirement, percentage of population with access to drinking water, total fertility rate, and the population to nurses ratio. Data was unavailable on breast feeding practices and government expenditures on health. Weighted procedures were used because of heteroscadascity problems: total fertility rate was associated with the variance in the error term. The results of pooled data showed that the female literacy rate had the strongest impact on infant mortality, followed by access to clean water and the number of population per nursing person. The impact of female literacy was still strong in high infant mortality countries when controls for gross national product were included. Puzzling findings were the negative sign of low birth weight and the insignificant effect of the total fertility rate. The suggestion was that low birth weight may be expressed already in the level of education and availability of health programs. Fertility's lack of wide variations may explain the insignificant effect. Findings showed that infant mortality was 22.19% higher in countries with gross national product under $500. In low infant mortality countries, none of the environmental variables significantly explained infant mortality. Low birth weight increased its impact on infant mortality among these countries but was still not significant. The findings suggested that infant mortality was most affected by low birth weight and amount of population per nurse in more affluent countries. Environmental factors were more important in explaining high levels of infant mortality in less

  10. Effects of hormonal contraceptives on breast milk composition and infant growth. World Health Organization (WHO) Task Force on Oral Contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Breast milk volume and composition and infant growth were measured at three- and four-week intervals, up to six months, in a multicenter randomized double-blind trial comparing a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (OC) with a progestogen-only OC. A nonrandom group using nonhormonal methods was also studied in the three centers: Szeged, Hungary; Bangkok, Thailand; and Khon Kaen, Thailand. A fourth group, users of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) was included in the two Thai centers. Altogether, 341 women were recruited into the study. Combined OCs caused a significant decrease in milk output and total energy content as well as widespread changes in milk constituents. In the DMPA group, no significant changes were observed in milk volume, and only minor shifts occurred in milk composition, which varied between centers. No differences were found between the progestogen-only pill and DMPA. No hormonal contraceptive was associated with any significant difference in infant weight or fat fold, nor in the rate of discontinuation for failure to gain weight. This study reiterates the need to avoid combined OCs during the first few weeks or months of lactation. Both norgestrel and DMPA appear to be safe for use in both developing and developed countries, at least when the nutritional status of the mother and infant are adequate, but further research is needed on the safety of these contraceptives in populations with malnutrition.

  11. INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process.

  12. A home-visiting intervention targeting determinants of infant mental health: the study protocol for the CAPEDP randomized controlled trial in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubach Florence

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3 low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by

  13. Infant and child mortality: the implications for fertility behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, L T; Kane, P

    1988-01-01

    In developing countries, infant and child mortality affect fertility through biological or involuntary mechanisms operating through shortened breastfeeding, and more rapid return of ovulation following upon an infant death. Fertility is also affected through volitional responses of couples to perceived mortality levels in the community (insurance effect) or experience of earlier child loss (replacement effect) as well as through societal responses to high probability of child loss. In return, fertility affects infant and child mortality through birth to very young mothers, due to physiological immaturity of teenaged mothers and low birth-weight, as well as through birth to old mothers in high birth orders, due to maternal depletion syndrome. Trussel and Pebley estimated that the elimination of 4th and higher order births, along with the limitation of reproduction within the age of 20 to 34 years old, would reduce infant mortality by about 12%. A large number of studies show strong evidence that the timing and spacing of birth have a significant impact on both maternal and child health. According to Maine and McNamara (1985), who analysed data from 25 developing countries, if all children were born 2 years apart, 1/5 of infant deaths could be avoided. Mother's ill-health, maternal mortality, mother's malnutrition and its consequences in low quality breast milk and short breastfeeding, reduce sharply the new child's chances of survival. Many of these adverse biological and physiological conditions for childbearing can be compensated for by the provision of health care of high quality, including family planning, as well as education and good nutritional status of the mother and her children. Unfortunately, in many societies and for large segments of the population, such conditions are still a dream.

  14. Infant death scene investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Pamela D; Ragan, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The sudden unexpected death of an infant is a tragedy to the family, a concern to the community, and an indicator of national health. To accurately determine the cause and manner of the infant's death, a thorough and accurate death scene investigation by properly trained personnel is key. Funding and resources are directed based on autopsy reports, which are only as accurate as the scene investigation. The investigation should include a standardized format, body diagrams, and a photographed or videotaped scene recreation utilizing doll reenactment. Forensic nurses, with their basic nursing knowledge and additional forensic skills and abilities, are optimally suited to conduct infant death scene investigations as well as train others to properly conduct death scene investigations. Currently, 49 states have child death review teams, which is an idea avenue for a forensic nurse to become involved in death scene investigations.

  15. Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and (14)C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. (90)Sr and (239)Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (approximately 16%) and calcium (approximately 100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1)) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children.

  16. 78 FR 23941 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality... 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant.../mchbadvisory/InfantMortality . Adobe Connect:...

  17. Study of refractive development state and clinic affective factors in premature infants without retinopathy during their early life%早产儿生后第一年屈光发育及其影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童梅玲; 王淼; 魏宁; 吴广强; 张桂英; 薛子颖

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the development of the refractive status and clinical risk factors in premature infants without retinopathy during their first year after birth. [Methods] 94 medical health premature infants at 6 months of corrected age during January 2008 to March 2010 were selected, and their refractive development to 12 months were tracked up. Refraction was determined at 6 months, 9 months and 12 months old by Suresight Welch. The impact of gestational age and birth weight on refractive status of premature infants were analyzed. [Results] High incidence of astigmatism was found on preterm infants, and it declined with the age increasing. At 9 and 12 months old of corrected age, birth weight was an influencing factor of refractive error in premature infants. At 12 months old of corrected age, gestational age was another important influencing factor of refractive error in premature infants. [Conclusions] During the first year after birth, refraction of premature infants is changeable. The incidence of ametropia, especially the degree of astigmatism, is decreased with age increasing. Birth weight and gestational age both are important factors which can influence refraction of premature infants.%[目的]探讨无视网膜病变早产儿在出生后第一年屈光发育特征和影响其发育的临床因素,了解早产儿的早期视觉发育.[方法]选取2008年12月-2010年3月在本院随访的早产儿94人,从校正月龄6月龄起跟踪随访至12月龄的屈光发育.分别检测6月龄、9月龄、12月龄时屈光状态,分析不同出生体重、胎龄对眼屈光状态发育的影响.[结果]早产儿远视和近视的发生率在不同月龄组间差异无统计学意义,而散光的发生率及程度均较高,分别为6月龄(55%),9月龄(22%),12月龄(10%),差异具有统计学意义,随年龄增长散光呈下降趋势.早产儿校正9月龄和12月龄组显示出生体重影响着屈光不正发生率,在12月龄时显示胎龄越小屈光

  18. Picky Eating Habits or Sensory Processing Issues? Exploring Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Rains, Kari W.

    2010-01-01

    For infants and toddlers demonstrating feeding problems, it is critical to find the basis for the problems to create more pleasurable mealtimes for the child, his or her family members, and caregivers. Feeding difficulties can affect general health, developmental gains, and emotional well-being. Understanding the cause of feeding problems and…

  19. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  20. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  1. Perceived Health System Causes of Obstetric Fistula from Accounts of Affected Women in Rural Tanzania: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2015-03-01

    Obstetric fistula is still a major problem in low income countries. While its main cause is untreated obstructed labour, misconceptions about it still persist. This study aimed at exploring and describing perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women affected by it in rural Tanzania. This exploratory qualitative study included twenty-eight women affected by obstetric fistula. Semi structured interviews and focus group discussions were held and thematic analysis used to analyse perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula from women's account. Perceived health system causes of obstetric fistula fundamentally reflected the poor quality of obstetric care women received at health care facilities relating to staff unaccountability, late referral, and torture by nurses. The women's perception emphasizes the importance of improving the quality of obstetric care provided by health care providers in health care facilities.

  2. Universal HIV screening at postnatal points of care: which public health approach for early infant diagnosis in Cote d'Ivoire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ndondoki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID. We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6-26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. FINDINGS: We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58% accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI: [14%-16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61% accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%-5.4%]. Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52% had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%-21.7%]. Only 46 fathers (2% came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3-10.6], p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries.

