WorldWideScience

Sample records for affect infant health

  1. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

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    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  2. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  3. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  4. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf;

    Introduction: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and childhood stress has life-long consequences for the affected children. One in five Danish families is at risk of inadequate parenting resources and child neglect. There is a lack of knowledge on best...... these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...... effective these will represent a notable advance to initiating this system as a better infant mental health strategy in Denmark....

  5. "MOODY BLUES": Affect Interpretation of Infant Facial Expressions and Negative Affect in Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hedwig J.A. van Bakel; Hoffenkamp, Hannah N.; Anneke Tooten; Ruby A.S. Hall; Merel ter Beek; Hartman, Esther E.; Vingerhoets, Ad. J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth places infants at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes, with self- and affect regulation problems among the most important impairments. However, few studies have empirically examined maternal interpretation of infant affect in mothers of pre- and term infants. The current study examines how negative affect of mothers of preterm and term infants is associated with their interpretation of infant facial expressions.One hundred and sixty-eight mothers with their infants...

  6. "MOODY BLUES": Affect Interpretation of Infant Facial Expressions and Negative Affect in Mothers of Preterm and Term Infants

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    Hedwig J.A. van Bakel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth places infants at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes, with self- and affect regulation problems among the most important impairments. However, few studies have empirically examined maternal interpretation of infant affect in mothers of pre- and term infants. The current study examines how negative affect of mothers of preterm and term infants is associated with their interpretation of infant facial expressions.One hundred and sixty-eight mothers with their infants (64 term and 104 preterm participated. Seven days after birth, mothers completed the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist (UMACL; Matthews, Jones, & Chamberlain, 1990 to assess maternal negative affect. During a home visit, six months after birth, mothers additionally completed a task developed to measure infant affect interpretation (Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotions through Looking at Pictures task, IFEEL pictures task; Emde, Osofsky, & Butterfield, 1993.Mothers of preterm infants reported more negative affect than mothers of term infants. However, the relationship between infant birth status (i.e., term vs. preterm and maternal interpretation of infant facial expressions was moderated by the mother's own negative affectivity. Surprisingly, particularly mothers of term infants who also reported high levels of negative affect were found to interpret infant affect significantly more negatively.Prematurity itself does not seem to be a dominant factor in determining maternal infant affect interpretation, though maternal psychological negative mood does. Both theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  7. A key genetic factor for fucosyllactose utilization affects infant gut microbiota development

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    Matsuki, Takahiro; Yahagi, Kana; Mori, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hoshitaka; Hara, Taeko; Tajima, Saya; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Yamada, Takuji; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kurokawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota development influences infants' health and subsequent host physiology. However, the factors shaping the development of the microbiota remain poorly understood, and the mechanisms through which these factors affect gut metabolite profiles have not been extensively investigated. Here we analyse gut microbiota development of 27 infants during the first month of life. We find three distinct clusters that transition towards Bifidobacteriaceae-dominant microbiota. We observe considerable differences in human milk oligosaccharide utilization among infant bifidobacteria. Colonization of fucosyllactose (FL)-utilizing bifidobacteria is associated with altered metabolite profiles and microbiota compositions, which have been previously shown to affect infant health. Genome analysis of infants' bifidobacteria reveals an ABC transporter as a key genetic factor for FL utilization. Thus, the ability of bifidobacteria to utilize FL and the presence of FL in breast milk may affect the development of the gut microbiota in infants, and might ultimately have therapeutic implications. PMID:27340092

  8. Specificity of infants' response to mothers' affective behavior.

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    Cohn, J F; Tronick, E

    1989-03-01

    Mother-infant face-to-face interaction is central to infant socioemotional development. Little has been known about the mechanisms that mediate the mother's influence. Findings are reviewed from a series of laboratory studies that suggest the major functional components of a mother's behavior are its affective quality and its contingent relationship to her baby's behavior. Quality of mother's affective expression accounted for individual differences in the behavior of thirteen 7-month-old infants living in multiproblem families. Infants' response was specific to the type of affective expression mothers displayed. Flat, withdrawn maternal affective expression was associated with infant distress. Intrusive maternal expression was associated with increased gaze aversion. Lack of contingent responsiveness was common to all but four mothers. Findings suggest that withdrawn or intrusive maternal affective expression, together with lack of contingent responsiveness, may in part be responsible for the risk-status of infants in multiproblem families.

  9. Contingency, Imitation, and Affect Sharing: Foundations of Infants' Social Awareness

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    Markova, Gabriela; Legerstee, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Predictions about the role of contingency, imitation, and affect sharing in the development of social awareness were tested in infants during natural, imitative, and yoked conditions with their mothers at 5 and 13 weeks of age. Results showed that at both ages, infants of highly attuned mothers gazed, smiled, and vocalized positively more during…

  10. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenkov Yu.V.; Nechaev V.N.; Stasova Yu.V.; Tereshenko V.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART); to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies), from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced p...

  11. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  12. The importance of intersectoral factors in promoting equity-oriented universal health coverage: a multilevel analysis of social determinants affecting neonatal infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh

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    Tanvir M. Huda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health is multidimensional and affected by a wide range of factors, many of which are outside the health sector. To improve population health and reduce health inequality, it is important that we take into account the complex interactions among social, environmental, behavioural, and biological factors and design our health interventions accordingly. Objectives: This study examines mortality differentials in children of different age groups by key social determinants of health (SDH including parental education and employment, mother's level of autonomy, age, asset index, living arrangements (utilities, and other geographical contextual factors (area of residence, road conditions. Design: We used data from the two rounds of Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of the population residing in Bangladesh. Multilevel logistic models were used to study the impact of SDH on child mortality. Results: The study found that the mother's age, the education of both parents, the mother's autonomy to take decisions about matters linked to the health of her child, the household socio-economic conditions, the geographical region of residence, and the condition of the roads were significantly associated with higher risks of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Conclusion: The study findings suggest there are complex relationships among different SDH. Thus larger intersectoral actions will be needed to reduce disparities in child health and mortality and achieve meaningful progress towards equity-oriented universal health coverage.

  13. Does cosmic weather affect infant mortality rate?

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    Shamir, Lior

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes to consider a link between infant mortality rate (IMR) and galactic cosmic radiation (CR) density. The periodical increase in solar activity increases the effect of the magnetic field of the sun, and therefore weakens galactic cosmic rays hitting the Earth's surface. As a result, embryos in their early stages of development may be less exposed to high-energy ionizing cosmic rays when the solar activity peaks. In the study discussed here, cosmic ray density data were correlated with the U.S. infant mortality rate in the following year. Statistical analysis shows that in the past 30 years, Pearson correlation between the change in galactic CR flux and IMR decrease in the following year was -0.36 (p < .05). PMID:20687328

  14. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  15. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  16. The Infant Parent Training Institute: A Developmental Model for Training Infant Mental Health Professionals

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    Arons, Judith; Epstein, Ann; Sklan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Infant Parent Training Institute (IPTI) at Jewish Family and Children's Service of Greater Boston offers integrated clinical and theoretical infant mental health training. The curriculum reflects the belief that nurturing and reflective relationships promote optimal learning and growth. A specialty in infant mental health requires knowledge…

  17. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

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    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  18. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

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    Jamie L Hanson

    Full Text Available Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77. In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES, with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  19. Infant mental health screening in the general child health surveilliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Janni; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Andersen, Anette;

    2016-01-01

    was investigated by Rasch item response analyses; the predictive validity was examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The Rasch analyses showed that CIMHS had high construct validity and identified patterns of infant mental health problems without differential item function for gender, age...

  20. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level

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    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia. A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39–44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65–3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41–4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2–3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33–2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35–2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06–0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99–3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61–0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2–0.23]), age of the mother (B –0.03 [95% CI: –0.03, –0.02]), and family size (B –0.14 [95% CI: –0.18,–0.11]). PMID:27495044

  1. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health

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    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging.

  2. Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-07-01

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518

  3. Infant nutrition and lifelong health: current perspectives and future challenges.

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    Robinson, S M

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the role and importance of nutrition in early postnatal life, as an influence on lifelong vulnerability to poor health, is an important part of current research. We need to be able to define optimal patterns of infant feeding, not just to support growth and development in infancy, but also as determinants of later health. To date, much of the focus on the long-term effects of infant nutrition has been on milk feeding, to compare breast and formula feeding and to evaluate the effects of exclusivity, timing and duration of feeding different types of milk in infancy; other aspects of infant feeding such as age at introduction of solid foods and type of weaning diet have received less attention, and relatively little is known about their links to later health. Contemporary data are needed to enable us to move beyond explanation of historical infant feeding data in order to understand and predict health outcomes in future generations. Ongoing and new population studies, that include infants from diverse settings, will be key to providing generalizable data that can be used to define optimal feeding practice. There are some methodological challenges ahead, although significant progress has already been made, and further progress is envisaged in the future. In particular, the opportunity to bring together epidemiological studies and new mechanistic insights that will help identify key aspects of infant nutrition and their causal effects offer great promise both in moving this field forward as well as the potential for health benefits for future generations.

  4. The Role of Maternal Affect Mirroring on Social Expectancies in Three-Month-Old Infants.

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    Legerstee, Maria; Varghese, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the role of maternal affect mirroring on development of prosocial behaviors and social expectancies in 2- to 3-month-olds. Found that infants whose mothers ranked high on affect mirroring (attention maintenance, sensitivity, responsiveness) ranked high on prosocial behaviors and social expectancy, whereas infants whose mothers ranked low…

  5. Energy Expenditure in Infants in Health and Disease

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    Ross Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of energy balance represents a basic theoretical concept in the determination of nutritional and fluid requirements in humans in health and disease. Infants have special nutrient requirements, more limited reserves and relative immaturity of organ function. Energy requirements of infants have been based either retrospectively on intakes required to achieve normal growth or on equations derived from energy expenditure studies performed early this century. Recently, improved techniques for studying resting energy expenditure (REE, total energy expenditure (TEE and metabolically active body compartments in infants have facilitated more accurate estimates of energy requirements. Such studies indicated that current reference values for energy requirements are overestimates, and that compared with measured values, predicted values vary markedly between the various predictive equations with wide co-efficients of variation. In disease states with altered body composition, such as cystic fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, predictive equations markedly underestimate both energy and fluid requirements. In cystic fibrosis, both TEE and REE are 25% higher than values in healthy infants. In extrahepatic biliary atresia, energy expenditure per unit body cell mass is markedly elevated, suggesting that this is a catabolic condition in infants. Current estimates of energy and fluid requirements in both health and disease in infants need reappraisal. Bedside and free living energy expenditure methodology should be used to define accurately components of energy requirement in individual infants.

  6. Impact of Socioeconomic and Health System Factors on Infant Mortality Rate in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC: Evidence from 2004 to 2013

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    Satar Rezaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: infant mortality rate is one of the main health indicators for assessing the health system’s performance over the world. We aim to examine the socioeconomic and health system factors affect infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013. Methods: was used to examine the effects of some of the key explanatory factors (total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure and female labor force participation rate on infant mortality in OPEC from 2004 to 2013.  These data were obtained from World Bank and World Health Organization data bank. Results: our results showed the total fertility rate had a positive and significant impact on infant mortality in the studied period. Also, there are negative significant associations between GDP per capita and public health expenditure with infant mortality. We did not observe any relationship between infant mortality and female labour force participation rate in the studied countries from 2004 to 2013. Conclusion: total fertility rate per women, GDP per capita (current US$, public health expenditure as % of total health expenditure were identified as the main factors affecting on infant mortality in OPEC over the ten years (2004-2013. This study enables health policy-makers to better understand the factors affecting on infant mortality and thereby take necessary steps in managing and decreasing the infant mortality rate in the studied countries.

  7. Mothers’ amygdala response to positive or negative infant affect is modulated by personal relevance

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    Lane eStrathearn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, prioritizing and responding to infant affective cues is a key component of motherhood, with long-term implications for infant socio-emotional development. This important task includes identifying unique characteristics of one’s own infant, as they relate to differences in affect valence—happy or sad—while monitoring one’s own level of arousal. The amygdala has traditionally been understood to respond to affective valence; in the present study, we examined the potential effect of personal relevance on amygdala response, by testing whether mothers’ amygdala response to happy and sad infant face cues would be modulated by infant identity. We used functional MRI to measure amygdala activation in 39 first-time mothers, while they viewed happy, neutral and sad infant faces of both their own and a matched unknown infant. Emotional arousal to each face was rated using the Self Assessment Manikin Scales. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to examine significant predictors of amygdala response. Overall, both arousal ratings and amygdala activation were greater when mothers viewed their own infant’s face compared with unknown infant faces. Sad faces were rated as more arousing than happy faces, regardless of infant identity. However, within the amygdala, a highly significant interaction effect was noted between infant identity and valence. For own-infant faces, amygdala activation was greater for happy than sad faces, whereas the opposite trend was seen for unknown-infant faces. Our findings suggest that the amygdala response to positive and negative valenced cues is modulated by personal relevance. Positive facial expressions from one’s own infant may play a particularly important role in eliciting maternal responses and strengthening the mother-infant bond.

  8. Health concerns of women and infants in times of natural disasters: lessons learned from Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, William M; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J; Ventura, Stephanie J; Farr, Sherry L; Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, Thomas J; Hamilton, Brady E; Shealy, Katherine R; Brantley, Dabo; Posner, Sam F

    2007-07-01

    Pregnant women and infants have unique health concerns in the aftermath of a natural disaster such as Hurricane Katrina. Although exact numbers are lacking, we estimate that approximately 56,000 pregnant women and 75,000 infants were directly affected by the hurricane. Disruptions in the supply of clean water for drinking and bathing, inadequate access to safe food, exposure to environmental toxins, interruption of health care, crowded conditions in shelters, and disruption of public health and clinical care infrastructure posed threats to these vulnerable populations. This report cites the example of Hurricane Katrina to focus on the needs of pregnant women and infants during times of natural disasters and provides considerations for those who plan for the response to these events. PMID:17253147

  9. Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HaddersAlgra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics were recorded while the infants were exposed to s

  10. Early Parent-infant Interactions; Are Health Visitors' Observations Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingeborg Hedegaard; Simonsen, Marianne; Trillingsgaard, Tea;

    2014-01-01

    to the Infant CARE-Index. Health visitors individually reviewed each video twice august 2013. Data analyzed in STATA estimating frequencies, associations and comparing answers from the two groups of health visitors. Both groups had high intentions and self-efficacy according to working with parent...

  11. The health implications of soy infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF) does. Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility o...

  12. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, Anthony F.; Viridian L Benitez; Tony Belpaeme; Angelo Cangelosi; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which n...

  13. An Epidemiological Study on Infant Mortality and Factors Affecting it in Rural Areas of Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokab Namakin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infant mortality rate is one of the most expressive indicators of development in all countries. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of infant mortality and risk factors in rural areas of Birjand in Iran. Methods: This population based case-control study covered 156 infants who died when aged less than one-year in health houses of Birjand between January 2004 and December 2005. For each case, two controls were selected matching one-to-one to the case considering variables of residency and their date of birth. The data was collected through interview with mothers and reviewing infants files in health houses. Findings: 57.7 percent of deaths in under one year old infants happened during the first month of their lives. The most important causes of death in neonates were prematurity and low birth weight (44.4% later gastroenteritis (30.3%. In addition, the study showed that 9.6 percent of infants had died because of narcotic toxicosis. Moreover, the study showed a significant relationship between infant mortality and parents level of education, mothers addiction, age of mother in the first pregnancy, prematurity, low birth weight, type of delivery and exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Special attention to infantile period and special care for infants born to at-risk mothers, as well as providing special health education can cause a dramatic reduction in infants mortality rate.

  14. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Lanari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population.

  15. The Relationship Between Affective and Cognitive Development in Down's Syndrome Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Sroufe, L. Alan

    Examined was the association between affective and cognitive development in 14 Down's Syndrome infants (4- to 8-months-old). Mothers administered a series of 30 laughter items each month, and experimenters gave the Uzgiris-Hunt scales of cognitive development at 13 and 16 months, and the Bayley scales and Infant Behavior Record at 16 months.…

  16. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  17. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  18. Factors affecting visualization of posterior rib fractures in abused infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rib fractures in abused infants commonly occur in the posterior rib arcs. Fractures occurring near the costovertebral articulations are usually identified radiographically only once callus has formed. To assess the factors influencing the visibility of fractures near the costovertical articulations, the authors studied 103 posterior rib fractures occurring in 16 abused infants. Radiologic findings were correlated with CT findings and pathologic material from nine ribs in four patients. The limited visibility of fractures relates to (1) the frequent superimposition of the transverse process over the rib fracture site, (2) a fracture line that crosses at an obliquity to the x-ray beam, and (3) nondisplacement of rib fragments due to preservation of the posterior periosteum. Fresh rib fractures invisible on a frontal projection may be clearly defined on axial CT scans, or on postmortem radiographs. A knowledge of the factors influencing the visibility of these important injuries is useful in planning an appropriate diagnostic evaluation of suspected infant abuse

  19. Demographics, Affect, and Adolescents' Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between affect, demographics, and health-related lifestyle among 139 public high school students. Data analyses revealed distinctive demographic and affective correlates of different health behaviors. No one variable uniformly predicted adolescents' health behaviors. Demographics and affect showed differential relationships…

  20. Associations between infant negative affect and parent anxiety symptoms are bidirectional: Evidence from mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Brooker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant fear-based negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant fear-based negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes.

  1. Socio-Economic Status (SES) Affects Infants' Selective Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Nicholas F.; Bailey, Lillian S.; Clearfield, Melissa W.

    2015-01-01

    Infants change their behaviours in accordance with the objects they are exploring. They also tailor their exploratory actions to the physical context. This selectivity of exploratory actions represents a foundational cognitive skill that underlies higher-level cognitive processes. The present study compared the development of selective exploratory…

  2. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  3. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  4. Methods of linking mothers and infants using health plan data for studies of pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karin E.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Andrade, Susan E.; Cheetham, T. Craig; Scott, Pamela E.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Dashevsky, Inna; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Li, De-Kun; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Dublin, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Research on medication safety in pregnancy often utilizes health plan and birth certificate records. This study discusses methods used to link mothers with infants, a crucial step in such research. Methods We describe how 8 sites participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program created linkages between deliveries, infants and birth certificates for the 2001–2007 birth cohorts. We describe linkage rates across sites and, for two sites, we compare the characteristics of populations linked using different methods. Results Of 299,260 deliveries, 256,563 (86%; range by site, 74–99%) could be linked to infants using a deterministic algorithm. At two sites, using birth certificate data to augment mother-infant linkage increased the representation of mothers who were Hispanic or non-white, younger, Medicaid recipients, or had low educational level. A total of 236,460 (92%; range by site, 82–100%) deliveries could be linked to a birth certificate. Conclusions Tailored approaches enabled linking most deliveries to infants and to birth certificates, even when data systems differed. The methods used may affect the composition of the population identified. Linkages established with such methods can support sound pharmacoepidemiology studies of maternal drug exposure outside the context of a formal registry. PMID:23596095

  5. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Matthew J. Neidell; Johannes Schmieder

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three "criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. In addition to large sample size, our work offers three important innovations: First, because we know the exact addresses of mothers, we select those mothers closest to air monitors to ensure a more accurate measure of air quality. Second, since we follow mothers ove...

  6. Parental Job Loss and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jason M. Lindo

    2010-01-01

    Although there exists a large literature documenting various consequences of job loss, this paper is the first to explore the extent to which the health effects of job displacement extend to the children of displaced workers and also the first to consider whether there are any harmful effects for children who are not yet born when the separation occurs. I use detailed work and fertility histories from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to estimate the effect of parents' job displacements on c...

  7. Infant oral health and oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, A J; Warren, J J

    2000-10-01

    Many oral diseases and conditions, including dental caries (cavities) and malocclusions, have their origins early in life. Prudent anticipatory guidance by the medical and dental professions can help prevent many of the more common oral health problems. This article provides information on the rationale for early dental examination and instructions for pediatric and family practitioners in scheduling and conducting an early oral intervention appointment. In addition, feeding practices, non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, and bruxing are discussed, including their effects on orofacial growth and development.

  8. Selection and the marriage premium for infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey S; Price, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has found a positive relationship between marriage and infant health, but it is unclear whether this relationship is causal or a reflection of positive selection into marriage. We use multiple empirical approaches to address this issue. First, using a technique developed by Gelbach (2009) to determine the relative importance of observable characteristics, we show how selection into marriage has changed over time. Second, we construct a matched sample of children born to the same mother and apply panel data techniques to account for time-invariant unobserved characteristics. We find evidence of a sizable marriage premium. However, this premium fell by more than 40 % between 1989 and 2004, largely as a result of declining selection into marriage by race. Accounting for selection reduces ordinary least squares estimates of the marriage premiums for birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality by at least one-half.

  9. Preventive health behaviours among parents of infants aged four months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, S; Booth, P; Smyth, H; Paul, C

    1992-06-01

    Six preventive health behaviours have been frequently identified as having the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity during infancy: breast-feeding until the age of six months; no solid food until after four months of age; immunisation against whooping cough, diphtheria, poliomyelitis and tetanus; the use of a baby capsule to restrain the infant when travelling in a motor vehicle; regular attendance at a health care provider for preventive health checks; and no maternal smoking. This study surveyed 191 primiparous women four months after the birth of their babies to explore the proportion of parents who perform the recommended preventive health behaviours and the association among the behaviours. Thirty-nine per cent of the women reported that they were no longer breast-feeding by the time their infant was four months old; 35 per cent had introduced solids before 16 weeks of age; 35 per cent did not always use a baby capsule when travelling with their baby in their car, 25 per cent did not regularly attend the early childhood health centres and 22 per cent smoked. Forty-eight per cent of the sample were performing four or fewer of the six preventive health behaviours and 21 per cent were performing three or fewer. The relationship between performing each preventive health behaviour and a range of demographic variables was investigated. A logistic regression indicated that performing three or fewer of the health behaviours was associated with lower levels of education, having public health insurance and being born in a country other than Australia. PMID:1391160

  10. A Call for Integrating a Mental Health Perspective into Systems of Care for Abused and Neglected Infants and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2011-01-01

    A system of care for abused and neglected infants and young children should adopt a comprehensive perspective, with mental health considerations systematically incorporated into policies and decisions affecting children and their families. Children age birth to 5 years have disproportionately high rates of maltreatment, with long-term consequences…

  11. Infant Mortality. A Report Prepared by the Congressional Research Service for the Use of the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment and the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session. Committee Print 98-W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This report presents background information and statistical data on the problem of infant mortality. Contents include (1) a discussion of the causes of infant mortality; (2) data on infant mortality and low birth weight; and (3) information on federal programs affecting maternal and child health. Data tables depict infant mortality in terms of…

  12. Maternal prenatal felt security and infant health at birth interact to predict infant fussing and crying at 12 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Natsumi; Gagné, Faby M; Séguin, Louise; Kramer, Michael S; McNamara, Helen; Platt, Robert W; Goulet, Lise; Meaney, Michael J; Lydon, John E

    2015-08-01

    Infants born with medical problems are at risk for less optimal developmental outcomes. This may be, in part, because neonatal medical problems are associated with maternal distress, which may adversely impact infants. However, the reserve capacity model suggests that an individual's bank of psychosocial resources buffers the adverse effects of later-encountered stressors. This prospective longitudinal study examined whether preexisting maternal psychosocial resources, conceptualized as felt security in close relationships, moderate the association between neonatal medical problems and infant fussing and crying 12 months postpartum. Maternal felt security was measured by assessing its indicators in 5,092 pregnant women. At birth, infants were classified as healthy or having a medical problem. At 12 months, experience sampling was used to assess daily maternal reports of fussing and crying in 135 mothers of infants who were healthy or had medical problems at birth. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that attachment, relationship quality, self-esteem, and social support can be conceptualized as indicators of a single felt security factor. Multiple regression analyses revealed that prenatal maternal felt security interacts with infant health at birth to predict fussing and crying at 12 months. Among infants born with medical problems, higher felt security predicted decreased fussing and crying. Maternal felt security assessed before birth dampens the association between neonatal medical problems and subsequent infant behavior. This supports the hypothesis that psychosocial resources in reserve can be called upon in the face of a stressor to reduce its adverse effects on the self or others. PMID:25528180

  13. Family matters: Infants, toddlers and preschoolers of parents affected by mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalenko, N.M.; Mares, S.P.; Newman, L.K.; Williams, A.E.S.; Powrie, R.M.; Doesum, K.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    One in five young people in Australia, including infants, toddlers and preschoolers, lives in a family with a parent with a mental illness.1 Families affected by mental illness are more likely than other families to experience poverty and social isolation,2 and are more likely to have children taken

  14. Infant mortality in Cabinda, Angola: challenge to health public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razão Simão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To critically discuss, describe and analyze the data on infant mortality provided by public health services of Cabinda, Angola. METHOD: The deaths of children aged less than one year old in 2007 and 2008 were analyzed in the Cabinda province. Provincial hospital records and those of the WHO office were used due to the limited quality and availability of official information. RESULTS: In 2007, 11,734 children were born, and 366 of them died in their first year of life: 113 on the first day, 87 by the 28th day and 166 in the remaining 337 days. In 2008, 13,441 children were born and 275 died; 109 died on the first day and 69 by the 28th day. Malaria was the main cause of death (one out of three. Pneumonia was the second cause in 2007 and the third in 2008, presenting consistent reduction, from 65 to 40 deaths. Cases of diarrhea from 2007 (9.83% decreased to 3.27% in 2008. Tetanus accounted for about 5% of all deaths. Perinatal causes increased in proportion, particularly neonatal asphyxia (17.75% in 2007 and 26.90% in 2008 and prematurity (13.38% in 2007 and 17.45% in 2008. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in the quality of prenatal care, attendance during delivery and to new born risk, would reduce infant mortality. The lack of sanitation, inadequate water supply and poor access to health services played an important role as determinants of infant mortality observed in Cabinda. This study highlights the need to reorganize the civil registration system.

  15. Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fall

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing recognition of the need for a lifecourse approach to understanding the aetiology of adult disease, and there is now significant evidence that links patterns of infant feeding to differences in health outcomes, both in the short and longer term. Breastfeeding is associated with lower rates of infection in infancy; in high-income populations, it is associated with reductions in blood pressure and total blood cholesterol, and lower risks of obesity and diabetes in adult life. Breastfeeding rates are suboptimal in many countries, and strategies to promote breastfeeding could therefore confer important benefits for health at a population level. However, there are particular challenges in defining nutritional exposures in infancy, including marked social gradients in initiation and duration of breastfeeding. In recent studies of low and middle-income populations of children and young adults, where the influences on infant feeding practice differ, beneficial effects of breastfeeding on blood pressure, BMI and risk of diabetes have not been confirmed, and further information is needed. Little is currently known about the long-term consequences of differences in the timing and nature of the weaning diet. Future progress will depend on new studies that provide detailed prospective data on duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding together with appropriate characterisation of the weaning diet.

  16. Infant mortality: a call to action overcoming health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A. Vanderbilt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among all of the industrialized countries, the United States has the highest infant mortality rate. Racial and ethnic disparities continue to plague the United States with a disproportionally high rate of infant death. Furthermore, racial disparities among infant and neonatal mortality rates remain a chronic health problem in the United States. These risks are based on the geographical variations in mortality and disparities among differences in maternal risk characteristics, low birth weights, and lack of access to health care.

  17. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Badiee; Salar Faramarzi; Tahereh MiriZadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Pre...

  18. MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SECTION OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY REPORT OF GHANA, 2008: A COMMENTARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-gyamfi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is basically a commentary on some sections on infant and maternalhealthcare of the 2008 demographic and health survey of Ghana. The attention of bothpolicy makers and academics are drawn to the need to ensure the expansion of thematernal and infant healthcare in Ghana. In same commentary, attention of readershave been drawn to the proclivity of the free maternal health policy to positively shapematernal and infant care in Ghana.

  19. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women’s lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women’s health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant’s intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child’s health and development remain unknown, it is suspected that these risks may be related to the use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy, to substance abuse and the mother’s lifestyle. Moreover, after delivery, maternal mental disorders may also impair the ties of affection (bonding) with the newborn and the maternal capacity of caring in the post-partum period thus increasing the risk for infant infection and malnutrition, impaired child growth that is expressed in low weight and height for age, and even behavioral problems and vulnerability to presenting mental disorders in adulthood. Generally speaking, research on this theme can be divided into the type of mental disorder analyzed: studies that research minor mental disorders during pregnancy such as depression and anxiety find an association between these maternal disorders and obstetric complications such as prematurity and low birth weight, whereas studies that evaluate severe maternal mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have found not only an association with general obstetric complications as well as with congenital malformations and perinatal mortality. Therefore, the success of infant growth care programs also depends on the mother’s mental well being. Such findings have led to the need for new public policies in the field of maternal-infant care geared toward the population of mothers. However, more research is necessary so as to confirm the association between all factors with

  20. Fish oil affects immune function in 9 to 12 month old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja;

    Background - n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to affect immune function and may affect immune maturation in early life. Objective - To examine if fish oil supplementation in late infancy could modify immune function. Design - A 2×2 intervention with fish oil (3.4 ± 1.1 ml....../day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...... production in whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei for 22 h. IgA was measured in feces at 10 months of age. Results - Fish oil supplementation effectively raised RBC n-3 PUFA (p...

  1. Gaze Behavior and Affect at 6-Months: Predicting Clinical Outcomes and Language Development in Typically Developing Infants and Infants At-Risk for Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Gregory S.; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin et al., 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction involving the still-face procedure, the predictive utility of gaze behavior and affective behaviors at 6 months was examined using diagnostic outcome data obtained lo...

  2. UK health visitors' role in identifying and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Nathan, Dilip; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Atkinson, Philippa; Glazebrook, Cris

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of modifiable risk factors that can be identified during infancy or earlier. In the UK, health visitors advise parents about infant feeding, but little is known about their role in obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and current practices of UK health visitors in relation to recognising and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity. Thirty members of the health visiting team were interviewed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Health visitors were aware of some of the modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity such as infant feeding practices. They felt they had a role in advising parents about diet but did not formally identify and/or intervene with larger infants. Infant overweight was considered a sensitive issue that was difficult to raise with parents. They believed some parents preferred larger infants and were unaware that their feeding practices might be contributing to obesity risk. A need for training and guidance was identified together with strategies to overcome system barriers. Health visitors do not currently target parents of infants at risk of obesity largely because they do not perceive they have appropriate guidance and skills to enable them to do so. There is an urgent need for tools and training to enable all health care professionals to recognise and manage infants at risk of developing obesity without creating a sense of blame.

  3. Maternal HIV status affects the infant hemoglobin level: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-08-01

    Children, especially infants, are highly vulnerable to iron-deficiency anemia because of their rapid growth of the brain and the rest of the body. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive mothers and HIV-negative mothers and to identify the determinants of iron-deficiency anemia in infants.A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Bahir Dar city. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Mothers were interviewed; blood samples were collected from mothers and infants to measure the hemoglobin level and anthropometric indicators were obtained from the infants using world health organization standards. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of infantile anemia. Binary logistic regression and multiple linear regressions were used to identify the determinants of infant anemia.A total of 1459 infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers were included. The prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants born from HIV-positive and HIV-negative mothers was 41.9% (95% CI: 39-44). Infantile iron-deficiency anemia was associated with maternal HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.54 [95% CI: 1.65-3.9]), stunting (AOR 3.46 [95% CI: 2.41-4.97]), low income (AOR 2.72 [95% CI: 2-3.73]), maternal malaria during pregnancy (AOR 1.81 [95% CI: 1.33-2.47]), use of cow milk before 6 month (AOR 1.82 [95% CI: 1.35-2.45]), residence (AOR 0.09 [95% CI: 0.06-0.13]), history of cough or fever 7 days preceding the survey (AOR 2.71 [95% CI: 1.99-3.69]), maternal hemoglobin (B 0.65 [95% CI: 0.61-0.68]), educational status of mother (B 0.22 [95% CI: 0.2-0.23]), age of the mother (B -0.03 [95% CI: -0.03, -0.02]), and family size (B -0.14 [95% CI: -0.18,-0.11]). PMID:27495044

  4. Neurosciences of infant mental health development: recent findings and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Adriana; Lifter, Karin

    2014-10-01

    This article is about the neural correlates of infant mental health and their correspondences to social emotional development. These correspondences are organized in terms of the definition of infant mental provided by Zero to Three (2001), centered on infants' capacities regarding the experience and expression of emotions, interpersonal relationships, and learning. We conclude with implications of these correspondences for counseling psychology-namely, working with children's caregivers to maximize children's healthy social and emotional development.

  5. Returns on investment in public health: effect of public health expenditures on infant health, 1983-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, E R; Principe, K; Adams, E K; Teutsch, S M

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we developed a broad conceptual framework focusing on how public health expenditures impact the nation's health. We then applied this framework to infant health outcomes and, using an eight-year state panel database, empirically analyzed how state public health expenditures, ceteris paribus, impact a state's level of teenage births and the receipt of prenatal care. Two hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease births to mothers less than 20 years of age. Hypothesis 2 states that over time, public health expenditures and public health activities, ceteris paribus, significantly decrease the number of infants whose mothers received late or no prenatal care. We find support for both hypotheses but observe that the way public health expenditures are measured has an impact on the findings. Other important implications of the study are noted. To our knowledge, this is the first article that has taken an aggregate state perspective over time and applied it to specific measures of infant health. PMID:9718507

  6. Soil Resources Area Affects Herbivore Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Dacus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil productivity effects nutritive quality of food plants, growth of humans and animals, and reproductive health of domestic animals. Game-range surveys sometimes poorly explained variations in wildlife populations, but classification of survey data by major soil types improved effectiveness. Our study evaluates possible health effects of lower condition and reproductive rates for wild populations of Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman (white-tailed deer in some physiographic regions of Mississippi. We analyzed condition and reproductive data for 2400 female deer from the Mississippi Department of Wildlife, Fisheries, and Parks herd health evaluations from 1991–1998. We evaluated age, body mass (Mass, kidney mass, kidney fat mass, number of corpora lutea (CL and fetuses, as well as fetal ages. Region affected kidney fat index (KFI, which is a body condition index, and numbers of fetuses of adults (P ≤ 0.001. Region affected numbers of CL of adults (P ≤ 0.002. Mass and conception date (CD were affected (P ≤ 0.001 by region which interacted significantly with age for Mass (P ≤ 0.001 and CD (P < 0.04. Soil region appears to be a major factor influencing physical characteristics of female deer.

  7. Reproductive health/family planning and the health of infants, girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development developed international consensus amongst health providers, policy makers, and group representing the whole of civil society regarding the concept of reproductive health and its definition. In line with this definition, reproductive health care is defined as the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. Reproductive health care saves lives and prevents significant levels of morbidity through family planning programmes, antenatal, delivery and post-natal services, prevention and management programmes for reproductive tract infections (including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS), prevention of abortion and management of its complications, cancers of the reproductive system, and harmful practices that impact on reproductive function. Reproductive health care needs are evident at all stages of the life cycle and account for a greater proportion of disability adjusted life years (DALYS) in girls and women than in boys and men. Reproductive health protects infant health by enabling birth spacing and birth limitation to be practiced through family planning. The prevention and early detection of reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, through the integration of preventive measures in family planning service delivery not only improves the quality of care provided but is also directly responsible for improvement in survival and health of infants. Addressing harmful practices such as son preference, sex selection, sexual violence and female genital mutilation complements the positive impact of planned and spaced children through family planning services on infant mortality and the reproductive health of young girls and women. They are also in addition to prenatal, delivery and postnatal services, positive determinants of low maternal mortality and

  8. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  9. What Are Some of the Basics of Infant Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever, diarrhea, or difficulty with breathing Some parents worry that their infant will spit up and choke if they are put to sleep on their backs, but this is not the case. Healthy infants naturally swallow or cough up fluids—it's a reflex all people have. Where the opening to the windpipe is ...