  3. Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early identification and entry into care is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV. The objective of this report is to describe the impact of the Tingathe programme, which utilizes community health workers (CHWs to improve identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children. Methods: Three programme phases are described. During the first phase, Mentorship Only (MO (March 2007–February 2008 on-site clinical mentorship on paediatric HIV care was provided. In the second phase, Tingathe-Basic (March 2008–February 2009, CHWs provided HIV testing and counselling to improve case finding of HIV-exposed and -infected children. In the final phase, Tingathe-PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission (March 2009–February 2011, CHWs were also assigned to HIV-positive pregnant women to improve mother-infant retention in care. We reviewed routinely collected programme data from HIV testing registers, patient mastercards and clinic attendance registers from March 2005 to March 2011. Results: During MO, 42 children (38 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-exposed were active in care. During Tingathe-Basic, 238 HIV-infected children (HIC were newly enrolled, a six-fold increase in rate of enrolment from 3.2 to 19.8 per month. The number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI increased from 4 to 118. During Tingathe-PMTCT, 526 HIC were newly enrolled over 24 months, at a rate of 21.9 patients per month. There was also a seven-fold increase in the average number of exposed infants enrolled per month (9.5–70 patients per month, resulting in 1667 enrolled with a younger median age at enrolment (5.2 vs. 2.5 months; p<0.001.During the Tingathe-Basic and Tingathe-PMTCT periods, CHWs conducted 44,388 rapid HIV tests, 7658 (17.3% in children aged 18 months to 15 years; 351 (4.6% tested HIV-positive. Over this time, 1781 HEI were enrolled, with 102 (5.7% found HIV-infected by positive PCR. Additional HIC

  4. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  5. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients' mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantinge, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Meer, K. van der; Bensing, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: General practitioners' (GPs') feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction may affect their patient care negatively, but it is unknown if these negative feelings also affect their mental health care. GPs' available time, together with specific communication tools, are important conditions for

  6. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Jane J

    2014-10-01

    Adequate vitamin and mineral status is essential for optimal human health and performance. Female athletes could be at risk for vitamin and mineral insufficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, menstruation, and inflammatory responses to heavy physical activity. Recent studies have documented poor iron status and associated declines in both cognitive and physical performance in female athletes. Similarly, insufficient vitamin D and calcium status have been observed in female athletes, and may be associated with injuries, such as stress fracture, which may limit a female athlete's ability to participate in regular physical activity. This review will focus on recent studies detailing the prevalence of poor vitamin and mineral status in female athletes, using iron, vitamin D, and calcium as examples. Factors affecting the dietary requirement for these vitamins and minerals during physical training will be reviewed. Lastly, countermeasures for the prevention of inadequate vitamin and mineral status will be described.

  7. Mental health status of vulnerable tsunami-affected communities: a survey in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Renato; Bernatsky, Sasha; Reyes, Rosalie; de Jong, Kaz

    2007-06-01

    The authors determined the prevalence of severe emotional distress and depressive symptoms using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL; Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels, Uhlenhuth, & Covi, 1974) in tsunami-affected communities that had experienced armed conflict arising from the ongoing independence movement in Aceh Province, Indonesia. We also evaluated determinants of severe emotional distress. The data were collected for the purposes of a mental health assessment. In our sample (N = 262), 83.6% demonstrated severe emotional distress, and 77.1% demonstrated depressive symptoms. In multivariate regression models, severe emotional distress was positively associated with the number of tsunami-related deaths among household members. Our data suggests a need for effective interventions in this vulnerable population.

  8. Process evaluation determines the pathway of success for a health center-delivered, nutrition education intervention for infants in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.

  9. A Positive Affect Intervention for People Experiencing Health-Related Stress: Development and Non-randomized Pilot Test

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Cohn, Michael A.; Maurer, Stephanie; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present background, theoretical rationale, and pilot data on the development of an intervention designed to increase positive affect in people living with serious health-related stress. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that a multiple-component positive affect intervention is feasible and acceptable for people newly diagnosed with HIV. Retention in the intervention and adherence to home practice were high. Participants reported significant increases in positive affect...

  10. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzano AN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Richard A Oberhelman,1 Kaitlin Storck Potts,1 Leah D Taub,1 Chivorn Var2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2National Institute of Public Health, Tuol Kork, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Background: Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods: Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results: The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion: Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. Keywords: formative research, health education, lactation, behavior change

  11. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  12. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

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    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  13. Affective language during the H1N1 influenza health crisis

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    Morant Marco, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effects that, as seen through the written press, the arrival of H1N1 had on certain affective behaviors in society. After the spread of H1N1, health authorities recommended maintaining physical distance in social settings and, among other measures, advised against kissing. At first, this show of affection became a victim of the pandemic, especially in certain activities and rituals. However, once the media impact of swine flu had subsided, kissing recovered its habitual place and frequency, demonstrating that customs which are socially and culturally entrenched are resistant to change.

    El presente artículo analiza los efectos que según la prensa escrita tuvo la llegada de la gripe A en ciertos comportamientos afectivos de la población. Las autoridades sanitarias, tras la expansión del virus H1N1, recomendaron aumentar la distancia social y aconsejaron, entre otras medidas, evitar los besos. Esta manifestación afectiva, en un primer momento, notó los efectos de la pandemia, sobre todo en ciertas actividades y rituales. Sin embargo, una vez pasado el impacto mediático de la gripe A, recuperó su uso y frecuencia habitual, demostrando que las costumbres fuertemente enraizadas se resisten a cambiar.

  14. Factors affecting health-related quality of life in patients after femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavičienė, Rasa; Smailys, Alfredas; Macijauskienė, Jūratė; Hommel, Ami

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life in patients with femoral neck fracture is an issue frequently discussed in the literature. There is ongoing research on identifying factors that have an impact on quality of life in this particular group of patients. A great variety of factors affecting quality of life and lack of information on their importance encouraged us to perform a systematic literature review analyzing quality of life of patients who sustained femoral neck fracture. The search was performed in the PubMed and Medline databases according to the selected key words. In our systematic review, we included clinical and clinical randomized trials investigating patients with femoral neck fracture and their quality of life. Our analysis showed that treatment of femoral neck fracture with hip replacement was superior to osteosynthesis with regard to patients' quality of life. The data regarding the impact of different rehabilitation programs on quality of life were controversial; a few reports showed that special rehabilitation programs were associated with better health-related quality life. However, other studies did not report any differences in patients' quality of life when different rehabilitation programs were applied. Patient's nutrition may be an important factor affecting the quality of life in patients with femoral neck fractures; however, data supporting this fact are insufficient.

  15. Factors affecting health seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webair, Hana Hasan; Bin-Gouth, Abdulla Salim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate medical care seeking could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. This study aims to determine factors affecting health seeking behavior (HSB) for childhood illnesses, thereby improving child survival. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out from January 11 to April 2, 2012. A total of 212 caretakers of children under the age of 5 years participated. Caretakers who visited the vaccination unit in the Shehair Health Center during the study period and had a child with a history of diarrhea, fever, cough, and/or difficulty of breathing during the last 14 days were included. The data were collected by interviewing caretakers and the answers were reported in pretested structured questionnaires. Results Medical care was sought for about half of the sick children (n=109, 51.42%). Seeking medical care was frequently initiated for illnesses that did not improve or worsened. The major reasons for not seeking medical care were “illness was mild” (n=40, 38.83%) and “illness is not for medical treatment” (n=32, 31.07%). The caretakers sought medical care significantly more when they had a higher level of school education (POR [prevalence odds ratio] 5.85, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.34–14.61), when the illness was perceived as severe (POR 5.39, 95% CI: 2.81–10.33), and when the child had difficulty of breathing (POR 2.93, 95% CI: 1.10–7.80). Conclusion For the preventable childhood illnesses with existing interventions, appropriate HSB prevalence is low. Symptom type, caretakers’ education, and perception of illness severity are the predictors of HSB. Educational improvement of the mothers, introduction of community based integrated management of childhood illness, and in-depth research are imperative to improve mothers’ HSB. PMID:24187490

  16. Identifying radiation-induced survivorship syndromes affecting bowel health in a cohort of gynecological cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steineck, Gunnar; Skokic, Viktor; Bull, Cecilia; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Dunberger, Gail; Bergmark, Karin; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Oh, Jung Hun; Deasy, Joseph O.; Jörnsten, Rebecka

    2017-01-01

    Background During radiotherapy unwanted radiation to normal tissue surrounding the tumor triggers survivorship diseases; we lack a nosology for radiation-induced survivorship diseases that decrease bowel health and we do not know which symptoms are related to which diseases. Methods Gynecological-cancer survivors were followed-up two to 15 years after having undergone radiotherapy; they reported in a postal questionnaire the frequency of 28 different symptoms related to bowel health. Population-based controls gave the same information. With a modified factor analysis, we determined the optimal number of factors, factor loadings for each symptom, factor-specific factor-loading cutoffs and factor scores. Results Altogether data from 623 survivors and 344 population-based controls were analyzed. Six factors best explain the correlation structure of the symptoms; for five of these a statistically significant difference (P< 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) was found between survivors and controls concerning factor score quantiles. Taken together these five factors explain 42 percent of the variance of the symptoms. We interpreted these five factors as radiation-induced syndromes that may reflect distinct survivorship diseases. We obtained the following frequencies, defined as survivors having a factor loading above the 95 percent percentile of the controls, urgency syndrome (190 of 623, 30 percent), leakage syndrome (164 of 623, 26 percent), excessive gas discharge (93 of 623, 15 percent), excessive mucus discharge (102 of 623, 16 percent) and blood discharge (63 of 623, 10 percent). Conclusion Late effects of radiotherapy include five syndromes affecting bowel health; studying them and identifying the underlying survivorship diseases, instead of the approximately 30 long-term symptoms they produce, will simplify the search for prevention, alleviation and elimination. PMID:28158314

  17. The role of the Codex Alimentarius process in support of new products to enhance the nutritional health of infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotkin, Stanley; Siekmann, Jonathan; Lartey, Anna; Yang, Zhenyu

    2010-06-01

    The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety. Among other functions, it is responsible for setting international standards for safety and hygiene. Codex food standards and guidelines directed at foods produced primarily for young infants and children have important implications for maintaining nutritional status and health, especially given the positioning of these products as components of established World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF-recommended feeding strategies. Recently, new products targeted at this age group (e.g., lipid-based nutrient supplements and micronutrient powders) have been produced and used, but these are not totally covered under existing Codex guidelines or standards. The objective of this paper is to review the role of the Codex process and specifically to suggest revisions to existing Codex guidelines on formulated complementary foods (Guidelines for Formulated Supplementary Foods for Older Infants and Young Children, CAC/GL 08-1991) to encompass this new category of fortified complementary foods and home fortificants. In reviewing the existing guidelines, potential areas for revision included the sections on the recommended nutrients in these foods and their intended use. Updating the Codex guidelines provides the opportunity to encourage production and use of new products for children and help ensure that such foods, when used as directed, do not interfere with breastfeeding. The revised guidelines would help governments develop national regulations covering all forms of formulated complementary foods. They would also lessen impediments to international trade by providing clear guidance for foods used in feeding programs and for young children, particularly in developing countries.

  18. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

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    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  19. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  20. Factors affecting health seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webair HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hana Hasan Webair, Abdulla Salim Bin-Gouth Department of Family Medicine, Hadhramout University of Science and Technology, Almukalla, Hadhramout, Yemen Introduction: Appropriate medical care seeking could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. This study aims to determine factors affecting health seeking behavior (HSB for childhood illnesses, thereby improving child survival. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out from January 11 to April 2, 2012. A total of 212 caretakers of children under the age of 5 years participated. Caretakers who visited the vaccination unit in the Shehair Health Center during the study period and had a child with a history of diarrhea, fever, cough, and/or difficulty of breathing during the last 14 days were included. The data were collected by interviewing caretakers and the answers were reported in pretested structured questionnaires. Results: Medical care was sought for about half of the sick children (n=109, 51.42%. Seeking medical care was frequently initiated for illnesses that did not improve or worsened. The major reasons for not seeking medical care were "illness was mild" (n=40, 38.83% and "illness is not for medical treatment" (n=32, 31.07%. The caretakers sought medical care significantly more when they had a higher level of school education (POR [prevalence odds ratio] 5.85, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.34–14.61, when the illness was perceived as severe (POR 5.39, 95% CI: 2.81–10.33, and when the child had difficulty of breathing (POR 2.93, 95% CI: 1.10–7.80. Conclusion: For the preventable childhood illnesses with existing interventions, appropriate HSB prevalence is low. Symptom type, caretakers' education, and perception of illness severity are the predictors of HSB. Educational improvement of the mothers, introduction of community based integrated management of childhood illness, and in-depth research are imperative to improve mothers' HSB

  1. Socioemotional Transformations in the Family System Following Infant Crawling Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Joseph J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the possibility that relations in the family system are affected when infants begin to crawl. Parents' expressions of prohibition and anger, and their use of physical punishment, increased after infants began to crawl. (BG)

  2. Factors affecting job satisfaction of Aboriginal mental health workers working in community mental health in rural and remote New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Catherine; Maple, Myfanwy; Hussain, Rafat

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs).Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions.Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality.Conclusions Policy and procedural changes to the AMHW training program may address the lower remuneration and limited career opportunities identified with regard to the Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification. Delivering training to increase levels of understanding about the AMHW training program, and cultural awareness generally, to CMH staff and NSW Health management may assist in addressing the negative team, organisational and cultural issues identified.What is known about the topic? The Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification and traineeship pathway undertaken by AMHWs differs significantly from that of other health professionals working in NSW Health's CMH services. The health workforce literature identifies that each health professional group has its own culture and specific values and that forming and maintaining a profession-specific identity is an extremely important aspect of job satisfaction for health workers.What does the paper add? AMHWs working in rural and remote NSW CMH services commonly experience low levels of job satisfaction, especially while undertaking the embedded training program. Of particular concern is the health sciences qualification not translating into NSW Health

  3. A comparative study of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers working in tsunami-affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia

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    Anda Kamal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe and compare the level of knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between community health volunteers (CHVs working in the tsunami affected and non-affected areas in Aceh Province, Indonesia.Method: 144 CHVs from six districts in Aceh were studied during November 2011 to January 2012 to evaluate their level knowledge regarding emergency care during disaster between CHVs working in tsunami-affected 6-areas and non-tsunami-affected areas. The knowledge was assessed using the Community Health Volunteers’ Knowledge Regarding Emergency Care Questionnaire (CHVK-ECQ with 30 true/false statements. The composite scores of each area and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation.Results: Overall, the CHVs’ knowledge in emergency care during disaster in Aceh was at a high level in both groups. However, subjects in non-affected areas had significantly higher mean rank of the overall knowledge than those in the affected areas (p = .02. In the tsunami area, the highest mean score of knowledge was in the disaster triage dimension (M= 80.62%, and the lowest mean score was in the first aid (60.48 %. In contrast, CHVs’ knowledge in the non-tsunami areas had the highest mean score in the first aid (84.52 % and had the lowest mean score in the disaster triage (64. 38 %.Conclusion: Although both groups had high levels of overall knowledge, an education program for improved knowledge in the areas of first aid, team organization, and disaster triage should be emphasized to refresh the CHVs’ knowledge and skills for disaster management.

  4. An evaluation of factors which can affect the implementation of a health promotion programme under the Schools for Health in Europe framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Annemarie E; Cunningham, Cara; Johnston Molloy, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    The Health Promoting Schools concept helps schools to promote health in a sustainable and long-term fashion. However, developing the capacity to promote health in this way can be challenging when a busy teaching curriculum must be fulfilled. This study aimed to identify factors which affect the acceptability of health promotion programmes to the everyday school environment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were audio-taped with primary school teachers in one Irish county and transcribed verbatim. The resulting transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Thirty-one teachers were interviewed. The factors which may adversely affect the acceptability of health promotion programmes include the: attitude of teachers towards an additional extra-curricular workload; lack of confidence amongst teachers to lead health promotion; and different organisational cultures between schools. When health promotion programmes under the Health Promoting Schools concept are being implemented, it's important to consider: the readiness for change amongst teachers; the resources available to increase staff capacity to promote health; and the ability of a programme to adapt to the different organisational cultures between schools.

  5. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

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    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  6. The impact of digital technology on health of populations affected by humanitarian crises: Recent innovations and current gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmar, Sandra; Talhouk, Reem; Akik, Chaza; Olivier, Patrick; Elhajj, Imad H; Elbassuoni, Shady; Armoush, Sarah; Kalot, Joumana; Balaam, Madeline; Germani, Aline; Ghattas, Hala

    2016-11-01

    Digital technology is increasingly used in humanitarian action and promises to improve the health and social well-being of populations affected by both acute and protracted crises. We set out to (1) review the current landscape of digital technologies used by humanitarian actors and affected populations, (2) examine their impact on health and well-being of affected populations, and (3) consider the opportunities for and challenges faced by users of these technologies. Through a systematic search of academic databases and reports, we identified 50 digital technologies used by humanitarian actors, and/or populations affected by crises. We organized them according to the stage of the humanitarian cycle that they were used in, and the health outcomes or determinants of health they affected. Digital technologies were found to facilitate communication, coordination, and collection and analysis of data, enabling timely responses in humanitarian contexts. A lack of evaluation of these technologies, a paternalistic approach to their development, and issues of privacy and equity constituted major challenges. We highlight the need to create a space for dialogue between technology designers and populations affected by humanitarian crises.

  7. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3′-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota. PMID:28079170

  8. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  9. America's Infant-Mortality Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstadt, Nicholas

    1991-01-01

    Conventional explanations attributing the high infant mortality rate in United States to the prevalence of poverty and lack of adequate health care do not tell the whole story. Contributions of parental behavior, lifestyles, and public health care availability versus utilization must be examined in determining public policies to address the…

  10. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  11. Stress, Self-Evaluated Health and Health Care Costs of Japanese Workers: Does Psychological Stress Affect Self-Evaluated Health and Health Care Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Seiritsu; Senoh, Wataru

    2007-01-01

    The earlier version of this paper was published in Japanese in Japanese Journal of Health Economics and Policy, in June 2006. The research was supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science, Education and Technology to Hitotsubashi University, and by a special grant to Hosei Institute on Aging for its Aging in East Asia project.