  10. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  11. National Natality Survey/National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survey provides data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of mothers, prenatal care, pregnancy history, occupational background, health status of mother and infant, and types and sources of medical care received.

  12. The Maternal Microbiome and Pregnancy Outcomes that Impact Infant Health: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dunlop, Anne L.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Ferranti, Erin P.; Edwards, Sara; Dunn, Alexis B.; Corwin, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The maternal microbiome is recognized as a key determinant of a range of important maternal and child health outcomes, and together with perinatal factors influences the infant microbiome. This manuscript provides a summary review of research investigating: (1) the role of the maternal microbiome in pregnancy outcomes known to adversely influence neonatal and infant health, including preterm birth, cardiometabolic complications of pregnancy such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and e...

  13. Obesity and overweight: Impact on maternal and milk microbiome and their role for infant health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mantrana, Izaskun; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Obesity, particularly in infants, is becoming a significant public health problem that has reached "epidemic" status worldwide. Obese children have an increased risk of developing obesity-related diseases, such as metabolic syndromes and diabetes, as well as increased risk of mortality and adverse health outcomes later in life. Experimental data show that maternal obesity has negative effects on the offspring's health in the short and long term. Increasing evidence suggests a key role for microbiota in host metabolism and energy harvest, providing novel tools for obesity prevention and management. The maternal environment, including nutrition and microbes, influences the likelihood of developing childhood diseases, which may persist and be exacerbated in adulthood. Maternal obesity and weight gain also influence microbiota composition and activity during pregnancy and lactation. They affect microbial diversity in the gut and breast milk. Such microbial changes may be transferred to the offspring during delivery and also during lactation, affecting infant microbial colonisation and immune system maturation. Thus, an adequate nutritional and microbial environment during the peri-natal period may provide a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of obesity and overweight in our infants using targeted strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota during early life.

  14. Evaluation of the knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about infant oral health and their oral hygiene practices

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ann; Jacob, Anoop; Kunhambu, Dhanalakshmi; Shetty, Priya; Shetty, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mothers play a crucial role in developing and maintaining their infants’ oral hygiene. Maternal oral health, their knowledge and attitude toward infant oral health are strong indicators of their infant's oral health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about infant oral health and their oral hygiene practices. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among expectant mothers in ...

  15. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  16. Risk factors affecting the mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus: a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-hua; SHAO Zhong-jun; WANG Zong-ren; Ma Jing; LONG Yin; YAO Ju-feng

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To search for risk factors that affect mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus(HBV). Methods:To obtain studies eligible for meta-analysis, China biological medicine discs and MEDLINE citations were surveyed. Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity,neonate HBeAg positivity,mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature abor were processed with meta analysis.Criteria for selection of published studies for meta analysis were based on principle by Abdolmaleky HM[1].Odds ratio (OR) was calculated and summarized by fixed effect model or random-effects model using RevMan software. The heterogeneity of the group of Ors was assessed using an x2 test. The significance of he pooled OR was determined by the u-test. The strength of association was assessed using the OR.An OR>1. 0 indicated a positive association between the risk factor and neonate HBV infection. Results:After meta analysis of factors concerned, a significant association was found between the positivity of HBeAg in mother and neonate, of HBV DNA in other peripheral serum, and HBV mother-to-infant transmission, with a pooled OR equal to 19.43 (95% CI=8.77-43.06), 36.5 (95% CI=19.85-67.11),and 36.5 (95 % CI= 19.85-67.11) respectively. Mode of delivery, threatened abortion and threatened premature labor proved not to be of risk factors on the mother-to-infant transmission of HBV. Conclusion:Mother HBV DNA or HBeAg positivity and neonate HBeAg positivity were proved to be of risk factors affecting the transmission of HBV from mother to fetal.

  17. Fair Starts for Children. An Assessment of Rural Poverty and Maternal and Infant Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Richard A.

    The Maternal and Infant Health Outreach Worker Program (MIHOW) of Vanderbilt University's Center for Health Services gathered data on family planning, prenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, and preventive child health care from 60 women in 6 rural, low income communities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The resulting baseline…

  18. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula as affected by composition, water activity, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-07-01

    A study was done to determine survival characteristics of Enterobacter sakazakii in four milk-based and two soybean-based powdered infant formulas. A 10-strain mixture of E. sakazakii was inoculated into the six infant formulas at water activity (aw) 0.25 to 0.30, 0.31 to 0.33, and 0.43 to 0.50 to give low (0.80 log CFU/g) and high (4.66 to 4.86 log CFU/g) populations. At an initial population of 0.80 log CFU/g, E. sakazakii was detected by enrichment in six of six, four of six, and one of six formulas stored for 12 months at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C, respectively. In four of six formulas at aw values of 0.25 to 0.30, initially high populations decreased significantly (P aw range of 0.25 to 0.50 during storage for 1 month at 21 or 30 degrees C and again between 1 and 6 months in most formulas. Significant reductions occurred between 6 and 12 months in some formulas. At all storage temperatures, reductions in populations tended to be greater in formulas at aw 0.43 to 0.50 than in formulas at aw 0.25 to 0.30. The rate of inactivation of E. sakazakii in formulas was not markedly influenced by formula composition. Cells from mucoid and nonmucoid colonies formed by two strains on violet red bile glucose agar supplemented with pyruvate were inoculated into a milk-based powdered infant formula and a soybean-based powdered infant formula having a high aw range of 0.43 to 0.86 and stored at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C for up to 36 weeks. With few exceptions, populations of both strains decreased significantly in both formulas within 2 weeks at all temperatures; rates of death increased with increased aw and storage temperature. The presence of mucoidal extracellular materials on the surface of E. sakazakii cells was not associated with protection against death. This study shows that the retention of viability of E. sakazakii in powdered infant formula is affected by a, and temperature. Increases in both parameters cause an increase in the rate of death. PMID:17685328

  19. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tees, Michael T; Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-07-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n = 288) in 2006-2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother's experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Infant temperament characteristics were reported by the mother using the activity, adaptability, approach, intensity, and mood scales of the Early Infant and Toddler Temperament Questionnaires, and "difficult temperament" was defined as scoring in the top quartile for three or more of the scales. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between hurricane experience, mental health, and infant temperament. Serious experiences of the hurricane did not strongly increase the risk of difficult infant temperament (association with three or more serious experiences of the hurricane: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-3.58 at 2 months; 0.58, 0.15-2.28 at 12 months). Maternal mental health was associated with report of difficult infant temperament, with women more likely to report having a difficult infant temperament at 1 year if they had screened positive for PTSD (aOR 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-5.41), depression, (aOR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-8.20) or hostility (aOR 2.17, 95% CI 0.81-5.82) at 2 months. Large associations between maternal stress due to a natural disaster and infant temperament were not seen, but maternal mental health was associated with reporting difficult temperament. Further research is needed to determine the effects of maternal exposure to disasters on child temperament, but in order to help babies born in the aftermath of disaster, the focus may need to be on the mother's mental health. PMID:19554438

  20. Developmental parameters and vitality of newborn infants in the period 1991-2002 in the Health centre in Subotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durković Jasmina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Infants having a birth weight of 2500g or less are known as low birth weight infants. There are multiple factors which affect the nutritional status of newborn children: genetic potential, maternal age, parity, maternal health and maternal nutrition, drugs, alcohol, smoking, geographical situation and socioeconomic living conditions. Material and methods Developmental parameters were analyzed in 15.455 live newborn infants in Subotica, from 1991 to 2002. The following parameters were registered: body mass in the first hour of life, body length, head and thorax circumference. These parameters were examined and correlated with other indicators of maturity and vitality, such as gestational age and Apgar score values. Results and discussion Parameter mean values are presented for each year from 1991 to 2002. Mean body mass values ranged from 3335.74 g in 1991 to 3418.01 gin 1998. Compared with the estimates provided by World Health Organization, the percentage of newborn infants with birht weight under 2500 g has increased (5.64% in 1991, which was the first year of war and sanctions in our country. From 1994 to 1997, there was a war in neighbouring republics and a huge number of refugees from war regions arrived. The percentage of newborn infants with low birth weight has increased (the gratest percentage 5.08% has been found in 1996. During 1999, our country was bombed and since then, we have an increased number of newborn infants with low birht weight (4.46% were registered in 1999 to 5.22% in 2002. The number of children born before 37th week of gestation is greatest in 2000 (3.17%. Average Apgar score in 1992 was (9.20, showing graduate decrease since 1999, with lowest value during 2001 (8.85. Conclusion Harmful environmental factors can strongly affect fetal growth. Continual follow-up of developmental parameters and vitality of infants on population level is an index of interactions between genetic potential and environmental

  1. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments. PMID:25784954

  2. Infant health, race/ethnicity, and early educational outcomes using the ECLS-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jamie L

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort," this article emphasizes the central role of poor infant health as a mechanism in the formation of early educational disparities. Results indicate that the varying prevalence of poor infant health across racial/ethnic groups explains a significant portion of the black disadvantage and a moderate portion of the Asian advantage relative to whites in math and reading skills at age four. Results also demonstrate that infant health is an equal opportunity offender across social groups as children with poor health are equally disadvantaged in terms of early cognitive development, regardless of racial/ethnic status. Overall, results indicate that health at birth has important consequences for individual educational achievement and racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive development and school readiness. PMID:22171366

  3. Can Social Support in the Guise of an Oral Health Education Intervention Promote Mother-Infant Bonding in Chinese Immigrant Mothers and Their Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Si-Yang; Freeman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine if social support in the guise of a culturally sensitive, community-based oral health intervention could promote mother-infant bonding in socially-isolated immigrant mothers. Design: A quasi-experimental design. Participants: A convenience sample of 36 Chinese immigrant mothers with 8-week-old infants was divided into…

  4. Promoting infant health through home visiting by a nurse-managed community worker team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Boyd, C; Fordham Norr, K; Nacion, K W

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Resources, Education and Care in the Home program (REACH-Futures), an infant mortality reduction initiative in the inner city of Chicago built on the World Health Organization (WHO) primary health care model and over a decade of experience administering programs to reduce infant mortality through home visits. The program uses a nurse-managed team, which includes community residents selected, trained, and integrated as health advocates. Service participants were predominately African American families. All participants were low-income and resided in inner-city neighborhoods with high unemployment, high teen birth rates, violent crime, and deteriorated neighborhoods. Outcomes for the first 666 participants are compared to a previous home-visiting program that used only nurses. Participant retention rates were equivalent overall and significantly higher in the first months of the REACH-Futures program. There were two infant deaths during the course of the study, a lower death rate than the previous program or the city. Infant health problems and developmental levels were equivalent to the prior program and significantly more infants were fully immunized at 12 months. The authors conclude that the use of community workers as a part of the home-visiting team is as effective as the nurse-only team in meeting the needs of families at high risk of poor infant outcomes. This approach is of national interest because of its potential to achieve the desired outcomes in a cost-effective manner.

  5. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection--United States, February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; Nelson, Jennifer M; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Mead, Paul; Villanueva, Julie; Renquist, Christina M; Minta, Anna A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-02-26

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease. This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ≥2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild. As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

  6. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem. PMID:26984825

  7. Characteristics of human breast milk and infants' health on the radionuclide contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    206 samples of breast milk of mothers living on the radionuclide contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus as well as their infants' health have been studied. Each sample was examined on content of cesium 137 and strontium 90 and reduce of the immunologic usefulness of milk was detected. The infants fed with the breast milk containing radionuclides suffer from anemia, infectious and inflammatory diseases more often than ones from 'clean' regions

  8. Possible impact of phthalates on infant reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Grete Lottrup; Andersson, A-M; Leffers, H;

    2006-01-01

    discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. One study analysed phthalate monoesters in breast milk and reproductive hormone levels in infants. Five of six phthalates [monoethyl-(MEP), monobutyl- (MBP......) levels. MMP, MEP, MBP, MEHP and MiNP were positively correlated with the LH/testosterone ratio. Another study found a reduction of the anogenital index (AGI) in infant boys with increasing levels of MBP, MEP, monobenzyl- and mono-isobutyl phthalate in maternal urine samples during late-pregnancy. Boys...... with small AGI showed a high prevalence of cryptorchidism and small genital size. Taken together these studies suggest an antivirilizing effect of phthalates in infants. Most of these findings are in line with animal observations. However, the possible effects of MEP appear to be limited to humans. This may...

  9. The State of the Science on Environmental Chemicals in Breast milk and the Relationship to Infant Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breastfeeding’s health benefits to the infant and mother have been explored extensively by researchers, physicians, and public health professionals worldwide. Relevant authorities such as the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics have concluded th...

  10. Maternal Drug Use during Pregnancy: Are Preterm and Full-Term Infants Affected Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Sexson, William R.; Demi, Alice S.

    1998-01-01

    Examined effects of prenatal drug exposure on infants born preterm and full-term to African American mothers. Found more extreme fetal growth deficits in later-born infants, and more extreme irritability increases in earlier-born infants. Gestation length did not moderate cardiorespiratory reactivity effects. Exposure effects occurred for…

  11. Effectiveness of an oral health program for mothers and their infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medeiros, P.B.; Otero, S.A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Leal, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The baby oral health program (bOHP) provides pregnant women and their future babies with oral care. AIM: To assess the bOHP effectiveness by comparing caries prevalence in infants enrolled and not enrolled in the oral health program (OHP). DESIGN: Mothers who had been invited to particip

  12. The importance of evaluating primary midwifery care for improving the health of women and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ank eDe Jonge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, maternal and newborn care is fragmented and focused on identification and treatment of pathology that affects only the minority of women and babies. Recently, a Framework for Quality Maternal and Newborn Care (QMNC was developed, which encourages a system-level shift to provide skilled care for all. This care includes preventive and supportive care that works to strengthen women’s capabilities and focuses on promotion of normal reproductive processes while ensuring access to emergency treatment when needed. Midwifery care is pivotal in this framework which contains several elements that resonate with the main dimensions of primary care. Primary health care is the first level of contact with the health system where most of the population’s curative and preventive health needs can be fulfilled as close as possible to where people live and work. In this paper, we argue that midwifery as described in the framework requires the application of a primary care philosophy for all childbearing women and infants. Evaluation of the implementation of the framework should therefore include tools to monitor the performance of primary midwifery care.

  13. Effects of Cesarean Section on Infant Health in China:Matched Prospective Cohort Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the medical outcomes of infants delivered by cesarean section with those of infants delivered vaginally.Methods A total of 301 healthy women with cesarean section and a matched control group of 301 women delivered vaginally were identified at three district-level hospitals in Shanghai from May 2001 to February 2003.Two groups were matched according to their medical indications Tor cesarean section.Their infants were assessed at delivery,1 month,6 month and 1 year after birth.Results The incidence of neonatal complications and infant morbidities at all measurement occasions did not differ significantly between groups.Rehospitalization was found to be more likely among infants delivered by cesarean section in the first month after birth.However,there was no difference between two groups in the incidence of rehospitalization in the first year after birth. Cesarean section was also associated with a higher risk of infant diarrhea (adjusted relative risk=1.25,95% CI:1.01,1.56).Conclusion Infants did not have health benefits from cesarean section if the pregnancy was at low risk.

  14. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing. PMID:27276798

  15. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  16. User experience network. Supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units may not activate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The supply gas failure alarm on Cardinal Health Infant Flow SiPAP units manufactured before April 2009 may not activate in the event of a gas supply loss if the device's silencer accessory is attached. However, the unit's FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) and low-airway-pressure alarms will activate in such cases. If both of these alarms activate simultaneously, users should suspect a failure of the gas supply pressure. Identifying affected units requires testing that can be conducted during the device's next scheduled maintenance.

  17. Care around birth, infant and mother health and maternal health investments – Evidence from a nurse strike

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health...... not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health...... investments indicate that strike-exposed mothers—especially those who lacked postnatal early home visits—are less likely to exclusively breastfeed their child at four months. Thus reduced care around birth may have persistent effects on treated children through its impact on parental investments....

  18. Xanthophylls and eye health of infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, Adib A; Bejjani, Riad A; Fares, Florence N

    2009-01-01

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids present in the eye. They cannot be synthesized de novo and are specifically concentrated in the macula. They appear to have at least two major functions: to filter out blue light and thus prevent ensuing damages to the eye and to act as antioxidants. Infants are particularly at risk from both blue light and oxidative damage to eye tissues. Lutein is present in human milk but is not currently added to infant formulas. Fortifying formulae with lutein in order to match more closely human milk might help protect the infant's sensitive eyes. In adults, the exact pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy remains unknown. Light damage, inflammation, and the disruption of cellular processes by oxidative stress may play an important role in the degenerative process. Manipulation of intake of xanthophylls has been shown to augment macular pigment, therefore it is thought that carotenoid dietary supplements could prevent, delay, or modify the course of age-related maculopathy. However, definite evidence of the effect of carotenoids, the optimal doses to use, and the supplementation duration are still under investigation. PMID:20027805

  19. Local analgesia for infant pyloromyotomy. Does wound infiltration with bupivacaine affect postoperative behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Sury, M. R.; McLuckie, A; Booker, P D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 20 infants undergoing general anaesthesia for pyloromyotomy were studied in a randomised, blind and controlled trial to determine the postoperative behavioural and cardiorespiratory effects of wound infiltration of bupivacaine. Ten infants received bupivacaine (0.6 ml/kg, 0.25% = 1.5 mg/kg) injected intradermally into the wound during general anaesthesia and 10 infants received general anaesthesia only. Postoperatively, an independent observer assessed conscious level, crying, pos...

  20. Vitamin D and health in pregnancy, infants, children and adolescents in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Georgia A; Teale, Glyn R; Nowson, Caryl A; Mason, Rebecca S; McGrath, John J; Thompson, Melanie J; Siafarikas, Aris; Rodda, Christine P; Munns, Craig F

    2013-02-18

    • The recommended level for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in infants, children, adolescents and during pregnancy and lactation is ≥ 50 nmol/L. This level may need to be 10-20 nmol/L higher at the end of summer to maintain levels ≥ 50 nmol/L over winter and spring. • Sunlight is the most important source of vitamin D. The US recommended dietary allowance for vitamin D is 600 IU daily in children aged over 12 months and during pregnancy and lactation, assuming minimal sun exposure. • Risk factors for low vitamin D are: lack of skin exposure to sunlight, dark skin, southerly latitude, conditions affecting vitamin D metabolism and storage (including obesity) and, for infants, being born to a mother with low vitamin D and exclusive breastfeeding combined with at least one other risk factor. • Targeted measurement of 25(OH)D levels is recommended for infants, children and adolescents with at least one risk factor for low vitamin D and for pregnant women with at least one risk factor for low vitamin D at the first antenatal visit. • Vitamin D deficiency can be treated with daily low-dose vitamin D supplements, although barriers to adherence have been identified. High-dose intermittent vitamin D can be used in children and adolescents. Treatment should be paired with health education and advice about sensible sun exposure. Infants at risk of low vitamin D should be supplemented with 400 IU vitamin D₃ daily for at least the first year of life. • There is increasing evidence of an association between low vitamin D and a range of non-bone health outcomes, however there is a lack of data from robust randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation. PMID:23418693

  1. Optimizing Early Protein Intake for Long-Term Health of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2016-01-01

    The idea that early protein intake may influence, or program, long-term health in preterm infants is strongly supported by decades of research starting from the early 1980s. At this time, it was recognized that preterm infants required a high protein intake to achieve postnatal growth closer to the intrauterine growth rate of a normal fetus of the same postconceptional age, a goal regarded optimal for short- and long-term health. Subsequently, follow-up of preterm infants randomized to different neonatal diets demonstrated that those receiving higher protein intakes that promoted growth had benefits for brain structure and function up to 16 years later, but also detrimental effects on cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance and adiposity. These effects of early growth on risk of metabolic disease, termed the 'growth acceleration' hypothesis, have been demonstrated in randomized and observational studies in infants born preterm and at term. Nevertheless, on balance, current nutrition policy for preterm infants is based on the consensus that supporting optimal neurodevelopment is the neonatologist's highest priority. Therefore, this policy appropriately favors early administration of a high protein intake to benefit neurodevelopment, irrespective of any increase in cardiovascular risk. The current review will consider the evidence underlying this policy. PMID:27336311

  2. The National Rural Health Mission in India: its impact on maternal, neonatal, and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Shyama; Paul, Vinod K; Yadav, Namrata; Gupta, Shuchita

    2015-10-01

    The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) has been a watershed in the history of India's health sector. As a previously unattempted investment, governance, and mobilization effort, the NRHM succeeded in injecting new energy into India's public health system. A huge expansion of infrastructure and human resources is the hallmark of the NRHM action. Demand-side initiatives led to enhanced utilization of public health facilities, especially for facility births. The impact is visible. The Mission has brought Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 within India's grasp. Acceleration in infant and neonatal mortality reduction is especially notable. The NRHM has created conditions for the country to move toward universal health coverage. PMID:26385051

  3. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia N. Aziz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive affect on child health.

  4. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  5. Modified Spectral Tilt Affects Older, but Not Younger, Infants' Native-Language Fricative Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Kitamura, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is important to ensure that hearing aid fitting strategies for infants take into account the infant's developing speech perception system. As a way of exploring this issue, this study examined how 6- and 9-month-olds with normal hearing perceive native-language speech in which the natural spectral shape was altered to emphasize either…

  6. Postnatal Depression and Infant Health Practices among High-Risk Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek-Farber, Michaela L.

    2009-01-01

    Women's postnatal depressive symptoms have been associated with many adverse outcomes for children. The current study examined the frequency association with relative risk between postnatal depressive symptoms and mothers' use of preventative infant health practices. The study used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Parental…

  7. Screening of Infants at Eight Months for Atypical Development in Primary Health Care in Southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivberg, Bengt; Lundqvist, Pia; Johanson, Ingmarie; Nordström, Berit; Persson, Bengt A.

    2016-01-01

    Screening studies of a population in primary health care are sparsely reported. The aim was to describe observed atypical behaviours that may be associated with autism spectrum conditions, in a population (n?=?4,329) of infants at eight months. Observations were performed by paediatric nurses. An observational instrument, named SEEK developed for…

  8. Disposition and Health Outcomes among Infants Born to Mothers with No Prenatal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Heneghan, Amy; Rosenthal, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed infant disposition and health outcomes among offspring born to mothers without prenatal care, based on maternal characteristics and the reason for lack of prenatal care (i.e., denial of pregnancy, concealment of pregnancy, primary substance use, financial barriers and multiparity). Methods: A retrospective record…

  9. Developments in infants exposure to dioxins, furans and PCBs and potential health consequences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers CEJ; Zeilmaker MJ; Molen GW van der; Slob W; Lebret E; CCM; LBO; Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam, afdeling

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the time trend by means of PBPK modelling, and the associated health effects of pre- and postnatal exposure of infants to dioxins, furans and PCBs. Using PBPK modelling there was an expected decrease of ca. 20% in dioxin levels in human milk shown for 1998 com

  10. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  11. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kulik Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.

  12. Role of affective attitudes and anticipated affective reactions in predicting health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M; McEachan, R.; Taylor, N; O'Hara, J.; Lawton, R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Two measures of affect-affective attitude (AA) and anticipated affective reaction (AAR)- have frequently been used individually, but rarely simultaneously, in correlational studies predicting health behaviors. This research assessed their individual and combined impact in predicting intention and action for a range of health behaviors, controlling for theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables. Method: Self-reported intentions and performance of health behaviors were the main outco...

  13. A literature review of record linkage procedures focusing on infant health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jorge Machado

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Record linkage is a powerful tool in assembling information from different data sources and has been used by a number of public health researchers. In this review, we provide an overview of the record linkage methodologies, focusing particularly on probabilistic record linkage. We then stress the purposes and research applications of linking records by focusing on studies of infant health outcomes based on large data sets, and provide a critical review of the studies in Brazil.

  14. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  15. Frontal Brain Electrical Activity (EEG) and Heart Rate in Response to Affective Infant-Directed (ID) Speech in 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Diane L.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown that infants prefer infant-directed (ID) speech to adult-directed (AD) speech. ID speech functions to aid language learning, obtain and/or maintain an infant's attention, and create emotional communication between the infant and caregiver. We examined psychophysiological responses to ID speech that varied in affective…

  16. Analysis of the Factors That Affect Dental Health Behaviour and Attendance at Scheduled Dental Check-ups Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Kimiko; ODA, MEGUMI

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was administered to 317 parents who attended infant health check-ups in City B, Okayama Prefecture between October, 2008 and March, 2009. The questionnaire survey studied 7 factors based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. We analysed factors that affected oral health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. The survey containing 22 items concerning matters such as 'QOL' and 'health problems' was posted to parents and guardians in advance, and then colle...

  17. We are what we eat: how the diet of infants affects their gut microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Mihai

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous analysis of the gut microbiome and host gene expression in infants reveals the impact of diet (breastfeeding versus formula) on host-microbiome interactions. See research article http://www.genomebiology.com/2012/13/4/r32

  18. Does parental unemployment affect adolescents' health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Geckova, A.M.; Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the associations between mother's and father's employment status separately and together and the subjective health of children; and how parental education and financial strain can modify these associations. Methods: Data were obtained from 2836 respondents aged 14 to 22 years (me

  19. Travelers' Health: Vaccine Recommendations for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread Pack Smart Plan Ahead ... are available each year on the CDC Travelers’ Health website ( www.cdc.gov/travel ). Meningococcal vaccine is also recommended for children aged ...

  20. Connecting the dots: how local structure affects global integration in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Melanie; Pettet, Mark; Vildavski, Vladimir; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    Glass patterns are moirés created from a sparse random-dot field paired with its spatially shifted copy. Because discrimination of these patterns is not based on local features, they have been used extensively to study global integration processes. Here, we investigated whether 4- to 5.5-month-old infants are sensitive to the global structure of Glass patterns by measuring visual-evoked potentials. Although we found strong responses to the appearance of the constituent dots, we found sensitivity to the global structure of the Glass patterns in the infants only over a very limited range of spatial separation. In contrast, we observed robust responses in the infants when we connected the dot pairs of the Glass pattern with lines. Moreover, both infants and adults showed differential responses to exchanges between line patterns portraying different global structures. A control study varying luminance contrast in adults suggests that infant sensitivity to global structure is not primarily limited by reduced element visibility. Together our results suggest that the insensitivity to structure in conventional Glass patterns is due to inefficiencies in extracting the local orientation cues generated by the dot pairs. Once the local orientations are made unambiguous or when the interpolation span is small, infants can integrate these signals over the image.

  1. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicaceae vegetables. These health promoting affects are due to a range of phytochemicals including primary (carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acid) and secondary metabolites (phenolics and glucosino...

  2. Role of Sphingolipids in Infant Gut Health and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Åke

    2016-06-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM), glycosphingolipids, and gangliosides are important polar lipids in the milk fat globule membrane but are not found in standard milk replacement formulas. Because digestion and absorption of SM and glycosphingolipids generate the bioactive metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and because intact gangliosides may have beneficial effects in the gut, this may be important for gut integrity and immune maturation in the neonate. The brush border enzymes that hydrolyze milk SM, alkaline sphingomyelinase (nucleotide phosphodiesterase pyrophosphatase 7), and neutral ceramidase are expressed at birth in both term and preterm infants. Released sphingosine is absorbed, phosphorylated to S1P, and converted to palmitic acid via S1P-lyase in the gut mucosa. Hypothetically, S1P also may be released from absorptive cells and exert important paracrine actions favoring epithelial integrity and renewal, as well as immune function, including secretory IgA production and migration of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Gluco-, galacto-, and lactosylceramide are hydrolyzed to ceramide by lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, which also hydrolyzes lactose. Gangliosides may adhere to the brush border and is internalized, modified, and possibly transported into blood, and may exert protective functions by their interactions with bacteria, bacterial toxins, and the brush border. PMID:27234412

  3. Gut Microbiome and Infant Health: Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Host Genetic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Romisher, Rachael; Poveda, Samantha; Forte, Shaina; Starkweather, Angela; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the neonatal gut microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, such as delivery mode, feeding, medication use, hospital environment, early life stress, and genetics. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota persists during infancy, especially in high-risk preterm infants who experience lengthy stays in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Infant microbiome evolutionary trajectory is essentially parallel with the host (infant) neurodevelopmental process and growth. The role of the gut microbiome, the brain-gut signaling system, and its interaction with the host genetics have been shown to be related to both short and long term infant health and bio-behavioral development. The investigation of potential dysbiosis patterns in early childhood is still lacking and few studies have addressed this host-microbiome co-developmental process. Further research spanning a variety of fields of study is needed to focus on the mechanisms of brain-gut-microbiota signaling system and the dynamic host-microbial interaction in the regulation of health, stress and development in human newborns.

  4. HIV and infant feeding in Malawi: public health simplicity in complex social and cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinkonde Jacqueline R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of when and how to best wean infants born to mothers with HIV requires complex answers. There are clinical guidelines on best approaches but limitations persist when applying them in diverse low-income settings. In such settings, infant-feeding practices are not only dependent on individual women’s choices but are also subject to social and cultural pressures. However, when developing infant-feeding policies little attention has been paid to these pressures, even though they may yield useful empirical knowledge on the various forces that shape the infant-feeding dilemmas confronting women with HIV. This study aimed to a identify the infant-feeding challenges that women with HIV faced when they were advised to wean their children at an early age of six months and b explore how the women adhered to their infant-feeding options while facing and managing these challenges. Methods This study was conducted between February 2008 and April 2009 at two public health facilities where services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV were implemented. Repeated in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 HIV-positive women. Two of the 20 women were also chosen for case studies which included home visits. Results Several interdependent factors including the conflicting pressures of sexual morality and the demands of nurturing and motherhood, in conditions of abject poverty, impeded the participating women from following medical advice on infant feeding. If they adhered to the medical advice, the women would encounter difficulty maintaining their ascribed roles as respected wives, mothers and members of the society at large. The necessity of upholding their moral standing through continued breastfeeding, which signified HIV-negative status, put pressure on them to ignore the medical advice. Conclusions The infant-feeding dilemmas for women with HIV are complex. The integration of public health efforts with context

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  6. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts ...

  7. Risk Factors for Anemia among Brazilian Infants from the 2006 National Demographic Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Konstantyner; Thais Cláudia Roma Oliveira; José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency is an important public health problem. An understanding of anemia risk factors is essential to informed health policies. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,382 infants from the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and the Health of Women and Children. Mild and moderate anemia was characterised by hemoglobin levels below 11.0 and 9.5 g/dL, respectively. Rates for mild and moderate anemia were 25.9% and 9.9%, respectively. The logistic model included three risk fa...

  8. How a face may affect object-based attention: Evidence from adults and 8-month-old infants

    OpenAIRE

    Eloisa eValenza; Laura eFranchin; Hermann eBulf

    2014-01-01

    Object-based attention operates on perceptual objects, opening the possibility that the costs and benefits humans have to pay to move attention between objects might be affected by the nature of the stimuli. The current study reported two experiments with adults and 8-month-old infants investigating whether object-based-attention is affected by the stimulus social salience (faces vs. non-faces stimuli). Using the well-known cueing task developed by Egly et al. (1994) to study the object-based...

  9. Do Sustained Lung Inflations during Neonatal Resuscitation Affect Cerebral Blood Volume in Preterm Infants? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwaberger

    Full Text Available Sustained lung inflations (SLI during neonatal resuscitation may promote alveolar recruitment in preterm infants. While most of the studies focus on respiratory outcome, the impact of SLI on the brain hasn't been investigated yet.Do SLI affect cerebral blood volume (CBV in preterm infants?Preterm infants of gestation 28 weeks 0 days to 33 weeks 6 days with requirement for respiratory support (RS were included in this randomized controlled pilot trial. Within the first 15 minutes after birth near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measurements using 'NIRO-200-NX' (Hamamatsu, Japan were performed to evaluate changes in CBV and cerebral tissue oxygenation. Two groups were compared based on RS: In SLI group RS was given by applying 1-3 SLI (30 cmH2O for 15 s continued by respiratory standard care. Control group received respiratory standard care only.40 infants (20 in each group with mean gestational age of 32 weeks one day (±2 days and birth weight of 1707 (±470 g were included. In the control group ΔCBV was significantly decreasing, whereas in SLI group ΔCBV showed similar values during the whole period of 15 minutes. Comparing both groups within the first 15 minutes ΔCBV showed a tendency toward different overall courses (p = 0.051.This is the first study demonstrating an impact of SLI on CBV. Further studies are warranted including reconfirmation of the present findings in infants with lower gestational age. Future investigations on SLI should not only focus on respiratory outcome but also on the consequences on the developing brain.German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005161 https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do.

  10. [Public health programs have greatly reduced infant mortality in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The spectacular decline of infant mortality in Costa Rica from 68/1000 live births in 1970 to 20/1000 in 1980 was largely due to the implementation of public health programs in the 1970s. The abrupt decline was even more notable because deaths of infants constituted the major health problem of the country during the 1960s, accounting for 40% of all registered deaths. Socioeconomic development and reduced fertility contributed to the reduction, but 3/4 of the improvement can be attributed to extension of primary health care to previously unserved rural populations and to better secondary health care, according to a study by the Costa Rican demographer Luis Rosero Bixby. The programs targeted at less privileged groups substantially reduced class and geographic differentials in infant mortality. Infant mortality began to decline at an accelerating rate in 1972, coinciding with the first national health plan and the law of universal social security in 1971, the transfer of public hospitals to the social security system and promulgation of a general health law in 1973, and application of the rural health program in 1973 and community health program in 1976. By 1980, home services reached 60% of the population and immunization programs were in place for measles and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. There was a doubling of outpatient services and a tripling of hours contracted by doctors between 1970-80. Also in 1980, 78% of the Costa Rican population was fully covered by health insurance. After 1972, infant mortality declined from all causes except complications of pregnancy and congenital anomalies. The decline was most rapid for deaths due to prematurity, illnesses avoidable by vaccination, and illnesses such as septicemia and meningitis in which prompt diagnosis and treatment can be lifesaving. Although impressive gains were made in neonatal mortality, the main share of the decline between 1970-80 was in postneonatal mortality. Reductions in deaths due to diarrheal

  11. Immunizing Infants (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-18

    Parents can protect the health of their children by making sure they’re up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. This podcast discusses the importance of childhood immunization.  Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/18/2013.

  12. Prevalence of nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding in the mother-infant dyad in basic health unit

    OpenAIRE

    Ocilia Maria Costa Carvalho; Karolina Rodrigues Silva; Lívia Zulmyra Cintra Andrade; Viviane Martins da Silva; Marcos Venícios de Oliveira Lopes

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study conducted with 28 mother-infant dyads, users of a Family Health Center of Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, that aimed to identify the nursing diagnoses of breastfeeding, their frequency of occurrence, defining characteristics, and the value of maternal confidence based on the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale. Data collection happened during September and October 2010, using interviews, anamnesis, and physical examination of the dyad. The most prevalent diagnosis was Eff...

  13. Infant milk feeding influences adult bone health: a prospective study from birth to 32 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peak bone mass, attained by early adulthood, is influenced by genetic and life-style factors. Early infant feeding and duration of breastfeeding in particular, associate with several health-related parameters in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether the effects of early infant feeding extend to peak bone mass and other bone health characteristics at adult age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cohort of 158 adults (76 males born in Helsinki, Finland, 1975, prospectively followed up from birth, underwent physical examination and bone densitometry to study bone area, bone mineral content (BMC, and bone mineral density (BMD at 32 years of age. Life-style factors relevant for bone health were recorded. For data analysis the cohort was divided into three equal-size groups according to the total duration of breastfeeding (BF: Short (≤3 months, Intermediate and Prolonged (≥7 months BF groups. In males short BF is associated with higher bone area, BMC, and BMD compared to longer BF. Males in the Short BF group had on average 4.7% higher whole body BMD than males in the Prolonged BF group. In multivariate analysis, after controlling for multiple confounding factors, the influence of BF duration on adult bone characteristics persisted in males. Differences between the three feeding groups were observed in lumbar spine bone area and BMC, and whole body BMD (MANCOVA; p = 0.025, p = 0.013, and p = 0.048, respectively, favoring the Short BF group. In women no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In men, early infant milk feeding may have a significant impact on adult bone health. A potential explanation is that the calcium and phosphate contents were strikingly higher in formula milk and commercial cow milk/cow milk dilutions as opposed to human milk. Our novel finding merits further studies to determine means to ensure optimal bone mass development in infants with prolonged breastfeeding.

  14. Does dental health education affect inequalities in dental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L; Wight, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the Lothian 1991 dental health campaigns on 5-year-old schoolchildren's oral hygiene and gingival health in relation to deprivation. A stratified random sample of 486 children was selected from 92 primary schools in the city of Edinburgh. Clinical examinations...... took place immediately before (T1), a month after (T2) and 4 months after the campaign (T3). A total of 342 (70 per cent) children received all 3 examinations. Oral hygiene and gingival health were examined using a modified Silness and Löe and the Ainamo and Bay Index. Toothbrushes and take...... to established social indicators. The results showed a statistically significant improvement in plaque scores at T2 and T3 (P gingival health improved at T2 and T3 (P

  15. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than

  16. Environmental Health and Primary Health Care in micro-territories: the infant mortality rate as a guide for the healthcare team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herling Gregorio Aguilar Alonzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, the Brazilian Unified Health System has improved primary health care and the implementation of environmental health surveillance. In Brazil, basic sanitation coverage has also improved. Macro-regional inequalities are known to exist, but there is little information about the micro-territories where primary care actions are being carried out. This study attempts to describe the influence of drinking water coverage (DWC, sanitation (SC and solid waste management services (SWMS on the infant mortality rate (IMR in areas covered by primary care facilities (PCF, within the Northwest Health District of Campinas/SP. An ecological study was conducted using secondary data for the year 2000. In the eight PCF, DWC varied between 96.3 % and 99.9 %, SC between 67 % and 99.8 %, and SWMS between 95.8 % and 99.9 %. The IMR varied between 5.5 ‰ and 22.9 ‰. An inverse relationship was found, in which the larger the DWC (R2= 0.73, SC (R2= 0.78 and SWMS (R2= 0.95 the lower was the IMR. In addition to other factors, basic sanitation affects the health of the population and, according to the results presented here, there are inequalities in the areas covered by the PCF. Therefore, managers and health professionals, especially those in primary care, should take these factors into consideration to set priorities, actions and targets for integral care, intersectoral collaboration and health surveillance.

  17. Immunizing Infants (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-18

    One of the main things parents can do to protect the health of their children is to make sure they’re up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. In this podcast, Dr. Yabo Beysolow discusses the importance of ensuring children are up-to-date on their vaccinations.  Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/18/2013.

  18. Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160304.html Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival 2 studies highlight disparities in outcomes for uninsured and Medicaid patients To use the sharing features on this ...

  19. How Does Bullying Affect Health and Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How does bullying affect health & well-being? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Bullying can lead to physical injury, social problems, emotional ...

  20. How Do Object Size and Rigidity Affect Reaching and Grasping in Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Francisco, Kelly Regina; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between such an intrinsic factor, Down syndrome, and extrinsic factors, such as different object properties. Seven infants with Down syndrome and seven…

  1. Maternal symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy affect infant neuromotor development: the generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van Batenburg-Eddes; L. de Groot; A.C. Huizink; E.A.P. Steegers; A. Hofman; V.W.V. Jaddoe; F.C. Verhulst; H. Tiemeier

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  2. Maternal Symptoms of Anxiety During Pregnancy Affect Infant Neuromotor Development: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg-Eddes, T. van; Groot, L. de; Huizink, A.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies found that maternal symptoms of anxiety or depression are related to functioning and development of the offspring. Within a population-based study of 2,724 children, we investigated the effect of maternal anxiety or depression on infant neuromotor development. Symptoms of anxiety and

  3. Infant motivation in dental health: Attitude without constant reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bucholdz Teixeira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social factors determine the child′s behavior and motivation is an important task in the teaching-learning process. This longitudinal and cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of a motivational activity program for oral hygiene habits formation after motivation and without constant reinforcement. Materials and Methods: The sample was constituted of 26 children (mean 6 years old from a Public Kindergarten School in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Data were collected applying a test-chart, with figures reporting the process of dental health/illness. Some figures were considered positive to dental health (dentist/Cod 1, toothbrush/Cod 3, dentifrice/dental floss/Cod 6, fruits/vegetables/Cod 7 and tooth without caries lesion/Cod 8 and negative on dental health (sweets/Cod 2, bacteria/Cod 4, tooth with caries lesion/Cod 5. The figures presentation occurred in three different stages: First stage - figures were presented to children without previous knowledge; second stage - following the motivational presentation, and third stage - 30 days after the first contact. Results: On the first stage, most children select good for the figures considered harmful to their teeth (Cod 2-88%; Cod 4-77% and Cod 5-65%. On the second stage, there was a lower percentage: 23% (P < 0.0001, 8% (P < 0.0001, and 23% (P = 0.0068 related to the Cod 2, 4, and 5. On the third stage, the results showed again an association with the good choice to these figures considered harmful (Cod 2-85%, Cod 4-65% and Cod 5-54% similar the results obtained on the first stage. Conclusion: The motivational programs performed without constant reinforcement does not have a positive influence in changing the child′s behavior related to a better dental care.

  4. Stress response and health affecting compounds in Brassicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Summary of the Thesis: Vegetables have always been considered as healthy food. So also Brassica vegetables are well known all over the world as a common food due to the presence of health affecting compounds (Chapter 2). A vast amount of data is available for health promoting compounds in Brassicace

  5. The role of maternal nutrition in growth and health of Indonesian infants: a focus on vitamin A and iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy is important for women's health, pregnancy outcome, and infant growth and health. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A of pregnant women improves growth and health, as indicated by reduced morbidity and impr

  6. Syndromes associated with children exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment to multiple mycotoxins in infant foods

    OpenAIRE

    Alvito, Paula; Carla MARTINS; Assunção, Ricardo; Pires, M.J.; Calhau, Maria Antónia

    2015-01-01

    1. Children health and mycotoxins; 2. Routes of exposure; 3. Syndromes Syndromes associated associated with children children exposure exposure to mycotoxins: to mycotoxins: ingestion and inhalation; 4. Health risk assessment to multiple mycotoxins in infant foods -MYCOMIX project (PTDC/DTP-FTO/0417/2012); 5. Critical role of health professionals

  7. Health behaviors, affect, and academic performance : three longitudinal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, Lavinia Heidy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health behaviors are a fundamental and highly fluctuating component of everyday life. Evidence capturing these natural daily fluctuations is limited. Therefore, this dissertation investigates how these daily dynamics in health behaviors are associated with other important aspects of young adults’ everyday lives and bridges separate research strands by integrating health behaviors, affect, stress, and academic performance in three intensive longitudinal studies. Method: These three ...

  8. Genesee County REACH Windshield Tours: enhancing health professionals understanding of community conditions that influence infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; French-Turner, Tonya; Brownlee, Shannon

    2013-06-01

    The Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) program is a community-based program designed to reduce African American infant mortality rates in Flint, Michigan. Genesee County REACH activities address three core themes: fostering community mobilization, reducing racism, and enhancing the maternal-infant health care system. The REACH Community Action Plan was generated using a community-based participatory approach, and is based on a socio-ecological model with interventions focused at the individual, organizational, health system, and community levels. Genesee County REACH's Community Windshield Tours were developed to raise awareness of social and environmental barriers to health promotion among health care system staff in Flint, Michigan. These tours provide a close-up examination of the community's environmental conditions and the experiences of mothers, children, and families at risk for poor birth outcomes. In this article, we report our findings from pre-/post-tour surveys, as well as long-term follow-up surveys, to assess the impact of this REACH activity on participants' knowledge and beliefs about Genesee County residents, and to determine any resultant individual, policy, system, or environmental changes. We used t tests to compare participants' responses before and after the tours. We found that several individual- and systems-level changes have resulted from these tours, reflecting greater cultural sensitivity and increased understanding of patients' circumstances. African American infant mortality rates in Genesee County declined to a historic low in 2005, and they remain lower than in previous years. Although REACH coalition partners recognize that this reduction cannot be attributed to a single intervention or activity, REACH activities such as the Community Windshield Tours addressing multiple levels of the socio-ecological model may have had a synergistic effect. PMID:23605377

  9. Analysis the Development of Mother and Infant Health in Sampang District Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukmini Rukmini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital have a strategic role in efforts to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This study aimed to determine the development of maternal and infant health services carried out in Sampang District hospital between 2010 and May 2012. Methods: The quantitative study with ecology design carried out in Sampang District hospital east Java Province Indonesia in 2012. The collection of secondary data such as coverage of maternal and infant health care in the period of 2010 to May 2012, as well as qualitative data collection with in depth interview to the Head of Service, Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Doctors and midwives. Data were analyzed descriptively. Result: In Sampang District hospital in period 2010 – May 2012 showed, an increase in maternal and child health services, where an increase in the handling of complications of pregnancy, normal delivery or Sectio Caesar and management of newborn complications and maternal and neonatal deaths are relatively increased . The coverage of family planning services was still low and the vast majority was IUD. Conclusion: The maternal and child health services in Sampang District hospital in period of 2010 – May 2012, showed an increase in the quantity of service coverage. The majority cases of delivery in hospitals were referral cases and complications. Howefer, the number of Sectio Caesar, maternal and neonatal mortality were still high. Recommendation: Sampang District Health Offi ce and Sampang District Hospital should create a policis and programs to reduce neonatal mortality in an integrated, continuous with proper implementation of standard procedures at every level of service, supported by well trained human resources, infrastructure and adequate fi nancing.

  10. The consequences of iron deficiency and anaemia in pregnancy on maternal health, the foetus and the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, F E

    1994-01-01

    An estimated 2150 million people are iron deficient, with deficiency severe enough to cause anemia in 1200 million people globally. Widespread particularly among tropical low-income populations, anemia has serious health and functional consequences. Due to their increased iron demands of menstruation and pregnancy, women of fertile age and pregnant-lactating women are especially affected by anemia and iron deficiency. Approximately 47% of non-pregnant women and 60% of pregnant women worldwide have anemia, while those who are iron deficient without anemia may comprise 60% and 90%, respectively. The anemic pregnant woman is at greater risk of death during the perinatal period. Iron deficiency also affects performance during pregnancy and delivery, lactation performance, working capacity and general well-being, and immunity status. Infants are adversely affected in terms of health, development, hematological status, and iron nutrition. Most anemia is, however, the result of severe iron deficiency, and therefore open to prevention and treatment interventions with a very high benefit/cost ratio. Accordingly, world authorities have agreed that anemia in pregnant women must be reduced by one-third by the year 2000. The author recommends expanding the target for iron supplementation to all women of fertile age who might become pregnant, the adoption of a preventive instead of therapeutic approach to iron deficiency, and the exploration of new supplementation programs.

  11. Intervention by the mental health specialist nurse for preventing sleep disorders due to incorrect habits in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cámara Conde

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disorders caused by bad habits in the infant. - To prevent symptoms of anxiety due to lack of sleep in the parents.The program will consist of 6 sessions of 90 minutes long, 3 pre-natal where they thrive knowledge and 3 sessions after to exposure doubts and search for solutions. We think that cooperation between the mental health nurse specialist with the midwife it is necessary to create a program that establish a healthy dream pattern in both infants and their parents, will prevent the sleep disorders by incorrect habits and their effects

  12. Infant and maternal health monitoring using a combined Nordic database on ART and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Gissler, Mika;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate infant and maternal health after assisted reproductive technology (ART), using data on over 90 000 ART children and their mothers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, which have been combined and will be compared with a control group of spontaneously conceived children...... on the mothers of ART children can be used to study risks during pregnancy and obstetric complications after ART. Methods. A personal identification number given to all Nordic residents allows cross-linkage of the national health registers and enables long-term follow-up of ART children. The medical birth...... and health registers is a complicated but feasible task. The main strengths of this ongoing study are the size of the cohort of ART children and their mothers and the possibility to follow the children through the health registers. The limitations are related to the national differences in reporting...

  13. Occupational Risks and Pregnancy and Infant Health Outcomes in Florida Farmworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Runkle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry has some of the highest incidence rates and numbers of occupational injuries and illnesses in the United States. Injuries and illnesses in agriculture result from accidents, falls, excessive heat, repetitive motion and adverse pesticide exposure. Women working in agriculture are exposed to the same hazards and risks as their male counterparts, but can face additional adverse impacts on their reproductive health. Yet, few occupational risk assessment studies have considered the reproductive health of female farmworkers. The objective of this community-based participatory research study was to conduct a retrospective, cross-sectional survey to collect information on workplace conditions and behaviors and maternal, pregnancy and infant health outcomes among a sample of female nursery and fernery farmworkers in Central Florida. Survey results showed that nursery workers were more likely to report health symptoms during their pregnancy than fernery workers. We also observed a self-reported increased risk of respiratory illness in the first year of life for infants whose mothers worked in ferneries. Our findings confirm that agricultural work presents potential reproductive hazards for women of childbearing age.

  14. Risk Factors for Anemia among Brazilian Infants from the 2006 National Demographic Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Konstantyner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is an important public health problem. An understanding of anemia risk factors is essential to informed health policies. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1,382 infants from the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and the Health of Women and Children. Mild and moderate anemia was characterised by hemoglobin levels below 11.0 and 9.5 g/dL, respectively. Rates for mild and moderate anemia were 25.9% and 9.9%, respectively. The logistic model included three risk factors for mild anemia—urban residence area (OR=2.5; =0.004, fever in the past 2 weeks (OR=2.4; <0.001, and age less than 12 months (OR=1.7; =0.024. Strategies to control infant anemia should include health promotion and nutritional education for families from all socioeconomic levels. Lifestyle quality improvement based on adequate food consumption must be achieved by communities in all macroregions, and especially in urban areas.

  15. Simulating the effects of acculturation and return migration on the maternal and infant health of Mexican immigrants in the United States: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    A significant body of research on minority health shows that although Latino immigrants experience unexpectedly favorable outcomes in maternal and infant health, this advantage deteriorates with increased time of residence in the United States. This study evaluates the underlying assumptions of two competing hypotheses that explain this paradox. The first hypothesis attributes this deterioration to possible negative effects of acculturation and behavioral adjustments made by immigrants while living in the United States, and the second hypothesis attributes this deterioration to the mechanism of selective return migration. Hypothetical probabilistic models are simulated for assessing the relationship between duration and birth outcomes based on the assumptions of these two hypotheses. The results are compared with the empirical research on the maternal and infant health of first-generation, Mexican-origin immigrant women in the United States. The analysis provides evidence that a curvilinear pattern of duration and birth outcomes can be explained by the joint effects of both acculturation and selective return migration in which the former affects health status over the longer durations, and the latter affects health status at shorter durations.

  16. Aggregate Income Shocks and Infant Mortality in the Developing World

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Sarah; Friedman, Jed; Schady, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Health and income are strongly correlated both within and across countries, yet the extent to which improvements in income have a causal effect on health status remains controversial. We investigate whether short-term fluctuations in aggregate income affect infant mortality using an unusually large data set of 1.7 million births in 59 developing countries. We show a large, negative association between per capita GDP and infant mortality. Female infant mortality is more sensitive than male inf...

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Infant Development at 6 Months: Prospective Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeni; Ha, Eun–Hee; Kim, Eui–Jung; Park, Hyesook; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ja–Hyeong; Hong, Yun–Chul; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Bung–Nyun

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are increasing concerns over adverse effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on the neurodevelopment of infants. Objectives: Our goal was to explore the association between prenatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate exposure and the Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Indices (MDI and PDI, respectively) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6 months, as part of the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health Study. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, 460 m...

  18. Perception of pain and distress in intubated and mechanically ventilated newborn infants by parents and health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous Elias, Luciana Sabatini Doto; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro Nunes; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background An understanding of perceptions of parents and health caregivers who assist critically ill neonates is necessary to comprehend their actions and demands. Therefore this study aim to analyze the agreement among parents, nurse technicians and pediatricians regarding the presence and intensity of pain and distress in mechanically ventilated and intubated newborn infants. Methods Cross-sectional study comprising 52 infants and 52 trios of adults composed of one parent, one nurse techni...

  19. Prenatal Maternal Stress and Physical Abuse among Homeless Women and Infant Health Outcomes in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Ray M; Rickelle Richards; Arielle Sloan

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study examines whether the relationship between maternal stress or abuse situations and infant birth weight differs between homeless and non-homeless women. Methods. Analyses are based on data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2002–2007. Results. Homeless women were significantly more likely to experience stressful life events, abusive situations, and poor maternal health than non-homeless women during pregnancy. Birth weight among infants of homel...

  20. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  1. Does fiscal decentralization improve health outcomes? Evidence from infant mortality in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Marina; Ferrante, Livio

    2016-09-01

    Despite financial and decision-making responsibilities having been increasingly devolved to lower levels of government worldwide, the potential impact of these reforms remains largely controversial. This paper investigates the hypothesis that a shift towards a higher degree of fiscal autonomy of sub-national governments could improve health outcomes, as measured by infant mortality rates. Italy is used as a case study since responsibilities for healthcare have been decentralized to regions, though the central government still retains a key role in ensuring all citizens uniform access to health services throughout the country. A linear fixed-effects regression model with robust standard errors is employed for a panel of 20 regions over the period 1996-2012 (340 observations in the full sample). Decentralization is proxied by two different indicators, capturing the degree of decision-making autonomy in the allocation of tax revenues and the extent to which regions rely on fiscal transfers from the central government. The results show that a higher proportion of tax revenues raised and/or controlled locally as well as a lower transfer dependency from the central government are consistently associated with lower infant mortality rates, ceteris paribus. The marginal benefit from fiscal decentralization, however, is not constant but depends on the level of regional wealth, favouring poorest regions. In terms of policy implications, this study outlines how the effectiveness of decentralization in improving health outcomes is contingent on the characteristics of the context in which the process takes place. PMID:27475054

  2. The Role of Relaxation Training to Pregnant Mothers on Health Index of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mosaviasl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Investigations have shown that the emotional stress during the pregnancy period could have sustainable effects on the embryo. Different factors such as family members, spouse, supporting friends could relive these effects, but coping skills especially relaxation could be more effective on stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of relaxation training to pregnant mothers on health index such as Apgar index, weight, height, and cowlick grade in infants. Materials & Methods: This is a clinical trail in which 100 pregnant women who referred to health center of Yasuj (2006-2008 were selected using simple sampling method and assigned randomly to case and control groups. The relaxation was taught to the case group whereas nothing was taught to control groups. At the time of delivery the above mentioned indices were assessed. The gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results showed a significant difference between two groups in weight, height, cephalic index, and colic grade (with better situation in case group. There was no significant difference between two groups in Apgar scores. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it seems that teaching of relaxation to pregnant women could be effective in health index of children especially in the time of delivery. Therefore attention should be paid to different methods for reducing the stress in this group of mothers. Keywords: relaxation, pregnant women, infants, Apgar scores

  3. Random assignment in clinical trials: issues in planning (Infant Health and Development Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, H C; Fendt, K H

    1990-01-01

    Various options available for the randomization of subjects into groups in a clinical trial are discussed, emphasizing the issues of logistics given less focus in more mathematical treatments. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of total randomization, of Zelen-type randomization procedures, of Efron-type procedures vs more classical blocking procedures to control the balance between groups, and of Simon-Pocock-type procedures vs more classical stratification for controlling possible biases in prognostic factors. Finally, we discuss issues related to choice and implementation of randomization procedures. The discussion is illustrated with the processes of decision-making in a national collaborative randomized clinical trial, the Infant Health and Development Program.

  4. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadad Salime

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  5. Preventable infant mortality and quality of health care: maternal perception of the child's illness and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salime Hadad

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used a qualitative methodology to analyze the discourse of mothers from Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose infant children had died from what were considered avoidable causes (diarrhea, malnutrition, and pneumonia, seeking to elucidate the factors associated with utilization of health care services. Identification of the illness by the mother was related to perception of specific alterations in the child's state of health. Analysis of the alterations helped identify the principal characteristics ascribed to each alteration and their relationship to the search for treatment. The authors also studied the mother's assessment of treatment received at health care facilities; 43.0% of the cases involved problems related to the structure of health care services or the attending health care professionals. In 46.0% of the cases, mothers associated the child's death with flaws in the health care service. The study group showed a variety of interpretations of illness, often distinct from the corresponding biomedical concepts. The fact that attending health care personnel overlooked or underrated the mother's perception of the illness and the lack of communications between health care personnel and the child's family had an influence on the child's evolution and subsequent death.

  6. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Muralidhar Jawdekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children’s health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing pragmatically.

  7. A Proposed Model for Infant and Child Oral Health Promotion in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawdekar, Ashwin Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is an increasing burden in the developing countries. A proper budgetary allocation for treating dental diseases in an enormous population such as India is impractical, where resources are inadequate for major health challenges such as malnutrition and gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in children. An integrated, directed population approach targeting children is much needed. The existing machinery of successful public health campaigns such as the “Pulse Polio” and the “Mid-Day-Meals Scheme” of the Government of India can be used for oral health promotion for children. India has about 300 dental colleges and countrywide branches of the Indian Dental Association that can provide manpower for the program. An innovative, large-scale “Fit for School” program in Philippines is a model for an integrated approach for children's health and has proved to be cost-effective and viable. A model for oral health promotion in infants and children of India, combining age-specific initiatives for health education, nutrition, hygiene, and fluoride use, is proposed. The model could be implemented to evaluate the oral health status of children, knowledge and knowledge gain of the community health workers, and acceptability and sustainability of the preventive programs (fluoride varnish and preschool and school tooth brushing) pragmatically. PMID:24288533

  8. Gaze Behavior and Affect at 6 Months: Predicting Clinical Outcomes and Language Development in Typically Developing Infants and Infants at Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gregory S.; Merin, Noah; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents follow-up longitudinal data to research that previously suggested the possibility of abnormal gaze behavior marked by decreased eye contact in a subgroup of 6-month-old infants at risk for autism (Merin, Young, Ozonoff & Rogers, 2007). Using eye-tracking data and behavioral data recorded during a live mother-infant interaction…

  9. Zinc Absorption from Micronutrient Powder Is Low but Is not Affected by Iron in Kenyan Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Esamai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively; a control (C group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10 and MNP − Fe (n = 9 groups: 0.85 (0.22 and 0.72 (0.19, respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9: 0.24 (0.03 (p = 0.04. Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups’ mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations.

  10. The Future of Infant and Young Children's Food: Food Supply/Manufacturing and Human Health Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina; Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Infant food and weaning practices are highly debated with lots of unanswered questions. It is becoming more apparent that early-life feeding may have an effect on the long-term health of humans, particularly for noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and allergic diseases. It is important to understand how environmental influences in early life can affect the development of the immune system and metabolic profiling. In terms of nutrition and diet, one should consider the role of the total/whole diet, as well as particular nutrients in the development of noncommunicable diseases. Providing the appropriate nutrition for infants during the weaning age needs to address factors such as the microbial load of the food, nutrient composition, presence/absence of allergens and appropriate textures. These factors are of importance irrespective of whether the food is homemade or produced commercially, and need to take environmental factors and food resources into account. PMID:27088329

  11. The Future of Infant and Young Children's Food: Food Supply/Manufacturing and Human Health Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina; Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Infant food and weaning practices are highly debated with lots of unanswered questions. It is becoming more apparent that early-life feeding may have an effect on the long-term health of humans, particularly for noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and allergic diseases. It is important to understand how environmental influences in early life can affect the development of the immune system and metabolic profiling. In terms of nutrition and diet, one should consider the role of the total/whole diet, as well as particular nutrients in the development of noncommunicable diseases. Providing the appropriate nutrition for infants during the weaning age needs to address factors such as the microbial load of the food, nutrient composition, presence/absence of allergens and appropriate textures. These factors are of importance irrespective of whether the food is homemade or produced commercially, and need to take environmental factors and food resources into account.

  12. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  13. Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG): Mobilizing Allied Health Students and Community Partners to Put Data into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget; Julian, Zoë; Pinto, Meredith; Rochat, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Despite having an obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) workforce comparable to the national average, Georgia is ranked 50th in maternal mortality and 40th in infant mortality. The Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG) was founded in 2010 to evaluate and address this paradox. Description In the several years since GMIHRG's inception, its graduate allied health student researchers and advisors have collaborated with community partners to complete several requisite research initiatives. Their initial work demonstrated that over half the Georgia areas outside metropolitan Atlanta lack adequate access to obstetric services, and their subsequent research evaluated the reasons for and the consequences of this maldistribution of obstetric providers. Assessment In order to translate their workforce and outcomes data for use in policymaking and programming, GMIHRG created reader-friendly reports for distribution to a wide variety of stakeholders and prepared concise, compelling presentations with targeted recommendations for change. This commitment to advocacy ultimately enabled them to: (a) inspire the Georgia Study Committees on Medicaid Reform and Medical Education, (b) influence Georgia General Assembly abortion bills, medical scholarship/loan legislation, and appropriations, and (c) motivate programming initiatives to improve midwifery education and perinatal regionalization in Georgia. Conclusion GMIHRG members have employed inventive research methods and maximized collaborative partnerships to enable their data on Georgia's maternal and infant outcomes and obstetric workforce to effectively inform state organizations and policymakers. With this unique approach, GMIHRG serves as a cost-efficient and valuable model for student engagement in the translation of research into advocacy efforts, policy change, and innovative programming. PMID:27072049

  14. Early experience affects the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Maternal abuse of offspring in macaque monkeys shares some similarities with child maltreatment in humans, including its transmission across generations. This study used a longitudinal design and a cross-fostering experiment to investigate whether abusive parenting in rhesus macaques is transmitted from mothers to daughters and whether transmission occurs through genetic or experiential factors. Nine of 16 females who were abused by their mothers in their first month of life, regardless of whether they were reared by their biological mothers or by foster mothers, exhibited abusive parenting with their firstborn offspring, whereas none of the females reared by nonabusive mothers did. These results suggest that the intergenerational transmission of infant abuse in rhesus monkeys is the result of early experience and not genetic inheritance. The extent to which the effects of early experience on the intergenerational transmission of abusive parenting are mediated by social learning or experience-induced physiological alterations remains to be established.

  15. A STUDY ON FEEDING PRACTICES OF INFANTS IN THE FIELD PRACTICING AREA OF RURAL HEALTH TRAINING CENTER, SANTHIRAM MEDICAL COLLEGE, NANDYAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : BACK GROUND: Good nutrition is essential for growth, development and survival of infants. Objective: To study knowledge, attitude and practices of infant feeding among rural mothers. To identify factors associated with growth and morbidity among infants. METHODOLOGY: Community based cross sectional study which was conducted from June 2012 to October 2012.Rural mothers were selected by simple random sampling method and interviewed using pretested questionnaire. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data was analyzed by means, proportions, percentages and chi-square test. Pinfants were males. 39.3% of infants were females. Statistical correlation exists between social class and birth weight. (p<0.02.In 90.6% of infants colostrum was not given.94% of infants were breast fed. In 41% of infants weaning was started at 9 to 12 months. Only 20% infants were normal and 52.7% were with grade-1 malnutrition. 20.7% mothers were boiling utensils which were used for infant feeding.96.7% mothers told breast feeding was best for babies.38.7% mothers were not aware that colostrum given in first hour would reduce infant mortality rate. CONCLUSION: Awareness must be generated among mothers regarding infant feeding and better living conditions through health education. Health workers should provide it at grass root levels

  16. Infant and Young Child Feeding: a Key area to Improve Child Health

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    Habibolah Taghizade Moghaddam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Good nutrition is essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance, productivity, health and well-being across the entire life-span: from the earliest stages of fetal development, at birth, and through infancy, childhood, adolescence and on into adulthood. Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of children’s lives can have irreversible consequences. For millions of children, it means they are, forever, stunted. Every infant and child has the right to good nutrition according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child; so the World Health Assembly has adopted a new target of reducing the number of stunted children under the age of 5 by 40 percent by 2025. The first 2 years of a child’s life are particularly important, as optimal nutrition during this period lowers morbidity and mortality, reduces the risk of chronic disease, and fosters better development overall. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding are a critical aspect of caring for infants and young children.

  17. Vitamin D status among immigrant mothers from Pakistan, Turkey and Somalia and their infants attending child health clinics in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Ahmed A; Stene, Lars C; Meyer, Haakon E

    2009-04-01

    High prevalences of vitamin D deficiency have been reported in non-Western immigrants moving to Western countries, including Norway, but there is limited information on vitamin D status in infants born to immigrant mothers. We aimed to describe the vitamin D status and potentially correlated factors among infants aged 6 weeks and their mothers with Pakistani, Turkish or Somali background attending child health clinics in Norway. Eighty-six healthy infants and their mothers with immigrant background were recruited at the routine 6-week check-up at nine centres between 2004 and 2006. Venous or capillary blood was collected at the clinics from the mother and infant, and serum separated for analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and intact parathyroid hormone (s-iPTH). The mean maternal s-25(OH)D was 25.8 nmol/l, with 57 % below 25 nmol/l and 15 % below 12.5 nmol/l. Of the mothers, 26 % had s-iPTH>5.7 pmol/l. For infants, mean s-25(OH)D was 41.7 nmol/l, with 47 % below 25 nmol/l and 34 % below 12.5 nmol/l. s-25(OH)D was considerably lower in the thirty-one exclusively breast-fed infants (mean 11.1 nmol/l; P < 0.0001). Use of vitamin D supplements and education showed a positive association with maternal s-25(OH)D. There was no significant association between mother's and child's s-25(OH)D, and no significant ethnic or seasonal variation in s-25(OH)D for mothers or infants. In conclusion, there is widespread vitamin D deficiency in immigrant mothers and their infants living in Norway. Exclusively breast-fed infants who did not receive vitamin D supplements had particularly severe vitamin D deficiency.

  18. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  19. Spending to save? State health expenditure and infant mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2007-09-01

    There are severe inequalities in health in the world, poor health being concentrated amongst poor people in poor countries. Poor countries spend a much smaller share of national income on health expenditure than do richer countries. What potential lies in political or growth processes that raise this share? This depends upon how effective government health spending in developing countries is. Existing research presents little evidence of an impact on childhood mortality. Using specifications similar to those in the existing literature, this paper finds a similar result for India, which is that state health spending saves no lives. However, upon allowing lagged effects, controlling in a flexible way for trended unobservables and restricting the sample to rural households, a significant effect of health expenditure on infant mortality emerges, the long run elasticity being about -0.24. There are striking differences in the impact by social group. Slicing the data by gender, birth order, religion, maternal and paternal education and maternal age at birth, I find the weakest effects in the most vulnerable groups (with the exception of a large effect for scheduled tribes).

  20. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring. PMID:27281376

  1. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  2. Factors Affecting Indigenous West Australians' Health Behavior: Indigenous Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Dimmock, James; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The factors driving the disparity in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians include socio-economic factors, racism, and history. The current study focused on exploring Indigenous participants' perspectives of the factors that affect the health behavior of their community members. Participatory action research methodology and a grounded theory approach were utilized. In total, 120 members of two urban West Australian Indigenous communities participated in focus group discussions. There was substantial similarity between the themes that emerged within the discussions held in the two communities. Factors relating to culture, social connections, racism, communication, and personal aspects were particularly salient to health behavior of the participants. Several of the themes including culture, racism, communication, and distrust highlight the tension caused by being a member of a minority cultural group that has been marginalized by the practices and attitudes of the dominant cultural group. Personal choice was sometimes prioritized over health. PMID:25847855

  3. Health literacy affects peritoneal dialysis performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2003-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) is the ability to perform the basic reading, writing, and numerical skills required to function in a health care setting. Patients with adequate HL are able to read, interpret, and respond to health care information provided by health care providers and health plans. Several means of assessing HL are available for English- and Spanish-speaking patients. A review of the English-language literature on HL indicated that no prior studies included a subset of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. I administered the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) assessment tool to PD patients. I also asked patients for information about their highest education level completed. Following completion of the REALM, patients were classified as having adequate, marginal, or inadequate HL. As other studies have shown, patients with lower levels of education have inadequate HL. Patients with some college education or higher have adequate HL. However, at the average education level of patients, most patients have marginal HL. Relative lack of HL affects a patient's ability to make decisions regarding care as part of a home self-management program for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other chronic illnesses. Consequently, relative HL level affects the method of instruction and the time required for instruction during training of PD patients.

  4. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

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    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  5. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

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    Fatemeh Nayyeri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old.Materials and methods:Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study. A questionnaire was filled by mother for each child and later the infants with “nursing strike” were compared with all others.Results:In this study prevalence of breast feeding refusal in infants was 24%.There was significant relation between the “breastfeeding refusal” and maternal academic education or working status. In this study mothers reported various reasons associated with “refusal breast feeding. According to the mothers playful infant and nasal obstructions were the probable causes for refusal.Conclusion:There is a diverse variety of factors influencing nursing strike. Most of these factors can be prevented by identifying the background reasons and proper training.

  6. Improving Infant Exposure and Health Risk Estimates: Using Serum Data to Predict Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women in the United States have breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that are among the highest in the world, leading to concerns over the potential health implications to breastfeeding infants during critical stages of growth and development. Deve...

  7. Difficulty in disengaging from threat and temperamental negative affectivity in early life: A longitudinal study of infants aged 12–36 months

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    Nakagawa Atsuko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention disengagement is reportedly influenced by perceiving a fearful facial expression even in the first year of life. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in disengaging from fearful expressions predict temperamental negative affectivity. Method Twenty-six infants were studied longitudinally at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, using an overlap paradigm and two temperament questionnaires: the Japanese versions of the revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. Results The infants fixated significantly more frequently to fearful than to happy or neutral faces. The attentional bias to threat (i.e., the number of fixed responses on fearful faces divided by the total number of fixed responses on faces at 12 months was significantly positively correlated with negative affect at 12 months, and its relations with negative affect measured later in development was in the expected positive direction at each age. In addition, a moderation analysis indicates that the orienting network and not the executive network marginally moderated the relation between early attentional bias and later fear. Conclusions The results suggest that at 12 months, infants with more negative affectivity exhibit greater difficulty in disengaging their attention from fearful faces. We also found evidence that the association between parent-reported fear and disengagement might be modulated in the second year, perhaps because of the differences in temperamental control networks.

  8. Do Attitudes About Spoiling Children Affect Attitudes Regarding What Infants Need for Early Social-Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Westover, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Secure infant attachment is important for the positive social-emotional development of children. Many parents have limited understanding of social-emotional development and the influence of appropriate responsive parenting behaviors to their infants’ cues. For example, many parents believe you can spoil an infant if you pick them up every time they cry. Researchers study the impact of positive responses to infants’ cues. Infants form a more secure attachment and learn to interpret the world a...

  9. Insights in Public Health: The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children: Strengthening Families for 40 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Chock, Linda R; Hayes, Donald K; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong

    2014-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is a proven, cost-effective investment in strengthening families. As part of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 15 federal nutrition assistance programs for the past 40 years, WIC has grown to be the nation's leading public health nutrition program. WIC serves as an important first access point to health care and social service systems for many limited resource families, serving approximately ha...