  12. Gut microbiota profiling: metabolomics based approach to unravel compounds affecting human health

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    Pamela Vernocchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, which produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activity is affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, which influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolic profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies.

  13. Individual Differences in Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Jeannette

    This paper argues that infants' affect patterns are innate and are meaningful indicators of individual differences in internal state. Videotapes of seven infants' faces were coded using an ethogram; the movement of the eyebrow, eye direction, eye openness, mouth shape, mouth position, lip position, and tongue protrusion were assessed…

  14. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-04-22

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development.

  15. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care.

  16. Evaluation of socio-economic factors affecting the demand for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdosaleh Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individual health has been proved to be under the influence of various factors such as the use of health care services, diet, smoking and alcohol, physical environment, and health-related behaviors. Therefore, the main determinants of health are factors such as income, education, and access to health services, and systematic changes in these factors lead to socio-economic injustice in health. The present study was carried out through library and internet search. Medline and Google Scholar databases were also utilized. Combining Contents and Results: According to the present study, an increase in health input expenses would inevitably lead to aggravation of the health situation and decrease in income would result in the worst health status of the poor. Moreover, people with higher education use less health inputs; however, they enjoy higher status than those with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Health demand approach provides only a part of the information needed for policy-makers and decision-makers in health system. Theoretical and empirical analyses of the health claim could indicate that policy actions are likely to be more effective in overcoming barriers to health but are not capable of determining which one is likely to be more cost-effective . The demand for information about the health only provides the necessary tools about the benefits of special policy making decisions. So the tool should be combined with other techniques including cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.

  17. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  18. Interactive effect of negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity in terms of mental health among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-09-30

    From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample.

  19. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, R K; Henjum, S; Ulak, M; Thorne- Lyman, A L; Ulvik, R J; Shrestha, P S; Locks, L; Fawzi, W; Strand, T A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Subjects/Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother–infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein. Results: The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2–6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) <10.8 g/dl) and 72% among infants 7–12-month-old (Hb <11.3 g/dl). Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin <20 or <12 μg/l, affected 9 and 26% of infants of these same age groups. Twenty percent of mothers had anemia (Hb <12.3 g/dl), but only one-fifth was explained by depletion of iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants. PMID:26626049

  20. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Autonomic and Endocrine Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; King, Lucy; Schreier, Hannah; Howard, Jamie M.; Rosenfield, David; Ritz, Thomas; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental exposures may help shape the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, influencing vulnerability for health problems across the lifespan. Little is known about the role of maternal sensitivity in influencing the development of the ANS in early life. Aims To examine associations among maternal sensitivity and infant behavioral distress and ANS and HPA axis reactivity to the Repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R), a dyadic stress task. Study Design Observational repeated measures study. Subjects Thirty-five urban, sociodemographically diverse mothers and their 6-month-old infants. Outcome Measures Changes in infant affective distress, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and T-wave amplitude (TWA) across episodes of the SFP-R were assessed. A measure of cortisol output (area under the curve) in the hour following cessation of the SFP-R was also obtained. Results Greater maternal insensitivity was associated with greater infant sympathetic activation (TWA) during periods of stress and tended to be associated with greater cortisol output following the SFP-R. There was also evidence for greater affective distress and less parasympathetic activation (RSA) during the SFP-R among infants of predominantly insensitive mothers. Conclusions Caregiving quality in early life may influence the responsiveness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS as well as the HPA axis. Consideration of the ANS and HPA axis systems together provides a fuller representation of adaptive versus maladaptive stress responses. The findings highlight the importance of supporting high quality caregiving in the early years of life, which is likely to promote later health. PMID:24794304

  1. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  2. Factors affecting the performance of maternal health care providers in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltero Lauren

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. Each of these factors should be supplied by the organization in which the provider works, and thus, organizational support is considered as an overarching element for analysis. Little research, domestically or internationally, has been conducted on the actual effects of each of the factors on performance outcomes and most PI practitioners assume that all the factors are needed in order for performance to improve. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors, individually as well as in combination, affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives in two regions of Armenia. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five nurses and midwives were observed conducting real or simulated antenatal and postpartum/neonatal care services and interviewed about the presence or absence of the performance factors within their work environment. Results were analyzed to compare average performance with the existence or absence of the factors; then, multiple regression analysis was conducted with the merged datasets to obtain the best models of "predictors" of performance within each clinical service. Results Baseline results revealed that performance was sub-standard in several areas and several performance factors were deficient or nonexistent. The multivariate analysis showed that (a training in the use of the clinic tools; and (b receiving recognition from the employer or the client/community, are factors strongly associated with performance, followed by (c receiving performance feedback in postpartum care. Other – extraneous

  3. Effect of Health Education on Infant Supplementary Food Addition in the Community%社区健康教育对婴儿辅食添加的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤莲; 宋亚娟; 谢凤珠

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨在社区对家长进行婴儿科学喂养知识健康教育的效果,避免婴儿营养性疾病的发生.方法 选择3个月以内的婴儿的家长,对其进行问卷调查,按照家长的意愿随机分成观察组和对照组,对观察组采取系统健康教育.结果 通过健康教育使家长了解了有关辅食添加的相关知识,婴儿辅食添加及时率明显提高,观察组明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 在社区实施婴儿辅食添加知识的健康教育能有效提高家长的育儿水平.%Objective To investigate the effect of educating the parents how to feed the infants scientifically and to avoid the occurrence of the infant nutrition disorders in community.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted on the parents of infants who were no more than three months old.The parents were randomly divided into two groups:the observation group and the control group.The observation group received the systematic health education.Results The parents that received health education obtained relevant knowledge of supplementary food addition,which apparently increased the timeliness rate of the supplementary food addition to their infants.The rate of the observation group is obviously higher than that of the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion The implementation of health education in the community on infant supplementary food addition can effectively improve the level of child-feeding of parents.

  4. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  5. Neonatal treatment philosophy in Dutch and German NICUs: health-related quality of life in adulthood of VP/VLBW infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Pal. S. van der; Verrips, G.H.W.; Baumann, N.; Bartmann, P.; Wolke, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although survival after very preterm birth (VP)/very low birth weight (VLBW) has improved, a significant number of VP/VLBW individuals develop physical and cognitive problems during their life course that may affect their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We compared HRQoL in VP/VLBW c

  6. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts.

  7. Children and Society Policy Review: Health Policy Affecting Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkiss, Doug

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Social Care Act comes into force in April 2013. It changes the organisation of the health service and accelerates the integration of health and social care. New relationships between primary and secondary healthcare will develop and the culture of clinical and cost effectiveness will expand into social care; work on children in…

  8. Maternal health behaviours during pregnancy in an Irish obstetric population and their associations with socio-demographic and infant characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and combined occurrence of peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplement use, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy in a sample of women in Dublin, and determine the factors associated with these health behaviours.

  9. Microbial transmission from mothers with obesity or diabetes to infants: an innovative opportunity to interrupt a vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderborg, Taylor K; Borengasser, Sarah J; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes. This is likely to be due to complex interactions between mode of delivery, antibiotic use, maternal diet, components of breastfeeding and a network of regulatory events involving both the innate and adaptive immune systems within the infant host. Each of these factors are critical for informing microbiome development and can affect immune signalling, toxin release and metabolic signals, including short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that regulate appetite, metabolism and inflammation. In several randomised controlled trials, probiotics have been administered with the aim of targeting the microbiome during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health but the findings have often been confounded by mode of delivery, antibiotic use, ethnicity, infant sex, maternal health and length of exposure. Understanding how nutritional exposure, including breast milk, affects the assembly and development of both maternal and infant microbial communities may help to identify targeted interventions during pregnancy and in infants born to mothers with obesity or diabetes to slow the transmission of obesity risk to the next generation. The aim of this review is to discuss influences on infant microbiota colonisation and the mechanism(s) underlying how alterations due to maternal obesity and diabetes may lead to increased risk of childhood obesity.

  10. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  11. Mindfulness, health symptoms and healthcare utilization: Active facets and possible affective mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Butler, Haley F

    2014-01-01

    Prior work has linked mindfulness with superior physical and psychological health outcomes. However, studies to date have infrequently tested the unique contributions of individual mindfulness facets, inadequately tested links between facets and healthcare utilization, and have not tested whether depression or anxiety may influence these links. In the current report, 40 young, middle aged and older adults (N = 121) completed measures of dispositional mindfulness, health, healthcare utilization and depression/anxiety. As expected, global trait mindfulness did not predict outcomes while individual mindfulness facets predicted both objective and subjective health as well as healthcare utilization. Across models, observe scores - the tendency to attend to thoughts, sensations and feelings - predicted poorer, and non-reactivity scores better, outcomes even when controlling for demographic and health confounds. Depressed and anxious emotion reduced some but not all mindfulness-health links. Results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which greater mindfulness may facilitate better health and health behaviour.