  10. Association of anthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asefzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indices are of the best indicators for growth monitoring during neonatal period. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association ofanthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices. The study was conducted in 230 mothers who had health profiles in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin during 2013. Data were collected through the records in mothers’ health profiles. Data were analyzed using T-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Of 230 infants, 119 (51.7% were male. Mean weight and head circumference were significantly different between Iranian and Afghan infants.The Iranian mothers were older and had higher weight and height during pregnancy compared to the Afghan mothers and the difference was statistically significant. There was positive significant correlation between mothers’ age, weight, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and infants’ birth weight. There was also positive significant correlation between mothers’ hemoglobin and hematocrit and infants’ height. With regards to the results, proper nutrition, maternal health, and providing appropriate health services during pregnancy can be beneficial for improving infants’ health.

  11. Financial crisis. How it affects the public health and health systems

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    Pavlos Sarafis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The economic situation affects health indicators like life expectancy, morbidity, mortality and access to health services. Methodology: Α research in bibliography was done in Pubmed, Scopus, Sciverse with key words: health, health systems, economic crisis, unemployment, poverty. Results: Unemployment is also associated with increased daily alcohol consumption, suicides increase, domestic violence, and it reduces road deaths at 1.4%. In particular, poverty leads to disease as people are forced to live in degraded environment, fed poorly and work in dangerous and unhealthy environments. Conclusions: In particular, the economic crisis is leading to job insecurity, unemployment and poverty that eventually lead to the exclusion of more people something that is responsible for various mental disorders. Health systems on the other hand in crisis are facing financial problems because of reduced government spending on health due to economic scarcity and because of disruption of foreign economic aid from richer countries, which cover a large part of health funding.

  12. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  13. From infant affect expression to symbolic play: the coherence of development in Down syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motti, F; Cicchetti, D; Sroufe, L A

    1983-10-01

    To examine further the coherence of development of a sample of Down syndrome children, assessments were made of the quality and level of play at age 3-5 years. It was found that, with corrections for mental age, the play of these children was similar to that of nonhandicapped children. Moreover, individual differences in the level and quality of play were strongly predicted from Bayley DQ scores obtained at age 2 and by several indexes of affective expressiveness including 1 obtained in the first year of life. This was despite limitations on the performance range represented in the subsample included in this follow-up study. Finally, the various aspects of play, as indexed by 5 separate scales, intercorrelated strongly, suggesting consistent individual differences in the play session itself. All of these findings point to the coherence of development of these children. In addition, it is suggested that early affective assessments are strong predictors of the later functioning of Down syndrome. PMID:6194942

  14. The T1405N carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphism does not affect plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M J Moonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1 has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. AIM: To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. RESULTS: Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC:CA:AA = 55.5%:33.6%:10.9%, n = 128 and term infants (CC:CA:AA = 54.2%:35.4%:10.4%, n = 96. There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants.

  15. Health Behaviors, Nutritional Status, and Anthropometric Parameters of Roma and Non-Roma Mothers and Their Infants in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambouskova, Jolana; Dlouhy, Pavel; Krizova, Eva; Prochazka, Bohumir; Hrncirova, Dana; Andel, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare maternal health behaviors, maternal nutritional status, and infant size at birth of Romas and non-Romas in the Czech Republic. Design: Maternal interviews and food frequency questionnaire, maternal blood samples, physical measurements of mothers and infants. Setting: Hospital, maternal/child care center; 2-4 days postpartum.…

  16. TulaSalud: An m-health system for maternal and infant mortality reduction in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Andrés; Lobos-Medina, Isabel; Díaz-Molina, Cesar Augusto; Chen-Cruz, Moisés Faraón; Prieto-Egido, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    The Guatemalan NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) TulaSalud has implemented an m-health project in the Department of Alta Verapaz. This Department has 1.2 million inhabitants (78% living in rural areas and 89% from indigenous communities) and in 2012, had a maternal mortality rate of 273 for every 100,000 live births. This m-health initiative is based on the provision of a cell phone to community facilitators (CFs). The CFs are volunteers in rural communities who perform health prevention, promotion and care. Thanks to the cell phone, the CFs have become tele-CFs who able to carry out consultations when they have questions; send full epidemiological and clinical information related to the cases they attend to; receive continuous training; and perform activities for the prevention and promotion of community health through distance learning sessions in the Q'eqchí and/or Poqomchi' languages. In this study, rural populations served by tele-CFs were selected as the intervention group while the control group was composed of the rural population served by CFs without Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. As well as the achievement of important process results (116,275 medical consultations, monitoring of 6,783 pregnant women, and coordination of 2,014 emergency transfers), the project has demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in maternal mortality (p < 0.05) and in child mortality (p = 0.054) in the intervention group compared with rates in the control group. As a result of the telemedicine initiative, the intervention areas, which were selected for their high maternal and infant mortality rates, currently show maternal and child mortality indicators that are not only lower than the indicators in the control area, but also lower than the provincial average (which includes urban areas). PMID:25766857

  17. Infant mortality, season of birth and the health of older Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, Mary

    2011-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of heart disease and diabetes among aging populations in low and middle income countries leads to questions regarding the degree to which endogenous early life exposures (exposures in utero) are important determinants of these health conditions. We devised a test using infant mortality (IMR) to verify if season of birth is a good indicator of early life (in utero) conditions that precipitate adult onset of disease. We linked annual IMR at the municipality (municipio) level from the late 1920s to early 1940s with individual birth year and place using a representative sample of older Puerto Rican adults (n = 1447) from the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions (PREHCO) study. We estimated the effects of season of birth on adult heart disease and diabetes for all respondents and then for respondents according to whether they were born when IMR was lower or higher, controlling for age, gender, obesity, respondent's educational level, adult behavior (smoking and exercise) and other early life exposures (childhood health, knee height and childhood socioeconomic status (SES)). The pattern of effects suggests that season of birth reflects endogenous causes: (1) odds of heart disease and diabetes were strong and significant for those born during the lean season in years when IMR was lower; (2) effects remained consistent even after controlling for other childhood conditions and adult behavior; but (3) no seasonality effects on adult health for adults born when IMR was higher. We conclude that in this population of older Puerto Rican adults there is continued support that the timing of adverse endogenous (in utero) conditions such as poor nutrition and infectious diseases is associated with adult heart disease and diabetes. It will be important to test the validity of these findings in other similar populations in the developing world. PMID:20980087

  18. Hurricane Katrina-related maternal stress, maternal mental health, and early infant temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Tees, Michael T.; Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; BUEKENS, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2009-01-01

    To investigate temperament in infants whose mothers were exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath, and to determine if high hurricane exposure is associated with difficult infant temperament. A prospective cohort study of women giving birth in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, LA (n=288) in 2006–2007 was conducted. Questionnaires and interviews assessed the mother’s experiences during the hurricane, living conditions, and psychological symptoms, two months and 12 months postpartum. Infant te...

  19. PARALLEL MODELS OF ASSESSMENT: INFANT MENTAL HEALTH AND THERAPEUTIC ASSESSMENT MODELS INTERSECT THROUGH EARLY CHILDHOOD CASE STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations. PMID:27333488

  20. The positive role of breastfeeding on infant health during the first 6 weeks: findings from a prospective observational study based on maternal reports.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to report on adverse infant and maternal clinical outcomes, and investigate the relationship between infant feeding practice and such adverse clinical outcomes in infants during the first 6 weeks postpartum. From an eligible sample of 450 mother-term infant pairs recruited from the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital in Dublin, 27.1% of infants (n=122) were maternally reported to have had an illness during the first 6 weeks that necessitated the provision of prescribed medication +\\/- general practitioner\\/paediatrician attendance +\\/- hospitalisation. Of these, 90 infants had > or =1 episode of infection +\\/- viral +\\/- gastro-intestinal-related condition. After adjustment, \\'any\\' breastfeeding to 6 weeks was protective against such adverse infant outcomes (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44, P = 0.022). Attendance to the GP\\/paediatrician for > 1 visit (aOR 3.44, P = 0.000) and multiparity (aOR 1.76, P = 0.041) were also positively associated with such adverse infant outcomes. To decrease infant morbidity rates in Ireland, government investment in breastfeeding promotion, support and research should be a continued public health priority.

  1. Factors affecting the health of migrants and their impact on Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasopoulou M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization from a public health perspective, has endangered the health of migrants due to the deteriorating socio-economic conditions of living and working. The protection of health is a fundamental human right, which must be guaranteed by institutions, without distinction. Purpose: the present study is to investigate the factors that affect the health of migrants and their impact on public health. Method: A search was made in electronic databases for review and research studies using the keywords «Aggravating Health Factors», «Immigrants» and «Public Health» alone or in combination. The search was extended to include the databases of the European Union (EU, the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations (UN. Conclusions: The review findings, since the majority of the research studies show that for the protection of Public Health, interventions awareness of migrants about the importance of prevention, the adoption of healthy lifestyles and behavior modification. are necessary. The ultimate goal of interventions, should be the full integration of special operations in the existing National Health System and the smooth integration of immigrants in the productive, despite of social exclusion.

  2. When bad moods may not be so bad: Valuing negative affect is associated with weakened affect-health links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Gloria; Wrzus, Cornelia; Wagner, Gert G; Riediger, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Bad moods are considered "bad" not only because they may be aversive experiences in and of themselves, but also because they are associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and health. We propose that people differ in their negative affect valuation (NAV; the extent to which negative affective states are valued as pleasant, useful/helpful, appropriate, and meaningful experiences) and that affect-health links are moderated by NAV. These predictions were tested in a life span sample of 365 participants ranging from 14-88 years of age using reports of momentary negative affect and physical well-being (via experience sampling) and assessments of NAV and psychosocial and physical functioning (via computer-assisted personal interviews and behavioral measures of hand grip strength). Our study demonstrated that the more individuals valued negative affect, the less pronounced (and sometimes even nonexistent) were the associations between everyday experiences of negative affect and a variety of indicators of poorer psychosocial functioning (i.e., emotional health problems, social integration) and physical health (i.e., number of health conditions, health complaints, hand grip strength, momentary physical well-being). Exploratory analyses revealed that valuing positive affect was not associated with the analogous moderating effects as NAV. These findings suggest that it may be particularly important to consider NAV in models of affect-health links.

  3. Low-fat, high calorie parenteral nutrition (PN), reverses liver affection in long term PN dependent infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Hørby Jørgensen, Marianne; Husby, Steffen;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) is a complication of long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Removal of lipids may reverse PNAC but compromises the energy to ensure infant growth. The purpose of this study was to test whether a low-fat, high-carbohydrate PN regimen......, which prevents and reverses PNAC in adults, could do the same in infants. This regimen could potentially avoid the problem of diminished energy input after removing nutritional lipids. METHODS: Infants developing PNAC over a 2-year period were started on a low-fat PN regimen with calories primarily from...... carbohydrates. The fat-free PN, containing 314 kJ/ml, was provided 5-6 times a week and fat, including essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, 1-2 times a week. Enteral feeding was continued according to individual tolerance. RESULTS: The study included 10 infants with short bowel syndrome (six...

  4. [Influence of the technogenic environment on health new-borns infant children in Lugansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, S V; Sapel'nikov, A Ia; Sapel'nikova, L Ia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the health of new-borns born to mothers who lived constantly influenced of the technogenic environmentat on health infant children in Luhansk region. We exameded evaluation of the influence of the technogenic environmental factors on the health of 1119 children in Alchevsk city, Perevalsk town with mining towns and rural villages of Perevalsky area of Lugansk region and Zhovtnev district of Lugansk region. The children were measured in anthropometric studies conducted body length, body weight, chest circumference and the head. Evaluation of the physical development of the children carried tsentilnym method. Prior to discharge from the hospital new-borns divided into three main groups--healthy, risk group, pathology. Also we have done the analysis of the statistical information on the health status of all newborns administrative units Lugansk region. Found that the percentage of new-borns with normal anthropometric variables (from 3 to 97 centile), body length and head circumference was significantly higher in rural areas Perevalsky area with more favorable environmental conditions compared to the industrial city of Alchevsk. New-borns with abnormal significantly higher in women who are domiciled in the city of Alchevsk (19.01% ± 1.44%) under the impact of emissions components ferrous metallurgy and coke-chemical, compared with Perevalskiy and mining towns (13.82% ± 2.20%), as well as rural villages Perevalsky area (11.90% ± 2.89%). Over the period 2004-2011, the incidence of congenital anomalies of new-borns weighing 1000 g or more (per 1000 live births and stillbirths) were significantly higher in the industrial cities of Luhansk region--19.70 ± 0.61 compared with rural areas--15.51 ± 0.73. The incidence of this pathology is one of the highest in Alchevsk--31.88 ± 2.48, which was significantly higher than.in urban areas, as well as in the whole of Luhansk region--19.13 ± 0.55. Therefore, the health of new-born babies is

  5. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  6. Maternal mental disorders in pregnancy and the puerperium and risks to infant health

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Priscila Krauss; Lima, Lúcia Abelha; Legay, Letícia Fortes; de Cintra Santos, Jacqueline Fernandes; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal and postnatal period presents the highest prevalence of mental disorders in women’s lives and depression is the most frequent one, affecting approximately one in every five mothers. The aggravating factor here is that during this period psychiatric symptoms affect not only women’s health and well-being but may also interfere in the infant’s intra and extra-uterine development. Although the causes of the relationship between maternal mental disorders and possible risks to a child’s he...

  7. Girl child marriage and its association with national rates of HIV, maternal health, and infant mortality across 97 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess associations between national rates of girl child marriage and national rates of HIV and maternal and child health (MCH) concerns, using national indicator data from 2009 United Nations reports. Current analyses were limited to the N = 97 nations (of 188 nations) for which girl child marriage data were available. Regression analyses adjusted for development and world region demonstrate that nations with higher rates of girl child marriage are significantly more likely to contend with higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and nonutilization of maternal health services, but not HIV.

  8. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  9. Situation and Strategies of the Maternal and Infant Health in Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents then makes a retrospective and descriptive evaluation of the Tunisian strategy implemented to reduce maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.The objectives of this bibliography work are to make a diagnosis of the situation of the maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, to develop the philosophy and the orientations of the strategic axis and to underline the keys of the success as well as the limits of the strategy.

  10. Infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2009-04-01

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873

  11. Examining functional mechanisms of imitative learning in infancy: does teleological reasoning affect infants' imitation beyond motor resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Recently, researchers have been debating whether infants' selective imitative learning is primarily based on sensorimotor processes (e.g., motor resonance through action perception) or whether inferential processes such as teleological reasoning (i.e., reasoning about the efficiency of others' actions) predominantly explain selective imitation in infancy. The current study directly investigated two different theoretical notions employing the seminal and widely used head touch paradigm. In two conditions, we manipulated whether the action appeared to be efficient while motor resonance was optimized to enhance imitation performance in general. The results showed that infants imitated the target action to the same extent in both conditions irrespective of the action's efficiency. In addition, in both conditions, more infants imitated the head action than in an additional baseline condition or in a condition where the target action was performed by another effector. The results suggest that 14-month-olds do not imitate novel actions according to their apparent efficiency but that motor resonance is an important factor in infants' imitation.

  12. Genome-wide identification of mononuclear cell DNA methylation sites potentially affected by fish oil supplementation in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Martino, D; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram;

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the effects of n-3LCPUFA might be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms, especially DNA-methylation, during pregnancy and early life. A randomized trial was conducted in 133 9-mo-old, infants who received 3.8g/day of fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO) for 9 mo...

  13. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Leo S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  14. Analysis of the Factors That Affect Dental Health Behaviour and Attendance at Scheduled Dental Check-ups Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato,Kimiko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was administered to 317 parents who attended infant health check-ups in City B, Okayama Prefecture between October, 2008 and March, 2009. The questionnaire survey studied 7 factors based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. We analysed factors that affected oral health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. The survey containing 22 items concerning matters such as 'QOL' and 'health problems' was posted to parents and guardians in advance, and then collected on the day of the medical check-up. The collected data was analysed using the t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, following which we conducted a covariance structure analysis. The results showed that dental health behaviour was directly affected by reinforcing factors, and indirectly associated with enabling and predisposing factors influenced by reinforcing factors. It was also shown that predisposing factors and oral health behaviour were associated with attendance at scheduled oral health check-ups. The results indicated that strengthening oral health education by sharing knowledge that acts as predisposing factors and introducing adaptations of oral health behaviour that that fit individual lives will lead to improved attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups.

  15. Analysis of the factors that affect dental health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental check-ups using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Oda, Megumi

    2011-04-01

    A questionnaire survey was administered to 317 parents who attended infant health check-ups in City B, Okayama Prefecture between October, 2008 and March, 2009. The questionnaire survey studied 7 factors based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. We analysed factors that affected oral health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. The survey containing 22 items concerning matters such as 'QOL' and 'health problems' was posted to parents and guardians in advance, and then collected on the day of the medical check-up. The collected data was analysed using the t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, following which we conducted a covariance structure analysis. The results showed that dental health behaviour was directly affected by reinforcing factors, and indirectly associated with enabling and predisposing factors influenced by reinforcing factors. It was also shown that predisposing factors and oral health behaviour were associated with attendance at scheduled oral health check-ups. The results indicated that strengthening oral health education by sharing knowledge that acts as predisposing factors and introducing adaptations of oral health behaviour that that fit individual lives will lead to improved attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. PMID:21519364

  16. Evaluation of the nutritional status of infants from mothers tested positive to HIV/AIDS in the health district of Dschang, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Guetiya; Temgoua, Edith; Donfack, Jean-Hubert; Ercoli, Lucia; Buonomo, Ersilia; Fokam, Joseph; Dongho, Bruna Djeunang; Onohiol, James-Francis; Zefack, Yannick; Zambou, François Ngoufack; Cresci, Alberto; Russo, Gianluca; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Poor infant feeding practices are common in Africa, resulting in physical and intellectual developmental impairments. Good feeding practices are crucial, especially in the first year of growth. HIV/AIDS has worsened the clinical and nutritional status of both mothers and their children, exacerbating high rates of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to assess by participative approach, the nutritional status of infants from mothers tested positive to HIV in the health district...

  17. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. PMID:27234410

  18. Introducing the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds Database: A validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eParsons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalisations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocaliser mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and Study 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive. While the adult vocalisations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalisations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalisations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of the each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions.

  19. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  20. Delivery of an Ebola Virus-Positive Stillborn Infant in a Rural Community Health Center, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Grass, Julian E; Veltus, Emily; Brault, Aaron; Campbell, Shelley; Basile, Alison Jane; Wang, David; Paddock, Christopher D; Erickson, Bobbie R; Salzer, Johanna S; Belser, Jessica; Chege, Eunice; Seneca, Dean; Saffa, Gbessay; Stroeher, Ute; Decroo, Tom; Caleo, Grazia M

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of an Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA-negative pregnant woman who delivered an EBOV RNA-positive stillborn infant at a community health center in rural Sierra Leone, 1 month after the mother's last possible exposure. The mother was later found to be immunoglobulins M and G positive indicating previous infection. The apparent absence of Ebola symptoms and not recognizing that the woman had previous contact with an Ebola patient led health workers performing the delivery to wear only minimal personal protection, potentially exposing them to a high risk of EBOV infection. This case emphasizes the importance of screening for epidemiological risk factors as well as classic and atypical symptoms of Ebola when caring for pregnant women, even once they have passed the typical time frame for exposure and incubation expected in nonpregnant adults. It also illustrates the need for health-care workers to use appropriate personal protection equipment when caring for pregnant women in an Ebola setting.

  1. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  2. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  3. Maternal mental health and its association with infant growth at 6 months in ethnic groups: results from the Born-in-Bradford birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma D Traviss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with infant growth up to 6 months, with a particular focus on maternal distress, and to explore the effect of ethnicity on any relation between maternal distress and infant growth. METHODS: Cohort study recruiting White and Pakistani women in the United Kingdom (UK. Infant growth was measured at birth and 6 months. Standard assessment of mental health (GHQ-28 was undertaken in pregnancy (26-28 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Modelling included social deprivation, ethnicity, and other known influences on infant growth such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Maternal distress improved markedly from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum. At both times Pakistani women had more somatic and depression symptoms than White women. Depression in pregnancy (GHQ subscale D was associated with lower infant growth at 6 months. Self-reported social dysfunction in pregnancy (GHQ subscale C was associated with lower gestational age.. Pakistani women reported higher GHQ scores during pregnancy associated with smaller infants at birth. They lived in areas of higher social deprivation, reported less alcohol consumption and smoking postnatally, all independent influences on growth at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mental health in pregnancy is an independent influence on infant growth up to 6 months and is associated with ethnicity which was itself associated with deprivation in our sample. There is a complex relationship between symptoms of maternal distress, ethnicity, deprivation, health behaviours, and early infant growth. Measures should include both emotional and somatic symptoms and interventions to reduce risks of poor early growth need to include psychological and social components.

  4. Globalisation: what is it and how does it affect health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley

    2004-02-16

    The term "globalisation" tends to be misused and overused. We need greater clarity in our understanding of the globalisation process, including the distinct changes involved and their relation to human health. The health impacts of globalisation are simultaneously positive and negative, varying according to factors such as geographical location, sex, age, ethnic origin, education level, and socioeconomic status. Globalisation is not an unstoppable force. Our key challenge is to create socially and environmentally sustainable forms of globalisation that provide the greatest benefits and least costs, shared more equitably than is currently the case. The health community must engage more directly in current research and policy debates on globalisation and encourage values that promote human health. At the same time, those at the helm of globalisation processes must recognise that attending to health impacts will strengthen the long-term sustainability of globalisation.

  5. The role of affect in consumer evaluation of health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sandy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Health care services are typically consumed out of necessity, typically to recover from illness. While the consumption of health care services can be emotional given that consumers experience fear, hope, relief, and joy, surprisingly, there is little research on the role of consumer affect in health care consumption. We propose that consumer affect is a heuristic cue that drives evaluation of health care services. Drawing from cognitive appraisal theory and affect-as-information theory, this article tests a research model (N = 492) that investigates consumer affect resulting from service performance on subsequent service outcomes. PMID:25751317

  6. Do Physicians' Financial Incentives Affect Medical Treatment and Patient Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Jeffrey; Gottlieb, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    We investigate whether physicians' financial incentives influence health care supply, technology diffusion, and resulting patient outcomes. In 1997, Medicare consolidated the geographic regions across which it adjusts physician payments, generating area-specific price shocks. Areas with higher payment shocks experience significant increases in health care supply. On average, a 2 percent increase in payment rates leads to a 3 percent increase in care provision. Elective procedures such as cataract surgery respond much more strongly than less discretionary services. Non-radiologists expand their provision of MRIs, suggesting effects on technology adoption. We estimate economically small health impacts, albeit with limited precision. PMID:25170174

  7. Perspectives of Parents and Health Care Workers on Early Infant Male Circumcision Conducted Using Devices: Qualitative Findings From Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhu, Webster; Hatzold, Karin; Ncube, Getrude; Fernando, Shamiso; Mangenah, Collin; Chatora, Kumbirai; Mugurungi, Owen; Ticklay, Ismail; Cowan, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) for prevention of HIV. Here, we present findings from a qualitative study in Zimbabwe that assessed parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices. Methods: This qualitative study was nested within a trial of EIMC devices. Between January and May 2013, we held 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 12 in-depth interviews with parents and 12 in-depth interviews with clinicians (7 trial clinicians and 5 non-trial clinicians). We also conducted 95 short telephone interviews with parents who had arranged to bring their sons for EIMC but then defaulted. Results: Parents who had adopted EIMC spoke of their initial anxieties about the procedure. Additionally, they commented on both the procedure and outcome. Parents who decided against EIMC cited fear of harm, specifically the infant's death, penile injury, and excessive pain. Misperceptions about male circumcision in general and EIMC specifically were a significant barrier to EIMC adoption and were prevalent among health care workers as well as parents. In particular, the findings suggest strong parental concerns about the fate of the discarded foreskin. Parents who chose EIMC for their newborn sons felt that the procedure was safe and expressed satisfaction with the outcome. For their part, health care workers largely thought that EIMC was safe and that the outcome was aesthetically pleasing. They also felt that it would be feasible to offer wide-scale EIMC for HIV prevention in the public sector; they recommended strategies to increase EIMC uptake, in addition to highlighting a few concerns. Conclusions: The qualitative study enables us to better understand parental and health care workers' perspectives of EIMC conducted using devices, especially their perspectives on EIMC safety, feasibility, acceptability, and barriers. These findings

  8. Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking medicine that your doctor prescribes. Abuse of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs may also be a sign of poor emotional health. Why does my doctor need to know about my emotions? You may not be used to talking to ...

  9. Sweet Stuff: How Sugars and Sweeteners Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in calories and offer none of the healthful benefits of fruits and other naturally sweet foods. Sugar-sweetened beverages like soda, energy drinks, and sports drinks are the leading source of added sugars ...

  10. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go untreated in women because symptoms are less obvious than in men or are more likely to ... National Institute of Mental Health. (2012). Women and Depression : Discovering Hope. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from http:// ...

  11. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  12. Prospective study on the effectiveness of complementary food supplements on improving status of elder infants and young children in the areas affected by Wenchuan earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the efficiency of daily providing complementary food supplements decreasing malnutrition and anemia prevalence in elder infants and young children living in areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake. DESIGN: Using promotional probability sampling method, 250 to 300 children from six-randomized townships (30 to 50 children in each township in Kang County affected by the Earthquake were randomly chosen for follow up to evaluate intervention effectiveness using anthropometric measurement and hemoglobin level at six, twelve and eighteen months after start of intervention. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: All children from 6 to 18 months of age in Kang County (in North Western China were daily provided with complementary food supplements containing multiple vitamins and minerals for up to 24 months of age. The intervention period lasted for one and half year. RESULTS: At beginning of intervention, malnutrition prevalence, including underweight, stunting and wasting were respectively 4.5%, 8.9% and 3.5%; anemia prevalence was 74.3%. After one and half year intervention, the growth and anemia status were significantly improved; the percentages of wasting, stunting underweight prevalence were decreased from 3.5%, 8.9% and 4.5% to 1.7%, 5.0% and 3.3% respectively, and the anemia rates were significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that an intervention using complementary food supplements could improve nutritional status and elevate hemoglobin level in elder infants and young children, which would significantly decrease the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia.

  13. Evaluating strategies to improve careprovider performance on health and developmental tasks in an infant care facility.

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, G G; Lutzker, J R; Cuvo, A J; Eddleman, J; Lutzker, S Z; Megson, D; Gulley, B

    1982-01-01

    Responding to administrative staff and parental concerns, using modified reversal and withdrawal designs, two experiments evaluated a staff-managed feedback system to improve the hygiene and developmental skills of children in an infant/toddler center. Experiment 1 examined feedback designed to increase staff performance in checking and changing diapers, and recording those changes. A chart plus supervisory feedback produced increases in and maintenance of staff performance. Experiment 2 comp...

  14. High-Risk, Good Outcomes: The Health Paradox of Latina Mothers and Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Guendelman, Sylvia

    1995-01-01

    The Mexican-origin population in California is one of the fastest growing groups in the state, due to high immigration and fertility rates. Despite the presence of a variety of risk factors associated with poor pregnancy outcomes in other populations, Mexican-origin women enjoy low rates of infant mortality and low birthweight. This striking epidemiological paradox in such a significant portion of the state’s population merits close examination. This working paper brings together a...

  15. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  16. Financial Health of Child Care Facilities Affects Quality of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Mary R.; Sull, Theresa M.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that child care facility owners, boards of directors, staff, and parents need to focus on financial management, as poor financial health compromises the quality of care for children. Specifically addresses the issues of: (1) concern for providing high quality child care; (2) the connection between quality and money; and (3) strengthening…

  17. Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wierdsma (André); C.L. Mulder (Niels)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. BACKGROUND: Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services. METHODS: In

  18. Noise and Health: How does noise affect us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Noise annoyance is a primary indication that noise is a problem, and by itself noise annoyance means that the quality of life is adversely affected. Results from noise annoyance research are presented that make possible a detailed evaluation of noise exposures with respect to the annoyance induced.

  19. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection--United States, February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; Nelson, Jennifer M; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Mead, Paul; Villanueva, Julie; Renquist, Christina M; Minta, Anna A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Moore, Cynthia A; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-02-26

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease. This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/. PMID:26914500

  20. Food Sources of Total Energy and Nutrients among U.S. Infants and Toddlers: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carley A. Grimes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dietary intakes of infants and toddlers is important because early life nutrition influences future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary sources of total energy and 16 nutrients in a nationally representative sample of U.S. infants and toddlers aged 0–24 months. Data from the 2005–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Dietary intake was assessed in 2740 subjects using one 24-h dietary recall. The population proportion was used to determine the contribution of foods and beverages to nutrient intakes. Overall infant formulas and baby foods were the leading sources of total energy and nutrients in infants aged 0–11.9 months. In toddlers, the diversity of food groups contributing to nutrient intakes was much greater. Important sources of total energy included milk, 100% juice and grain based mixed dishes. A number of foods of low nutritional quality also contributed to energy intakes including sweet bakery products, sugar-sweetened beverages and savory snacks. Overall non-flavored milks and ready-to-eat cereals were the most important contributors to micronutrient intakes. In conclusion this information can be used to guide parents regarding appropriate food selection as well as inform targeted dietary strategies within public health initiatives to improve the diets of infants and toddlers.

  1. After Chernobyl. Psychological factors affecting health after a nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During his stay in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia the author learned much about the medical and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and about the rapidly changing societies of the former Soviet Union. The chapters of this dissertation may be regarded as being stations along the way in this learning process. Chapter 1 describes his first impressions and the accounts he heard about the events that followed the catastrophe. It summarizes the current knowledge about the radiological consequences of the disaster. Chapter 2 presents a review of the literature about the psychological impact of disasters, such as Chernobyl, Bhopal and Three Mile Island, events that are characterized by the release of potentially harmful quantities of toxic substances into the environment. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the painstaking process of obtaining the necessary reliable research instruments, which were totally lacking in the Russian language. Without such instruments no valid epidemiological research is possible. Furthermore, these research instruments were to provide a tool to assist the Byelorussian physicians in their daily practice, helping them to assess the presence of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in their patients in a more reliable fashion. Chapter 5 describes the mental health situation in the region and analyses the presence of high-risk groups towards whom special intervention programmes. Chapter 6 investigates the question to what extent the high levels of psychopathology in Gomel can be attributed to the impact of the Chernobyl disaster, even more than six years after the event. In chapter 7 the perspective is widened. The field of mental health is left behind and the domain of public health is addressed. This chapter describes the relationship between subjective health and illness behaviour in relation to objective clinical parameters of physical and mental health. Finally, in chapter 8, the findings from these studies are critically reviewed and

  2. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  3. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome -- the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-2006). My...... results indicate that uninsured patients have an economically significant effect that increases the mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I show that these results are not driven by alternative explanations, including reverse causality, patient composition effects, sample selection...... of care to insured heart attack patients in response to reduced revenues, the evidence I have suggests a modest increase in the quantity of cardiac services without a corresponding increase in hospital staff....

  4. Does sustained participation in an online health community affect sentiment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaodian; Bantum, Erin; Owen, Jason; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    A large number of patients rely on online health communities to exchange information and psychosocial support with their peers. Examining participation in a community and its impact on members' behaviors and attitudes is one of the key open research questions in the field of study of online health communities. In this paper, we focus on a large public breast cancer community and conduct sentiment analysis on all its posts. We investigate the impact of different factors on post sentiment, such as time since joining the community, posting activity, age of members, and cancer stage of members. We find that there is a significant increase in sentiment of posts through time, with different patterns of sentiment trends for initial posts in threads and reply posts. Factors each play a role; for instance stage-IV members form a particular sub-community with patterns of sentiment and usage distinct from others members.

  5. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect school and work performance, impair peer and family relationships, and exacerbate the severity of other health conditions ... Hispanic origin may be of any race. SOURCE: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey ...

  6. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  7. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  8. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  9. Maternal and infant health indicators by county, census tract and year, 1999-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains values for Nationally Consistent Data and Measures (NCDMs) designated by the national Environmental Public Health Tracking Program derived...

  10. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roggeri DP

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Paola Roggeri,1 Alessandro Roggeri,1 Elisa Rossi,2 Salvatore Cataudella,2 Nello Martini,3 1ProCure Solutions, Nembro, Bergamo, 2CINECA Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, 3Accademia Nazionale di Medicina, Rome, Italy Purpose: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy, based on administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in health care costs of preterm infants with and without early hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Patients and methods: Preterm infants born in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were selected from the ARNO Observatory database and observed for the first 4 years of life. These preterm infants were compared (paired 1–3 with preterm infants who were not hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life and with similar characteristics. Only direct health care costs reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service were considered for this study (drugs, hospitalizations, and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures. Results: Of 40,823 newborns in the accrual period, 863 were preterm with no evidence of prophylaxis, and 22 preterm infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis (cases and paired with 62 controls. Overall, cases had 74% higher average cost per infant in the first 4 years of life than controls (18,624€ versus 10,189€, respectively. The major cost drivers were hospitalizations, accounting for >90% in both the populations. The increase in total yearly health care cost between cases and controls remained substantial even in the fourth year of life for all cost items. A relevant increase in hospitalizations and drug consumption linked to respiratory tract diseases was noted in

  11. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Lie, E; Løken, K B; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in breast milk in the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five colostrum samples from healthy, primiparous mothers at Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha Tanzania, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), (2,3-dibromopropyl) (2,4,6-tribromophenyl) ether (DPTE), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene (PBT). The Ʃ7PBDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) ranged from below level of detection (Infant birth weight and birth length were significantly correlated with the levels of BDE 47, 99, 100 and 153. The estimated daily intake (ng/kg body weight/day) of BDE 47 and 99 exceeded the US EPA Reference doses (RfD) in four and eight mothers, respectively, suggesting a potential health risk to the nursing infants. PMID:26826361

  12. Does Sanitation Affect Health Outcomes? Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Amarendra; Das, Bibhunandini

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have attempted to unravel the disparity in sanitation facilities across rural and urban regions of Indian states and the impact of sanitation on health outcomes. Based on the 69th National Sample Survey data set which covers more than 95 000 households we find a wide disparity in the access to sanitation facilities across rural and urban areas of Indian states and across states. While the north-eastern and southern states perform better in sanitation indicators, the eastern a...

  13. PoopMD, a Mobile Health Application, Accurately Identifies Infant Acholic Stools

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Franciscovich; Dhananjay Vaidya; Joe Doyle; Josh Bolinger; Montserrat Capdevila; Marcus Rice; Leslie Hancock; Tanya Mahr; Mogul, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the leading cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease in the United States. Education of parents in the perinatal period with stool cards depicting acholic and normal stools has been associated with improved time-to-diagnosis and survival in BA. PoopMD is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and color recognition software to analyze an infant's stool and determine if additional follow-up is indicated. PoopMD was developed using custom HTML5/CSS3 an...

  14. Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Authorized Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program is a federally-funded health and nutrition program that provides assistance to pregnant women, new mothers, infants...

  15. Admission to day stay early parenting program is associated with improvements in mental health and infant behaviour: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia’s Early Parenting Services support families and intervene early in mental health problems in parents. The Victorian Early Parenting Strategy, a platform for government policy recommended a stronger evidence base for early parenting services. Tweddle Child and Family Health Service (TCFHS is a not-for-profit public sector early parenting centre, which provides residential, day stay, home visiting and outreach programs. This study aimed i to examine the health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients attending the Tweddle Day Stay Program (DSP with infants under 12 months old and ii to assess the parent mental health and infant behaviour outcomes and the factors associated with program success. Methods A cohort of clients was recruited prior to admission and followed-up 8 weeks after discharge. Data were collected using standardised measures in a study specific questionnaire at baseline, participant’s Tweddle records and a follow-up telephone interview. Health, social circumstances and presenting needs of clients were described. Changes in parents’ symptoms of depression and infants’ sleep and settling between admission and follow-up were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with changes in primary outcomes. Results Of the total 162 clients who were eligible and invited to participate, 115 (72% were recruited. Parents admitted to the DSP had worse general self-reported physical and mental health than community samples. Infants of DSP participants were no more likely to be premature or have low birth weight, but significantly more unsettled than other community samples. Participants’ mental health and their infants’ behaviours were significantly improved after DSP admission. In multivariate analysis, higher depression score at baseline and greater educational attainment were significantly associated with improvements in parents’ mental

  16. Implementation examined in a health center-delivered, educational intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Steckler, Allan; Black, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    Process evaluation was used to examine the implementation of a randomized, controlled trial of an education intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered the multi-component intervention as part of usual care in the government health centers. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine process indicators, which included the extent of delivery (dose), fidelity to intervention protocol, barriers to implementation and context. Results demonstrated that most intervention components were delivered at a level of 50-90% of expectations. Fidelity to intervention protocol, where measured, was lower (28-70% of expectations). However, when compared with existing nutrition education, as represented by the control centers, significant improvements were demonstrated. This included both improved delivery of existing educational activities as well as delivery of new intervention components to strengthen overall nutrition education. Barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation were explored with health personnel and helped to explain results. This study demonstrates the importance of examining actual versus planned implementation in order to improve our understanding of how interventions succeed. The information gained from this study will inform future evaluation designs, and lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs for child health.

  17. A Feasibility Randomised Controlled Trial of the New Orleans Intervention for Infant Mental Health: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is associated with life-long social, physical, and mental health problems. Intervening early to provide maltreated children with safe, nurturing care can improve outcomes. The need for prompt decisions about permanent placement (i.e., regarding adoption or return home is internationally recognised. However, a recent Glasgow audit showed that many maltreated children “revolve” between birth families and foster carers. This paper describes the protocol of the first exploratory randomised controlled trial of a mental health intervention aimed at improving placement permanency decisions for maltreated children. This trial compares an infant's mental health intervention with the new enhanced service as usual for maltreated children entering care in Glasgow. As both are new services, the trial is being conducted from a position of equipoise. The outcome assessment covers various fields of a child’s neurodevelopment to identify problems in any ESSENCE domain. The feasibility, reliability, and developmental appropriateness of all outcome measures are examined. Additionally, the potential for linkage with routinely collected data on health and social care and, in the future, education is explored. The results will inform a definitive randomised controlled trial that could potentially lead to long lasting benefits for the Scottish population and which may be applicable to other areas of the world. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NC01485510.

  18. 'This little piranha': a qualitative analysis of the language used by health professionals and mothers to describe infant behaviour during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Elaine; Fenwick, Jenny; Sheehan, Athena; Schmied, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life offers the recommended best start in the life for a newborn baby. Yet, in Australia only a small number of babies receive breast milk exclusively for the first 6 months. Reasons for the introduction of formula milk are multi-factorial including access to appropriate support and the woman's experience of breastfeeding. The language and practices of health professionals can impact upon how a woman feels about breastfeeding and her breastfeeding body. One aspect of breastfeeding support that has had scarce attention in the literature is the language used by health professionals to describe the behaviour of the breastfeeding infant during the early establishment phase of breastfeeding. This paper reveals some of the ways in which midwives, lactation consultants and breastfeeding women describe the newborn baby during the first week after birth. The study was conducted at two maternity units in New South Wales. Interactions between midwives and breastfeeding women were observed and audio recorded on the post-natal ward and in women's homes, in the first week after birth. The transcribed data were analysed using discourse analysis searching for recurring words, themes and metaphors used in descriptions of the breastfeeding baby. Repeated negative references to infant personality and unfavourable interpretations of infant behaviour influenced how women perceived their infant. The findings revealed that positive language and interpretations of infant breastfeeding behaviour emerged from more relationship-based communication. PMID:26059182

  19. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    The Born-Alive Infants Protection Act (BAIPA), passed by Congress in 2002, has attracted little publicity. Its purposes were, in part, "to repudiate the flawed notion that a child's entitlement to the protections of the law is dependent on whether that child's mother or others want him or her." Understood as antiabortion rhetoric, the bill raised little concern among physicians at the time of legislative hearings and passed in both Houses by overwhelming majorities, hardly suggesting contentious legislation. After its signing into law, the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) Steering Committee issued an opinion stating that "[BAIPA] should not in any way affect the approach that physicians currently follow with respect to the extremely premature infant." This interpretation of the law, however, may have been short sighted. In April 2005, the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) brought life to the BAIPA, announcing: "As a matter of law and policy, [DHHS] will investigate all circumstances where individuals and entities are reported to be withholding medical care from an infant born alive in potential violation of federal statutes." The agency issued instructions to state officials on how the definitional provision within the BAIPA interacts with the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). These interagency memoranda potentially resurrect dormant governmental oversight of newborn-treatment decisions and thus may have influence over normative neonatal practice. Under the BAIPA, the DHHS interprets EMTALA to protect all "born-alive" infants; hospitals and physicians violating regulatory requirements face agency-sanctioned monetary penalties or a "private right of action by any individual harmed as a direct result." According to its memorandum, the DHHS will investigate allegations of EMTALA violations whenever it finds evidence that a newborn was not provided with at least a medical

  20. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  1. Factors affecting patients' ratings of health-care satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne K; Fuglsang, Marie; Miiller, Max Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surveys that include rating scales are commonly used to collect data about patients' experiences. We studied how patients associated their ratings with their experiences of care. METHODS: A survey and a qualitative study were conducted at a Danish hospital. Initially, 19 female...... patients completed a questionnaire using the response categories from very good to very bad; and subsequently they participated in a semi-structured interview held within two days after they completed the questionnaire. Additionally, 44 female patients participated in an interview within six weeks...... of completing a questionnaire. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used in the analysis and interpretation. RESULTS: Two major themes emerged: experienced versus expected clinical quality and health-care professional attitude. Patients responded to each question by combining their experiences of both...

  2. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  3. A quiet NICU for improved infants' health, development and well-being: a systems approach to reducing noise and auditory alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, A.; Van Stuijvenberg, M.; Van Goudoever, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Noise is a direct cause of health problems, long-lasting auditory problems and development problems. Preterm infants are, especially, at risk for auditory and neurocognitive development. Sound levels are very high at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and may contribute to the frequently observ

  4. Infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluye Dagnachew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that 430,000 children under 15 years of age were newly infected with HIV in 2008, and more than 71% are living in sub-Saharan Africa. In the absence of intervention to prevent mother-to-child transmission, 30-45% of infants born to HIV-positive mothers in developing countries become infected during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess infant feeding practice and associated factors of HIV positive mothers attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics of Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2011 among all HIV positive mothers with less than two years old child attending prevention of mother to child transmission and antiretroviral therapy clinics in Gondar Town health institutions. A structured pre-tested questionnaire using interview technique was used for data collection. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package. Results A total of 209 HIV positive mothers were included in the study. Of these, 187 (89.5% had followed the recommended way of infant feeding practice while significant percentage (10.5% had practiced mixed breast feeding. In multivariate analysis, disclosure of HIV status with their spouse, insufficient breast milk and occupational status were found to be independently associated (p-value of Conclusions Higher proportion of respondents used the recommended way of infant feeding practice by WHO as well as by Ethiopian Ministry of Health. However, mixed feeding in the first 6 months of age, an undesirable practice in infant feeding, were reported in this study. Infant feeding education that is aligned to national policy should be strengthened in primary health care, particularly in situations where prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV is prioritized.

  5. Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Munyua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The countrys system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The countrys ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts percentages and measures of central tendency. Inferential statistics on the other hand include t-test analysis and spearman correlation

  6. Does mental health service integration affect compulsory admissions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André I. Wierdsma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over recent years, the number of compulsory admissions in many countries has increased, probably as a result of the shift from inpatient to outpatient mental health care. This might be mitigated by formal or collaborative relationships between services. Methods: In a retrospective record linkage study, we compared two neighboring districts, varying in level of service integration. Two periods were combined: 1991–1993 and 2001–2003. We included patients aged 18–60, who had a first emergency compulsory admission (n=830. Their psychiatric history was assessed, and service-use after admission was monitored over a 12-month follow-up. Results: Over a 10-year period, compulsory admission rates increased by 47%. Difference in relative increase between the integrated and non-integrated services was 14%. Patient characteristics showed different profiles in the two districts. Length of stay was >10 days shorter in the integrated district, where the proportion of involuntary readmissions decreased more, and where aftercare was swift and provided to about 10% more patients than in the non-integrated district. Conclusions: Services outcomes showed better results where mental healthcare was more integrated. However, limited effects were found and other factors than integration of services may be more important in preventing compulsory admissions.

  7. PUBLIC HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL INTERCONNECTIVITY: A CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY APPROACH ASSOCIATING DEGRADATION OF STREAMS AND INFANT MORTALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective public health policy should not be based solely on clinical, individualbasedinformation, but requires a broad characterization of human health conditionsacross large geographic areas. For the most part, the necessary monitoring of humanhealth to ...

  8. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  9. Promoting health: action in infant nutrition - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.14045

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Freitas Casimiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of children under five die from preventable diseases. Community interventions that emphasize primary care on health and nutrition have been identified as one of the solutions to overcome this problem. This study aimed to develop educational workshops to improve the perception of mothers about infant nutrition, using a qualitative approach with technical educational workshops, in a Health Unit of the City of Fortaleza, during the period from February to June 2008. The seven participants were mothers accompanying their children in childcare consultation. The analysis of data was made through a survey and saturation of responses, from where the thematic categories emerged: the contribution of educational workshops, breastfeeding and introduction of complementary feeding. The educational activities allowed a better awareness of mothers in relation to child nutrition and development of critical awareness of their essential role on children nutrition. In conclusion, the professional should emphasize the importance and benefits of adequate diet, and for this is necessary educational strategies in health, offering exchanges of knowledge, since they are different experiences in which the learning is significant.  

  10. Delivery of an Ebola Virus-Positive Stillborn Infant in a Rural Community Health Center, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Grass, Julian E; Veltus, Emily; Brault, Aaron; Campbell, Shelley; Basile, Alison Jane; Wang, David; Paddock, Christopher D; Erickson, Bobbie R; Salzer, Johanna S; Belser, Jessica; Chege, Eunice; Seneca, Dean; Saffa, Gbessay; Stroeher, Ute; Decroo, Tom; Caleo, Grazia M

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of an Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA-negative pregnant woman who delivered an EBOV RNA-positive stillborn infant at a community health center in rural Sierra Leone, 1 month after the mother's last possible exposure. The mother was later found to be immunoglobulins M and G positive indicating previous infection. The apparent absence of Ebola symptoms and not recognizing that the woman had previous contact with an Ebola patient led health workers performing the delivery to wear only minimal personal protection, potentially exposing them to a high risk of EBOV infection. This case emphasizes the importance of screening for epidemiological risk factors as well as classic and atypical symptoms of Ebola when caring for pregnant women, even once they have passed the typical time frame for exposure and incubation expected in nonpregnant adults. It also illustrates the need for health-care workers to use appropriate personal protection equipment when caring for pregnant women in an Ebola setting. PMID:26556830

  11. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  12. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  13. On the nutrition and health of infant and young child%论当前的婴幼儿营养与保健研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚清

    2013-01-01

    婴幼儿时期的营养与保健是孩子健康成长的重要组成部分,婴幼儿时期的营养问题可能会导致儿童不可逆转的生长和认知发育迟缓,以及近期和远期的不良后果。因此,当前婴幼儿营养与保健问题成为家长普遍关注的话题。其中母乳喂养和合理的添加辅助食品是预防儿童营养不良的重要举措。本文将分析当前婴幼儿营养与保健方面存在的问题,进而提出婴幼儿营养与保健的方法。%The nutrition and health of infant period is an important part of the healthy growth of children, nutritional problems of infants and young children may lead to irreversible growth and cognitive retardation, and short-term and long-term adverse consequences. Therefore, the current problems of infant nutrition and health has become a topic of common concern of parents. The breastfeeding and to add supplementary food reasonably are important measure to prevent child malnutrition. This article will analyze the existing problems of nutrition and health of infants, and then put forward the method of nutrition and health of infants and young children.

  14. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in rural Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal, newborn and infant mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnano Stefania

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through increasing awareness and local action. Methods/Design This study uses a two-by-two factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial design to test the impact of two interventions. The impact of a community mobilisation intervention run through women's groups, on home care, health care-seeking behaviours and maternal and infant mortality, will be tested. The impact of a volunteer-led infant feeding and care support intervention, on rates of exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of HIV-prevention services and infant mortality, will also be tested. The women's group intervention will employ local female facilitators to guide women's groups through a four-phase cycle of problem identification and prioritisation, strategy identification, implementation and evaluation. Meetings will be held monthly at village level. The infant feeding intervention will select local volunteers to provide advice and support for breastfeeding, birth preparedness, newborn care and immunisation. They will visit pregnant and new mothers in their homes five times during and after pregnancy. The unit of intervention allocation will be clusters of rural villages of 2500-4000 population. 48 clusters have been defined and randomly allocated to either women's groups only, infant feeding support only, both interventions, or no intervention. Study villages are surrounded by 'buffer areas' of non-study villages to reduce contamination between intervention and control areas. Outcome indicators will be measured through a demographic surveillance system. Primary outcomes will be maternal, infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality for the

  15. Health in the hot zone - How could global warming affect humans?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monastersky, R.

    1996-04-06

    A soon-to-be-released report from the World Health Organization examines the health effects of global warming, calling climate change one of the largest public health challenges for the upcoming century. The issue extends beyond tropical illness: deaths caused directly by heat, dwindling agricultural yields etc. could all affect human health. This article looks at the following health related effects and gives an overview of the scientific information available on each: temperature and mortality; tropical trouble, including vecorborne diseases and increase in susceptable populations; and waterborne problems such as cholera, harmful algal bloomes, food shortages.

  16. Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to various science and policy aspects of the topic of environmental chemicals in human milk. Although information on environmental chemicals in human milk has been available since the 1950s, it is only relatively recently that public awareness of the issue has grown. This review on environmental chemicals in human milk provides a resource summarizing what is currently known about levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk, potential infant exposures, and benefits of breast-feeding relative to the risks of exposures to environmental chemicals. The term 'environmental chemicals', as it pertains to human milk, refers to many classes of exogenous chemicals that may be detected in human milk. For example, pharmaceutical agents and alcohol are environmental chemicals that have been found in human milk. Other chemicals, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, have also been detected in human milk. Most research on environmental chemicals in human milk has concentrated on persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals. In this review, a description of human milk is provided, including a brief review of endogenous substances in human milk. Determinants of levels of PBTs are discussed, as are models that have been developed to predict levels of PBTs in human milk and associated body burdens in breast-feeding infants. Methodologies for human milk sampling and analysis, and concepts for consideration in interpretation and communication of study results, as developed by the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the United States are described. Studies which have compared the health risks and benefits associated with breast-feeding and formula-feeding are discussed

  17. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy.

  18. Factors Affecting Job Motivation among Health Workers: A Study From Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkohan, Abbas; Zarei, Ehsan; Mansouri, Tahere; Maajani, Khadije; Ghasemi, Mehri Siyahat; Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Human resources are the most vital resource of any organizations which determine how other resources are used to accomplish organizational goals. This research aimed to identity factors affecting health workers’ motivation in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS). Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 212 health workers of Tehran health centers in November and December 2011. The data collection tool was a researcher-developed ques...

  19. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Andersen, Anders D; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-03-14

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (PIGF-1 in the total population, but a sex × group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95% CI 0·4, 21·8; P=0·04) higher after FO compared with SO supplementation among boys only. The sex × group interaction was borderline significant in the model of IGFBP-3 (P=0·09), with lower IGFBP-3 with FO compared with SO among girls only (P=0·03). The results were supported by sex-specific dose-response associations between changes in erythrocyte EPA and changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (both PIGF-1 was sex specifically associated with BMI and length. In conclusion, FO compared with SO resulted in higher IGF-1 among boys and lower IGFBP-3 among girls. The potential long-term implications for growth and body composition should be investigated further. PMID:26758502

  20. PoopMD, a Mobile Health Application, Accurately Identifies Infant Acholic Stools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Franciscovich

    Full Text Available Biliary atresia (BA is the leading cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease in the United States. Education of parents in the perinatal period with stool cards depicting acholic and normal stools has been associated with improved time-to-diagnosis and survival in BA. PoopMD is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and color recognition software to analyze an infant's stool and determine if additional follow-up is indicated. PoopMD was developed using custom HTML5/CSS3 and wrapped to work on iOS and Android platforms. In order to define the gold standard regarding stool color, seven pediatricians were asked to review 45 photographs of infant stool and rate them as acholic, normal, or indeterminate. Samples for which 6+ pediatricians demonstrated agreement defined the gold standard, and only these samples were included in the analysis. Accuracy of PoopMD was assessed using an iPhone 5s with incandescent lighting. Variability in analysis of stool photographs as acholic versus normal with intermediate rating weighted as 50% agreement (kappa was compared between three laypeople and one expert user. Variability in output was also assessed between an iPhone 5s and a Samsung Galaxy S4, as well as between incandescent lighting and compact fluorescent lighting. Six-plus pediatricians agreed on 27 normal and 7 acholic photographs; no photographs were defined as indeterminate. The sensitivity was 7/7 (100%. The specificity was 24/27 (89% with 3/27 labeled as indeterminate; no photos of normal stool were labeled as acholic. The Laplace-smoothed positive likelihood ratio was 6.44 (95% CI 2.52 to 16.48 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.13 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.83. kappauser was 0.68, kappaphone was 0.88, and kappalight was 0.81. Therefore, in this pilot study, PoopMD accurately differentiates acholic from normal color with substantial agreement across users, and almost perfect agreement across two popular smartphones and ambient light

  1. PoopMD, a Mobile Health Application, Accurately Identifies Infant Acholic Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscovich, Amy; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Doyle, Joe; Bolinger, Josh; Capdevila, Montserrat; Rice, Marcus; Hancock, Leslie; Mahr, Tanya; Mogul, Douglas B

    2015-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the leading cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease in the United States. Education of parents in the perinatal period with stool cards depicting acholic and normal stools has been associated with improved time-to-diagnosis and survival in BA. PoopMD is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and color recognition software to analyze an infant's stool and determine if additional follow-up is indicated. PoopMD was developed using custom HTML5/CSS3 and wrapped to work on iOS and Android platforms. In order to define the gold standard regarding stool color, seven pediatricians were asked to review 45 photographs of infant stool and rate them as acholic, normal, or indeterminate. Samples for which 6+ pediatricians demonstrated agreement defined the gold standard, and only these samples were included in the analysis. Accuracy of PoopMD was assessed using an iPhone 5s with incandescent lighting. Variability in analysis of stool photographs as acholic versus normal with intermediate rating weighted as 50% agreement (kappa) was compared between three laypeople and one expert user. Variability in output was also assessed between an iPhone 5s and a Samsung Galaxy S4, as well as between incandescent lighting and compact fluorescent lighting. Six-plus pediatricians agreed on 27 normal and 7 acholic photographs; no photographs were defined as indeterminate. The sensitivity was 7/7 (100%). The specificity was 24/27 (89%) with 3/27 labeled as indeterminate; no photos of normal stool were labeled as acholic. The Laplace-smoothed positive likelihood ratio was 6.44 (95% CI 2.52 to 16.48) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.13 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.83). kappauser was 0.68, kappaphone was 0.88, and kappalight was 0.81. Therefore, in this pilot study, PoopMD accurately differentiates acholic from normal color with substantial agreement across users, and almost perfect agreement across two popular smartphones and ambient light settings. Poop

  2. Infant and Young Child Feeding Behavior among Working Mothers in India: Implications for Global Health Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar, MD, MPH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding introduced in 2006 recommended the initiation of breastfeeding immediately after birth, preferably within one hour; exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding; and continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond. Working women in India constitute a dominant and expanding pool of mothers. There is paucity of research focused on feeding behavior within this group. Method: One hundred and fifty working women answered a structured questionnaire about their demographics, birth history, levels of awareness and practice of feeding guidelines, and perceptions about breastfeeding and counseling. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: Majority of participants belonged to 21-39 years age group, had nuclear families, received college education, and delivered in institutional setups. Gaps were observed between the mother’s levels of awareness and practice for different tenets of national guidelines. Higher education, longer maternity leave, higher income, and utilization of counseling services facilitated adoption of optimal feeding behavior. Most women perceived breast milk to be superior to any alternative and favored provision of counseling during last trimester. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counseling women on optimal feeding behavior is a potential intervention to convert its awareness into actual practice. The lessons learned from this study can help refine both national and global Mother and Child Health policies and programs.

  3. Applying Rank Sum Ratio (RSR) to the Evaluation of Feeding Practices Behaviors, and Its Associations with Infant Health Risk in Rural Lhasa, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the status of feeding practices and analyze the association between feeding practice and health status among Tibetan infants, a cross-sectional survey of 386 women with children aged under 24 months was conducted in rural areas surrounding Lhasa, Tibet. All participants were selected using simple random sampling and were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers. Mothers were interviewed to collect information on their feeding practices. A feeding practices index was created using the rank sum ratio method. Most of the infants had been or were being breastfed at the time of the interview. The feeding practices index was significantly and inversely associated with the prevalence of acute upper respiratory infection, and the odds ratio for the qualified feeding practices index vs. the non-qualified feeding practices index was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.94). There were no measurable associations observed between acute upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, and the feeding practices index after controlling for selected factors. The method of rank sum ratio provides a flexible way to evaluate feeding practices and is easy to understand. Furthermore, appropriate infant feeding practices might play a protective role in Tibetan infants' health.

  4. Home visits by community health workers to improve identification of serious illness and care seeking in newborns and young infants from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, A; Kabra, S K; Sachdev, H P S; Lodha, R

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this review were to evaluate the effect of home visits by trained community health workers (CHWs) to successfully identify newborns and young infants (up to 59 days of age) with serious illness and improve care seeking from a health facility. The authors searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts of all articles were read by two authors independently and relevant articles selected. Data were extracted in a pretested questionnaire by two authors independently. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager software. A meta-analysis of included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out. Pooled estimates (risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of the evaluated outcome measures were calculated by the generic inverse variance method. Seven articles were identified for inclusion in the review. None of them compared the diagnosis of serious illness in young infants by health workers to a 'gold standard' diagnosis. Three studies were available for evaluating the ability of CHWs to identify seriously ill young infants/signs of serious illness. These studies suggest that sensitivity to identify serious illness ranged from 33.3 to 90.5% and specificity from 75.61 to 98.4%. For the outcome of improved care seeking from a health facility, after pooling the data from six RCTs with 4760 subjects in the intervention and 4398 subjects in the control arm, there was a significant improvement in care seeking in the home visit arm (RR=1.35; 95% CI=1.15 to 1.58). Moderate quality evidence indicated that home visits by trained CHWs were associated with improved care-seeking for sick young infants from health facilities by appropriate health care providers in resource-limited settings. However, there is a lack of data regarding successful identification of serious illness. Evidence from validation studies supports the implementation of home visits by trained CHWs for improving outcomes in

  5. Early social experience affects behavioral and physiological responsiveness to stressful conditions in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Rommeck, Ina; Capitanio, John P.; Strand, Sarah C.; McCowan, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Studies on early development have demonstrated the profound effects of early social experience on the behavioral development and physiology of young rhesus macaques. Given these relationships, we hypothesized that rhesus macaques exposed to different nursery-rearing conditions may develop unique biobehavioral profiles. If this is true, the assessment of temperament may allow us to pinpoint successful rearing environments, thus improving the overall health of non human primates that are raised...

  6. Effects of severe obstetric complications on women’s health and infant mortality in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Véronique; Goufodji, Sourou; Sismanidis, Charalambos; Kanhonou, Lydie; Fottrell, Edward; Ronsmans, Carine; Alihonou, Eusèbe; Patel, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To document the impact of severe obstetric complications on post-partum health in mothers and mortality in babies over 12 months in Benin and to assess whether severe complications associated with perinatal death are particularly likely to lead to adverse health consequences. Methods Cohort study which followed women and their babies after a severe complication or an uncomplicated childbirth. Women were selected in hospitals and interviewed at home at discharge, and at 6 and...

  7. The knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Neves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its objective to investigate the knowledge of pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care. A qualitative analysis was made based on a thematic investigation of the subject matter. Ten pregnant teenagers with chronological age between ten and nineteen years old joined in the survey. They found themselves around the fifth and ninth months of gestation age, being attended at the Center of Pregnant TeenagersAttention Care at Fortaleza General Hospital. The collection of data involved the application of a semi-structured interview broaching topics that could identify what the pregnant teenagers knew about Speech Therapy and maternal-infant care. Education interventions, related to Speech Therapy health promotion, were also accomplished. The results pointed out that the pregnant teenagers’ level of knowledge on aspects such as: food transition and utensils, oral habits, language stimulation and hearing loss detection, was still incipient and unsatisfactory. It is concluded that the knowledge of the pregnant teenagers on Speech Therapy related to maternal-infant health care was unsatisfactory, which demonstrates the importance of education interventions related to human communication health care for this studied sample.

  8. Fragile and conflict affected states: report from the Consultation on Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim; MacPherson, Eleanor; Baba Dieu-Merci, Amuda; Ssali, Sarah; Torr, Steve; Theobald, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Fragile and Conflict Affected States present difficult contexts to achieve health system outcomes and are neglected in health systems research. This report presents key debates from the Consultation of the Collaboration for Applied Health Research and Delivery, Liverpool, June, 2014.

  9. Evaluation of antenatal to neonatal continuum care services affecting neonatal health in a tertiary health-care setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarina Begum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and child mortality and morbidity continue to be high despite existence of various national health programmes in India. Annually 41% of all Under 5 mortality is comprised of neonates, 3/4 of who die within the first week of life. Even though effective programmes are existing, optimum utilization is still a question. So the present study was planned to assess utilisation of maternal and neonatal health services and its influence on neonatal health. Objectives: 1. To assess the utilization of MCH services before admission to SNCU. 2. To analyse the process of implementation of IMNCI before referral and during the admission. 3. To observe the impact on neonatal health and give necessary recommendations. Methodology: The information regarding utilization of MCH services was obtained by conducting in depth interviews with the responsible adults accompanying the sick neonate. The Pre-treatment and referral slips were verified and compared with that of the prescribed guidelines laid down by the IMNCI for young infants (0-2 months at SNCU. Results and Discussion: Some of the important observations were mentioned here. 100% women had TT immunization whereas 72% had the full ANC, 58.7% had full course of IFA, 76% had utilized JSY benefits and 48.34% had their PNC. 84% neonates had required immunization, 59.01% were on exclusive breast feeding. 38.9% were paid home visits, only 42% had an idea about the danger signs of neonatal period. 23% sick babies were treated under IMNCI guideline. Among them 98% given initial treatment, only 34% given proper diagnosis/classification, 56% were given adequate advice.

  10. Evaluation of Antenatal to Neonatal Continuum Care Services Affecting Neonatal Health in a Tertiary Health-Care Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Jarina; Ali, Syed Irfan; Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal and child mortality and morbidity continue to be high despite existence of various national health programmes in India. Annually 41% of all Under 5 mortality is comprised of neonates, 3/4 of who die within the first week of life. Even though effective programmes are existing, optimum utilization is still a question. So the present study was planned to assess utilisation of maternal and neonatal health services and its influence on neonatal health. Objectives: 1. To assess the utilization of MCH services before admission to SNCU. 2. To analyse the process of implementation of IMNCI before referral and during the admission. 3. To observe the impact on neonatal health and give necessary recommendations. Methodology: The information regarding utilization of MCH services was obtained by conducting in depth interviews with the responsible adults accompanying the sick neonate. The Pre-treatment and referral slips were verified and compared with that of the prescribed guidelines laid down by the IMNCI for young infants (0-2 months) at SNCU. Results and Discussion: Some of the important observations were mentioned here. 100% women had TT immunization whereas 72% had the full ANC, 58.7% had full course of IFA, 76% had utilized JSY benefits and 48.34% had their PNC. 84% neonates had required immunization, 59.01% were on exclusive breast feeding. 38.9% were paid home visits, only 42% had an idea about the danger signs of neonatal period. 23% sick babies were treated under IMNCI guideline. Among them 98% given initial treatment, only 34% given proper diagnosis/classification, 56% were given adequate advice.

  11. HIV-exposed uninfected infants in Zimbabwe: insights into health outcomes in the pre-antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri eEvans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14110 mother-infant pairs to a randomised controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997-2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterised through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants (n=3135, with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n=9510. Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial. HEU infants had increased morbidity compared to HIV-unexposed infants, with 50% more hospitalisations in the neonatal period and 30% more sick clinic visits during infancy, particularly for skin infections, lower respiratory tract infections and oral thrush. HEU children had 3.9-fold and 2.0-fold higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children during the first and second years of life, respectively, most commonly due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhoea/dysentery, malnutrition, sepsis and meningitis. Infant morbidity and mortality was strongly related to maternal HIV disease severity, with a risk that remained until maternal CD4 counts were >800 cells/uL. HEU infants were more likely to be premature and small-for-gestational age than HIV-unexposed infants, and had more postnatal growth failure. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explain the increased risk of infectious morbidity, mortality and growth failure among HEU infants, hypothesizing that immune activation and inflammation are key drivers of both infection susceptibility and growth failure. Future studies should further dissect the causes of infection susceptibility and growth failure, and determine the impact of ART and co-trimoxazole on outcomes of this vulnerable group of infants in the current era.

  12. HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in Zimbabwe: Insights into Health Outcomes in the Pre-Antiretroviral Therapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ceri; Humphrey, Jean H; Ntozini, Robert; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The ZVITAMBO trial recruited 14,110 mother-infant pairs to a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A between 1997 and 2000, before the availability of antiretroviral therapy for HIV prophylaxis or treatment in Zimbabwe. The HIV status of mothers and infants was well characterized through 1-2 years of follow-up, leading to the largest cohort to date of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants (n = 3135), with a suitable comparison group of HIV-unexposed infants (n = 9510). Here, we draw on 10 years of published findings from the ZVITAMBO trial. HEU infants had increased morbidity compared to HIV-unexposed infants, with 50% more hospitalizations in the neonatal period and 30% more sick clinic visits during infancy, particularly for skin infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and oral thrush. HEU children had 3.9-fold and 2.0-fold higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children during the first and second years of life, respectively, most commonly due to acute respiratory infections, diarrhea/dysentery, malnutrition, sepsis, and meningitis. Infant morbidity and mortality were strongly related to maternal HIV disease severity, and increased morbidity remained until maternal CD4 counts were >800 cells/μL. HEU infants were more likely to be premature and small-for-gestational age than HIV-unexposed infants, and had more postnatal growth failure. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explain the increased risk of infectious morbidity, mortality, and growth failure among HEU infants, hypothesizing that immune activation and inflammation are key drivers of both infection susceptibility and growth failure. Future studies should further dissect the causes of infection susceptibility and growth failure and determine the impact of ART and cotrimoxazole on outcomes of this vulnerable group of infants in the current era. PMID:27375613

  13. Evaluation of dietary intake of lactating women in China and its potential impact on the health of mothers and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Haijiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal nutrition for lactating mothers is importance for mother and infants’ health and well-being. We determined the nutrient intake and dietary changes during the first 3-month of lactation, and its potential effect on health and disease risk. Method Personal interviews were conducted to collect a 24h diet recall questionnaire from 199 healthy lactating women in the postpartum days 2, 7, 30, 90 and healthy 58 non-pregnant women served as the controls. Results We found in lactating women (1 the mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake was lower than that of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI, 2600 Kcal, 357.5 ~ 422.5g by 11% ~ 17% and 33% ~ 49%, respectively; (2 the fat intake increased from 3% to 13%, which was 9 ~ 77% higher than the RNI (57 ~ 86.7g; (3 the protein intake exceeded the RNI of 85g by 32 ~ 53%; (4 the total calories consumed from carbohydrate (39%-44%, fat (34% ~ 42% and protein (20%-23% failed to meet Chinese RNI (5 the intake of vitamin C, B1, folate, zinc, dietary fiber, and calcium was 5% ~ 73% lower than the RNI while vitamin B2, B3, E, iron and selenium intake was 20% to 3 times higher than the RNI. Nutrient intake in the control group was lower for all nutrients than the recommended RNI. Conclusion Lactating women on a self-selected diet did not meet the Chinese RNI for many important micronutrients, which may influence the nutritional composition of breast milk and thus impact the potential health of mothers and infants. RNI should consider the regional dietary habits and culture. A single national RNI is not applicable for all of China. Nutritional education into the community is needed.

  14. Step Back and Consider: Learning from Reflective Practice in Infant Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Shelley Neilsen; Watson, Christopher L.; Siegel, Carol F.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective practice is used in different fields such as education and mental health. The educational form of reflective practice has been around since the 1930s (Dewey, as cited in Pedro, 2006); it is a problem-solving process that facilitates examination of behavior and responses to behavior. It takes into consideration multiple factors,…

  15. Immigration and infant-juvenile mental health: an analysis of articles published in national Psychology journals during the 2003-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Abarca Brown; Mauricio Carreño Hernández

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the current state of the national publications in journals of Psychology respect to the subject of immigration, particularly mental health in infant-juvenile immigrant population. In order to do so, 1.094 articles published in six journals of Psychology in Chile during the period 2003-2013 were reviewed. Twenty-six articles on immigration were found, which were subsequently classified by: type of research, associated project, institutional support, level of analysi...

  16. The importance of evaluating primary midwifery care for improving the health of women and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, A de; Vries, R. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Malata, A.; Declercq, E.; Downe, S.; Hutton, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    In most countries, maternal and newborn care is fragmented and focused on identification and treatment of pathology that affects only the minority of women and babies. Recently, a framework for quality maternal and newborn care was developed, which encourages a system-level shift to provide skilled

  17. Unnatural sudden infant death

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, R

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 wer...

  18. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  19. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  20. The ratio between positive and negative affect and flourishing mental health across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L; Berg, Kathleen M

    2011-09-01

    Using data from a 30-day diary study with 239 adults (81 young, 81 middle-aged, and 77 older adults), this study examined whether a specific ratio between positive and negative affect distinguished individuals with different mental health status and especially flourishing from non-flourishing individuals. In addition, the study addressed whether there were age differences in the positivity ratio when daily affect data were used, and whether the proposed critical positivity ratio of 2.9 discriminated equally well between individuals with different mental health status across the adult lifespan. Findings showed that the ratio of positive to negative affect differed across adulthood such that age was associated with an increasing preponderance of positive to negative affect. The positivity ratio was also associated with mental health status in the hypothesized direction; higher positivity ratios were associated with better mental health. Finally, although the data supported the notion of a positivity ratio of 2.9 as a 'critical value' in young adulthood, this value did not equally well discriminate the mental health status of middle-aged and older adults. PMID:21562989

  1. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproduc...

  2. Mental Health in Youth Infected with and Affected by HIV: The Role of Caregiver HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, José A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health. Method Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N = 545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Results HIV+ youth reported ...

  3. Confined Site Construction: A qualitative investigation of critical issues affecting management of Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, John P.; Oyedele, Lukumon O.; Von Meding, Jason; Konanahalli, Ashwini; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E; Tijani, Iyabo K

    2011-01-01

    The construction industry is inherently risky, with a significant number of accidents and disasters occurring, particularly on confined construction sites. This research investigates and identifies the various issues affecting successful management of health and safety in confined construction sites. The rationale is that identifying the issues would assist the management of health and safety particularly in inner city centres which are mostly confined sites. Using empiricism epistemology, th...