  12. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  13. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children.Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (PConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.Keywords: Baby walker, Motor skills, Infants.   

  14. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  15. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  16. How changes to Irish healthcare financing are affecting universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organisation (WHO) published the World Health Report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. The Director-General of the WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, commissioned the report "in response to a need, expressed by rich and poor countries alike, for practical guidance on ways to finance health care". Given the current context of global economic hardship and difficult budgetary decisions, the report offered timely recommendations for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This article analyses the current methods of healthcare financing in Ireland and their implications for UHC. Three questions are asked of the Irish healthcare system: firstly, how is the health system financed; secondly, how can the health system protect people from the financial consequences of ill-health and paying for health services; and finally, how can the health system encourage the optimum use of available resources? By answering these three questions, this article argues that the Irish healthcare system is not achieving UHC, and that it is unclear whether recent changes to financing are moving Ireland closer or further away from the WHO's ambition for healthcare for all.

  17. Pelvic musculoskeletal infection in infants -- diagnostic difficulties and radiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, S E; Carty, H

    1997-10-01

    Musculoskeletal infection involving the pelvis has rarely been reported in infants. When such infections involve the pelvic muscles they are generally believed to result from secondary spread from adjacent structures. We report five cases of primary pelvic musculoskeletal infection affecting infants pelvic musculoskeletal infection in infants and the role of the various radiological investigations in its diagnosis is discussed.

  18. Perceived benefits and barriers and self-efficacy affecting the attendance of health education programs among uninsured primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Jess, Allison; Chernenko, Alla; Assasnik, Nushean; Ashby, Jeanie

    2016-12-01

    Lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in improving health status, health behaviors, and self-efficacy. However, recruiting participants to health education programs and ensuring the continuity of health education for underserved populations is often challenging. The goals of this study are: to describe the attendance of health education programs; to identify stages of change to a healthy lifestyle; to determine cues to action; and to specify factors affecting perceived benefits and barriers to healthy food choices and physical activity among uninsured primary care patients. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=621) completed a self-administered survey from September to December of 2015. US born English speakers, non-US born English speakers, and Spanish speakers reported different kinds of cues to action in attending health education programs. While self-efficacy increases perceived benefits and decreases perceived barriers for physical activity, it increases both perceived benefits and perceived barriers for healthy food choices. The participants who had attended health education programs did not believe that there were benefits for healthy food choices and physical activity. This study adds to the body of literature on health education for underserved populations.

  19. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, John S

    2013-05-14

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program.

  20. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  1. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND GROWTH IN INFANTS WITH COWS MILK PROTEIN INTOLERANCE USING 2 DIFFERENT WHEY-PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE BASED FORMULAS IN A PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE SETTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERWIMP, JJM; BINDELS, JG; BARENTS, M; HEYMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept(R) or Pepti Junior(R). The efficacy of

  2. Families in the Legal Enforcement System: A Case Example of Blending Infant Mental Health and Family Partner Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Barbara; Lee, Rashawnda; Reus, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Public enforcement agencies such as criminal justice, child welfare, and immigration directly or indirectly impact children and families, often through mandated requirements and forced separations. As a result, families involved with these agencies can be wary of trusting early childhood home visitors and mental health providers. Through case…

  3. Building a Collaboration One Day at a Time: Integrating Infant Mental Health into a Residential Drug Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Purcell, Arlene; Schalit, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Families In Recovery Staying Together (FIRST) is a team from Children's Hospital and Research Center at Oakland that has joined in collaboration with two local perinatal residential drug treatment programs to create early childhood mental health services at those sites. The authors highlight the collaboration strategies and challenges the partners…

  4. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants. ...

  5. Wearable sensor systems for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-02-05

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  6. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  7. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation

  8. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured? Evidence from Heart Attack Patients in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome - the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-200

  9. Factors Affecting the Growth and Usage of a Student Mental Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, Ernesto A.; Wepman, Barry J.

    1978-01-01

    The five-year growth of an active Student Mental Health Service (SMHS) in an urban academic health center is described. The function of SMHS is limited strictly to therapeutic and consultative services for the students and operates as an outpatient treatment facility using a standard 12-session goal-oriented treatment plan. (LBH)

  10. Expectancy-Value models of health behaviour: the role of salience and anticipated affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Expectancy-value models of health behaviour are based upon the assumption that this behaviour is determined by a subjective cost-benefit analysis. Generally, these models emphasize cognitive appraisal processes focusing on the likelihood and evaluation of the consequences of health-related behaviour

  11. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  12. Do multi-sectoral development programmes affect health? A Bolivian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, F; Dearden, K; Jimenez, W

    1999-12-01

    This cross-sectional study, carried out in Inquisivi, Bolivia, a rural area where Save the Children/US works, tests the hypothesis that participation in multisectoral development programmes results in improved health behaviours and better health outcomes. To test this hypothesis, four groups of households were compared: those participating in Save the Children's health-only programmes; those with access to health and micro-enterprise credit or health and literacy programmes; those participating in all three programmes (health, credit and literacy); and households from comparison communities (no access to any of Save the Children's programmes). Data come from a stratified sample of 499 households in the altiplano, foothills and valleys of the Andes. Findings reported here suggest that there is no clear association between participation in one or more of Save the Children's programmes and parents' actions to prevent and treat diarrhoea. Additionally, the point prevalence of diarrhoea was similar for all four groups. However, children of individuals participating in health, credit and literacy were significantly less likely than children from comparison communities to be malnourished or at risk of becoming malnourished, even after controlling for such potentially confounding factors as social class, source of drinking water, and the availability of health facilities.

  13. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health.

  14. 儿童保健在婴幼儿早期发育中的应用效果分析%The right of children health care analysis application effect in the early development of infants and young children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂扬

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo the right child care in the application effect of infants in early development analysis and discussion.Methods186 normal infants in our hospital in 2010 August -2012 year in August period as the research object,randomly divided into observation group and control group. Infant observation group to implement the correct child care,the control group of infants is not the implementation of child health care. Observation,comparison of common disease in two groups and the growth and development of infants.Resultsthe group of infants in children with pneumonia and nutritional anemia,diarrhea and other common disease incidence rate is significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05); observation group of infants in the body weight,body length,mental development index(MDI)and psychomotor development index(PDI)are significantly better than the control group(P<0.05). Conclusionthe right child health in infants during early development has a positive role in promoting,can significantly improve the infant's physical quality,intelligence level,and also can promote the infant mental health development,has the important application value.%目的:对儿童保健在婴幼儿早期发育中的应用效果进行分析探讨。方法选择我院2010年8月—2012年8月期间186例正常婴幼儿作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组。观察组婴幼儿实施儿童保健,对照组婴幼儿不采取任何保健措施。观察、比较2组婴幼儿的常见病发生情况以及生长发育情况。结果观察组婴幼儿在小儿肺炎、营养性贫血以及腹泻等常见病的发生率方面均明显低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组婴幼儿在体质量、身长、智力发育指数(MDI)和心理运动发育指数(PDI)方面也都显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论儿童保健在婴幼儿的早期发育中具有积极的促进作用,能够显著提高婴幼儿的身体素质、智力水平等,同时促进婴幼儿

  15. How attempts to meet others' unrealistic expectations affect health: health-promoting behaviours as a mediator between perfectionism and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fleur; Craddock, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    The traits of perfectionism have been associated with health and longevity. Theoretically and empirically, health behaviours are considered a primary mechanism through which such associations of personality and health occur. However, scant evidence to date indicates behaviours did not mediate between perfectionism and health as anticipated. The aim of the current research was therefore to rigorously examine whether health behaviours mediated associations of perfectionism and physical health-related quality of life (HRQL). A sample of 263 students completed questionnaires measuring subtypes of perfectionism, HRQL, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated predictors of physical HRQL and health-promoting behaviours. Non-parametric bootstrapping techniques assessed whether health-promoting behaviours mediated significant associations between perfectionism and physical HRQL. Socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) significantly predicted poorer physical HRQL, and this association was mediated by health-promoting behaviours, a unique finding. Self-oriented perfectionism did not significantly predict physical HRQL, but was linked with more numerous health-promoting behaviours. In conclusion, results suggest that individuals higher in SPP, who are overly concerned with evaluation by others and with meeting perceived unrealistically high standards of performance, performed fewer health-promoting behaviours, and this mediated the association between SPP and poorer physical HRQL. More broadly, perfectionism predicted physical HRQL and engagement or lack thereof in health-promoting behaviours and should be considered as part of health promotion strategies.