  4. A case study of infant health promotion and corporate marketing of milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2012-06-01

    The mismatch between the demand for, and supply of, health products has led to the increasing involvement of courts worldwide in health promotion and marketing. This study critically examines the implementation of one country's Milk Code within the framework of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, and the efficacy of the judicial process in balancing corporate marketing and state regulatory objectives. Drawing upon the Philippine experience with its own Milk Code, it evaluates the capacities of courts to determine policy costs and risks against the benefits of delineating and containing corporate marketing strategies for milk substitutes and supplements. The study finds that the methodological and information-based challenges faced by courts in resolving multi-dimensional health issues may not be overcome without serious questions concerning the legitimacy of the judicial process itself. Despite the deficiencies of litigation and adjudication, the study notes the catalytic potential of a judicial decision in opening up vital policy space for future renegotiations among rival parties and interests. Third-party intervention is explored relative to this catalytic function. PMID:21656241

  5. Dynamics of Gut Microbiota According to the Delivery Mode in Healthy Korean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun; Kim, Byoung Ju; Kang, Mi Jin; Choi, Kil Yong; Cho, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yeongho; Yang, Song I; Jung, Young Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju Hee; Kwon, Ji Won; Kim, Hyo Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Hong, Soo Jong

    2016-09-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut is unstable and shows a wide range of diversity between individuals. Gut microbiota play an important role in the development of the immune system, and an imbalance in these organisms can affect health, including an increased risk of allergic diseases. Microbial colonization of young infants is affected by the delivery mode at birth and the consequent alterations of gut microbiota in early life affect the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effects of the delivery mode on the temporal dynamics of gut microbiota in healthy Korean infants. Fecal samples were collected at 1-3 days, 1 month, and 6 months after birth in six healthy infants. Microbiota were characterized by 16S rRNA shotgun sequencing. At the first and third days of life, infants born by vaginal delivery showed a higher richness and diversity of gut microbiota compared with those born by cesarean section. However, these differences disappeared with age. The Bacteroides genus and Bacteroidetes phylum were abundant in infants born by vaginal delivery, whereas Bacilli and Clostridium g4 were increased in infants born by cesarean section. The Firmicutes phylum and Bacteroides genus showed convergent dynamics with age. This study demonstrated the effect of delivery mode on the dynamics of gut microbiota profiles in healthy Korean infants. PMID:27334787

  6. Factors Affecting Health-Promoting Behaviors in Nursing Students at a University in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Ülkü; Özen, Şükrü; Kahraman, Burcu Bayrak; Bostanoğlu, Hatice

    2016-07-01

    This descriptive study was carried out to determine factors affecting health-promoting behaviors in nursing students. The sample consisted of 245 students. A questionnaire about factors affecting lifestyle behavior and the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II were used to collect data from 245 nursing students during the spring semester of the 2012-2013 academic year. A significant difference was found between students with and without diagnosed health problems in terms of their mean scores on the Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile Scale-II subscales of health responsibility, spiritual growth, and interpersonal relations, as well as their total mean scores (p < .05). The exercise, nutrition, spiritual growth, and stress management subscale scores of those students regularly going for health checks were determined to be significantly higher than those of the students who did not obtain regular health checks. Students' healthy lifestyle behaviors were generally found to be at the medium level. This study provides evidence of the need for interventions to help nurses in Turkey. PMID:25632948

  7. [Factors affecting access to health care institutions by the internally displaced population in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón-Pérez, Amparo Susana; Vázquez, María Luisa

    2008-04-01

    In Colombia, the on-going armed conflict causes displacement of thousands of persons that suffer its economic, social, and health consequences. Despite government regulatory efforts, displaced people still experience serious problems in securing access to health care. In order to analyze the institutional factors that affect access to health care by the internally displaced population, a qualitative, exploratory, and descriptive study was carried out by means of semi-structured individual interviews with a criterion sample of stakeholders (81). A narrative content analysis was performed, with mixed generation of categories and segmentation of data by themes and informants. Inadequate funding, providers' problems with reimbursement by insurers, and lack of clear definition as to coverage under the Social Security System in Health pose barriers to access to health care by the internally displaced population. Bureaucratic procedures, limited inter- and intra-sector coordination, and scarce available resources for public health service providers also affect access. Effective government action is required to ensure the right to health care for this population. PMID:18392351

  8. The Role of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability in Models of Infant Cochlear Implant Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, Colleen; Love, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Newborn hearing screening has led to the early diagnosis of hearing loss in neonates and early device fitting is common, based primarily on electrophysiologic and radiologic information, with some supplementary behavioral measures. Such early fitting of hearing devices, in particular cochlear implants (CIs), has been beneficial to the majority of children implanted under the age of 12 months who meet the cochlear implant candidacy criteria. Comorbidities are common in children with hearing loss, although they may not be evident in neonates and may not emerge until later in infants. Evidence suggests that the child's outcomes are strongly influenced by a range of environmental factors including emotional and social support from the immediate and extended family. Consequently, such factors are important in service planning and service delivery for babies and children receiving CIs. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) can provide a framework to facilitate the holistic management of pediatric cochlear implant recipients. The ICF also can be used to map the progress of recipients over time to highlight emerging issues that require intervention. This article will discuss our preliminary use of the ICF to establish clinical practice; develop advocacy skills among clients and their families; identify eligibility for services such as support in educational settings; enable access to modes of service delivery such as telepractice; provide a conceptual framework for policy and program development for pediatric cochlear implant recipients (i.e., in both disability and health services); and, most importantly, establish a clear pathway for the longitudinal management of the cochlear implant in a child's future. It is anticipated that this model will be applied to other populations receiving cochlear implants through our program.

  9. The Role of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability in Models of Infant Cochlear Implant Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, Colleen; Love, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Newborn hearing screening has led to the early diagnosis of hearing loss in neonates and early device fitting is common, based primarily on electrophysiologic and radiologic information, with some supplementary behavioral measures. Such early fitting of hearing devices, in particular cochlear implants (CIs), has been beneficial to the majority of children implanted under the age of 12 months who meet the cochlear implant candidacy criteria. Comorbidities are common in children with hearing loss, although they may not be evident in neonates and may not emerge until later in infants. Evidence suggests that the child's outcomes are strongly influenced by a range of environmental factors including emotional and social support from the immediate and extended family. Consequently, such factors are important in service planning and service delivery for babies and children receiving CIs. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) can provide a framework to facilitate the holistic management of pediatric cochlear implant recipients. The ICF also can be used to map the progress of recipients over time to highlight emerging issues that require intervention. This article will discuss our preliminary use of the ICF to establish clinical practice; develop advocacy skills among clients and their families; identify eligibility for services such as support in educational settings; enable access to modes of service delivery such as telepractice; provide a conceptual framework for policy and program development for pediatric cochlear implant recipients (i.e., in both disability and health services); and, most importantly, establish a clear pathway for the longitudinal management of the cochlear implant in a child's future. It is anticipated that this model will be applied to other populations receiving cochlear implants through our program. PMID:27489404

  10. What matters most?: evidence-based findings of health dimensions affecting the societal preferences for EQ-5D health states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viegas Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how different health dimensions defined by the EQ-5D-3L instrument affect average individual preferences for health states. This analysis is an important benchmark for the incorporation of health technologies as it takes into consideration Brazilian population preferences in health resource allocation decisions. The EQ-5D instrument defines health in terms of five dimensions (mobility, daily activities, self-care activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression each divided into three levels of severity. Data came from a valuation study with 3,362 literate individuals aged between 18 and 64 living in urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main results reveal that health utility decreases as the level of severity increases. With regard to health issues, mobility stands out as the most important EQ-5D dimension. Independently of severity levels of the other EQ-5D-3L dimensions, the highest decrements in utilities are associated with severe mobility problems.

  11. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  12. An experimental study on mother-infant skin-to-skin contact in full-terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Linda; Zijlmans, Maartje A C

    2016-05-01

    In premature infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has various beneficial effects on the health of the infant and the mother. These beneficial effects might extend to full-term infants. This experimental within-subject study examines the immediate effects of SSC on full-terms' cortisol physiology during SSC and subsequent physiological and behavioral reactions to a mild stressor (a bathing session). Additionally, the effects of SSC on the quality of maternal behavior are examined. Between 5 and 7 weeks postpartum, 17 full-term infant-mother dyads were visited at home twice. During one home visit, a bathing session was proceeded by 50min of mother-infant SSC, while during the other visit the bathing session was proceeded by 50min of the infant resting alone. The order of the home visits was counterbalanced. Infant salivary cortisol measures were taken to measure the cortisol response to the experimental condition (SSC versus solitary resting) and the bathing session. Furthermore, infant behavioral distress and the quality of maternal behavior during the bathing session were scored from videotapes. Two-way within-subject repeated measures ANOVA's showed that, when compared to solitary resting, full-terms' cortisol concentrations significantly decreased during SSC, followed by higher cortisol reactivity in response to the subsequent bathing session. No effects of SSC on infant behavioral distress and maternal caregiving behavior were found. Apparently, a single session of mother-infant SSC can affect infant cortisol physiology in full-term infants. Future SSC research is needed to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms and dose-response relations in full-term infants.

  13. Stress and Burnout among Health-Care Staff Working with People Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    1995-01-01

    The nature, causes, consequences, and symptoms of stress and burnout among health-care staff working with people affected by HIV are identified. The extent to which these characteristics are specific to HIV/AIDS workers is discussed. Some options for prevention and management of burnout are presented. (Author)

  14. Trans fatty acid intake is related to emotional affect in the Adventist Health Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-06-01

    Trans fatty acids in Western diets increase health risks, and have been associated with the risk of depression. We hypothesized that intakes of trans fatty acids (primarily from margarines and baked goods) were inversely associated with positive affect and positively associated with negative affect in a longitudinal study. Church attendees residing in North America completed a food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6 as part of the Adventist Health Study-2. A subset in which we excluded participants with established cardiovascular disease (n=8,771) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in 2006-7. The associations between dietary intakes of fatty acids to positive and negative affect were tested with linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, body mass index, exercise, sleep, sleep squared, Mediterranean diet, total energy intake and alcohol. Intakes of trans fatty acids were inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.06, B=-0.27 [95% CI -0.37, -0.17], p<.001) and positively associated with negative affect (β=0.05, B=0.21 [95% CI 0.11, 0.31], p<.001). In comparison, we found no association between n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) intakes with affect. The n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was inversely associated with positive affect (β=-0.03, B=-0.34 [95% CI -0.58, -0.10], p=0.006). The findings suggest that a lower dietary trans fatty acid intake has beneficial effects on emotional affect while the n-6: n-3 ratio is detrimental to positive affect. PMID:27188896

  15. Circumcision of male infants and children as a public health measure in developed countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Morten; Earp, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    in contrast to the more recent 2015 policy from the Canadian Paediatric Society as well as prior policies (still in force) from medical associations in Europe and Australasia - the CDC suggested that the benefits of the surgery outweigh the risks. In this article, we provide a brief scientific and...... conceptual analysis of the CDC's assessment of benefit versus risk, and argue that it deserves a closer look. Although we set aside the burgeoning bioethical debate surrounding the moral permissibility of performing non-therapeutic circumcisions on healthy minors, we argue that, from a scientific and medical...... perspective, current evidence suggests that such circumcision is not an appropriate public health measure for developed countries such as the United States....

  16. How emotions stimulate people affected by cancer to use personalised health websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Hadzidedic Bazdarevic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on helping people affected by cancer – which is the leading cause of death worldwide - by identifying their personalisation needs for health websites. The aim is to identify a set of personalisation features that users prefer on these websites. Delving in a less explored area, the study also seeks to understand how user emotional states correlate with their needs for personalisation, to better define user models for health websites. Through a controlled experiment, based on the survey questionnaire method, we established that participants perceived that personalisation features offered on the evaluated website do meet their needs. More interestingly, perceived personalisation needs are influenced by certain emotions, primarily positively valenced emotions (e.g., interest. Finally, two factors positively impact intentions to reuse the website: personalisation needs and post-usage emotions. The outcomes of this study inform on ways to increase user engagement on health websites and improve online support available to people affected by cancer.

  17. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study.

  18. Survival and health in liveborn infants with transposition of great arteries--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria A; Nelen, Vera;

    2007-01-01

    no information on surgery. At 1 year of age 69 infants were alive (71%) and 24 (25%) were dead (4 unknown). There were 10 deaths before surgery and 58% of all deaths took place during the first week. There was no statistically significant regional difference in mortality. Eight infants diagnosed...... with TGA is lower than in studies published from tertiary centers. Outcome for survivors at 1 year of age seems favorable....

  19. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia Ijaz; Tayyaba Ijaz; Raja Kamran Afzal; Muhammad Masood Afzal; Osama Mukhtar; Nayab Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economi...

  20. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  1. Prenatal Stress, Partner Support, and Infant Cortisol Reactivity in Low-Income Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Luecken, Linda J.; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S.; MacKinnon, David P.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000–$...

  2. The Effect of Health Education on Infant's Parents' Participation in Chil-dren's Health Care%健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的效果探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of health education on the role of community infant parents in child health care. Methods 140 infants parents were selected during the period July 2014 to 2015 September a community service station un-der the jurisdiction as the research object, randomly divided for the study group and the control group, each 70 cases in each, control group received routine community publicity, research group on the basis of the control group also be issue of free manuals, lectures on health and telephone consultation etc. methods of publicity, compared two groups of infants and parents on children's health knowledge understanding. Results Degree of 88.6%in the control group infants parents of child care knowledge, parents of infants in the study group child care knowledge of 97.1%, degree (χ2=3.877,P< 0.05) of under-standing children's health knowledge of parents of infants in the two groups, control group of the parents of the baby in the infant nutrition guidance and disease prevention, growth and development index, immunity index score were lower than those of the study group and between groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion The application of health education to children's par-ents to participate in child health care can improve the knowledge of infant parents to children's health knowledge, to en-sure the healthy growth of infants has important significance.%目的:探究应用健康教育对社区婴儿家长参与儿童保健的作用效果。方法选取2014年7月—2015年9月期间某社区服务站管辖的140例婴儿家长作为研究对象,将其随机分为对照组和研究组,每组70例,对照组行常规的社区工作方法宣传,研究组在对照组的基础上同时予以发放免费的手册、健康讲座以及电话咨询等方法进行宣传,对比两组婴儿家长对儿童保健知识的了解情况。结果对照组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为88.6%,研究组婴儿家长的儿童保健知识了解度为97

  3. Foreclosure and Health in Southern Europe: Results from the Platform for People Affected by Mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Vera, Hugo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Palència, Laia; Borrell, Carme

    2016-04-01

    Housing instability has been shown to be related to poorer health outcomes in various studies, mainly in the USA and UK. Affected individuals are more prone to psychiatric (e.g., major depression, anxiety) and physical disorders (e.g., hypertension). This situation has deteriorated with the onset of the economic crisis. One of the most affected countries is Spain, which has high rates of foreclosure and eviction that continue to rise. In response, a civil movement, The Platform for People Affected by Mortgages (PAH), works to provide solutions to its members affected by foreclosure and advocates for the right to decent housing. The aims of this study ware to describe and compare the health status of PAH members from Catalonia to a sample of the general population and to analyze the association between health status and mortgage status, foreclosure stage, and other socioeconomic variables, among members of the PAH. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online questionnaire (2014) administered to 905 PAH members in Catalonia (>18 years; 559 women and 346 men). Results were compared with health indicators from The Health Survey of Catalonia 2013 (n = 4830). The dependent variables were poor mental health (GHQ 12 ≥ 3), and poor self-reported health (fair or poor). All analyses were stratified by sex. We computed age-standardized prevalence and prevalence ratios of poor mental and self-reported health in both samples. We also analyzed health outcomes among PAH members according to mortgage status (mortgage holders or guarantors), stage of foreclosure, and other socioeconomic variables by computing prevalence ratios from robust Poisson regression models. The prevalence of poor mental health among PAH members was 90.6 % in women and 84.4 % in men, and 15.5 and 10.2 % in the general population, respectively. The prevalence of poor self-reported health was 55.6 % in women and 39.4 % in men from the PAH, and 19.2 and 16.1 % in the general

  4. How health behaviors relate to academic performance via affect: an intensive longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Flueckiger

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This intensive longitudinal study examined how sleep and physical activity relate to university students' affect and academic performance during a stressful examination period. METHODS: On 32 consecutive days, 72 first-year students answered online questionnaires on their sleep quality, physical activity, positive and negative affect, learning goal achievement, and examination grades. First-year university students are particularly well-suited to test our hypotheses: They represent a relatively homogeneous population in a natural, but controlled setting, and simultaneously deal with similar stressors, such as examinations. Data were analyzed using multilevel structural equation models. RESULTS: Over the examination period, better average sleep quality but not physical activity predicted better learning goal achievement. Better learning goal achievement was associated with increased probability of passing all examinations. Relations of average sleep quality and average physical activity with learning goal achievement were mediated by experienced positive affect. In terms of day-to-day dynamics, on days with better sleep quality, participants reported better learning goal achievement. Day-to-day physical activity was not related to daily learning goal achievement. Daily positive and negative affect both mediated the effect of day-to-day sleep quality and physical activity on daily learning goal achievement. CONCLUSION: Health behaviors such as sleep quality and physical activity seem important for both academic performance and affect experience, an indicator of mental health, during a stressful examination period. These results are a first step toward a better understanding of between- and within-person variations in health behaviors, affect, and academic performance, and could inform prevention and intervention programs for university students.

  5. Factors Affecting Oral-Dental Health in Children in the Viewpoints of Mothers Referred to the Health Centers in Qom City: Using the Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Gharlipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Many dental problems such as tooth decay starts from childhood. In this regard, attitudes and beliefs of mothers about oral-dental health are important. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting oral-dental health in children of the mothers who referred to the Qom health centers by using of the Health Belief Model. Materials and Methods This is cross-sectional descriptive analytic study that was performed among mothers who had Children's health dossier in the Qom health centers, Iran. By using of multi-stage sampling and sample size formula, 300 mothers were selected randomly from health assessment centers. Required data from target group were collected by the questionnaire about Health Belief Model in the field of oral health. The data were analyzed using SPSS -20. Results The results showed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the mothers' behavior towards oral-dental health with perceived benefits and self-efficacy (r=0.16, P

  6. [A sociological study of factors affecting reproductive health of female teenagers and young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamov, I G; Chechulina, O V

    2003-01-01

    The reproductive health of teenagers deserves a special attention and must be regarded from the viewpoint of their future prospects as well as their social and cultural media. The mentioned social-and-cultural factors affecting the teenagers' attitude towards sexuality and preconditioning their access to information and services of healthcare have an impact on the status of their reproductive health and on their general well-being, including the ability of teenagers to avoid an undesired pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:12882120

  7. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual...

  8. Infant Developmental Outcomes: A Family Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Ylva; Pike, Alison; Ayers, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether parental mental health, parent-infant relationship, infant characteristics and couple's relationship factors were associated with the infant's development. Forty-two families took part at three time points. The first, at 3?months postpartum, involved a video recorded observation…

  9. Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G

    1993-06-01

    Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first

  10. 加强健康教育提高早产儿生存质量%To Strengthen Health Education and Improve the Wuality of Life in Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the knowledge of premature infant feeding and nursing care, and to popularize the knowledge of health education in premature infants, and to reduce the incidence of premature infants' related diseases, and to improve the health level and quality of life. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted on the health education knowledge of 96 premature infants born in our hospital from 2012 to 2014. Results The majority of parents lack the knowledge of premature infants, resulting in premature infants can not grow normal y, and can easily develop infectious diseases, nutritional deficiency diseases, etc. Conclusion To strengthen the health education of premature infants, and to car y out the education work of the parents of premature infants.%目的了解早产儿家长对早产儿喂养与护理等知识的知晓情况,普及早产儿健康教育知识,降低早产儿相关性疾病的发生率,提高早产儿健康水平及生存质量。方法在2012年~2014年,采用调查问卷方法,对我院分娩的96名早产儿家长进行早产儿健康教育知识问卷调查。结果大多数家长缺乏早产儿的育儿知识,导致早产儿不能正常生长发育,并易患感染性疾病、营养缺乏性疾病等。结论应加强早产儿健康教育,对早产儿家长进行喂养及护理知识的宣教工作。

  11. 晚期早产儿的临床回顾分析%Retrospective survey on health issues of late preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬梅; 何颖; 王瑞泉

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究晚期早产儿存在的临床问题.方法 回顾性总结我院新生儿病房及新生儿监护病房2007年9月至2008年9月收治的晚期早产儿508例、足月儿1 514例的临床资料.记录低体温、呼吸窘迫、暂时性呼吸增快、低血糖、黄疸、颅内出血的发生率及临床转归.结果 与足月儿相比.晚期早产儿低体温(13.4%vs 0)、低血糖(19.9%vs 3.0%)、呼吸窘迫(38.6%vs 10.8%)、暂时性呼吸增快(31.0%vs 13.1%)、颅内出血(5.1%vs 2.3%)、黄疽(55.0%vs 33.0%)及喂养不耐受(52.4%vs 14.2%)的发生率高,差异有非常显著性(P<0.01).晚期早产儿接受机械通气、应用肺表面活性物质和经鼻持续气道正压通气呼吸支持的比例高于足月儿(P<0.05,P<0.01).晚期早产儿未完成治疗的比例高于足月儿(P<0.01).结论 晚期早产儿比足月儿存在更多的临床问题,是不应被忽视的高危人群.%Objective To analyze if late preterm infants have more postnatal health issues than full term infants.Methods Two thousands four hundreds and ten neonatal records were reviewed from August 31st 2007 to September 1st 2008.There were totally 508 late preterm and 1 514 full term infants were admitted during that time.The incidence of hypothermia,jaundice,hypoglycemia,transient tachypnea of newborn,feeding difficulties,respiratory distress and intracranial hemorrhage was collected.Clinical prognosis was analyzed.Results The incidence of hypothermia was significantly higher in late preterm infants group as compared to full term infants group(13.4% vs 0),same as hypoglycemia(19.9% vs 3.0%,P <0.01),respiratory distress(38.6% vs 10.8%,P < 0.01),jaundice(55.0% vs 33.0%,P < 0.01),feeding difficulties (52.4% vs 14.2%,P <0.01),transient tachypnea of newborn(31.0% vs 13.1%,P <0.01)and intracranial hemorrhage(5.1% vs 2.3%,P <0.01).The proportion of ventilation,the usage of surfactant and nasal continuous positive airway pressure were higher in late

  12. On the Convergence of Affective and Persuasive Technologies in Computer-Mediated Health-Care Systems

    OpenAIRE

    García-Betances, Rebeca I.; Giuseppe Fico; Dario Salvi; Manuel Ottaviano; Arredondo, María T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a portrayal of how affective computing and persuasive technologies can converge into an effective tool for interfacing biomedical engineering with behavioral sciences and medicine. We describe the characteristics, features, applications, present state of the art, perspectives, and trends of both streams of research. In particular, these streams are analyzed in light of the potential contribution of their convergence for improving computer-mediated health-care systems, b...

  13. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Khan, Kashif Tanveer

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of resilience in the context of children affected by armed conflict. Resilience has been frequently viewed as a unique quality of certain ‘invulnerable’ children. In contrast, this paper argues that a number of protective processes contribute to resilient mental health outcomes in children when considered through the lens of the child's social ecology. While available research has made important contributions to understanding risk factors for negative mental he...

  14. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women groups were similar at baseline in average socio-economic, nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed.

  15. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  16. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  17. Normal infant sleep and parental expectations.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudzik, Alanna E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Infant sleep is a subject of great interest - and concern - for many new parents. Parental expectations for infant sleep often reflect cultural norms that may not align well with the realities of infant growth and development. Unrealistic expectations for infant sleep have been linked to the early cessation of breastfeeding (Ball, 2003) and may contribute to the development of postnatal depressions symptoms (Muscat et al., 2012). Parents frequently consult health providers for advice when the...

  18. Analysis of pregnancy and infant health outcomes among women in the National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry who received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; Bukowinski, Anna T; Gumbs, Gia R

    2015-08-26

    The National Smallpox Vaccine in Pregnancy Registry (NSVIPR) actively follows women inadvertently vaccinated with smallpox vaccine during or shortly before pregnancy to evaluate their reproductive health outcomes. Approximately 65% of NSVIPR participants also inadvertently received Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) while pregnant, providing a ready opportunity to evaluate pregnancy and infant health outcomes among these women. AVA-exposed pregnancies were ascertained using NSVIPR and electronic healthcare data. Rates of pregnancy loss and infant health outcomes, including major birth defects, were compared between AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnancies. Analyses included AVA-exposed and AVA-unexposed pregnant women who also received smallpox vaccine 28 days prior to or during pregnancy. Rates of adverse outcomes among the AVA-exposed group were similar to or lower than expected when compared with published reference rates and the AVA-unexposed population. The findings provide reassurance of the safety of AVA when inadvertently received by a relatively young and healthy population during pregnancy. PMID:26049005

  19. 孕产妇系统保健与围产儿死亡分析%Analysison maternal health care system and perinatal infants death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉洁

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze maternal health care system and perinatal infants death in the county. METHODS Health information reports about maternity and children in the county during 2008-2011 were retrospectively analyzed, and management rates of permanent residence (local census register and temporary more than one year non-census register) and mobile pregnant women and perinatal infants death. RESULTS (1) In the same year, management rate of permanent system of pregnant residence of women was significantly higher than the floating population system, with significant difference (P < 0.05) ; (2) on the same year, death rate of perinatal infants of permanent residence of women was significantly lower than the floating-women, with significant difference (P< 0.05); (3) the sequence of death causes in perinatal infants in each year were not I-dentical, but the birth defects, fetal factors and mother's factors were the main causes of death; (4) management of pregnant women system would strengthened with the decrease of death rate of perinatal infants, there was a negative correlation between management rate of pregnant women system and death rate of perinatal infants (r =-1.121, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Improving management level of maternal system, focusing on systematic health care of floating pregnant women are the keys to further reduce death rate of perinatal infants.%目的 分析迁西县孕产妇系统保健与围产儿死亡情况.方法 对2008~2011年迁西县妇幼卫生信息报表进行回顾性分析,重点分析常住(户籍本地及暂住一年以上非户籍)及流动孕产妇系统管理率及围产儿死亡情况.结果 (1)在同一年度内常住孕产妇系统管理率明显高于流动人口孕产妇系统管理率,差异有统计学意义(P< 0.05); (2)在同一年度内常住孕产妇围产儿死亡率明显低于流动孕产妇围产儿死亡率,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05); (3)围产儿死亡原因在各年度顺位顺序各不相同,但

  20. In absolute or relative terms? How framing prices affects the consumer price sensitivity of health plan choice

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Hendrik; Ziebarth, Nicolas R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides field evidence on (a) how price framing affects consumers’ decision to switch health insurance plans and (b) how the price elasticity of demand for health insurance can be influenced by policymakers through simple regulatory efforts. In 2009, in order to foster competition among health insurance companies, German federal regulation required health insurance companies to express price differences between health plans in absolute Euro values rather than percentage point pa...

  1. Exploring the influence of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance on health systems in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P.; Cummings, R.; Roberts, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Global Health Initiatives (GHIs) respond to high-impact communicable diseases in resource-poor countries, including health systems support, and are major actors in global health. GHIs could play an important role in countries affected by armed conflict given these countries commonly have weak health systems and a high burden of communicable disease. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of two leading GHIs, the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance, on the health systems of...

  2. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M;

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  3. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  4. E-health and consultation rates for respiratory illnesses in infants : a randomised clinical trial in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gugten, Anne C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Verheij, Theo J M; van der Ent, Cornelis K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is assumed that clear and complete information on the internet can reduce healthcare consumption. AIM: We assessed in a randomised clinical trial whether a personalised online parent information program on infant respiratory symptoms can reduce primary care utilisation. DESIGN AND SET

  5. The Learning, Physical and Emotional Environment of the Home in the Context of Poverty: The Infant Health and Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gun, Jeanne; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the impact of individual environmental and biological risks on the home environment of three-year olds in a sample of low birth weight, premature infants. Suggests that compared to nonpoor families, poor families experienced more multiple risk factors. Poverty clearly had a negative effect on the provision of learning experiences,…

  6. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  7. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  8. Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Fawzi, Mary K S; Bruderlein, Claude; Desmond, Chris; Kim, Jim Y

    2010-05-01

    A human security framework posits that individuals are the focus of strategies that protect the safety and integrity of people by proactively promoting children's well being, placing particular emphasis on prevention efforts and health promotion. This article applies this framework to a rights-based approach in order to examine the health and human rights of children affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAFE model describes sources of insecurity faced by children across four fundamental dimensions of child well-being and the survival strategies that children and families may employ in response. The SAFE model includes: Safety/protection; Access to health care and basic physiological needs; Family/connection to others; and Education/livelihoods. We argue that it is critical to examine the situation of children through an integrated lens that effectively looks at human security and children's rights through a holistic approach to treatment and care rather than artificially limiting our scope of work to survival-oriented interventions for children affected by HIV/AIDS. Interventions targeted narrowly at children, in isolation of their social and communal environment as outlined in the SAFE model, may in fact undermine protective resources in operation in families and communities and present additional threats to children's basic security. An integrated approach to the basic security and care of children has implications for the prospects of millions of children directly infected or indirectly affected by HIV/AIDS around the world. The survival strategies that young people and their families engage in must be recognized as a roadmap for improving their protection and promoting healthy development. Although applied to children affected by HIV/AIDS in the present analysis, the SAFE model has implications for guiding the care and protection of children and families facing adversity due to an array of circumstances from armed conflict and displacement to situations of extreme poverty

  9. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  10. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A randomized, double-blind

  11. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Andersen, Anders D.;

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months...

  12. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  13. An Analysis of the Structural Factors Affecting the Public Participation in Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaumi, Raheleh; Aminee, Tayebe; Aminaee, Akram; Dastoury, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on analyzing national and international Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) studies published from 2000 to 2012 in order to identify and categorize the possible factors that affect social participation for improving the public health. Clearly, improving the public health necessitates a combination of the participation and responsibility by the social members and the attempts by public health policy-makers and planners. CBPR studies are selected as the corpus since they seek to encourage active and informed participation of the social members in fulfilling the health related goals. The present study is conducted through meta-synthesis within a qualitative framework. The results revealed a set of factors within the structural capacities which were employed by the CBPR researchers for achieving the health promotion goals. The structural capacities employed in the interventions could be considered on the cultural and social grounds. The cultural grounds were divided into scientific and religious attempts. For the scientific attempts, the results highlighted the participation of higher education institutes including universities and research centers as well as educational institutes such as schools and the relevant institutions. And regarding the religious attempts, the results indicated that the cooptation of religious centers played the greatest role in enhancing the public participation. PMID:27045401

  14. An Analysis of the Structural Factors Affecting the Public Participation in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaumi, Raheleh; Aminee, Tayebe; Aminaee, Akram; Dastoury, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on analyzing national and international Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) studies published from 2000 to 2010 in order to identify and categorize the possible factors that affect social participation for improving the public health. Clearly, improving the public health necessitates a combination of the participation and responsibility by the social members and the attempts by public health policy-makers and planners. CBPR studies are selected as the corpus since they seek to encourage active and informed participation of the social members in fulfilling the health related goals. The present study is conducted through meta-synthesis within a qualitative framework. The results revealed a set of factors within the structural capacities which were employed by the CBPR researchers for achieving the health promotion goals. The structural capacities employed in the interventions could be considered on the cultural and social grounds. The cultural grounds were divided into scientific and religious attempts. For the scientific attempts, the results highlighted the participation of higher education institutes including universities and research centers as well as educational institutes such as schools and the relevant institutions. And regarding the religious attempts, the results indicated that the cooptation of religious centers played the greatest role in enhancing the public participation. PMID:27045401

  15. A qualitative study of factors affecting mental health amongst low-income working mothers in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Travasso, Sandra Mary; Rajaraman, Divya; Heymann, Sally Jody

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief...

  16. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters.

  17. Infant feeding concerns in times of natural disaster: lessons learned from the 2014 flood in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Mohamad, Noraini; Ismail, Tengku Alina Tengku; Johari, Nazirah; Hussain, Nik Hazlina Nik

    2016-01-01

    The flood that hit Kelantan in December 2014 was the worst in Malaysian history. Women and their infants accounted for a large proportion of the people at risk who were badly affected, as almost half of the population in Kelantan was in the reproductive age group. This report serves to raise awareness that breastfeeding mothers and infants are a special population with unique needs during a disaster. Four of their concerns were identified during this massive flood: first, the negative impact of flood on infant nutritional status and their health; second, open space and lack of privacy for the mothers to breastfeed their babies comfortably at temporary shelters for flood victims; third, uncontrolled donations of infant formula, teats, and feeding bottles that are often received from many sources to promote formula feeding; and lastly, misconceptions related to breastfeeding production and quality that may be affected by the disaster. The susceptibility of women and their infant in a natural disaster enhances the benefits of promoting the breastfeeding rights of women. Women have the right to be supported which enables them to breastfeed. These can be achieved through monitoring the distribution of formula feeding, providing water, electricity and medical care for breastfeeding mothers and their infants. A multifaceted rescue mission team involving various agencies comprising of local government, including the health and nutrition departments, private or non-governmental organizations and individual volunteers have the potential to improve a satisfactory condition of women and infants affected by floods and other potential natural disasters. PMID:27440698

  18. Mothers singing and speaking to preterm infants in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Filippa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are at greater risk for long-term morbidities, a problem representing also a growing public health concern. Early experiences can affect infants’ brain development, especially if conducted during critical periods of important growth. Early interventions involving parents in preterm infants care improve developmental outcomes for preterm infants, minimizing also the stress of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU environment. Mother-infant separation and alteration of maternal care soon after birth can lead to a wide array of adverse physiological, emotional and behavioural consequences that can persist throughout life. It’s suggested that Maternal Vocal Intervention (MVI in NICU, as a specific form of environmental and interactional enrichment, as part of an individualized care and as a tool to involve families in early care of preterm infants, may be adopted by the health community as a standard of care. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  19. Potential hazards of air pollutant emissions from unconventional oil and natural gas operations on the respiratory health of children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ellen; Hays, Jake; Dyrszka, Larysa; Rodriguez, Brian; Cox, Caroline; Huffling, Katie; Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    Research on air pollutant emissions associated with unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development has grown significantly in recent years. Empirical investigations have focused on the identification and measurement of oil and gas air pollutants [e.g. volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM), methane] and the influence of UOG on local and regional ambient air quality (e.g. tropospheric ozone). While more studies to better characterize spatial and temporal trends in exposure among children and newborns near UOG sites are needed, existing research suggests that exposure to air pollutants emitted during lifecycle operations can potentially lead to adverse respiratory outcomes in this population. Children are known to be at a greater risk from exposure to air pollutants, which can impair lung function and neurodevelopment, or exacerbate existing conditions, such as asthma, because the respiratory system is particularly vulnerable during development in-utero, the postnatal period, and early childhood. In this article, we review the literature relevant to respiratory risks of UOG on infants and children. Existing epidemiology studies document the impact of air pollutant exposure on children in other contexts and suggest impacts near UOG. Research is sparse on long-term health risks associated with frequent acute exposures - especially in children - hence our interpretation of these findings may be conservative. Many data gaps remain, but existing data support precautionary measures to protect the health of infants and children. PMID:27171386

  20. Possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). It presents the results of an investigation into the possible affection of psychic health with regard to exposure to ionizing radiation. First the concept 'psychic health' is circumscribed. Subsequently the possible effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health are entered by outlining two cause-effect chains, in which various variables are distinguished. Thus the framework in which the remainder of the report has been written, is described (ch.2). Ch. 3 deals with the measurability of psychic health and of the various variables in two cause-effect chains. In ch. 4 the found empirical evidence of the effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health is described. This chapter is especially based upon study of literature. In ch. 5 interviews with users of various radiation sources are reported. In ch. 6 the question of standardization of ionizing radiation with regard to possible (psychic) damage is entered. It is looked if one can speak in terms of 'standards' in case of psychic damage. As far as standardization does not seem to be possible practical alternatives are presented with which eventual psychic damage from ionizing (radiation) sources may be limited. Finally in ch. 7 a comparison is made between the theoretical framework of the (possible) effects of ionizing radiation upon psychic health and the measurability of the therein distinguishable variables on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the empirical materials obtained from the study of the literature and the interviews. (H.W.) 103 refs.; 8 figs

  1. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Elizabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  2. On the Convergence of Affective and Persuasive Technologies in Computer- Mediated Health-Care Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca I. García-Betances

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a portrayal of how affective computing and persuasive technologies can converge into an effective tool for interfacing biomedical engineering with behavioral sciences and medicine. We describe the characteristics, features, applications, present state of the art, perspectives, and trends of both streams of research. In particular, these streams are analyzed in light of the potential contribution of their convergence for improving computer-mediated health-care systems, by facilitating the modification of patients’ attitudes and behaviors, such as engagement and compliance. We propose a framework for future research in this emerging area, highlighting how key constructs and intervening variables should be considered. Some specific implications and challenges posed by the convergence of these two technologies in health care, such as paradigm change, multimodality, patients’ attitude improvement, and cost reduction, are also briefly addressed and discussed.