  16. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals.

  17. Does the experience of discrimination affect health? A cross-sectional study of Korean elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Heeran; Kang, Minah; Cho, Sung-il; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted among 992 Koreans aged 60 to 89 to examine the effects of perceived discrimination on the health of an ethnically homogenous older population. Perceived discrimination was measured with a self-report instrument. Health outcomes included depressive symptoms, poor self-rated health, and chronic diseases. Of the elderly Koreans surveyed, 23.5% reported having experienced discrimination based on education, age, birthplace, birth order, or gender. Among women, 23.1% reported experiencing gender discrimination, compared to 0.9% among men. Men reported education and age discrimination most frequently-9.4% and 7.7%, respectively. Those who reported experiencing any discrimination were 2.19 times more likely to report depressive symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.50-3.22) and 1.40 times more likely to report poor self-rated health (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.93). The health effects of educational discrimination appeared most prominent. This study supports the positive associations between perceived discrimination and poorer health, particularly mental health, in later life.

  18. Intervention by the mental health specialist nurse for preventing sleep disorders due to incorrect habits in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Cámara Conde; Julián Carretero Román; Ángela García Pozo; Marta Menéndez Rubiera; Javier Sánchez Alfonso; Nuria Sekade Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disord...

  19. Do Physicians' Financial Incentives Affect Medical Treatment and Patient Health?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jeffrey; Gottlieb, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether physicians' financial incentives influence health care supply, technology diffusion, and resulting patient outcomes. In 1997, Medicare consolidated the geographic regions across which it adjusts physician payments, generating area-specific price shocks. Areas with higher payment shocks experience significant increases in health care supply. On average, a 2 percent increase in payment rates leads to a 3 percent increase in care provision. Elective procedures such as cataract surgery respond much more strongly than less discretionary services. Non-radiologists expand their provision of MRIs, suggesting effects on technology adoption. We estimate economically small health impacts, albeit with limited precision. PMID:25170174

  20. Factors affecting Latina immigrants' perceptions of maternal health care: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida

    2008-05-01

    Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.

  1. Manganese concentrations in drinking water from villages near banana plantations with aerial mancozeb spraying in Costa Rica: Results from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bouchard, Maryse F; Mora, Ana María; Skytt, Åsa; Córdoba, Leonel; Quesada, Rosario; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Mergler, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Elevated manganese (Mn) in drinking water has been reported worldwide. While, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater is generally the major source, anthropogenic contamination by Mn-containing fungicides such as mancozeb may also occur. The main objective of this study was to examine factors associated with Mn and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, in drinking water samples from villages situated near banana plantations with aerial spraying of mancozeb. Drinking water samples (n = 126) were obtained from 124 homes of women participating in the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA, for its acronym in Spanish), living nearby large-scale banana plantations. Concentrations of Mn, iron (Fe), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, were measured in water samples. Only six percent of samples had detectable ETU concentrations (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.15 μg/L), whereas 94% of the samples had detectable Mn (LOD = 0.05 μg/L). Mn concentrations were higher than 100 and 500 μg/L in 22% and 7% of the samples, respectively. Mn was highest in samples from private and banana farm wells. Distance from a banana plantation was inversely associated with Mn concentrations, with a 61.5% decrease (95% CI: -97.0, -26.0) in Mn concentrations for each km increase in distance. Mn concentrations in water transported with trucks from one village to another were almost 1000 times higher than Mn in water obtained from taps in houses supplied by the same well but not transported, indicating environmental Mn contamination. Elevated Mn in drinking water may be partly explained by aerial spraying of mancozeb; however, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater, and intensive agriculture may also contribute. Drinking water risk assessment for mancozeb should consider Mn as a health hazard. The findings of this study evidence the need for health-based World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on Mn in

  2. Does a Personalized Health Portal for Diabetes Retinal Imaging Positively Affect Motivational Readiness to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES N/A 14. ABSTRACT The transtheoretical model ( TTM ) of...The transtheoretical model ( TTM ) is one of the leading behavior change models used both in research and clinical practice (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath... TTM is one of the most widely used models of health behavior and is easily applied to many areas in health behavior. The TTM was designed to be

  3. How Communication Among Members of the Health Care Team Affects Maternal Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Rita Allen; Keohane, Carol Ann

    In the United States, rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality have escalated in the past decade. Communication failure among members of the health care team is one associated factor that can be modified. Nurses can promote effective communication. We provide strategies that incorporate team training principles and structured communication processes for use by providers and health care systems to improve the quality and safety of patient care and reduce the incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity.

  4. Why don't health workers prescribe ACT? A qualitative study of factors affecting the prescription of artemether-lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurovac Dejan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya recently changed its antimalarial drug policy to a specific artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL. New national guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention were developed and disseminated to health workers together with in-service training. Methods Between January and March 2007, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted in five rural districts with health workers who attended in-service training and were non-adherent to the new guidelines. A further 20 interviews were undertaken with training facilitators and members of District Health Management Teams (DHMTs to explore reasons underlying health workers' non-adherence. Results Health workers generally perceived AL as being tolerable and efficacious as compared to amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyremethamine. However, a number of key reasons for non-adherence were identified. Insufficient supply of AL was a major issue and hence fears of stock outs and concern about AL costs was an impediment to AL prescription. Training messages that contradicted the recommended guidelines also led to health worker non-adherence, compounded by a lack of follow-up supervision. In addition, the availability of non-recommended antimalarials such as amodiaquine caused prescription confusion. Some health workers and DHMT members maintained that shortage of staff had resulted in increased patient caseload affecting the delivery of the desirable quality of care and adherence to guidelines. Conclusion The introduction of free efficacious ACTs in the public health sector in Kenya and other countries has major potential public health benefits for Africa. These may not be realized if provider prescription practices do not conform to the recommended treatment guidelines. It is essential that high quality training, drug supply and supervision work synergistically to ensure appropriate case management.

  5. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  6. 儿保门诊婴幼儿吐乳症915例发病调查及疗效研究%Incidence investigation and efficacy study on infant functional vomiting in 915 infants of child health care outpatient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海琼; 陈伟斌

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解上海市虹口区婴幼儿吐乳症发病情况及治疗疗效观察。方法通过门诊915例婴幼儿常规查体检出吐乳症患儿,并通过“董氏指压法”治疗,间隔1周重复1次,3次1个疗程。结果发病578例,发病率为63.17%,男女发病率相近,无显著差异,主要表现为溢乳和呕吐,占93.08%。治疗后痊愈347例,占60.03%;显效130例,占22.49%;有效85例,占14.71%;无效16例,占2.77%。治疗总有效率达97.23%。结论吐乳症在婴幼儿十分普遍,运用董氏指压法治疗,预后良好。%Objective To understand and observe the incidence and efficacy on infant functional vomiting in hongkou district of Shanghai city. Methods The infants with functional vomiting were examined in outpatient routine examination for 915 infants,and the infants with functional vomiting were treated with "Dong acupressure"every other week,three times was a period of treatment. Results There were 578 infants with functional vomiting and the incidence rate was 63.17%.The incidence rate of men was similar to women,the difference was not significant.The main symptoms of patients were galactorrhea and vomiting,which accounted for 93.08%.There were cure in 347 cases(60.03%), markedly effective in 130 cases(22.49%),effective in 85 cases(14.71%),invalid in 16 cases(2.77%). The total effective rate was 97.23%. Conclusion Infant functional vomiting is widespread,which treated with "Dong acupressure"has good prognosis.

  7. Innovative Power of Health Care Organisations Affects IT Adoption: A bi-National Health IT Benchmark Comparing Austria and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsers, Jens; Hübner, Ursula; Esdar, Moritz; Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner O; Naumann, Laura; Liebe, Jan David

    2017-02-01

    Multinational health IT benchmarks foster cross-country learning and have been employed at various levels, e.g. OECD and Nordic countries. A bi-national benchmark study conducted in 2007 revealed a significantly higher adoption of health IT in Austria compared to Germany, two countries with comparable healthcare systems. We now investigated whether these differences still persisted. We further studied whether these differences were associated with hospital intrinsic factors, i.e. the innovative power of the organisation and hospital demographics. We thus performed a survey to measure the "perceived IT availability" and the "innovative power of the hospital" of 464 German and 70 Austrian hospitals. The survey was based on a questionnaire with 52 items and was given to the directors of nursing in 2013/2014. Our findings confirmed a significantly greater IT availability in Austria than in Germany. This was visible in the aggregated IT adoption composite score "IT function" as well as in the IT adoption for the individual functions "nursing documentation" (OR = 5.98), "intensive care unit (ICU) documentation" (OR = 2.49), "medication administration documentation" (OR = 2.48), "electronic archive" (OR = 2.27) and "medication" (OR = 2.16). "Innovative power" was the strongest factor to explain the variance of the composite score "IT function". It was effective in hospitals of both countries but significantly more effective in Austria than in Germany. "Hospital size" and "hospital system affiliation" were also significantly associated with the composite score "IT function", but they did not differ between the countries. These findings can be partly associated with the national characteristics. Indicators point to a more favourable financial situation in Austrian hospitals; we thus argue that Austrian hospitals may possess a larger degree of financial freedom to be innovative and to act accordingly. This study is the first to empirically demonstrate the

  8. Improving prenatal health: setting the agenda for increased male involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, Marie; Mackert, Michael; Rochlen, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. infant mortality rate is among the highest in the developed world, with recent vital statistics reports estimating 6.14 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Traditional health education and promotion to improve maternal, infant, and child health in the United States has focused only on women, leaving men out of important health messages that may affect pregnancy outcomes as well as family well-being. Recently, public health scholars have suggested that men be included in prenatal health education in an effort to improve birth outcomes and reduce infant mortality. Incorporating men in prenatal health promotion and education has been found to improve overall birth preparedness, reduce the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and reduce perinatal mortality in less-developed nations. Although these results are positive, research on paternal impact in pregnancy outcomes in the United States to date is lacking. This article proposes a U.S.-specific research agenda to understand the current role of men in pregnancy health, as well as actual involvement, barriers, and the influence men can have in prenatal health. A discussion of culture, individual motivations, health care providers, and social marketing is also considered.

  9. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Kagawa, Masaharu

    2017-01-11

    Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  10. Health and economic outcomes of introducing the new MenB vaccine (Bexsero into the Italian routine infant immunisation programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Tirani

    Full Text Available In January 2013 a novel type of multicomponent protein-based vaccine against group B meningococcal disease was licensed by the European Medicines Agency. With the widespread use of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines, serogroup B remains now the major cause of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia in young children in Europe. The aim of this study is to investigate the health and the economic outcomes of MenB vaccine introduction into the Italian routine mass vaccination programme.The present work is structured in two main parts. Firstly, we assess the epidemiological burden of group B meningococcal disease using official hospitalisation and notification data from two of the most populated Italian regions (Lombardia and Piemonte during a 6-year study period (2007-2012. Secondly, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation programme in Italy from the public health payer perspective under base case parameters assumptions and performing a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness and the uncertainty of our model results.MenB serotype is responsible for 59% of the 341 cases of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Lombardia and Piemonte. Incidence rate for MenB infection is estimated to be 0.21/100,000/y resulting at the highest level in children ≤4 years of age. Although the new MenB vaccine can potentially prevent about one third of the disease cases in the Italian population, model results show this strategy is unlikely to be cost-effective (ICER value over €350,000/QALY with a vaccine that prevents disease only. These results are robust under most of the sensitivity scenarios except when allowing for lower discount rates.The introduction of the novel vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule needs to be carefully evaluated. The new MenB vaccine has the potential to reduce the disease burden at the population level. However, from the Italian Health Service perspective, the immunisation programme is

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Against HIV-Positive Women is Associated with Sub-Optimal Infant Feeding Practices in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine how intimate partner violence against HIV-positive women affects safe infant feeding practices in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted with 320 married postpartum women at a large public health center in Lusaka, Zambia, in 2014. Variables were measured using previously validated instruments from the Demographic and Health Survey. Data were analyzed using simple and multivariate logistic regression in Stata 12. Results Thirty-seven percent of women report early mixed infant feeding prior to six months. Women who experienced intimate partner violence have 2.8 higher adjusted odds of early mixed infant feeding (p feeding (p feeding (p feeding (p feeding, putting infants at greater risk for both mother-to-child transmission of HIV and other infant morbidities. Intimate partner violence should thus be given increased attention within the context of infant feeding and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

  12. Costa Rica saves infants' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero-Bixby, L

    1988-01-01

    Even though Costa Rica is underdeveloped economically, life expectancy has been increasing over the past decade and the illiteracy rate was only 7% in 1984. Infant mortality rates have plummeted since 1972 when the 1st national health plan and social security were instituted (pre-1972: 2.3% annual reduction in infant mortality; 1972-1980: 13% decline annually). Decreased risk in the 1st postnatal month of life was responsible for 34% of the decrease from 1972-1980. Control of disease, especially diarrhea and acute respiratory infection, accounted for most of the decline (51%). Immunizations accounted for 8%, prevention of infectious diseases for 10%, control of malnutrition for 5%, and control of death due to premature birth for 14% of the decrease in mortality. Infant death due to pregnancy and delivery complications and congenital defects did not decrease during this period. Socioeconomic conditions normally influence survival rates strongly, but socioeconomic change in Costa Rica during 1970-1980 accounted for only 1/3 of the reduction in infant mortality. These improvements included an increase in the number of educated women, economic growth and decline in fertility (a decrease from 7.6 to 3.4 births between 1960-1980). The majority of the reduction stemmed from utilization of family planning techniques and the reduction of health risk factors. By 1980, the health program initiated in the 1970's provided primary care to 60% of the population, immunized 95% of the children against poliomyelitis, diptheria, pertussis, tetanus, and measles, and by 1984, provided almost all households with a sewage system. Analyses of the impact of socioeconomic development, fertility regulation, hospital care, outpatient services, and primary health care on infant mortality showed that, before 1970, those areas with better economies had a lower mortality rate, and after 1970, the economy and mortality rate had become independent variables. Furthermore, the introduction of health

  13. How Has the Affordable Care Act Affected Health Insurers' Financial Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Starting in 2014, the Affordable Care Act transformed the market for individual health insurance by changing how insurance is sold and by subsidizing coverage for millions of new purchasers. Insurers, who had no previous experience under these market conditions, competed actively but faced uncertainty in how to price their products. This issue brief uses newly available data to understand how health insurers fared financially during the ACA's first year of full reforms. Overall, health insurers' financial performance began to show some strain in 2014, but the ACA's reinsurance program substantially buffered the negative effects for most insurers. Although a quarter of insurers did substantially worse than others, experience under the new market rules could improve the accuracy of pricing decisions in subsequent years.

  14. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.

  15. Baby Business: a randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Fallon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. Methods/Design 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group or usual care (control group offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth, telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks. All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum, are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline, four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal

  16. Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

    Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

  17. Saving the treatment. Affect intolerance in a boy, his parents, the mental health community, and his analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Psychoanalytic thinkers have been writing about children's struggles with affect for many years (E. Furman, 1956; Katan, 1973; Chused, 1999; Gilmore, 2005). They have reported on mothers' inability to provide containment and fathers' use of physical punishment, attesting to their own affect intolerance and only making matters worse (Axelman, 2009; Bierman, Silverstein, Finesinger, 1958; Coen, 1998). So, what is different about this article? I'm certainly not the first to insist that we live in an affect-intolerant society, with many parents seeking psychotropic assistance rather than attempting to understand their children's feelings. Nor am I the only one who wags her finger at mental health professionals who freely prescribe. But there you have it. I am willing to report on my own countertransference--the villains who threatened to undermine my treatment with a boy named Joey.

  18. Sudden infant death syndrome prevention: a model program for NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Sherri L; Lipke, Bethann; LeMura, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Health care providers' opinions can influence how parents place their infant to sleep. Neonatal nurses can improve how they teach and model safe infant sleep practices to parents. To increase neonatal nurses' knowledge, a sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) prevention program was implemented. Program components included a computerized teaching tool, a crib card, sleep sacks, and discharge instructions. Initial program evaluation showed that 98 percent of infants slept supine and 93 percent slept in sleep sacks in open cribs. However, nurses continued to swaddle some infants with blankets to improve thermoregulation. To increase nursing compliance in modeling safe infant sleep practices, Halo SleepSack Swaddles were provided for nurses to use in place of a blanket to regulate infant temperature. Recent data show that 100 percent of infants in open cribs are now sleeping supine wearing a Halo Swaddle or a traditional Halo SleepSack. This model program can easily be replicated to enhance neonatal nurses' knowledge about SIDS prevention.