  3. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population. PMID:27656936

  4. [Mental health in older adults: major neurocognitive, affective, and sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

    2016-06-01

    Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.

  5. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology-hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5-10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  6. The mental health of male victims and their children affected by legal and administrative partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joshua L; Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-07-01

    The authors recently developed a psychometrically valid measure of legal and administrative (LA) intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization (Hines, Douglas, & Berger, 2014). The current article explores the impact of actual and threatened LA aggression on the mental health of male physical IPV victims and their children. In the current study, a sample of 611 men who sought help after experiencing physical IPV from their female partners completed a survey assessing the types and extent of IPV that occurred in their relationship, including LA aggression, their own mental health outcomes, and the mental health of their oldest child. A series of OLS regressions indicated that after controlling for covariates, actual LA aggression was associated with more symptoms of PTSD and depression in male victims, and that both threatened and actual LA aggression were associated with higher levels of affective and oppositional defiant symptoms in the men's school age children. The current findings suggest that it is important to screen couples for the presence of LA aggression and male partners and their children should be referred for mental health treatment if LA aggression is occurring in the relationship. Aggr. Behav. 42:346-361, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26522849

  7. Does distrust in providers affect health-care utilization in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Jane; Hunt, Kate; Munro, Neil; Sutton, Matt

    2016-01-01

    How trust affects health-care utilization is not well-understood, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This article focuses on China, a middle-income country where low trust in health-care settings has become a prominent issue, but actual levels of distrust and their implications for utilization are unknown. We conducted a nationally representative survey of the Chinese population (November 2012 to January 2013), which resulted in a sample of 3680 adult men and women. Respondents rated their trust in different types of health-care providers. Using multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression models, we estimated the association between distrust in clinics and respondents’ hospital visits in the last year; whether they had sought hospital treatment first for two common symptoms (headache, cold) in the last 2 months; and whether they said they would go first to a hospital if they had a minor or major illness. We analysed these associations before and after adjusting for performance evaluations of clinics and hospitals, controlling for sex, age, education, income, insurance status, household registration and self-assessed health. We found that distrust in hospitals is low, but distrust in clinics is high and strongly associated with increased hospital utilization, especially for minor symptoms and illnesses. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for distrust in clinics because its effects are not fully accounted for by poor evaluations of their competence. PMID:27117483

  8. Variations in the Availability of Pollen Resources Affect Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Odoux, Jean-François; Pioz, Maryline; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Belzunces, Luc P.; Decourtye, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Intensive agricultural systems often expose honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to large temporal variations in the availability (quantity, quality and diversity) of nutritional resources. Such nutritional irregularity is expected to affect honey bee health. We therefore tested under laboratory conditions the effect of such variation in pollen availability on honey bee health (survival and nursing physiology—hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin expression). We fed honey bees with different diets composed of pollen pellets collected by honey bees in an agricultural landscape of western France. Slight drops (5–10%) in the availability of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) pollen resulted in significant reductions of all tested variables. Despite some variations in taxonomic diversity and nutritional quality, the pollen mixes harvested over the season had a similar positive influence on honey bee health, except for the one collected in late July that induced poor survival and nursing physiology. This period coincided with the mass-flowering of maize (Zea mays L.), an anemophilous crop which produces poor-quality pollen. Therefore, changes in bee health were not connected to variations in pollen diversity but rather to variations in pollen depletion and quality, such as can be encountered in an intensive agricultural system of western France. Finally, even though pollen can be available ad libitum during the mass-flowering of some crops (e.g. maize), it can fail to provide bees with diet adequate for their development. PMID:27631605

  9. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel;

    2013-01-01

    (2)) and benzene with temporally adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m(3) increase in average NO(2......BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during the....... Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, so we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper and...

  10. A comparison of determinants of infant mortality rate (IMR) between countries with high and low IMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawangi, R; Barnett, J B

    1993-06-01

    Weighted least squares regressions and pooled regression models were used to examine the determinants of infant mortality in developing countries. Data were obtained from the UNICEF's "State of the World's Children, 1987" for 87 countries with data on gross national product, percentage of literate females, percentage of low birth weight infants, daily caloric supply per capita as a percentage of the daily requirement, percentage of population with access to drinking water, total fertility rate, and the population to nurses ratio. Data was unavailable on breast feeding practices and government expenditures on health. Weighted procedures were used because of heteroscadascity problems: total fertility rate was associated with the variance in the error term. The results of pooled data showed that the female literacy rate had the strongest impact on infant mortality, followed by access to clean water and the number of population per nursing person. The impact of female literacy was still strong in high infant mortality countries when controls for gross national product were included. Puzzling findings were the negative sign of low birth weight and the insignificant effect of the total fertility rate. The suggestion was that low birth weight may be expressed already in the level of education and availability of health programs. Fertility's lack of wide variations may explain the insignificant effect. Findings showed that infant mortality was 22.19% higher in countries with gross national product under $500. In low infant mortality countries, none of the environmental variables significantly explained infant mortality. Low birth weight increased its impact on infant mortality among these countries but was still not significant. The findings suggested that infant mortality was most affected by low birth weight and amount of population per nurse in more affluent countries. Environmental factors were more important in explaining high levels of infant mortality in less

  11. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes. PMID:15840727

  12. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Xu, Wanli; Janton, Susan; Henderson, Wendy A; Matson, Adam; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, pdiversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM) had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types. In conclusion, infant postnatal age, gender and feeding type significantly

  13. [Health and nutritional status of 'alternatively' fed infants and young children, facts and uncertainties. II. Specific nutritional deficiencies; discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, P C; Van Staveren, W A; Hautvast, J G

    1985-12-01

    This article, which is the second in a series of two articles, discusses available scientific information on the nutritional status of infants and preschool children on alternative diets with regard to calcium, iron, vitamin B12 and D. Some favourable aspects of alternative food habits in such children are also mentioned. Most studies report low intakes of vitamin D and in vegan and macrobiotic children also of calcium and vitamin B12, but it cannot be excluded that some alternative sources of these nutrient may have been missed. Deficiencies have been described for vitamin D and B12 but the evidence is often unconvincing. For example, exposure to sunlight has not been measured in most of the studies on rickets. From the literature available, it would appear that there is a need for longitudinal research on the growth and development of alternatively fed infants and preschool children and for information on the nutrient composition of alternative foods.

  14. INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process.

  15. INTERFACING INFANT MENTAL HEALTH KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: REFLECTIONS ON THE NARRATIVES OF LAY HOME VISITORS' EXPERIENCES OF LEARNING AND APPLYING RELATIONAL CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN A SOUTH AFRICAN INTERVENTION PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradon, Tessa; Bain, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The question of interfacing research and clinically generated knowledge in the field of infant mental health (IMH) with local cultural knowledge and belief systems has provoked extended discussion in recent years. This article explores convergences and divergences between current research-based, relational IMH mental health models and "community" knowledge held by a group of South African lay home visitors from a socioeconomically deprived township. These women were trained in a psychoanalytic and attachment-informed infant mental health program that promotes a relational model of infant development. They provide an intervention that supports high risk mother-infant relationships in the same locality. A two-tiered approach was taken to the analysis of the home visitor interviews and focused on the home visitors' constructed narratives of infant development posttraining as well as the personal impact of the training and work on the home visitors themselves. The study found that psychoanalytic and attachment-informed thinking about development makes sense to those operating within the local South African cultural context, but that the accommodation of this knowledge is a complex and challenging process. PMID:27186854

  16. Renal transplantation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  17. A home-visiting intervention targeting determinants of infant mental health: the study protocol for the CAPEDP randomized controlled trial in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubach Florence

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest that the number of risk factors rather than their nature is key to mental health disorders in childhood. Method and design The objective of this multicentre randomized controlled parallel trial (PROBE methodology is to assess the impact in a multi-risk French urban sample of a home-visiting program targeting child mental health and its major determinants. This paper describes the protocol of this study. In the study, pregnant women were eligible if they were: living in the intervention area; able to speak French, less than 26 years old; having their first child; less than 27 weeks of amenorrhea; and if at least one of the following criteria were true: less than twelve years of education, intending to bring up their child without the presence of the child’s father, and 3 low income. Participants were randomized into either the intervention or the control group. All had access to usual care in mother-child centres and community mental health services free of charge in every neighbourhood. Psychologists conducted all home visits, which were planned on a weekly basis from the 7th month of pregnancy and progressively decreasing in frequency until the child’s second birthday. Principle outcome measures included child mental health at 24 months and two major mediating variables for infant mental health: postnatal maternal depression and the quality of the caring environment. A total of 440 families were recruited, of which a subsample of 120 families received specific attachment and caregiver behaviour assessment. Assessment was conducted by an independent assessment team during home visits and, for the attachment study, in a specifically created Attachment Assessment laboratory. Discussion The CAPEDP study is the first large-scale randomised, controlled infant mental health promotion programme to take place in France. A major specificity of the program was that all home visits were conducted by

  18. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  19. 78 FR 23941 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality... 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant.../mchbadvisory/InfantMortality . Adobe Connect:...

  20. Neutropenia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  1. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  2. Pneumothorax - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. This article discusses pneumothorax in infants. Causes A pneumothorax occurs when some of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in a baby's lung become overinflated and burst. ...

  3. Preventing obesity in infants: the Growing healthy feasibility trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical acti...

  4. Use of genotoxicity tests in a TIE to identify chemicals potentially affecting human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperial Oil operates a sour gas processing plant in southern Alberta that has, for the past several years, been the focus of considerable public and regulatory concern over perceived contamination of soils and groundwater on a nearby ranch. Elevated concentrations of DOC (∼140 mg/L) have been received in groundwater underlying the plant site. Two process-related chemicals, sulfolane and diisopropanolamine (DIPA), had been previously identified as the primary components of the DOC plume, although the chemicals associated with 30% of the DOC could not be identified. A risk assessment was initiated in 1994 to determine whether off-site migration of sulfolane and DIPA or of other unidentified contaminants poses a risks to human health and/or ecological receptors. One component of the risk assessment included conducting a TIE to help identify the chemical(s) in contaminated groundwater underlying the gas plant that might adversely affect human health. Three endpoints were utilized in the TIE: MicroTox, SOS-Chromotest and the Ames test. MicroTox was used since it exhibited a response to whole groundwater from the site, while the genotoxicity tests were used because DIPA reportedly causes a response in the Ames test and because of the concern over potential human health affects arising from other unidentified contaminants. Results of the TIE indicated that the chemicals causing the toxicity in the groundwater sample were water soluble compounds, with similar characteristics to the process chemicals used at the gas plant and detected at high concentrations in groundwater from the plant site. These results provided additional evidence to help focus the risk assessment on the chemicals sulfolane and diisopropanolamine

  5. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...

  6. Picky Eating Habits or Sensory Processing Issues? Exploring Feeding Difficulties in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stacy D.; Bruns, Deborah A.; Rains, Kari W.

    2010-01-01

    For infants and toddlers demonstrating feeding problems, it is critical to find the basis for the problems to create more pleasurable mealtimes for the child, his or her family members, and caregivers. Feeding difficulties can affect general health, developmental gains, and emotional well-being. Understanding the cause of feeding problems and…

  7. Analysis on health care situation of 161 infants born by HIV-infected mothers%161例艾滋病病毒感染孕产妇所生婴儿保健状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈起燕; 黄欣欣; 林珠妹

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand HlV infection and health care situation among the infants by HIV-infected mothers in Fujian province,provide a basis for preventing mother-to-child transmission of AIDS.Methods:The infants born by the mothers with positive HIV antibody in Fujian province were analyzed,a case-control study was conducted among 47 infants receiving HIV antibody test.Resuits:Among the infants born by 161 mothers with positive HIV antibody,20 infants were lost to follow-up,14 infants died,128 infants were alive (including twin).Among 128 alive infants,17 infants voluntarily received HIV antibody examination and confirmation experiment,the detection rate was 36.72%.Twelve infants were found with positive HIV antibody,after intervention,HIV antibody among five infants changed to negative,the other seven infants were still found with positive HIV antibody until 18 months after birth,accounting for 14.89%.Delivery modes were influencing factors of positive HIV among the infants,the risk of positive HIV among the infants born by cesarean section was 1/10 of that by vaginal delivery.Conclusion:Strengthening health education and adopting comprehensive intervention measures to prevent mother-to-child transmission of AIDS are important premise for implementation of health care among HIV-infected infants.%目的:了解福建省艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染孕产妇分娩的婴儿HIV感染与保健状况,为预防艾滋病母婴传播工作提供依据.方法:对福建省艾滋病抗体阳性孕产妇所生婴儿状况进行分析,对47例进行抗体检测的婴儿行病例对照研究.结果:161例HIV阳性孕妇所生的婴儿中失访20例,死亡14例,存活128例(其中双胞胎1例).存活的128例婴儿中自愿接受HIV抗体检测并确认实验的有47例,检测率36.72%.12例婴儿HIV抗体检测结果为阳性,实施干预后其中5例婴儿HIV抗体检测结果由阳性转变为阴性,7例婴儿至生后18个月HIV抗体检

  8. Universal HIV screening at postnatal points of care: which public health approach for early infant diagnosis in Cote d'Ivoire?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ndondoki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID. We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6-26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. FINDINGS: We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58% accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI: [14%-16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61% accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%-5.4%]. Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52% had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%-21.7%]. Only 46 fathers (2% came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3-10.6], p = 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries.

  9. Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early identification and entry into care is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV. The objective of this report is to describe the impact of the Tingathe programme, which utilizes community health workers (CHWs to improve identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children. Methods: Three programme phases are described. During the first phase, Mentorship Only (MO (March 2007–February 2008 on-site clinical mentorship on paediatric HIV care was provided. In the second phase, Tingathe-Basic (March 2008–February 2009, CHWs provided HIV testing and counselling to improve case finding of HIV-exposed and -infected children. In the final phase, Tingathe-PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission (March 2009–February 2011, CHWs were also assigned to HIV-positive pregnant women to improve mother-infant retention in care. We reviewed routinely collected programme data from HIV testing registers, patient mastercards and clinic attendance registers from March 2005 to March 2011. Results: During MO, 42 children (38 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-exposed were active in care. During Tingathe-Basic, 238 HIV-infected children (HIC were newly enrolled, a six-fold increase in rate of enrolment from 3.2 to 19.8 per month. The number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI increased from 4 to 118. During Tingathe-PMTCT, 526 HIC were newly enrolled over 24 months, at a rate of 21.9 patients per month. There was also a seven-fold increase in the average number of exposed infants enrolled per month (9.5–70 patients per month, resulting in 1667 enrolled with a younger median age at enrolment (5.2 vs. 2.5 months; p<0.001.During the Tingathe-Basic and Tingathe-PMTCT periods, CHWs conducted 44,388 rapid HIV tests, 7658 (17.3% in children aged 18 months to 15 years; 351 (4.6% tested HIV-positive. Over this time, 1781 HEI were enrolled, with 102 (5.7% found HIV-infected by positive PCR. Additional HIC

  10. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  11. Process evaluation determines the pathway of success for a health center-delivered, nutrition education intervention for infants in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.

  12. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients' mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantinge, Else M.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; de Bakker, Dinny H.; van der Meer, Klaas; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: General practitioners' (GPs') feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction may affect their patient care negatively, but it is unknown if these negative feelings also affect their mental health care. GPs' available time, together with specific communication tools, are important conditions for

  13. Does burnout among doctors affect their involvement in patients' mental health problems? A study of videotaped consultations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantinge, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Meer, K. van der; Bensing, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: General practitioners' (GPs') feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction may affect their patient care negatively, but it is unknown if these negative feelings also affect their mental health care. GPs' available time, together with specific communication tools, are important conditions for

  14. Infant Mortality by Race/Ethnicity, 2004-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset is for infant mortality for 2004 through 2013. The death of a baby before his or her first birthday is called infant mortality. The dataset also...

  15. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  16. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  17. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  18. Understanding Locally, Culturally, and Contextually Relevant Mental Health Problems among Rwandan Children and Adolescents Affected by HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Beardslee, William Rigby; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven Alex

    2011-01-01

    In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. ...

  19. [Infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  20. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  1. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  2. The infant caring process among Cherokee mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee Anne

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the social process of infant care among Cherokee mothers. Nineteen informants, who had an infant less than 2 years of age, were interviewed. The data were analyzed using the technique of constant comparative analysis. A social process of Indian infant care among Cherokee mothers was identified. Eight concepts emerged from data analysis. The first and principal concept, being a Cherokee mother, describes the functions of being an Indian mother in Cherokee society. The other seven concepts describe the patterns of cultural care the mothers provided to their infants. These included accommodating everyday infant care, accommodating health perspectives, building a care-providing consortium, living spiritually, merging the infant into Indian culture, using noncoercive discipline techniques, and vigilantly watching for the natural unfolding of the infant. Trustworthiness and credibility of the generated theory were evaluated through multiple measures. PMID:15296577

  3. Affective language during the H1N1 influenza health crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morant Marco, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the effects that, as seen through the written press, the arrival of H1N1 had on certain affective behaviors in society. After the spread of H1N1, health authorities recommended maintaining physical distance in social settings and, among other measures, advised against kissing. At first, this show of affection became a victim of the pandemic, especially in certain activities and rituals. However, once the media impact of swine flu had subsided, kissing recovered its habitual place and frequency, demonstrating that customs which are socially and culturally entrenched are resistant to change.

    El presente artículo analiza los efectos que según la prensa escrita tuvo la llegada de la gripe A en ciertos comportamientos afectivos de la población. Las autoridades sanitarias, tras la expansión del virus H1N1, recomendaron aumentar la distancia social y aconsejaron, entre otras medidas, evitar los besos. Esta manifestación afectiva, en un primer momento, notó los efectos de la pandemia, sobre todo en ciertas actividades y rituales. Sin embargo, una vez pasado el impacto mediático de la gripe A, recuperó su uso y frecuencia habitual, demostrando que las costumbres fuertemente enraizadas se resisten a cambiar.

  4. Mental health of carers of children affected by HIV attending community-based programmes in South Africa and Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) service...

  5. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  6. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  7. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-04-22

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development.

  8. An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory g...

  9. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely. PMID:26111563

  10. Should We Promote Catch-Up Growth or Growth Acceleration in Low-Birthweight Infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Atul

    2015-01-01

    The idea that catch-up growth or growth acceleration has adverse effects on long-term health has generated much debate. This pattern of growth is most commonly seen after birth in infants of low birthweight; a global problem affecting over 20 million newborns a year. Faster postnatal growth may have short-term benefits but increases the long-term risk of aging, obesity and metabolic disease. Consequently, the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unclear and is likely to differ in different populations. In infants born prematurely, faster postnatal growth improves long-term cognitive function but is associated with later risk factors for cardiovascular disease. So, on balance, the current policy is to promote faster growth by increasing nutrient intake (e.g. using higher-nutrient preterm formulas). Whether the same policy should apply to larger preterm infants is not known. Similarly, in infants from impoverished environments, the short-term benefits of faster postnatal growth may outweigh long-term disadvantages. However, whether similar considerations apply to infants from countries in transition is uncertain. For term infants from developed countries, promoting catch-up growth by nutritional supplementation has few advantages for short- or long-term health. Overall therefore, a 'one size fits all' solution for the optimal pattern of postnatal growth is unlikely.

  11. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  12. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  13. Premature infants and neurodevelopmental morbidity Invited Author

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Serap

    2010-01-01

    Brain injury in some surviving premature infants increases the risk of nbsp; neurodevelopmental disability including major cognitive and motor deficits Periventricular leukomalacia PVL is the main type of brain injury The cerebral white matter thalamus basal ganglia cerebral cortex brain stem and cerebellum may be nbsp; affected Infants with low birth weight are also in high risk It is difficult to shout a clear clinico pathologic correlations in premature infants has been difficult The neuro...

  14. Dynamics of Risk Determinants Regarding Diarrhea Affected Slum Children in Urban Dhaka: A Dysfunctional Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choyon Kumar Saha M.S.S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to focus on the socio-cultural risk determinants of health behavior which is closely associated with the severity of persistent diarrheal illness among fewer than five children. It is a dominant cause of childhood mortality and frequent faltering of infant growth of underprivileged slum children in Bangladesh. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 109 mother-child pairs of 0-59 month old children at Agargaon slum of Mirpurzone in metropolitan Dhaka from July to August 2008. An explanatory model of Health Care System (HCS was applied toexplorethe nature of health care practices during diarrheal episodes which incorporates conventional folktraditions (Fakir, Kabiraj, Hujur, popular (lay and non-professional such as family, community etc. and professionalized traditions (modern scientific medicine among slum women and justify the functionality of three components of HCS in relation to the risk factors associated with diarrheal treatment of respondents’ children. The findings of this study indicate that various socio-cultural factors such as unhygienic conditions (garbage, offensive smell, unclean utensils, ineffective hand washing, flies and mosquitoes etc., eating stale and stationary food (biscuits, cake and bread from vendors or roadsides, limited breast feeding practices, unsafe drinking water and gender discrimination in providing treatment are frequently noticed in slum areas which drive under five children to high risk of persistent diarrhea.

  15. An evaluation of factors which can affect the implementation of a health promotion programme under the Schools for Health in Europe framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Annemarie E; Cunningham, Cara; Johnston Molloy, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    The Health Promoting Schools concept helps schools to promote health in a sustainable and long-term fashion. However, developing the capacity to promote health in this way can be challenging when a busy teaching curriculum must be fulfilled. This study aimed to identify factors which affect the acceptability of health promotion programmes to the everyday school environment. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were audio-taped with primary school teachers in one Irish county and transcribed verbatim. The resulting transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Thirty-one teachers were interviewed. The factors which may adversely affect the acceptability of health promotion programmes include the: attitude of teachers towards an additional extra-curricular workload; lack of confidence amongst teachers to lead health promotion; and different organisational cultures between schools. When health promotion programmes under the Health Promoting Schools concept are being implemented, it's important to consider: the readiness for change amongst teachers; the resources available to increase staff capacity to promote health; and the ability of a programme to adapt to the different organisational cultures between schools. PMID:27213993

  16. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Autonomic and Endocrine Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; King, Lucy; Schreier, Hannah; Howard, Jamie M.; Rosenfield, David; Ritz, Thomas; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental exposures may help shape the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, influencing vulnerability for health problems across the lifespan. Little is known about the role of maternal sensitivity in influencing the development of the ANS in early life. Aims To examine associations among maternal sensitivity and infant behavioral distress and ANS and HPA axis reactivity to the Repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R), a dyadic stress task. Study Design Observational repeated measures study. Subjects Thirty-five urban, sociodemographically diverse mothers and their 6-month-old infants. Outcome Measures Changes in infant affective distress, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and T-wave amplitude (TWA) across episodes of the SFP-R were assessed. A measure of cortisol output (area under the curve) in the hour following cessation of the SFP-R was also obtained. Results Greater maternal insensitivity was associated with greater infant sympathetic activation (TWA) during periods of stress and tended to be associated with greater cortisol output following the SFP-R. There was also evidence for greater affective distress and less parasympathetic activation (RSA) during the SFP-R among infants of predominantly insensitive mothers. Conclusions Caregiving quality in early life may influence the responsiveness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS as well as the HPA axis. Consideration of the ANS and HPA axis systems together provides a fuller representation of adaptive versus maladaptive stress responses. The findings highlight the importance of supporting high quality caregiving in the early years of life, which is likely to promote later health. PMID:24794304

  17. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  18. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  19. Gut Microbiota Profiling: Metabolomics Based Approach to Unravel Compounds Affecting Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernocchi, Pamela; Del Chierico, Federica; Putignani, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is composed of a huge number of different bacteria, that produce a large amount of compounds playing a key role in microbe selection and in the construction of a metabolic signaling network. The microbial activities are affected by environmental stimuli leading to the generation of a wide number of compounds, that influence the host metabolome and human health. Indeed, metabolite profiles related to the gut microbiota can offer deep insights on the impact of lifestyle and dietary factors on chronic and acute diseases. Metagenomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics are some of the meta-omics approaches to study the modulation of the gut microbiota. Metabolomic research applied to biofluids allows to: define the metabolic profile; identify and quantify classes and compounds of interest; characterize small molecules produced by intestinal microbes; and define the biochemical pathways of metabolites. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are the principal technologies applied to metabolomics in terms of coverage, sensitivity and quantification. Moreover, the use of biostatistics and mathematical approaches coupled with metabolomics play a key role in the extraction of biologically meaningful information from wide datasets. Metabolomic studies in gut microbiota-related research have increased, focusing on the generation of novel biomarkers, which could lead to the development of mechanistic hypotheses potentially applicable to the development of nutritional and personalized therapies. PMID:27507964

  20. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts. PMID

  1. Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary health care workers in three disparate regions in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ojakaa, David; Olango, Susan; Jarvis, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Government of Kenya alike identify a well-performing health workforce as key to attaining better health. Nevertheless, the motivation and retention of health care workers (HCWs) persist as challenges. This study investigated factors influencing motivation and retention of HCWs at primary health care facilities in three different settings in Kenya - the remote area of Turkana, the relatively accessible region of Machakos, and the disadvant...

  2. Mother, Infant, and Household Factors Associated with the Type of Food Infants Receive in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eYarnoff

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explore the complex factors associated with infant feeding by analyzing what mother, infant, and household factors are associated with the types of food given to infants. We seek to quantify associations in order to inform public health policy about the importance of target populations for infant feeding programs. Methods: We used data from the Demographic Health Survey in 20 developing countries for multiple years to examine mother, infant, and household factors associated with six types of food given to infants (exclusive breastfeeding, non-exclusive breastfeeding, infant formula, milk liquids, non-milk liquids, and solid foods. We performed a seemingly unrelated regressions analysis with community-year fixed effects to account for correlation between food types and control for confounding factors associated with community resources, culture, time period, and geography in the pooled analysis.Results: We found that several mother, infant, and household characteristics were associated with each of the feeding types. Most notably, mother’s education, working status, and weight are significantly associated with the type of food given to infants. We provide quantified estimates of the association of each of these variables with six types of food given to infants. Conclusions: By identifying maternal characteristics associated with infant feeding and quantifying those associations, we help public health policymakers generate priorities for targeting infant feeding programs to specific populations that are at greatest risk. Higher educated, working mothers are best to target with exclusive breastfeeding programs for young infants. Mothers with lower education are best to target with complementary feeding programs in infants older than 1 year. Finally, while maternal weight is associated with higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding the association is too weak to merit targeting of breastfeeding programs to low-weight mothers.

  3. Perception of Lay People Regarding Determinants of Health and Factors Affecting It: An Aggregated Analysis from 29 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeela ZAHRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to evaluate the perception of lay people regarding determinants of health at global level and factors affecting it. Methods: Data was collected from International Social Survey Program (ISSP and World Bank website. Multilevel regression analysis was done and lay people’s perception regarding health behavior, environment, poverty and genes as health determinants was assessed. Various socio demographic factors were used as independent variables. Results: The highest percentage of people agreed environment as determinant of health. An inverse relationship was observed between GNI quartiles and an individual’s agreement with poverty, health behavior, and environment as health determinant. There was a significant negative association of females with health damaging behavior (P<0.05 and positive association with environment and genes (P<0.05 as health determinants. Elderly people agreed with poverty as determinant of health (P<0.05. GNI was negatively related to environment (P<0.05 and poverty (P<0.05 as health determinant. Conclusion: The common public is now becoming aware of a broadened concept of health and people belonging to different backgrounds have different perceptions regarding determinants of health. Our results show that highest percentage of people agreed with environment as determinant of health, which is consistent with scientific view of increased burden of disease, caused by environmental factors. Thus, tailored health programs and policies that address an individual's specific problems are likely to induce a change in behavior and attitude, hence decreasing the disease burden.eywords: ISSP, Determinants of health, Multilevel analysis, Tailored approach

  4. Evaluation of socio-economic factors affecting the demand for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdosaleh Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individual health has been proved to be under the influence of various factors such as the use of health care services, diet, smoking and alcohol, physical environment, and health-related behaviors. Therefore, the main determinants of health are factors such as income, education, and access to health services, and systematic changes in these factors lead to socio-economic injustice in health. The present study was carried out through library and internet search. Medline and Google Scholar databases were also utilized. Combining Contents and Results: According to the present study, an increase in health input expenses would inevitably lead to aggravation of the health situation and decrease in income would result in the worst health status of the poor. Moreover, people with higher education use less health inputs; however, they enjoy higher status than those with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Health demand approach provides only a part of the information needed for policy-makers and decision-makers in health system. Theoretical and empirical analyses of the health claim could indicate that policy actions are likely to be more effective in overcoming barriers to health but are not capable of determining which one is likely to be more cost-effective . The demand for information about the health only provides the necessary tools about the benefits of special policy making decisions. So the tool should be combined with other techniques including cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.

  5. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care. PMID:25470326

  6. Effect of Health Education on Infant Supplementary Food Addition in the Community%社区健康教育对婴儿辅食添加的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤莲; 宋亚娟; 谢凤珠

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨在社区对家长进行婴儿科学喂养知识健康教育的效果,避免婴儿营养性疾病的发生.方法 选择3个月以内的婴儿的家长,对其进行问卷调查,按照家长的意愿随机分成观察组和对照组,对观察组采取系统健康教育.结果 通过健康教育使家长了解了有关辅食添加的相关知识,婴儿辅食添加及时率明显提高,观察组明显高于对照组(P<0.01).结论 在社区实施婴儿辅食添加知识的健康教育能有效提高家长的育儿水平.%Objective To investigate the effect of educating the parents how to feed the infants scientifically and to avoid the occurrence of the infant nutrition disorders in community.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted on the parents of infants who were no more than three months old.The parents were randomly divided into two groups:the observation group and the control group.The observation group received the systematic health education.Results The parents that received health education obtained relevant knowledge of supplementary food addition,which apparently increased the timeliness rate of the supplementary food addition to their infants.The rate of the observation group is obviously higher than that of the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion The implementation of health education in the community on infant supplementary food addition can effectively improve the level of child-feeding of parents.

  7. Microbial transmission from mothers with obesity or diabetes to infants: an innovative opportunity to interrupt a vicious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderborg, Taylor K; Borengasser, Sarah J; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-05-01

    Maternal obesity and diabetes dramatically increase the long-term risk for obesity in the next generation, and pregnancy and lactation may be critical periods at which to aim primary prevention to break the obesity cycle. It is becoming increasingly clear that the gut microbiome in newborns and infants plays a significant role in gut health and therefore child development. Alteration of the early infant gut microbiome has been correlated with the development of childhood obesity and autoimmune conditions, including asthma, allergies and, more recently, type 1 diabetes. This is likely to be due to complex interactions between mode of delivery, antibiotic use, maternal diet, components of breastfeeding and a network of regulatory events involving both the innate and adaptive immune systems within the infant host. Each of these factors are critical for informing microbiome development and can affect immune signalling, toxin release and metabolic signals, including short-chain fatty acids and bile acids, that regulate appetite, metabolism and inflammation. In several randomised controlled trials, probiotics have been administered with the aim of targeting the microbiome during pregnancy to improve maternal and infant health but the findings have often been confounded by mode of delivery, antibiotic use, ethnicity, infant sex, maternal health and length of exposure. Understanding how nutritional exposure, including breast milk, affects the assembly and development of both maternal and infant microbial communities may help to identify targeted interventions during pregnancy and in infants born to mothers with obesity or diabetes to slow the transmission of obesity risk to the next generation. The aim of this review is to discuss influences on infant microbiota colonisation and the mechanism(s) underlying how alterations due to maternal obesity and diabetes may lead to increased risk of childhood obesity. PMID:26843076

  8. Examination of the mass media process and personal factors affecting the assessment of mass media-disseminated health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çakır, Tülin; Avşar, Zakir; Üzel Taş, Hanife

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the mass media and personal characteristics leading to health communication inequality as well as the role of certain factors in health communication's mass media process. Using both sociodemographic variables and Maletzke's model as a basis, we investigated the relationship between selected components of the mass communication process, the receiving of reliable health information as a result of health communication, and the condition of its use. The study involved 1853 people in Turkey and was structured in two parts. The first part dealt with questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, the use of the mass media and the public's ability to obtain health information from it, the public's perception of the trustworthiness of health information, and the state of translating this information into health-promoting behaviours. In the second part, questions related to the mass communication process were posed using a five-point Likert scale. This section tried to establish structural equation modelling using the judgements prepared on the basis of the mass media model. Through this study, it has been observed that sociodemographic factors such as education and age affect individuals' use of and access to communication channels; individuals' trust in and selection of health information from the programme content and their changing health behaviours (as a result of the health information) are related to both their perception of the mass communication process and to sociodemographic factors, but are more strongly related to the former.

  9. Maternal health behaviours during pregnancy in an Irish obstetric population and their associations with socio-demographic and infant characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2011-04-01

    To examine the prevalence and combined occurrence of peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplement use, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy in a sample of women in Dublin, and determine the factors associated with these health behaviours.