  19. 母亲心理健康状况对婴儿体格和智能发育的影响%Research on the influence of mother's mental health status on infant' s physical growth and intelligent development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    农雪艳; 宋娟; 朱锦渊; 张清华; 张明珠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解婴儿期母亲的心理健康状况,研究母亲不同的心理健康状况对婴儿体格及智能发育的影响.[方法]用90项症状自评量表(SCL-90)对婴儿期母亲进行问卷调查,并对婴儿进行体格及智能评估(用Gesell发育诊断量表),所收集的资料均采用t检验. [结果]2 000例婴儿母亲的心理问卷调查显示:6个月婴儿母亲比1岁婴儿母亲显得更为抑郁及焦虑,婴儿的体格及智能发育与母亲的心理健康状况相关. [结论]关心母亲的心理健康是促进婴儿体格及智能发育的重要手段.%[Objective] To research on the influences of the different mother's mental health status on infant's physical growth and intelligent development through learning the infantile mother's mental health status. [Methods] Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90) was used to investigate the infant's mother by questionnaire. With the use of double blind method on infant's physical growth and intelligence development checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale,all the collected data were used by t test. [Results] Through 2 000 infantile mother's psychological questionnaire.it learned that: the 6months old infant's mothers were more depressive and anxious than 1 year old infanfs mothers. The infants physical growth and intelligent development was relative to the mother's mental health status. [Conclusion] To care for the mother's mental health is an important measure for promoting the infanfs physical growth and intelligent development.

  20. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  1. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  2. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001 and diet (p < 0.001 were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05. Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01, age × diet (p < 0.01, teeth × diet (p < 0.001, and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001. The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.

  3. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  4. Did the US Infertility Health Insurance Mandates Affect the Timing of First Birth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohinata, A.

    2011-01-01

    From 1977-2001, 15 US states mandated health insurance providers to offer coverage for infertility treatment. Although the majority of the past literature has studied impacts on older women who are likely to seek treatment, this paper proposes that the mandates may have had a wider impact on the US

  5. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mach Casellas, N.; Baal, van J.; Kruijt, L.; Jacobs, A.A.A.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of

  6. DO INFANTS USING BABY WALKERS SUFFER DEVELOPMENTAL DELAYS IN ACQUISITION OF MOTOR SKILLS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDevelopment is a complex process, completed over a specific period of time, through the maturation of the nervous system. It is affected by genetic, ethnic, nutritional, social, and economic factors; one of the environmental factors affecting the acquisition of motor skills in infants is the use of baby walkers. Since this device is very commonly used for infants in our country, we conducted this study to evaluate its effects on the acquisition of motor skills in this age group of children. Materials & MethodsThis longitudinal study was conducted in 2005 on 300 infants referring to the Primary Health Care Centers of Kashan district in 1384; the infants were divided into two groups of 150 babies each, with the case group using baby walkers, while the other 150, the controls, did not. All babies were followed for two years, and the ages for acquisition of motor skills were documented during face-to face or telephone interviews with the parents. Data were analyzed using the T-test and the Chi Square test.ResultsOf the study population, 175 babies (58.33% were male. The mean age of acquisition of motor skills including rolling, crawling, moving on hands and feet, sitting without and with help, standing and walking dependently and independently were found to be delayed in infants using baby walkers, a difference between the two groups of walker users and non- walker users that was statistically significant (P<0.001.ConclusionConsidering the adverse effects that walkers have on the acquisition of motor skills in infants, as demonstrated by the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of baby walkers in infants.

  7. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  8. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada.

  9. Does Neighborhood and Family Poverty Affect Mothers' Parenting, Mental Health, and Social Support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, Pamela Kato; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated effects of neighborhood and family poverty on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics using data from 895 mothers. Neighborhood poverty was associated with poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. Home environment was adversely affected by family poverty, large…

  10. APOE genotype and cardio-respiratory fitness interact to determine adiposity in 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A Ellis

    Full Text Available APOE plays a well established role in lipid metabolism. Animal model evidence suggests APOE may also be associated with adiposity, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We measured adiposity (BMI, truncal fat mass, waist circumference, physical activity (PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and APOE genotype (E2, E3, E4 in 292 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (TIHS, an Australian population-based prospective birth cohort. Our aims were to examine the association of APOE with child adiposity, and to examine the interplay between this association and other measured factors. We found that APOE was associated with child lipid profiles. APOE was also associated with child adiposity measures. The association was E4 allele-specific, with adiposity lower in the E4-containing group (BMI: Mean difference -0.90 kg/m²; 95% confidence intervals (CI -1.51, -0.28; p = 0.004. The association of APOE4 with lower BMI differed by fitness status (difference in effect p = 0.002, and was more evident among the less fit (mean difference -1.78 kg/m²; 95% CI -2.74, -0.83; p<0.001. Additionally, associations between BMI and lipids were only apparent in those of lower fitness who did not carry APOE4. Similar overall findings were observed when truncal fat mass and waist circumference were used as alternative adiposity measures. APOE4 and cardiorespitatory fitness could interact to influence child adiposity. In studies addressing the genetic determinants of childhood obesity, the context of child fitness should also be taken into account.

  11. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  12. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Haro-Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents. Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606 and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494. Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life.

  13. Sensory Acceptability of Infant Cereals with Whole Grain in Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-Vicente, Juan Francisco; Bernal-Cava, Maria Jose; Lopez-Fernandez, Amparo; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Bodenstab, Stefan; Sanchez-Siles, Luis Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, infant cereals are one of the first foods introduced during the complementary feeding stage. These cereals are usually made with refined cereal flours, even though several health benefits have been linked to the intake of whole grain cereals. Prior evidence suggests that food preferences are developed at early stages of life, and may persist in later childhood and adulthood. Our aim was to test whether an infant cereal with 30% of whole grain was similarly accepted both by parents and infants in comparison to a similar cereal made from refined flour. A total of 81 infants between 4 and 24 months old were included in the study. Parent-infant pairs participated in an 8-day experimental study. Acceptance was rated on hedonic scales (4-points for infants and 7-points for parents). Other attributes like color, smell, and taste were evaluated by the parents. Acceptability for infant cereals with whole grain and refined cereals was very similar both for infants (2.30 ± 0.12 and 2.32 ± 0.11, p = 0.606) and parents (6.1 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 0.9, p = 0.494). Therefore, our findings show that there is an opportunity to introduce whole grain cereals to infants, including those who are already used to consuming refined infant cereals, thereby accelerating the exposure of whole grain in early life. PMID:28098769

  14. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.

  15. A systematic review of factors affecting children's right to health in cluster randomized trials in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduwo, Elizabeth; Edwards, Sarah J L

    2014-07-16

    Following the South African case, Treatment Action Campaign and Others v Minister of Health and Others, the use of 'pilot' studies to investigate interventions already proven efficacious, offered free of charge to government, but confined by the government to a small part of the population, may violate children's right to health, and the negative duty on governments not to prevent access to treatment. The applicants challenged a government decision to offer Nevirapine in a few pilot sites when evidence showed Nevirapine significantly reduced HIV transmission rates and despite donor offers of a free supply. The government refused to expand access, arguing they needed to collect more information, and citing concerns about long-term hazards, side effects, resistance and inadequate infrastructure. The court ruled this violated children's right to health and asked the government to immediately expand access. Cluster randomized trials involving children are increasingly popular, and are often used to reduce 'contamination': the possibility that members of a cluster adopt behavior of other clusters. However, they raise unique issues insufficiently addressed in literature and ethical guidelines. This case provides additional crucial guidance, based on a common human rights framework, for the Kenyan government and other involved stakeholders. Children possess special rights, often represent a 'captive' group, and so motivate extra consideration. In a systematic review, we therefore investigated whether cluster trial designs are used to prevent or delay children's access to treatment in Kenya or otherwise inconsistently with children's right to health as outlined in the above case. Although we did not find state sponsored cluster trials, most had significant public sector involvement. Core obligations under children's right to health were inadequately addressed across trials. Few cluster trials reported rationale for cluster randomization, offered post- trial access or

  16. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the best treatment. Exploring High Infant and Maternal Mortality Rates in the Rural U.S. with Dr. Ali ... reasons behind the United States’ high infant and maternal mortality rates. A Professor of Global Health at the ...

  17. FastStats: Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  18. FastStats: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  19. FastStats: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... Inflicted Injury Life Stages and Populations Age Groups Adolescent Health Child Health Infant Health Older Persons' Health ...

  20. Clinical and molecular features of an infant patient affected by Leigh Disease associated to m.14459G > A mitochondrial DNA mutation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moggio Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leigh Syndrome (LS is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bilateral symmetrical necrotic lesions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. Onset is in early infancy and prognosis is poor. Causative mutations have been disclosed in mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes affecting respiratory chain subunits and assembly factors. Case presentation Here we report the clinical and molecular features of a 15-month-old female LS patient. Direct sequencing of her muscle-derived mtDNA revealed the presence of two apparently homoplasmic variants: the novel m.14792C > G and the already known m.14459G > A resulting in p.His16Asp change in cytochrome b (MT-CYB and p.Ala72Val substitution in ND6 subunit, respectively. The m.14459G > A was heteroplasmic in the mother's blood-derived DNA. Conclusions The m.14459G > A might lead to LS, complicated LS or Leber Optic Hereditary Neuropathy. A comprehensive re-evaluation of previously described 14459G > A-mutated patients does not explain this large clinical heterogeneity.