  10. Factors affecting the performance of maternal health care providers in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltero Lauren

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last five years, international development organizations began to modify and adapt the conventional Performance Improvement Model for use in low-resource settings. This model outlines the five key factors believed to influence performance outcomes: job expectations, performance feedback, environment and tools, motivation and incentives, and knowledge and skills. Each of these factors should be supplied by the organization in which the provider works, and thus, organizational support is considered as an overarching element for analysis. Little research, domestically or internationally, has been conducted on the actual effects of each of the factors on performance outcomes and most PI practitioners assume that all the factors are needed in order for performance to improve. This study presents a unique exploration of how the factors, individually as well as in combination, affect the performance of primary reproductive health providers (nurse-midwives in two regions of Armenia. Methods Two hundred and eighty-five nurses and midwives were observed conducting real or simulated antenatal and postpartum/neonatal care services and interviewed about the presence or absence of the performance factors within their work environment. Results were analyzed to compare average performance with the existence or absence of the factors; then, multiple regression analysis was conducted with the merged datasets to obtain the best models of "predictors" of performance within each clinical service. Results Baseline results revealed that performance was sub-standard in several areas and several performance factors were deficient or nonexistent. The multivariate analysis showed that (a training in the use of the clinic tools; and (b receiving recognition from the employer or the client/community, are factors strongly associated with performance, followed by (c receiving performance feedback in postpartum care. Other – extraneous

  11. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  12. Negative Affect and Vasomotor Symptoms in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Carolyn J.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kamarck, Thomas; Matthews, Karen A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are common during the menopausal transition. Negative affect is consistently associated with self-reported VMS, but interpretation of this relationship is limited by infrequent measurement and retrospective recall of VMS. Using prospective data from daily diaries, we examined the daily association between negative affect and reported VMS, as well as temporal associations between negative affect and next day VMS, and VMS and next day negative affect. Methods Data were derived from the third wave of the Daily Hormone Study (DHS) (n=625). DHS is a substudy of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site community-based prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants reported VMS and affect in daily diaries for 12–50 days. Multilevel mixed models were used to determine the associations between reported VMS and negative affect, adjusted by antidepressant use, age, education, menopausal status, self-reported health, and race/ethnicity drawn from annual SWAN visits. Results VMS were reported by 327 women (52.3%). Negative affect was positively associated with VMS (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.43–2.17, p<.001) in cross-sectional analyses. Negative affect, adjusted by same day VMS, was not predictive of next day VMS (OR 1.11, 95% CI .85–1.35, p=.55), whereas VMS, adjusted by same day negative affect, was predictive of negative affect the next day (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03–1.58, p=.01). Conclusions Negative affect was more likely to be reported on the same day and the day after VMS. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship include negative cognitive appraisal, sleep disruption, and unmeasured third factors. PMID:21900850

  13. Varying efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in two similar trials: public health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Sergi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPTi with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP in infants resulted in different estimates of clinical malaria protection in two trials that used the same protocol in Ifakara, Tanzania, and Manhiça, Mozambique. Understanding the reasons for the discrepant results will help to elucidate the action mechanism of this intervention, which is essential for rational policy formulation. Methods A comparative analysis of two IPTi trials that used the same study design, follow-up, intervention, procedures and assessment of outcomes, in Tanzania and Mozambique was undertaken. Children were randomised to receive either SP or placebo administered 3 times alongside routine vaccinations delivered through the Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI. Characteristics of the two areas and efficacy on clinical malaria after each dose were compared. Results The most relevant difference was in ITN's use ; 68% in Ifakara and zero in Manhiça. In Ifakara, IPTi was associated with a 53% (95% CI 14.0; 74.1 reduction in the risk of clinical malaria between the second and the third dose; during the same period there was no significant effect in Manhiça. Similarly, protection against malaria episodes was maintained in Ifakara during 6 months after dose 3, but no effect of IPTi was observed in Manhiça. Conclusion The high ITN coverage in Ifakara is the most likely explanation for the difference in IPTi efficacy on clinical malaria. Combination of IPTi and ITNs may be the most cost-effective tool for malaria control currently available, and needs to be explored in current and future studies. Trial Registration Manhiça study registration number: NCT00209795 Ifakara study registration number: NCT88523834

  14. Children and Society Policy Review: Health Policy Affecting Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkiss, Doug

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Social Care Act comes into force in April 2013. It changes the organisation of the health service and accelerates the integration of health and social care. New relationships between primary and secondary healthcare will develop and the culture of clinical and cost effectiveness will expand into social care; work on children in…

  15. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  16. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn K.D. Sartorius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR, are limi- ted because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indi- cator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illu- strate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units (“hotspots”. Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are com- mon in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  17. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Marmot, M.

    2005-01-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed b...

  18. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes.

  19. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... that are born full-term. A lack of vitamin D may also lead to osteopenia in infants. ...

  20. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND GROWTH IN INFANTS WITH COWS MILK PROTEIN INTOLERANCE USING 2 DIFFERENT WHEY-PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE BASED FORMULAS IN A PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE SETTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERWIMP, JJM; BINDELS, JG; BARENTS, M; HEYMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept(R) or Pepti Junior(R). The efficacy of

  1. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  2. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development. PMID:18502515

  3. Building a Collaboration One Day at a Time: Integrating Infant Mental Health into a Residential Drug Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Purcell, Arlene; Schalit, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Families In Recovery Staying Together (FIRST) is a team from Children's Hospital and Research Center at Oakland that has joined in collaboration with two local perinatal residential drug treatment programs to create early childhood mental health services at those sites. The authors highlight the collaboration strategies and challenges the partners…

  4. How changes to Irish healthcare financing are affecting universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organisation (WHO) published the World Health Report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. The Director-General of the WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, commissioned the report "in response to a need, expressed by rich and poor countries alike, for practical guidance on ways to finance health care". Given the current context of global economic hardship and difficult budgetary decisions, the report offered timely recommendations for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This article analyses the current methods of healthcare financing in Ireland and their implications for UHC. Three questions are asked of the Irish healthcare system: firstly, how is the health system financed; secondly, how can the health system protect people from the financial consequences of ill-health and paying for health services; and finally, how can the health system encourage the optimum use of available resources? By answering these three questions, this article argues that the Irish healthcare system is not achieving UHC, and that it is unclear whether recent changes to financing are moving Ireland closer or further away from the WHO's ambition for healthcare for all.

  5. Effect of cytomegalovirus infection on breastfeeding transmission of HIV and on the health of infants born to HIV-infected mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiffany S.; Wiener, Jeffrey; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Ellington, Sascha; Chasela, Charles; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Deborah; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charlie; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can be acquired in utero or postnatally through horizontal transmission and breastfeeding. The effect of postnatal CMV infection on postnatal HIV transmission is unknown. Methods The Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition study, conducted in Malawi, randomized 2369 mothers and their infants to three antiretroviral prophylaxis arms –mother (triple regimen), infant (nevirapine), or neither – for 28 weeks of breastfeeding, followed by weaning. Stored plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell specimens were available for 492 infants at 24 weeks and were tested with CMV PCR. Available samples from infants who were CMV PCR-positive at 24 weeks were also tested at birth (N = 242), and from infants PCR-negative at 24 weeks were tested at 48 weeks (N = 96). Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine if CMV infection was associated with infant morbidity, mortality, or postnatal HIV acquisition. Results At 24 weeks of age, CMV DNA was detected in 345/492 infants (70.1%); the estimated congenital CMV infection rate was 2.3%, and the estimated rate of CMV infection at 48 weeks was 78.5%. CMV infection at 24 weeks was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition through breastfeeding or infant death between 24 and 48 weeks of age (hazard ratio 4.27, P = 0.05). Conclusion Most breastfed infants of HIV-infected mothers in this resource-limited setting are infected with CMV by 24 weeks of age. Early CMV infection may be a risk factor for subsequent infant HIV infection through breastfeeding, pointing to the need for comprehensive approaches in order to achieve elimination of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. PMID:25985405

  6. 儿童保健在婴幼儿早期发育中的应用效果分析%The right of children health care analysis application effect in the early development of infants and young children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂扬

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo the right child care in the application effect of infants in early development analysis and discussion.Methods186 normal infants in our hospital in 2010 August -2012 year in August period as the research object,randomly divided into observation group and control group. Infant observation group to implement the correct child care,the control group of infants is not the implementation of child health care. Observation,comparison of common disease in two groups and the growth and development of infants.Resultsthe group of infants in children with pneumonia and nutritional anemia,diarrhea and other common disease incidence rate is significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05); observation group of infants in the body weight,body length,mental development index(MDI)and psychomotor development index(PDI)are significantly better than the control group(P<0.05). Conclusionthe right child health in infants during early development has a positive role in promoting,can significantly improve the infant's physical quality,intelligence level,and also can promote the infant mental health development,has the important application value.%目的:对儿童保健在婴幼儿早期发育中的应用效果进行分析探讨。方法选择我院2010年8月—2012年8月期间186例正常婴幼儿作为研究对象,随机分为观察组和对照组。观察组婴幼儿实施儿童保健,对照组婴幼儿不采取任何保健措施。观察、比较2组婴幼儿的常见病发生情况以及生长发育情况。结果观察组婴幼儿在小儿肺炎、营养性贫血以及腹泻等常见病的发生率方面均明显低于对照组(P<0.05);观察组婴幼儿在体质量、身长、智力发育指数(MDI)和心理运动发育指数(PDI)方面也都显著优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论儿童保健在婴幼儿的早期发育中具有积极的促进作用,能够显著提高婴幼儿的身体素质、智力水平等,同时促进婴幼儿

  7. Factors affecting response to an invitation to attend for a health check.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorogood, M; Coulter, A.; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P; Muir, J; Mant, D.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the characteristics of general practice patients who fail to respond to an invitation to attend for a health check, in relation to demographic variables, risk factor status, health status, and attitudes to behaviour modification. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire before invitation to attend a health check and subsequent record of attendance. SETTING--Five urban general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. SUBJECTS--A total of 2678 patients aged 35-64 years were invited for a healt...

  8. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, John S

    2013-05-14

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program.

  9. The corporate determinants of health: how big business affects our health, and the need for government action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, John S

    2013-01-01

    Corporations have a great effect on the health of Canadians.Good companies create jobs, sell valued products at market value, pay a living wage, empower employees, have progressive human resource policies (parental, mental health leaves, workplace wellness programs, day care), and pay their appropriate corporate taxes. They embrace corporate social responsibility and some have a triple bottom line - people, planet and profits. More good corporations are needed.But others are selling products that are damaging to health and the environment, at prices that do not account for these damaging effects and often target consumers that are ill-informed and susceptible (e.g., children). These include businesses involving tobacco, alcohol, drugs, junk foods and beverages, resource extraction, arms production and the electronic media.Governments have a responsibility to take action when the market mechanism fails in this way.A priority for action is the food and beverage sector. The overconsumption of sugar, fat and salt is causing a rising prevalence of all the major chronic diseases, rising health care costs and declining population health and productivity. Urgent government action is required: taxation, advertising and sales restrictions, and a salt reduction program. PMID:24044474

  10. EVALUATION OF AUDITORY & BRAINSTEM RESPONSES IN HYPERBILIRUBINEMIC INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Jaundice is a common finding in neonates affecting 70% of term and 80% of preterm neonates during the first week of life. So the objective of this study is to evaluate auditory and brainstem responses in hyper bilirubinemic infants and to see if there is any statistically significant increase in latencies of wave I and V waves. To initiate rehabilitative procedure as early in life as possible a screening method to detect auditory disabilities in hyper bilirubinemic infants is of great importance. So the present study is done to know the incidence of hearing loss in hyper bilirubinemic infants & to evaluate the waves I and V in those subjects. METHODS: 45 Infants with hyper bilirubinemia>12mg% & with no other risk factor who visited pediatric OPD of Bapuji Child Health Centre were evaluated using RMS EMG. EP MARK –II machine. Latencies of Waves I and V and interpeak latency of I-V were recorded. RESULTS: On one sample t-test, latency of wave I and IPL I-V were significantly increased (p-value <0.001, latency of V was prolonged which was statistically significant (p-value <0.01. Hearing impairment in the affected infants and complete deafness where none of the waves were recorded signify that it is a risk factor for deafness. CONCLUSION: Since hyper bilirubinemia is a risk factor for hearing impairment, their hearing screening by BERA at the earliest will help in their earliest initiation of rehabilitation when the brain is sensitive to the development of speech & language.

  11. Affect regulation, mental health disorders, and maladaptive brain responses in music listening : a correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Affect regulation may be defined as a process by which an individual maintains or modifies his or her mood or emotional state, by conscious or automatic processes. Adequate affect regulation may play an important role in mitigating or preventing mental illness, which is a widespread, inadequately treated and inadequately understood phenomenon. Music, which is known to express and induce emotions, may be used for affect regulation in a variety of ways, both self-directed and in therapeutic con...

  12. Intervention by the mental health specialist nurse for preventing sleep disorders due to incorrect habits in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Cámara Conde; Julián Carretero Román; Ángela García Pozo; Marta Menéndez Rubiera; Javier Sánchez Alfonso; Nuria Sekade Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    The sleep disorders are among the most common behaviour problems in infancy and early childhood, not only affect children, but parents also suffer from lack of sleep which creates problems of anxiety and communication in the partner by exhaustion. One way to prevent insomnia in children is that parents know how to create the habit of sleeping with their children.The main aims of the protocol are: - To train parents to establish healthy habits for proper sleep hygiene.- Preventing sleep disord...

  13. [Affection, proximity, frequency and hesitant clinical practice: basis of the "bond" between Down syndrome patients and primary health care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Bruno José Barcellos; Setoue, Cesar Seiji; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2013-07-01

    The national policy of comprehensive care in clinical genetics propounds that families and individuals with genetic disorders should receive ongoing assistance at primary health care (PHC) level. In this study, the social representation of professionals working in family health care units (FHCU) is investigated based on their "bond" with Down syndrome patients, bearing in mind that this expression currently contains relevant meanings in the clinical practice and service management routine. Sixteen practitioners were interviewed, and the sample was defined by theoretical saturation. The statements given by the participants expressed knowledge based mainly on affective skills, physical proximity and patients' frequency of attendance at the family health care unit (FHCU). Clinical skills of other kinds, especially cognitive skills, do not appear to justify the notion of "bond." The results indicate the need of continuous professional education and definition of guidelines and approaches in care to the most common syndromes in the context of primary health care (PHC). PMID:23827892

  14. Associations between intimate partner violence, childcare practices and infant health: Findings from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bolivia, Colombia and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Child health is significantly poorer in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV). However, a possible link to parental provision of childcare has been neglected. Methods: Utilizing data from Demographic and Health Surveys, this study examined the association between IPV and illness signs in children 0–59 months in Bolivia (n = 3586), Colombia (n = 9955) and Peru (n = 6260), taking into account socio-demographic factors, childcar...

  15. Behavioral Profiles of Affected and Unaffected Siblings of Children with Autism: Contribution of Measures of Mother-Infant Interaction and Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozga, Agata; Hutman, Ted; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Dapretto, Mirella; Sigman, Marian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether deficits in social gaze and affect and in joint attention behaviors are evident within the first year of life among siblings of children with autism who go on to be diagnosed with autism or ASD (ASD) and siblings who are non-diagnosed (NoASD-sib) compared to low-risk controls. The ASD group did not differ from the other two…

  16. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations. PMID:24183183

  17. The Stigma of Obesity: Does Perceived Weight Discrimination Affect Identity and Physical Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a health risk, but it also represents a disadvantaged social position. Viewing body weight within the framework of stigma and its effects on life chances, we examine how perceived weight-based discrimination influences identity and physical health. Using national survey data with a 10-year longitudinal follow-up, we…

  18. Factors Affecting the Growth and Usage of a Student Mental Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranto, Ernesto A.; Wepman, Barry J.

    1978-01-01

    The five-year growth of an active Student Mental Health Service (SMHS) in an urban academic health center is described. The function of SMHS is limited strictly to therapeutic and consultative services for the students and operates as an outpatient treatment facility using a standard 12-session goal-oriented treatment plan. (LBH)

  19. Does Uninsurance Affect the Health Outcomes of the Insured? Evidence from Heart Attack Patients in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, I examine the impact of uninsured patients on the health of the insured, focusing on one health outcome - the in-hospital mortality rate of insured heart attack patients. I employ panel data models using patient discharge and hospital financial data from California (1999-200

  20. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations.

  1. Expectancy-Value models of health behaviour: the role of salience and anticipated affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1998-01-01

    Expectancy-value models of health behaviour are based upon the assumption that this behaviour is determined by a subjective cost-benefit analysis. Generally, these models emphasize cognitive appraisal processes focusing on the likelihood and evaluation of the consequences of health-related behaviour

  2. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  3. Young Workers' Job Self-Efficacy and Affect: Pathways to Health and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ralph; Loughlin, Catherine; Zweig, David

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study of 195 young workers responds to calls for the study of healthy work at discrete life stages. Based on social cognitive and affective events theories and using structural equation modeling, results indicated that both perceived job self-efficacy and job-related affect fully mediate the relationship between interpersonal…

  4. Manganese concentrations in drinking water from villages near banana plantations with aerial mancozeb spraying in Costa Rica: Results from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bouchard, Maryse F; Mora, Ana María; Skytt, Åsa; Córdoba, Leonel; Quesada, Rosario; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Mergler, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Elevated manganese (Mn) in drinking water has been reported worldwide. While, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater is generally the major source, anthropogenic contamination by Mn-containing fungicides such as mancozeb may also occur. The main objective of this study was to examine factors associated with Mn and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, in drinking water samples from villages situated near banana plantations with aerial spraying of mancozeb. Drinking water samples (n = 126) were obtained from 124 homes of women participating in the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA, for its acronym in Spanish), living nearby large-scale banana plantations. Concentrations of Mn, iron (Fe), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, were measured in water samples. Only six percent of samples had detectable ETU concentrations (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.15 μg/L), whereas 94% of the samples had detectable Mn (LOD = 0.05 μg/L). Mn concentrations were higher than 100 and 500 μg/L in 22% and 7% of the samples, respectively. Mn was highest in samples from private and banana farm wells. Distance from a banana plantation was inversely associated with Mn concentrations, with a 61.5% decrease (95% CI: -97.0, -26.0) in Mn concentrations for each km increase in distance. Mn concentrations in water transported with trucks from one village to another were almost 1000 times higher than Mn in water obtained from taps in houses supplied by the same well but not transported, indicating environmental Mn contamination. Elevated Mn in drinking water may be partly explained by aerial spraying of mancozeb; however, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater, and intensive agriculture may also contribute. Drinking water risk assessment for mancozeb should consider Mn as a health hazard. The findings of this study evidence the need for health-based World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on Mn in

  5. Manganese concentrations in drinking water from villages near banana plantations with aerial mancozeb spraying in Costa Rica: Results from the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bouchard, Maryse F; Mora, Ana María; Skytt, Åsa; Córdoba, Leonel; Quesada, Rosario; Lundh, Thomas; Lindh, Christian H; Mergler, Donna

    2016-08-01

    Elevated manganese (Mn) in drinking water has been reported worldwide. While, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater is generally the major source, anthropogenic contamination by Mn-containing fungicides such as mancozeb may also occur. The main objective of this study was to examine factors associated with Mn and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, in drinking water samples from villages situated near banana plantations with aerial spraying of mancozeb. Drinking water samples (n = 126) were obtained from 124 homes of women participating in the Infants' Environmental Health Study (ISA, for its acronym in Spanish), living nearby large-scale banana plantations. Concentrations of Mn, iron (Fe), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and ethylenethiourea (ETU), a degradation product of mancozeb, were measured in water samples. Only six percent of samples had detectable ETU concentrations (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.15 μg/L), whereas 94% of the samples had detectable Mn (LOD = 0.05 μg/L). Mn concentrations were higher than 100 and 500 μg/L in 22% and 7% of the samples, respectively. Mn was highest in samples from private and banana farm wells. Distance from a banana plantation was inversely associated with Mn concentrations, with a 61.5% decrease (95% CI: -97.0, -26.0) in Mn concentrations for each km increase in distance. Mn concentrations in water transported with trucks from one village to another were almost 1000 times higher than Mn in water obtained from taps in houses supplied by the same well but not transported, indicating environmental Mn contamination. Elevated Mn in drinking water may be partly explained by aerial spraying of mancozeb; however, naturally occurring Mn in groundwater, and intensive agriculture may also contribute. Drinking water risk assessment for mancozeb should consider Mn as a health hazard. The findings of this study evidence the need for health-based World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on Mn in

  6. Gut Microbiome Developmental Patterns in Early Life of Preterm Infants: Impacts of Feeding and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Cong

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota plays a key role in multiple aspects of human health and disease, particularly in early life. Distortions of the gut microbiota have been found to correlate with fatal diseases in preterm infants, however, developmental patterns of gut microbiome and factors affecting the colonization progress in preterm infants remain unclear. The purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to explore day-to-day gut microbiome patterns in preterm infants during their first 30 days of life in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU and investigate potential factors related to the development of the infant gut microbiome. A total of 378 stool samples were collected daily from 29 stable/healthy preterm infants. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene region for community analysis. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs and α-diversity of the community were determined using QIIME software. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum, accounting for 54.3% of the total reads. Result showed shift patterns of increasing Clostridium and Bacteroides, and decreasing Staphylococcus and Haemophilus over time during early life. Alpha-diversity significantly increased daily in preterm infants after birth and linear mixed-effects models showed that postnatal days, feeding types and gender were associated with the α-diversity, p< 0.05-0.01. Male infants were found to begin with a low α-diversity, whereas females tended to have a higher diversity shortly after birth. Female infants were more likely to have higher abundance of Clostridiates, and lower abundance of Enterobacteriales than males during early life. Infants fed mother's own breastmilk (MBM had a higher diversity of gut microbiome and significantly higher abundance in Clostridiales and Lactobacillales than infants fed non-MBM. Permanova also showed that bacterial compositions were different between males and females and between MBM and non-MBM feeding types

  7. Interactive effect of negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity in terms of mental health among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-09-30

    From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample. PMID:27359301

  8. Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. PMID:23445854

  9. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. PMID:25634909

  10. Behavioral Profiles of Affected and Unaffected Siblings of Children with Autism: Contribution of Measures of Mother–Infant Interaction and Nonverbal Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rozga, Agata; Hutman, Ted; Gregory S. Young; Rogers, Sally J; Ozonoff, Sally; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA; Sigman, Marian

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether deficits in social gaze and affect and in joint attention behaviors are evident within the first year of life among siblings of children with autism who go on to be diagnosed with autism or ASD (ASD) and siblings who are non-diagnosed (NoASD-sib) compared to low-risk controls. The ASD group did not differ from the other two groups at 6 months of age in the frequency of gaze, smiles, and vocalizations directed toward the caregiver, nor in their sensitivity to her withdr...

  11. Health and Illness in a Connected World: How Might Sharing Experiences on the Internet Affect People's Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Ziebland, Sue; Wyke, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Context The use of the Internet for peer-to-peer connection has been one of its most dramatic and transformational features. Yet this is a new field with no agreement on a theoretical and methodological basis. The scientific base underpinning this activity needs strengthening, especially given the explosion of web resources that feature experiences posted by patients themselves. This review informs a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (UK) research program on the impact of online p...

  12. Infants in Multirisk Families. Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. Clinical Infants Reports Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stanley I., Ed.; And Others

    Work conducted by the Clinical Infant Development Program (CIDP) of the National Institute of Mental Health, involving 47 multirisk families and their infants over a period of several years, is described. Part I contains four detailed case studies by Delise Williams, Euthymia Hibbs, Serena Wieder and others, providing data for comprehensive…

  13. Sex and Gender: How Being Male or Female Can Affect Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Sex and Gender How Being Male or Female Can ... a major impact on your health. While both sexes are similar in many ways, researchers have found ...

  14. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources health visitors use to find out about new research evidence on immunisation and examines barriers and facilitators to using evidence in practice. It also assesses health visitors' confidence in using research evidence. Methods Health visitors were recruited from the 2007 UK Community Practitioners' and Health Visitors' Association conference. All delegates were eligible to complete the questionnaire if in their current professional role they advise parents about childhood immunisation or administer vaccines to children. Of 228 who were eligible, 185 completed the survey (81.1%. Results These health visitors used a wide range of resources to find out about new research evidence on childhood immunisation. Popular sources included information leaflets and publications, training days, nursing journals and networking with colleagues. A lack of time was cited as the main barrier to searching for new evidence. The most common reason given for not using research in practice was a perception of conflicting research evidence. Understanding the evidence was a key facilitator. Health visitors expressed less confidence about searching and explaining research on childhood immunisation than evidence on weaning and a baby's sleep position. Conclusion Even motivated health visitors feel they lack the time and, in some cases, the skills to locate and appraise research evidence. This research suggests that of the provision of already-appraised research would help to keep busy health professionals informed, up-to-date and confident in responding to public

  15. Health and economic outcomes of introducing the new MenB vaccine (Bexsero into the Italian routine infant immunisation programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Tirani

    Full Text Available In January 2013 a novel type of multicomponent protein-based vaccine against group B meningococcal disease was licensed by the European Medicines Agency. With the widespread use of the meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines, serogroup B remains now the major cause of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia in young children in Europe. The aim of this study is to investigate the health and the economic outcomes of MenB vaccine introduction into the Italian routine mass vaccination programme.The present work is structured in two main parts. Firstly, we assess the epidemiological burden of group B meningococcal disease using official hospitalisation and notification data from two of the most populated Italian regions (Lombardia and Piemonte during a 6-year study period (2007-2012. Secondly, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation programme in Italy from the public health payer perspective under base case parameters assumptions and performing a comprehensive sensitivity analysis to assess the robustness and the uncertainty of our model results.MenB serotype is responsible for 59% of the 341 cases of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Lombardia and Piemonte. Incidence rate for MenB infection is estimated to be 0.21/100,000/y resulting at the highest level in children ≤4 years of age. Although the new MenB vaccine can potentially prevent about one third of the disease cases in the Italian population, model results show this strategy is unlikely to be cost-effective (ICER value over €350,000/QALY with a vaccine that prevents disease only. These results are robust under most of the sensitivity scenarios except when allowing for lower discount rates.The introduction of the novel vaccine into the routine immunisation schedule needs to be carefully evaluated. The new MenB vaccine has the potential to reduce the disease burden at the population level. However, from the Italian Health Service perspective, the immunisation programme is

  16. Racial and Cultural Factors Affecting the Mental Health of Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Farrell, Jerome A.; Lin, Li-Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we employed structural equation modeling to test the degree to which racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were predictive of mental health in a predominantly community-based sample of 367 Asian American adults. We also tested whether bicultural self-efficacy moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health. Finally, we examined whether generational status moderated the impact of racial and cultural predictors of ment...

  17. Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Patel; Bayard Roberts; Samantha Guy; Louise Lee-Jones; Lesong Conteh

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Reproductive health concerns the bodily functions and systems that are involved in conceiving and bearing offspring. A reproductively healthy person is able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and to reproduce if and when they chose to do so. More specifically, to ensure their reproductive health, both men and women need access to safe and effective birth control methods, they need to know how to avoid sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AI...

  18. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV in border districts affected by migration and poverty in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Larsson, Markus; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV knowledge, attitudes, sexual practices and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service delivery in border areas of Tanzania, with a view to support the prioritisation of SRH interventions in border areas. Methods The target sample comprised randomly selected people livin......-sectorial efforts spanning the health, social, legal and private sectors addressing gender imbalances and poverty alleviation are imperative for reducing poverty-driven unsafe transactional sex....

  19. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Cambronero-Saiz, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on peoples’ health, with a particular focus on women.Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awa...

  20. Baby Business: a randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Fallon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. Methods/Design 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group or usual care (control group offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth, telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks. All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum, are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline, four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal

  1. Infant mortality rates declining, but still high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M

    1992-10-01

    Family planning can improve infant survival. Specifically, use of family planning methods can minimize family size, increase birth spacing, and reduce the likelihood of pregnancy for teenagers and women aged 40 or older. Immunizations and oral rehydration are responsible for the falling infant mortality rats since 1977 in developing countries, especially among 1-12 month old infants. Yet, neonatal mortality in developing countries had not changed. WHO intends to step up efforts to improve newborn survival. Accurate data are needed, however. Even in developed countries which keep good statistics, infant mortality bias exists. For example, in Japan, some infant deaths are called fetal deaths. In developing countries, much of the data come from hospitals, yet most birth do not occur in hospitals. Even in surveys, bias exists, such as problems with recall. Many researchers use traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to follow up on all births in an area which may eliminate some biases. Such a prospective and longitudinal study in Trairi county in northeastern Brazil shows the infant mortality rate to be less than half of the official rate (65 vs. 142). The major causes of infant death in developed countries, which tends to occur in the neonatal period, are low birth weight, prematurity, birth complications, and congenital defects; developing countries; they are vaccine preventable infectious diseases, diarrhea and dehydration, and respiratory illnesses, all complicated by malnutrition. To make further strides in reducing infant mortality, public health workers must concentrate on the neonatal period. Training TBAs in sterile techniques, appropriate technology, resuscitation of infants, and identification of potential problems is a positive step. Yet, unpredictable conditions (e.g., AIDS) exist and/or will arise which erode improvements. For example, in Nicaragua, within 1 year after the new government introduced health budget cuts which resulted in the poor paying for

  2. Why don't health workers prescribe ACT? A qualitative study of factors affecting the prescription of artemether-lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurovac Dejan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya recently changed its antimalarial drug policy to a specific artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, artemether-lumefantrine (AL. New national guidelines on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention were developed and disseminated to health workers together with in-service training. Methods Between January and March 2007, 36 in-depth interviews were conducted in five rural districts with health workers who attended in-service training and were non-adherent to the new guidelines. A further 20 interviews were undertaken with training facilitators and members of District Health Management Teams (DHMTs to explore reasons underlying health workers' non-adherence. Results Health workers generally perceived AL as being tolerable and efficacious as compared to amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyremethamine. However, a number of key reasons for non-adherence were identified. Insufficient supply of AL was a major issue and hence fears of stock outs and concern about AL costs was an impediment to AL prescription. Training messages that contradicted the recommended guidelines also led to health worker non-adherence, compounded by a lack of follow-up supervision. In addition, the availability of non-recommended antimalarials such as amodiaquine caused prescription confusion. Some health workers and DHMT members maintained that shortage of staff had resulted in increased patient caseload affecting the delivery of the desirable quality of care and adherence to guidelines. Conclusion The introduction of free efficacious ACTs in the public health sector in Kenya and other countries has major potential public health benefits for Africa. These may not be realized if provider prescription practices do not conform to the recommended treatment guidelines. It is essential that high quality training, drug supply and supervision work synergistically to ensure appropriate case management.

  3. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: a cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, W.A.; Komproe, I. H.; Jordans, M. J. D.; Ndayisaba, A.; Ntamatumba, P.; Sipsma, H.; Smallegange, E.S.; Macy, R.D.; Jong, de, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61...

  4. School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi : A cluster randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Wietse A.; Komproe, Ivan H; Jordans, Mark J D; Ndayisaba, Aline; Ntamutumba, Prudence; Sipsma, Heather; Smallegange, Eva S.; Macy, Robert D; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.; Komproe, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61...

  5. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  6. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.

  7. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  8. Does socioeconomic status affect the association of social relationships and health? A moderator analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social relations have repeatedly been found to be an important determinant of health. However, it is unclear whether the association between social relations and health is consistent throughout different status groups. It is likely that health effects of social relations vary in different status groups, as stated in the hypothesis of differential vulnerability. In this analysis we explore whether socioeconomic status (SES moderates the association between social relations and health. Methods In the baseline examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, conducted in a dense populated Western German region (N = 4,814, response rate 56%, SES was measured by income and education. Social relations were classified by using both structural as well as functional measures. The Social Integration Index was used as a structural measure, whilst functional aspects were assessed by emotional and instrumental support. Health was indicated by self-rated health (1 item and a short version of the CES-D scale measuring the frequency of depressive symptoms. Based on logistic regression models we calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI which indicates existing moderator effects. Results Our findings show highest odds ratios (ORs for both poor self-rated health and more frequent depressive symptoms when respondents have a low SES as well as inappropriate social relations. For example, respondents with low income and a low level of social integration have an OR for a high depression score of 2.85 (95% CI 2.32-4.49, compared to an OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.12-1.86 amongst those with a low income but a high level of social integration and an OR of 1.72 (95% CI 1.45-2.03 amongst respondents with high income but a low level of social integration. As reference group those reporting high income and a high level of social integration were used. Conclusions The analyses indicate that the association of social relations and subjective

  9. Racial and cultural factors affecting the mental health of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Farrell, Jerome A; Lin, Li-Ling

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we employed structural equation modeling to test the degree to which racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were predictive of mental health in a predominantly community-based sample of 367 Asian American adults. We also tested whether bicultural self-efficacy moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health. Finally, we examined whether generational status moderated the impact of racial and cultural predictors of mental health by testing our model across immigrant and U.S.-born samples. Results indicated that our hypothesized structural model represented a good fit to the total sample data. While racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were significant predictors of mental health in the total sample analyses, our generational analyses revealed a differential predictive pattern across generational status. Finally, we found that the buffering effect of bicultural self-efficacy on the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health was significant for U.S.-born individuals only. Implications for research and service delivery are explored. PMID:21977934

  10. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. PMID:15992976

  11. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  12. APOE genotype and cardio-respiratory fitness interact to determine adiposity in 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A Ellis

    Full Text Available APOE plays a well established role in lipid metabolism. Animal model evidence suggests APOE may also be associated with adiposity, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in humans. We measured adiposity (BMI, truncal fat mass, waist circumference, physical activity (PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and APOE genotype (E2, E3, E4 in 292 8-year-old children from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey (TIHS, an Australian population-based prospective birth cohort. Our aims were to examine the association of APOE with child adiposity, and to examine the interplay between this association and other measured factors. We found that APOE was associated with child lipid profiles. APOE was also associated with child adiposity measures. The association was E4 allele-specific, with adiposity lower in the E4-containing group (BMI: Mean difference -0.90 kg/m²; 95% confidence intervals (CI -1.51, -0.28; p = 0.004. The association of APOE4 with lower BMI differed by fitness status (difference in effect p = 0.002, and was more evident among the less fit (mean difference -1.78 kg/m²; 95% CI -2.74, -0.83; p<0.001. Additionally, associations between BMI and lipids were only apparent in those of lower fitness who did not carry APOE4. Similar overall findings were observed when truncal fat mass and waist circumference were used as alternative adiposity measures. APOE4 and cardiorespitatory fitness could interact to influence child adiposity. In studies addressing the genetic determinants of childhood obesity, the context of child fitness should also be taken into account.

  13. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.

  14. Mental Health and Self-Esteem of Institutionalized Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf

    2016-04-01

    The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences. PMID:25930059

  15. How Has the Affordable Care Act Affected Health Insurers' Financial Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A; McCue, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Starting in 2014, the Affordable Care Act transformed the market for individual health insurance by changing how insurance is sold and by subsidizing coverage for millions of new purchasers. Insurers, who had no previous experience under these market conditions, competed actively but faced uncertainty in how to price their products. This issue brief uses newly available data to understand how health insurers fared financially during the ACA's first year of full reforms. Overall, health insurers' financial performance began to show some strain in 2014, but the ACA's reinsurance program substantially buffered the negative effects for most insurers. Although a quarter of insurers did substantially worse than others, experience under the new market rules could improve the accuracy of pricing decisions in subsequent years.

  16. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  17. Clinical and molecular features of an infant patient affected by Leigh Disease associated to m.14459G > A mitochondrial DNA mutation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moggio Maurizio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leigh Syndrome (LS is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bilateral symmetrical necrotic lesions in the basal ganglia and brainstem. Onset is in early infancy and prognosis is poor. Causative mutations have been disclosed in mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes affecting respiratory chain subunits and assembly factors. Case presentation Here we report the clinical and molecular features of a 15-month-old female LS patient. Direct sequencing of her muscle-derived mtDNA revealed the presence of two apparently homoplasmic variants: the novel m.14792C > G and the already known m.14459G > A resulting in p.His16Asp change in cytochrome b (MT-CYB and p.Ala72Val substitution in ND6 subunit, respectively. The m.14459G > A was heteroplasmic in the mother's blood-derived DNA. Conclusions The m.14459G > A might lead to LS, complicated LS or Leber Optic Hereditary Neuropathy. A comprehensive re-evaluation of previously described 14459G > A-mutated patients does not explain this large clinical heterogeneity.

  18. Human Milk for Preterm Infants and Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Jatinder

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is universally accepted as the preferred feeding for all newborn infants, including premature infants. The World Health Organization, American Academy of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, among others, recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months in term infants, while complementary feeding is introduced over the next several months. However, for preterm infants, fortification is recommended to meet requirements. Human milk composition varies with the duration of lactation, within a day and even during one expression, and composition may be altered by method of storage and pasteurization. In this monograph, the use of human milk for premature infants, its limitations, strategies to overcome said limitations and follow-up studies will be reviewed. PMID:27347886

  19. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  20. Factors affecting physicians’ use of a dedicated overview interface in an electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Background : It remains a continual challenge to present information in user interfaces in large IT systems to support overview in the best possible way. We here examine how an Electronic Health Record (EHR) supports the creation of overview among hospital physicians with a particular focus on th...